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Datasheet

Bactericera cockerelli
(tomato/potato psyllid)

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Datasheet

Bactericera cockerelli (tomato/potato psyllid)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 13 June 2022
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Pest
  • Vector of Plant Pest
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Bactericera cockerelli
  • Preferred Common Name
  • tomato/potato psyllid
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Metazoa
  •     Phylum: Arthropoda
  •       Subphylum: Uniramia
  •         Class: Insecta
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • Bactericera cockerelli is a vector of the plant pathogenic bacterium ‘Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum’, haplotype A and B, the putative causal agent of zebra chip disease of potato tubers. This insect/pathogen complex is one...

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Bactericera cockerelli (tomato, potato psyllid); fully developed adult. B. cockerelli is one of the most destructive potato pests in the western hemisphere, being a vector of the Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum bacterium (zebra chip).
TitleAdult
CaptionBactericera cockerelli (tomato, potato psyllid); fully developed adult. B. cockerelli is one of the most destructive potato pests in the western hemisphere, being a vector of the Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum bacterium (zebra chip).
Copyright©Joseph E. Munyaneza/USDA-ARS
Bactericera cockerelli (tomato, potato psyllid); fully developed adult. B. cockerelli is one of the most destructive potato pests in the western hemisphere, being a vector of the Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum bacterium (zebra chip).
AdultBactericera cockerelli (tomato, potato psyllid); fully developed adult. B. cockerelli is one of the most destructive potato pests in the western hemisphere, being a vector of the Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum bacterium (zebra chip).©Joseph E. Munyaneza/USDA-ARS
Bactericera cockerelli (tomato, potato psyllid); newly emerged adults.
TitleNewly emerged adults
CaptionBactericera cockerelli (tomato, potato psyllid); newly emerged adults.
Copyright©Joseph E. Munyaneza/USDA-ARS
Bactericera cockerelli (tomato, potato psyllid); newly emerged adults.
Newly emerged adultsBactericera cockerelli (tomato, potato psyllid); newly emerged adults.©Joseph E. Munyaneza/USDA-ARS
Bactericera cockerelli (tomato, potato psyllid); 5th instar nymph on leaf surface. Note developing wing buds.
Title5th instar nymph
CaptionBactericera cockerelli (tomato, potato psyllid); 5th instar nymph on leaf surface. Note developing wing buds.
Copyright©Joseph E. Munyaneza/USDA-ARS
Bactericera cockerelli (tomato, potato psyllid); 5th instar nymph on leaf surface. Note developing wing buds.
5th instar nymphBactericera cockerelli (tomato, potato psyllid); 5th instar nymph on leaf surface. Note developing wing buds.©Joseph E. Munyaneza/USDA-ARS
Bactericera cockerelli (tomato, potato psyllid); 3rd and 4th instar nymphs on leaf surface.
Title3rd and 4th instar nymphs
CaptionBactericera cockerelli (tomato, potato psyllid); 3rd and 4th instar nymphs on leaf surface.
Copyright©Joseph E. Munyaneza/USDA-ARS
Bactericera cockerelli (tomato, potato psyllid); 3rd and 4th instar nymphs on leaf surface.
3rd and 4th instar nymphsBactericera cockerelli (tomato, potato psyllid); 3rd and 4th instar nymphs on leaf surface.©Joseph E. Munyaneza/USDA-ARS
Bactericera cockerelli (tomato, potato psyllid); fully developed adult, with eggs (yellow) and excrement (white) on leaf surface.
TitleAdult with eggs
CaptionBactericera cockerelli (tomato, potato psyllid); fully developed adult, with eggs (yellow) and excrement (white) on leaf surface.
Copyright©Joseph E. Munyaneza/USDA-ARS
Bactericera cockerelli (tomato, potato psyllid); fully developed adult, with eggs (yellow) and excrement (white) on leaf surface.
Adult with eggsBactericera cockerelli (tomato, potato psyllid); fully developed adult, with eggs (yellow) and excrement (white) on leaf surface.©Joseph E. Munyaneza/USDA-ARS

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Bactericera cockerelli Šulc (1909)

Preferred Common Name

  • tomato/potato psyllid

Other Scientific Names

  • Paratrioza cockerelli Šulc (1909)
  • Trioza cockerelli Šulc (1909)

International Common Names

  • English: potato psyllid; tomato psyllid
  • Spanish: pulgon saltador de la papa (Mexico); pulgon saltador de la tomato (Mexico)
  • French: psylle de la pomme de terre; psylle de la tomate

Local Common Names

  • Germany: Blattsauger, Amerikanischer Kartoffel-; Blattsauger, Tomaten-
  • Netherlands: aardappelbladvlo
  • New Zealand: tomato potato psyllid

Summary of Invasiveness

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Bactericera cockerelli is a vector of the plant pathogenic bacterium ‘Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum’, haplotype A and B, the putative causal agent of zebra chip disease of potato tubers. This insect/pathogen complex is one of the most destructive potato pests in the western hemisphere, and New Zealand, and to a limited extend in Norfolk Island (Australia). It was recognized in the early 1900s that B. cockerelli had the potential to be an invasive and harmful insect, particularly in western United States and Mexico. By the 1920s and 1930s, B. cockerelli had become a serious and destructive pest of potatoes in most of the southwestern United States, giving rise to the description of a new foliar disease that became known as ‘psyllid yellows’. ‘Psyllid yellows’ has not been observed in New Zealand, and the description of the foliar symptoms is very similar to the foliar symptoms of ‘Ca. L. solanacearum’. As it has been suggested, so far, no pathogen or toxin has been associated with ‘psyllid yellows’, leading to the hypothesis that ‘Ca. L. solanacearum’ haplotype A or B has always been present at low, undetectable levels for many years. ‘Ca. L. solanacearum’ haplotypes C and D have been detected, affecting Apiaceae, in seed samples from 1973.

Since the late 2000s, the B. cockerelli/‘Ca. L. solanacearum’ complex has affected other solanaceous crops too, including tomato, pepper, aubergine, tobacco and tamarillo in a number of geographic areas and caused extensive economic losses.

Bactericera cockerelli is native to North America and is also found in Central America. It has invaded New Zealand, where it has caused damage to indoor and outdoor solanaceous crops. B. cockerelli has been placed on the list of quarantine pests in the EPPO region.

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Metazoa
  •         Phylum: Arthropoda
  •             Subphylum: Uniramia
  •                 Class: Insecta
  •                     Order: Hemiptera
  •                         Suborder: Sternorrhyncha
  •                             Unknown: Psylloidea
  •                                 Family: Triozidae
  •                                     Genus: Bactericera
  •                                         Species: Bactericera cockerelli

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

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A brief history on the taxonomy and nomenclature of B. cockerelli has been provided by Butler and Trumble (2012), and the insect’s intrinsic relationship with ‘Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum’ by Vereijssen et al. (2018).

Bactericera cockerelli was originally described as Trioza cockerelli by Šulc (1909). In 1910, Crawford erected a new psyllid genus Paratrioza (Crawford, 1910) and T. cockerelli was assigned to this genus in 1911 (Crawford, 1911). In 1997, when the genus Paratrioza was reviewed and synonymized with the genus BactericeraB. cockerelli also changed families from Psyllidae, subfamily Triozinae, to Triozidae (Burckhardt and Lauterer, 1997). The subfamily Triozinae was elevated to family status as Triozidae. The generic classification of the family Triozidae needs to be re-examined (Burckhardt et al., 2021). Furthermore, a revised classification of psyllids was recently provided by Burckhardt and Ouvrard (2012).

Morphological descriptions of B. cockerelli can be found in Crawford (1911; 1914), Essig (1917)Ferris (1925) and Tuthill (1945). Also, a list of the synonyms of B. cockerelli is provided by Tuthill (1945) and Burckhardt and Lauterer (1997). The psyllid is commonly known (in the English language) as tomato potato psyllid, tomato/potato psyllid, potato psyllid, or tomato psyllid in the different geographic regions.

Description

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Bactericera cockerelli is a polyvoltine species, having more than one generation per year (Burckhardt and Lauterer, 1997). The adults are small, measuring about 2.5-2.75 mm long. The adults generally resemble tiny cicadas, largely because they hold their wings angled and roof-like over their body. B. cockerelli adults possess two pairs of clear wings; the front wings bear conspicuous veins and are considerably larger than the hind wings. The antennae are moderately long, extending almost half the length of the body. The overall body colour ranges from pale green at emergence to dark green or brown within 2-3 days, and eventually becomes grey or black thereafter. Prominent white or yellow lines are found on the head and thorax, and dorsal whitish bands are located on the first and terminal abdominal segments. These white markings are spot characteristics of the psyllid, particularly the broad, transverse white band on the first abdominal segment and the inverted ‘V’-shaped white mark on the last abdominal segment (Pletsch, 1947Wallis, 1955), along with the raised white line around the circumference of the head. Adults are active in contrast to the largely sedentary nymphal stages. The adults readily jump when disturbed. Their flying capability, especially over long distances, has been controversial for a long time. Research has shown active flying over long distances or seasonal migration is very likely not occurring (Nelson et al., 2014); overwintering populations have been found on natural vegetation (Jensen et al., 2012; Horton et al., 2015) and molecular diagnostics identified genetic differences between populations (Liu et al., 2006; Swisher et al., 2012; 2014).

The pre-oviposition period is normally about 10 days, with oviposition lasting up to 50 days. Total adult longevity ranges from 20 to 60 days and females usually live two to three times longer than males (Pletsch, 1947Abernathy, 1991Abdullah, 2008Yang and Liu, 2009). Females lay 300 to 500 eggs over their lifetime (Knowlton and Janes, 1931Pletsch, 1947Abdullah, 2008Yang and Liu, 2009). B. cockerelli females positive for ‘Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum’ have a lower fecundity than females without the bacterium (Nachappa et al., 2012).

The eggs of B. cockerelli are deposited singly, principally on the lower surface of leaves and usually near the leaf edge, but some eggs can be found throughout suitable host plants. Often, females will lay numerous eggs on a single leaf. The eggs are initially light yellow and become dark yellow or orange with time. The eggs measure about 0.32-0.34 mm long, 0.13-0.15 mm wide and are mounted on a stalk of about 0.48-0.51 mm. Eggs hatch 3-7 days after oviposition (Pletsch, 1947Wallis, 1955Capinera, 2001Abdullah, 2008). Because nymphs prefer sheltered and shaded locations, they are mostly found on the lower surfaces of leaves and usually remain sedentary during their entire development; with the larger fourth and fifth instars being most active. Nymphs and adults produce large quantities of waxy whitish excrement particles, which may adhere to foliage and fruit, and is commonly referred to as ‘psyllid sugars’ (Pletsch, 1947).

Nymphs are elliptical when viewed from above, but are very flattened in profile, appearing almost scale-like. Potato psyllid nymphs may be confused with the nymphs of whiteflies, although the former move when disturbed and are box-like (i.e. not flat in appearance when seen from the side). There are five instars, with each instar possessing very similar morphological features besides size. The size of the developing wing pads increases with each instar. Nymphal body widths are variable, ranging from 0.23 to 1.60 mm, depending on different instars (Rowe and Knowlton, 1935Pletsch, 1947Wallis, 1955). Initially, the nymphs are orange, but they become yellowish-green and then green as they mature. The compound eyes are reddish and quite prominent. During the third instar, the wing pads, light in colour, are evident and become more pronounced with each subsequent moult. A short fringe of wax filaments is present along the lateral margins of the body. Total nymphal development time depends on temperature and host plant and has been reported to have a range of 12 to 24 days (Knowlton and Janes, 1931Abdullah, 2008Yang and Liu, 2009). Nymphal development time is independent of the presence of ‘Ca. L. solanacearum’ in the psyllid (Nachappa et al., 2012).

Distribution

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Bactericera cockerelli is native to North America and occurs mainly in the Great Plains region of the United States, from Colorado, New Mexico, Arizona and Nevada, north to Utah. More recently, its range has expanded to include Wyoming, Idaho, Montana, California, Oregon, Washington, Alberta and Saskatchewan (Pletsch, 1947Wallis, 1955Cranshaw, 1993Ferguson and Shipp, 2002Ferguson et al., 2003). This insect pest is common in southern and western Texas and has also been documented in Oklahoma, Kansas, Nebraska, South Dakota, North Dakota, Minnesota and as far west as California and British Columbia. Contrary to reports in the older literature (Pletsch 1947Wallis 1955Cranshaw 1993; 2001), the potato psyllid does indeed occur in Washington and Oregon, where it appears to overwinter locally (Jensen, 2012) and usually colonizes potato fields in late June and early July (Munyaneza et al., 2009a; Munyaneza, 2010; 2012; Crosslin et al., 2012a). Murphy et al. (2013) reported B. cockerelli overwintering in the Northwest Pacific (northeast Oregon, southeast Washington state and southwestern Idaho).

Bactericera cockerelli also occurs in Mexico, Guatemala, Honduras, El Salvador, Nicaragua and Ecuador (Pletsch, 1947Wallis, 1955Rubio-Covarrubias et al., 2006; Trumble, 2008; 2009; Crosslin et al., 2010Espinoza, 2010Munyaneza, 2010; 2012; Rehman et al., 2010Rubio-Covarrubias et al., 2011Bextine et al., 2012; 2013a, b; Aguilar et al., 2013a, b; Munyaneza et al., 2013a, b; 2014; Caicedo et al., 2020). There are no early records of B. cockerelli in Central or South America.

Bactericera cockerelli (and ‘Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum’ haplotype A) is widespread in New Zealand (Teulon et al., 2009) and in Norfolk Island (Australian Government Department of Agriculture, 2015; Thomas et al., 2017). In February 2017, B. cockerelli, but not ‘Ca. L. solanacearum’, was found in Perth (Western Australia) and surroundings on mainland Australia (Department of Agriculture and Food Western Australia, 2017; EPPO, 2017b).

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 21 Jul 2022
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Europe

AustriaAbsent, Confirmed absent by survey
LithuaniaAbsent, Confirmed absent by survey
NetherlandsAbsent, Confirmed absent by survey

North America

CanadaPresent, Localized
-AlbertaPresent, Few occurrencesIntroduced
-British ColumbiaPresent, Few occurrencesIntroduced
-ManitobaPresent, Few occurrencesIntroduced
-OntarioPresentIntroduced
-QuebecPresentIntroduced
-SaskatchewanPresent, Few occurrencesIntroduced
El SalvadorPresentNative
GuatemalaPresent, WidespreadNativeInvasive
HondurasPresent, WidespreadNativeInvasive
MexicoPresentNativeInvasive
NicaraguaPresent, WidespreadNativeInvasive
United StatesPresent
-ArizonaPresent, WidespreadNativeInvasive
-CaliforniaPresent, WidespreadNativeInvasive
-ColoradoPresent, WidespreadNativeInvasive
-IdahoPresent, WidespreadNativeInvasive
-IowaPresent
-KansasPresent, WidespreadNativeInvasive
-MinnesotaPresent, Few occurrencesNative
-MontanaPresent, WidespreadNative
-NebraskaPresent, WidespreadNativeInvasive
-NevadaPresent, WidespreadNativeInvasive
-New MexicoPresent, WidespreadNativeInvasive
-North DakotaPresent, Few occurrencesNative
-OklahomaPresent, Few occurrencesNative
-OregonPresent, WidespreadNativeInvasive
-South DakotaPresent, Few occurrencesNative
-TexasPresent, WidespreadNativeInvasive
-UtahPresent, WidespreadNativeInvasive
-WashingtonPresent, WidespreadNativeInvasive
-WisconsinPresent, Few occurrencesIntroduced
-WyomingPresent, WidespreadNativeInvasive

Oceania

AustraliaPresent, Localized
-Western AustraliaPresent, Localized
New ZealandPresent, WidespreadIntroduced2006Invasive
Norfolk IslandPresent

South America

EcuadorPresent, Localized

History of Introduction and Spread

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In the southern and western Texas, southern New Mexico, Arizona, California, Idaho and northern Mexico regions, damaging outbreaks of potato psyllid in potatoes and tomatoes occurred at regular intervals beginning in the late 1800s and extending into the 1940s (List, 1939Wallis, 1946Pletsch, 1947). In more recent years, psyllid outbreaks have also occurred in regions outside of the midwestern United States, including southern California, Baja California, Oregon, Washington, Idaho and Central America (Trumble, 2008; 2009; Munyaneza et al., 2009aWen et al., 2009Crosslin et al., 2010Espinoza, 2010Munyaneza, 2010; 2012; Butler and Trumble, 2012Crosslin et al., 2012a, b).

In countries and regions where there are no significant seasonal changes during the winter, temperature is relatively cool, and where suitable host plants are available (e.g. Mexico, Central America), the potato psyllid is able to reproduce and develop all year round (Espinoza, 2010Rubio-Covarrubias et al., 2011).

Bactericera cockerelli, carrying ‘Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum’, was accidentally introduced into New Zealand, apparently sometime in the early 2000s (Gill, 2006Thomas et al., 2011), and is now established on both the North and South Island where the complex causes damage to potato, tomato, pepper and tamarillo crops (Teulon et al., 2009; Watson, 2009; Ogden, 2011). It is not clear how B. cockerelli arrived in New Zealand; however, it has been suggested that the psyllid was introduced from the western United States, probably through smuggled primary host plant material (Thomas et al., 2011).

Introductions

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Introduced toIntroduced fromYearReasonIntroduced byEstablished in wild throughReferencesNotes
Natural reproductionContinuous restocking
New Zealand USA 2000-2006 Smuggling (pathway cause) Yes No Thomas et al. (2011) Smuggled primary host plants

Risk of Introduction

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The B. cockerelli/‘Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum’ complex is a serious and economically important pest of potatoes, tomatoes and other solanaceous crops in the western United States, southern Canada, Mexico, Central America, South America, Australia and New Zealand (EPPO, 2021). Suitable host plants are widespread in almost any part of the world and, given the insect’s current distribution in the Americas, Australia and New Zealand, it is thought that B. cockerelli could establish and overwinter outdoors in a variety of climates, with adults and nymphs able to sustain freezing winter temperatures (Whipple et al., 2012). It could also establish and overwinter under protected conditions in many regions.

Habitat List

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CategorySub-CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Natural Principal habitat Harmful (pest or invasive)
Natural Principal habitat Natural
Terrestrial ManagedCultivated / agricultural land Principal habitat Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial ManagedCultivated / agricultural land Principal habitat Natural
Terrestrial ManagedProtected agriculture (e.g. glasshouse production) Principal habitat Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial ManagedProtected agriculture (e.g. glasshouse production) Principal habitat Natural

Hosts/Species Affected

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The literature is rife with references to B. cockerelli hosts from 20 different plant families, which are often merely plants on which adult B. cockerelli have been found but no nymphal development has occurred. This has very likely led to misinformed decision making in countries that led a biosecurity response to the incursion of B. cockerelli (Martin, 2015). B. cockerelli is found primarily on plants within the family Solanaceae. The psyllid feeds, reproduces and develops on a variety of cultivated plant species such as potato (Solanum tuberosum), tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), pepper (Capsicum annuum), eggplant (Solanum melongena), tamarillo (Solanum betaceum [Cyphomandra betacea]) and tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum).

During field surveys, all life stages of the insect have also been found on weedy, non-crop species such as nightshade (Solanum spp.) in the USA and NZ (e.g. Klyver, 1932; Pletsch, 1947; Wallis, 1955; Martin, 2008; Taylor and Berry, 2011; Murphy et al., 2013; Swisher et al., 2013b; Thinakaran et al., 2015a), groundcherry (Physalis spp.) in the USA and Mexico (e.g. Richards and Blood, 1933; Daniels, 1934; Pletsch, 1947; Wallis, 1955; Crespo-Herrera et al., 2012), jimsonweeds (Datura spp.) in the USA and NZ (Klyver, 1931; Wallis, 1955; Vereijssen et al., 2015b), Nicandra spp. in the USA and NZ (Wallis, 1955; Martin, 2008; Vereijssen, J., unpublished data) and Lycium spp. in the USA and NZ (e.g. Richards and Blood, 1933; Romney, 1939; Jensen, 1954; Wallis, 1955; Taylor and Berry, 2011; Vereijssen and Scott, 2013). Some of these weed host plants are also hosts for ‘Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum’ (Murphy et al., 2014; Vereijssen et al., 2015b). These non-crop plant species are important sources in the landscape for B. cockerelli feeding and breeding when the crops are not in the ground.

Beside solanaceous species, B. cockerelli has been shown to feed, reproduce and develop on Convolvulaceae species, including field bindweed (Convolvulus arvensis) in the USA and NZ (Knowlton and Thomas, 1934; List, 1939; Pletsch, 1947; Wallis, 1955; Kaur et al., 2018a, b; Vereijssen, J., unpublished data), Convolvulus tricolor (Kaur et al., 2018a, b), morning-glory (Ipomoea purpurea) (Knowlton and Thomas, 1934; Wallis, 1955), sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) in the USA and NZ (Wallis, 1955; Puketapu and Roskruge, 2011) and Ipomoea ternifolia, Ipomoea cordatotriloba, Ipomoea alba and Ipomoea nil in the USA (Kaur et al., 2018a, b).

Host Plants and Other Plants Affected

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Plant nameFamilyContextReferences
Capsicum (peppers)SolanaceaeMain
Capsicum annuum (bell pepper)SolanaceaeMain
Liu and Trumble (2007), Thinakaran et al. (2015b)
Convolvulus arvensis (bindweed)ConvolvulaceaeWild host
Wallis (1955), Barnes et al. (2015)
Datura stramonium (jimsonweed)SolanaceaeWild host
Wallis (1955), Vereijssen et al. (2015b)
Ipomoea batatas (sweet potato)ConvolvulaceaeMain
Ipomoea purpurea (tall morning glory)ConvolvulaceaeWild host
Lycium (boxthorn)SolanaceaeWild host
Lycium andersoniiSolanaceaeUnknown
Romney (1939), Wallis (1955)
Lycium barbarum (Matrimonyvine)SolanaceaeUnknown
Wallis (1946), Horton et al. (2016)
Lycium exsertumWild host
Lycium ferocissimum (African boxthorn)SolanaceaeWild host
Taylor and Berry (2011), Vereijssen et al. (2018)
Lycium fremontiiWild host
Lycium macrodonWild host
Lycium pallidumSolanaceaeWild host
Lycium parishiiWild host
Lycium torreyiWild host
Nicandra physalodes (apple of Peru)SolanaceaeWild host
Nicotiana alata (sweet-scented tobacco)SolanaceaeWild host
Nicotiana glauca (tree tobacco)SolanaceaeWild host
Nicotiana tabacum (tobacco)SolanaceaeOther
Nierembergia hippomanicaSolanaceaeWild host
Physalis (Groundcherry)SolanaceaeWild host
Physalis angulata (cutleaf groundcherry)SolanaceaeWild host
Physalis heterophyllaSolanaceaeWild host
Physalis ixocarpaSolanaceaeWild host
Wallis (1955), Crespo-Herrera et al. (2012)
Physalis longifoliaSolanaceaeWild host
Physalis virginiana var. sonoraeSolanaceaeWild host
Quincula lobataWild host
Solanum (nightshade)SolanaceaeWild host
Solanum aviculare (kangaroo apple)SolanaceaeWild host
Taylor and Berry (2011), Vereijssen et al. (2018)
Solanum capsicastrumSolanaceaeOther
Solanum dulcamara (bittersweet nightshade)SolanaceaeUnknown
Swisher et al. (2013b), Murphy et al. (2014)
Solanum elaeagnifolium (silverleaf nightshade)SolanaceaeUnknown
Wallis (1955), Thinakaran et al. (2015a)
Solanum lycopersicum (tomato)SolanaceaeMain
Wallis (1955), Liu and Trumble (2007), Martin (2008), Thinakaran et al. (2015b)
Solanum melongena (aubergine)SolanaceaeOther
Pletsch (1947), Martin (2008), Thinakaran et al. (2015b)
Solanum pseudocapsicum (Jerusalem-cherry)SolanaceaeWild host
Wallis (1955), Vereijssen et al. (2015b)
Solanum tuberosum (potato)SolanaceaeMain
Wallis (1955), Bextine et al. (2013b), Thinakaran et al. (2015b)

Growth Stages

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Flowering stage, Fruiting stage, Seedling stage, Vegetative growing stage

Symptoms

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Bactericera cockerelli has historically been associated with ‘psyllid yellows’ disease of potato and tomato (Richards and Blood, 1933). More recently, this psyllid has been found to be associated with the bacterium ‘Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum’ (Hansen et al., 2008Liefting et al., 2009b; Secor et al., 2009), haplotype A and B specifically (see the datasheet on ‘Ca. L. solanacearum’ for details).

The damage the psyllid alone does to these crop plants is minimal and only at very high densities (e.g. insect colonies) will wilting be observed or damage related to mould growing on the psyllid sugars. In potatoes, feeding of B. cockerelli that are free of ‘Ca. L. solanacearum’ can result in higher numbers and weights of unmarketable tubers when high densities feed on plants prior to flowering (Furlong et al., 2017).

When B. cockerelli is infected with ‘Ca. L. solanacearum’, the above- and below-ground plant symptoms become more evident and lead to reduced quality and yields in potato (Pitman et al., 2012; Wallis et al., 2012; Rashed et al., 2013), tomato (Liefting et al., 2009a), pepper (Munyaneza et al., 2009) and tamarillo (Watson, 2009). See the datasheet on 'Ca. L. solanacearum' for details.

List of Symptoms/Signs

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SignLife StagesType
Fruit / abnormal shape
Fruit / reduced size
Growing point / dwarfing; stunting
Growing point / wilt
Leaves / abnormal colours
Leaves / abnormal forms
Leaves / leaves rolled or folded
Leaves / necrotic areas
Leaves / wilting
Leaves / yellowed or dead
Roots / hairy root
Stems / fasciation
Stems / internal discoloration
Stems / stunting or rosetting
Stems / wilt
Stems / witches broom
Vegetative organs / internal rotting or discoloration
Vegetative organs / surface cracking
Whole plant / discoloration
Whole plant / distortion; rosetting
Whole plant / dwarfing
Whole plant / early senescence
Whole plant / plant dead; dieback

Biology and Ecology

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Genetics

Outbreaks of B. cockerelli in Baja California and coastal California led to the discovery that potato psyllid in those regions is genetically distinct from psyllids in southern Texas and eastern Mexico, which suggests there exists two different potato psyllid biotypes, referred to elsewhere as ‘western’ and ‘central’ biotypes (Liu et al., 2006Jackson et al., 2009). The western biotype differs from southern Texas populations in several life history traits (Liu and Trumble, 2007). In New Zealand (Thompson et al., 2015), Western Australia (https://news.perth.media/2018/02/02/research-indicates-promising-tpp-control-growers/) and Norfolk Island (Thomas et al., 2017), the western biotype is present.

Following the 2011 reports of zebra chip in Idaho, Oregon and Washington (Crosslin et al., 2012a, b; Munyaneza, 2012), a genetic study by Swisher et al. (2012), using high resolution melting analysis of the mitochondrial Cytochrome C Oxidase subunit I-like gene of B. cockerelli, led to the identification of a third biotype (referred to as ‘northwestern haplotype’), so far known only from the Northwest Pacific. This northwestern potato psyllid biotype is genetically different from the central and western biotypes (Swisher et al., 2012). In addition, a recent study by Swisher et al. (2014) identified a fourth biotype of the psyllid, which appears to be distributed in New Mexico and parts of Colorado and referred to as a ‘southwestern haplotype’. Furthermore, potato psyllids in Mexico, Honduras, El Salvador and Nicaragua were identified as the central haplotype (Swisher et al., 2013a).

Reproductive Biology

In an effort to identify and develop a sex pheromone and other attractants that can be used to develop improved integrated pest management programmes for B. cockerelli, its reproductive biology and the role of chemical signals in sex attraction were studied by Guédot et al. (2010; 2012). It was determined for the first time that the potato psyllid possesses a female-produced pheromone that attracts males (Guédot et al., 2010). Guédot et al. (2012) also showed that adult potato psyllids reach reproductive maturity within 48 h post-eclosion, with females being mature on the day of eclosion and males at 1 day post-eclosion. In addition, oviposition generally began 2 days after mating but was delayed when females mated within 2 days post-eclosion. Seven-day fecundity was lower in ‘Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum’ infected B. cockerelli than in ‘Ca. L. solanacearum’ free psyllids (Nachappa et al., 2012).

Optimum psyllid development occurs at approximately 27°C, whereas oviposition, hatching and survival are reduced at 32°C and cease at 35°C (List, 1939Pletsch, 1947Wallis, 1955Abdullah, 2008Yang and Liu, 2009Yang et al., 2010a). Total development time was not affected by infection with ‘Ca. L. solanacearum’ (Nachappa et al., 2012), and may be affected by host plant (Yang and Liu, 2009). A single generation may be completed in 3 to 5 weeks, depending on temperature. The number of generations varies considerably among the geographic regions, usually ranging from three to seven. However, once psyllids colonize an area, prolonged oviposition causes the generations to overlap, making it difficult to distinguish between generations (Pletsch, 1947Wallis, 1955Munyaneza et al., 2009a). Both adults and nymphs are very cold tolerant, with nymphs surviving temporary exposure to temperatures of -15°C and 50% of adults surviving exposure to -10°C for over 24 h (Henne et al., 2010a; Whipple et al., 2012).

Physiology and Phenology

Longevity

Longevity of B. cockerelli is on average 16-18 days under field conditions (Yang et al., 2013). Longevity is affected by their ‘Ca. L. solanacearum’ status (Nachappa et al., 2012).

Associations

Candidatus Carsonella ruddii’, the obligate and primary endosymbiont of psyllids, has been confirmed in B. cockerelli (Nachappa et al., 2011Hail et al., 2012). Besides ‘Ca. L. solanacearum’, several other secondary endosymbionts associated with the potato psyllid have recently been reported, including the bacteria Wolbachia, Acinetobacter, Methylibium, RhizobiumGordoniaMycobacterium and Xanthomonas (Nachappa et al., 2011Hail et al., 2012Arp et al., 2014). Little information is available on the interactions and symbiont relationship between these microorganisms and the potato psyllid.

Environmental Requirements

Weather is an important element governing the biology of B. cockerelli and its damage potential; B. cockerelli seems to be adapted for warm, but not hot, temperatures. Cool weather, or at least the absence of elevated temperatures, has been associated with outbreaks of this insect (Pletsch, 1947Wallis, 1955Capinera, 2001Cranshaw, 2001).

Natural enemies

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Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Beauveria bassiana Pathogen Arthropods|Nymphs Tamayo-Mejía et al. (2014) Mexico chili peppers
Beauveria bassiana Pathogen Arthropods|Nymphs Villegas-Rodríguez et al. (2014) Mexico chili peppers
Coccinella undecimpunctata Predator Arthropods|Adults; Arthropods|Eggs; Arthropods|Nymphs; Arthropods|Nymphs MacDonald et al. (2010) New Zealand potato
Cordyceps fumosorosea Pathogen Arthropods|Nymphs Lacey et al. (2011) Texas potato
Geocoris pallens Predator Arthropods|Nymphs Butler and Trumble (2012) USA; California potato, tomato, capsicum
Hippodamia convergens Predator Arthropods|Nymphs Butler and Trumble (2012) USA; California potato, tomato, capsicum
Melanostoma fasciatum Predator Arthropods|Adults; Arthropods|Eggs; Arthropods|Nymphs; Arthropods|Nymphs MacDonald et al. (2010) New Zealand potato
Metarhizium anisopliae Pathogen Arthropods|Nymphs Lacey et al. (2011) Texas potato
Metarhizium anisopliae Pathogen Arthropods|Nymphs Villegas-Rodríguez et al. (2014) Mexico chili peppers
Micromus tasmaniae Predator Arthropods|Adults; Arthropods|Eggs; Arthropods|Nymphs MacDonald et al. (2010) New Zealand potato
Orius tristicolor Predator Arthropods|Nymphs Butler and Trumble (2012) USA; California potato, tomato, capsicum
Tamarixia triozae Parasite Arthropods|Nymphs Barnes (2017) New Zealand Lycium ferocissimum
Zoophthora radicans Pathogen Arthropods|Nymphs; Nematodes|Adults Acosta et al. (2016) Mexico chili peppers

Notes on Natural Enemies

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Bactericera cockerelli is attacked by a number of naturally occurring natural enemies in the different geographic areas, including chrysopid larvae, coccinellids, geocorids, anthocorids, mirids, nabids, syrphid larvae and the parasitoids Tamarixia triozae (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) and Metaphycus psyllidis (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae), but little is known about their effects on psyllid populations in the field (Pletsch, 1947Wallis, 1955Cranshaw, 1993Al-Jabr, 1999Butler et al., 2010Walker et al., 2011a; Butler and Trumble, 2012Liu et al., 2012; MacDonald et al., 2016). T. triozae was approved for release from containment in New Zealand and subsequently released in several regions (EPA, 2016; Barnes, 2017). It has established self-sustaining populations (HortiDaily, 2020). In addition, several entomopathogenic fungi, including Beauveria bassiana, Metarhizium anisopliae, Lecanicillium muscarium and Isaria fumosorosea [Cordyceps fumosorosea], have been determined to be effective natural enemies of B. cockerelli, causing psyllid mortality up to 99 and 88% under laboratory and field/greenhouse conditions, respectively (Lacey et al., 2009; 2011; Mauchline and Stannard, 2013).

Means of Movement and Dispersal

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Natural Dispersal

Adult B. cockerelli can actively disperse between plants in a crop or between weed hosts surrounding the crop and crop plants. Immature stages of B. cockerelli are essentially sedentary. Weed hosts sustain all life stages of the insect when the crop is not around (Vereijssen, 2020).

Accidental Introduction

Long distance transport of different life stages of this insect pest is possible, particularly by commercial trade of plant material for propagation and produce in the family Solanaceae, which constitute the primary hosts for B. cockerelli. Based on the discovery of at least four haplotypes of potato psyllid in North and Central America, seasonal dispersal of this insect into potato crops was recently reviewed and discussed by Nelson et al. (2014).

This insect was introduced into New Zealand, where it was found established in tomato glasshouses and several outdoors solanaceous crops (Gill, 2006Liefting et al., 2009a, b; Teulon et al., 2009Thomas et al., 2011). It is not clear on how the insect arrived in New Zealand, but it was most likely transported with plant material, possibly as eggs (Thomas et al., 2011).

Entry on fruits of host species (e.g. tomato, pepper, eggplant) is possible, especially when they are associated with green parts (e.g. truss tomato). Entry on potato tuber is more unlikely.

Pathway Causes

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CauseNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Crop production Yes
Horticulture Yes
Nursery trade Yes Yes
Self-propelled Yes
Smuggling Yes

Pathway Vectors

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VectorNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Host and vector organisms Yes Yes
Plants or parts of plants Yes Yes
Wind Yes Yes Cameron et al. (2013)

Plant Trade

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Plant parts liable to carry the pest in trade/transportPest stagesBorne internallyBorne externallyVisibility of pest or symptoms
Flowers/Inflorescences/Cones/Calyx adults; eggs; nymphs Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Fruits (inc. pods) eggs; nymphs; Arthropods/Adults Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Leaves adults; eggs; nymphs Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Seedlings/Micropropagated plants adults; eggs; nymphs Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Stems (above ground)/Shoots/Trunks/Branches adults; eggs; nymphs Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Plant parts not known to carry the pest in trade/transport
Bulbs/Tubers/Corms/Rhizomes
Growing medium accompanying plants

Impact Summary

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CategoryImpact
Cultural/amenity Negative
Economic/livelihood Negative
Environment (generally) Negative

Economic Impact

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Historically in the USA, the extensive damage to solanaceous crops that was observed during the outbreak years of the early 1900s is thought to have been due to B. cockerelli’s association with a physiological disorder in plants referred to as ‘psyllid yellows’ (Richards and Blood, 1933), presumably caused by a toxin that is transmitted during the insect’s feeding activities, especially nymphs (Eyer and Crawford, 1933Eyer, 1937). However, the nature of this toxin has not yet been identified, leading to the hypothesis that ‘Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum’ haplotype A or B has always been present at low, undetectable levels for many years, as suggested by Munyaneza et al. (2011b).

In recent years, potato, tomato and pepper growers in a number of geographic areas have suffered extensive economic losses associated with outbreaks of potato psyllid (Trumble, 2008; 2009; Munyaneza et al., 2009b, c, d; Crosslin et al., 2010Munyaneza, 2010; Kale, 2011; Ogden, 2011). This damage ‘Ca. L. solanacearum’ (Liefting et al., 2009a, b) (syn. ‘Candidatus Liberibacter psyllaurous’) (Hansen et al., 2008), is acquired from infected plants by B. cockerelli and then transmitted (Buchman et al., 2011a, b; Sandanayaka et al., 2014; Mustafa et al., 2015); see the datasheet on 'Ca. L. solanacearum' for details. The bacterium is also transmitted transovarially in the psyllid (Hansen et al., 2008; Casteel et al., 2012). In these studies, the oviposition sites were not separated from feeding sites. Berg et al. (1992) showed in the psyllid Trioza erytreae that infected females feeding on a host plant could have led to infection of the eggs with the bacterium even when eggs were transferred to uninfected plant material. Transovarial transmission in B. cockerelli needs further investigation.

Symptoms associated with ‘Ca. L. solanacearum’ in tomatoes and pepper include chlorosis and purpling of leaves, leaf scorching, stunting or death of plants and production of small, poor-quality fruit (Liefting et al., 2009a, b; McKenzie and Shatters, 2009Munyaneza et al., 2009c, d; Brown et al., 2010Crosslin et al., 2010). During the outbreaks of 2001-2003 in the USA, tomato growers in coastal California and Baja California suffered losses exceeding 50-80% of the crop (Trumble, 2009). In New Zealand, losses in greenhouse tomatoes and capsicums were recorded (Ogden, 2011), as well as in tamarillo (Watson, 2009). Tubers from liberibacter-infected plants develop a defect referred to as ‘zebra chip’ disease. Tubers show a striped pattern of necrosis, which is particularly noticeable when the tuber is processed for chips/crisps or fries (Munyaneza et al., 2007a, b; 2008; Miles et al., 2010; Anderson et al., 2013). Chips or fries from affected plants are not marketable. Tuber symptoms associated with ‘Ca. L. solanacearum’ haplotype A and B differ, with haplotye B causing higher incidence of symptoms, more severe symptoms, and a greater reduction in tubers (Grimm et al., 2018). The defect was of sporadic importance until 2004, when it began to cause millions of dollars in losses to potato growers in the United States, Central America and Mexico (Rubio-Covarrubias et al., 2006Munyaneza et al., 2007a; 2009b; Crosslin et al., 2010Munyaneza, 2010). In New Zealand, economic losses as a result of potato psyllid management and ‘Ca. L. solanacearum’ have been recorded in potato (Kale, 2011; Ogden, 2011; CountryTV, 2016). In the USA, in some regions entire fields have been abandoned because of zebra chip (Secor and Rivera-Varas, 2004; Munyaneza et al., 2007aCrosslin et al., 2010Munyaneza, 2010). The potato industry in Texas estimates that zebra chip could affect over 35% of the potato acreage in Texas, with potential losses annually to growers exceeding 25 million dollars (CNAS, 2006). In New Zealand, B. cockerelli and ‘Ca. L. solanacearum’ are present throughout the country and affect the solanaceous crops present in the regions (Teulon et al., 2009).

Social Impact

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In New Zealand, B. cockerelli and ‘Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum’ also affect native, non-crop plants like Solanum aviculare, Solanum laciniatum and Solanum americanum. These plants, especially S. aviculare and S. laciniatum, were used for traditional practices, tikanga, by Māori (collections.tepapa.govt.nz/topic/2990). Possible disease or plant death as a result of the insect or bacterium will affect Māori.

Risk and Impact Factors

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Invasiveness
  • Invasive in its native range
  • Proved invasive outside its native range
  • Has a broad native range
  • Abundant in its native range
  • Highly adaptable to different environments
  • Tolerates, or benefits from, cultivation, browsing pressure, mutilation, fire etc
  • Tolerant of shade
  • Highly mobile locally
  • Long lived
  • Fast growing
  • Has high reproductive potential
  • Has high genetic variability
Impact outcomes
  • Host damage
  • Negatively impacts agriculture
  • Negatively impacts cultural/traditional practices
  • Damages animal/plant products
  • Negatively impacts trade/international relations
Impact mechanisms
  • Pest and disease transmission
  • Interaction with other invasive species
Likelihood of entry/control
  • Highly likely to be transported internationally accidentally
  • Difficult to identify/detect as a commodity contaminant
  • Difficult to identify/detect in the field
  • Difficult/costly to control

Uses List

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General

  • Research model

Prevention and Control

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Due to the variable regulations around (de)registration of pesticides, your national list of registered pesticides or relevant authority should be consulted to determine which products are legally allowed for use in your country when considering chemical control. Pesticides should always be used in a lawful manner, consistent with the product's label.

Control

Management of B. cockerelli in the USA and New Zealand has been reviewed and discussed by Munyaneza (2012)Munyaneza and Henne (2012)Butler and Trumble (2012) and Vereijssen (2020).

Monitoring B. cockerelli is essential for its effective management. Early season management of this insect is crucial to minimize damage and psyllid reproduction in the field. The adult populations are commonly sampled using sweep nets or vacuum devices, but egg and nymphal sampling requires visual examination of foliage. The adults can also be sampled with yellow water-pan traps or yellow sticky traps. Typically, in the USA, psyllid populations are highest at field edges initially, but, if not controlled, the insects will eventually spread throughout the crop (Butler and Trumble, 2012; Workneh et al., 2012). In New Zealand, this edge effect is less pronounced, possibly because there is more vegetation, as opposed to barren earth, surrounding the crops (Vereijssen, J., unpublished data).

Bactericera cockerelli management is currently dominated by insecticide applications (Goolsby et al., 2007Berry et al., 2009Gharalari et al., 2009; Butler et al., 2011; Guenthner et al., 2012; Vereijssen et al., 2018; Vereijssen, 2020), but psyllids in general have been shown to develop insecticide resistance due to the high fecundity and short generation times (McMullen and Jong, 1971). Therefore, alternative strategies should be considered to limit the impact of the potato psyllid and its associated pathogen. Even with conventional insecticides, B. cockerelli tends to be difficult to manage. It has been determined that ‘Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum’ is transmitted to potato very rapidly by the potato psyllid, and that a single psyllid per plant can successfully transmit this bacterium to potato in as little as 6 h, ultimately causing zebra chip (Buchman et al., 2011a, b). This represents a substantial challenge for growers in controlling the potato psyllid and preventing pathogen transmission. Just a few infective psyllids feeding on potato for a short period could result in substantial spread of the disease within a potato field or region (Henne et al., 2010b; Cameron et al., 2013). Most importantly, conventional insecticides may have limited direct disease control, as they may not kill the potato psyllid quick enough to prevent transmission of ‘Ca. L. solanacearum’, although they may be useful for reducing the overall population of psyllids.

The most valuable and effective strategy to manage zebra chip would likely be those that exclude the insect vector, such as mechanical barriers. Merfield et al. (2015a, b) trialled mesh covers to protect potato crops from B. cockerelli in New Zealand. Despite issues with aphids building up under the covers (Merfield 2017a, b; Merfield et al., 2019) and more research is needed, the mesh covers are used by organic and home gardeners.

Another tactic to reduce zebra chip is to discourage vector feeding, such as the use of plants that are resistant to psyllid feeding or less preferred by the psyllid. Unfortunately, no resistant or tolerant potato variety is commercially available yet, but research is promising (Rashidi et al., 2017; Rubio-Covarrubias et al., 2017; Anderson et al., 2018). However, some conventional and biorational pesticides, including plant and mineral oils and kaolin, have shown some substantial deterrence and repellency to potato psyllid feeding and oviposition in laboratory and field trials (Gharalari et al., 2009Yang et al., 2010bButler et al., 2011Peng et al., 2011; Walker et al., 2011; Barnes et al., 2013; 2014) and could be useful tools in integrated pest management programmes to manage zebra chip and B. cockerelli (Wright et al., 2017).

Several predators and two parasitoids of B. cockerelli are known, though there is little documentation of their effectiveness. In some areas such as southern Texas, early planted potato crops are more susceptible to psyllid injury than crops planted mid- to late season (Munyaneza et al., 2012). This is in contrast to New Zealand, where early planted potato crops in Pukekohe can be grown without insecticide use because of the biological control agents keeping the low numbers of B. cockerelli under control (Walker et al., 2012).

A review and information on synthetic insecticides used to control B. cockerelli is provided by Munyaneza (2012)Munyaneza and Henne (2012)Butler and Trumble (2012) and Vereijssen et al. (2018). Application of synthetic pesticides should be informed by proper monitoring (field inspections). Good insecticide coverage or translaminar activity is important because psyllids are commonly found on the underside of the leaves. Also, the different life stages require use of specific insecticides as it has been shown that chemicals controlling adults do not necessarily control nymphs or eggs. Because several generations often overlap, caution should be taken when selecting and applying insecticides targeted against the potato psyllid in relation to which life stages are present in the crop and timing of insecticide applications.

Reduced susceptibility to imidacloprid has been found in B. cockerelli populations in capsicum in California (Liu and Trumble, 2007) and in potato in Texas (Prager et al., 2013). Good insecticide resistance management with rotating modes of action is required in psyllid management programmes.

Gaps in Knowledge/Research Needs

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At least four haplotypes of B. cockerelli have so far been identified (Swisher et al., 2012; Swishet et al., 2014) and more may be discovered. Although these psyllid haplotypes have been shown to be different genetically, little is known of their differences in biological traits. This information is essential, especially for pest management purposes. In addition, information on overwintering of B. cockerelli, particularly in the regions with temperate climate (Jensen, 2012; Murphy et al., 2013), is lacking. Furthermore, accurate information on long distance movement and dispersal of B. cockerelli is crucial for predicting temporal and spatial colonization of field crops by this insect. Therefore, it is imperative that studies are conducted to further clarify the biology, ecology, movement and dispersal of B. cockerelli, in order to develop effective management strategies for this insect pest.

References

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Abad, J.A., Bandla, M., French-Monar, R.D., Liefting, L.W., Clover, G.R.G., 2009. First report of the detection of 'Candidatus Liberibacter' species in zebra chip disease-infected potato plants in the United States. Plant Disease, 93(1): 108-109. DOI: 10.1094/PDIS-93-1-0108C

Abdullah, N.M.M., 2008. Life history of the potato psyllid Bactericera cockerelli (Homoptera: Psyllidae) in controlled environment agriculture in Arizona. African Journal of Agricultural Research, 3(1):060-067. http://www.academicjournals.org/ajar/abstracts/abstracts/abstracts2008/Jan/Abdullah.htm

Abernathy, R.L., 1991. Investigation into the nature of the potato psyllid toxin. Fort Collins, Colorado, USA: Colorado State University.

Acosta, R.I.T., Humber, R.A., Sánchez-Peña, S.R., 2016. Zoophthora radicans (Entomophthorales), a fungal pathogen of Bagrada hilaris and Bactericera cockerelli (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae and Triozidae): prevalence, pathogenicity, and interplay of environmental influence, morphology, and sequence data on fungal identification. Journal of Invertebrate Pathology, 139:82-91. DOI : 10.1016/j.jip.2016.07.017

Aguilar, E., Sengoda, V.G., Bextine, B., McCue, K.F., Munyaneza, J.E., 2013a. First report of 'Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum' on tobacco in Honduras. Plant Disease, 97(10):1376-1377. DOI: 10.1094/PDIS-04-13-0453-PDN

Aguilar, E., Sengoda, V.G., Bextine, B., McCue, K.F., Munyaneza, J.E., 2013b. First report of 'Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum' on tomato in Honduras. Plant Disease, 97(10):1375-1376. DOI: 10.1094/PDIS-04-13-0354-PDN

Al-Jabr, A.M., 1999. Integrated pest management of tomato/potato psyllid, Paratrioza cockerelli (Sulc) (Homoptera: Psyllidae) with emphasis on its importance in greenhouse grown tomatoes. PhD Dissertation. Fort Collins, Colorado, USA: Colorado State University.

Anderson, J.A.D., Walker, G.P., Alspach, P.A., Jeram, M., Wright, P.J., 2013. Assessment of susceptibility to zebra chip and Bactericera cockerelli of selected potato cultivars under different insecticide regimes in New Zealand. American Journal of Potato Research, 90(1):58-65. DOI: 10.1007/s12230-012-9276-x

Anderson, J.A.D., Wright, P.J., Jaksons, P., Puketapu, A.J., Walker, G.P., 2018. Assessment of tolerance to zebra chip in potato breeding lines under different insecticide regimes in New Zealand. American Journal of Potato Research, 95(5):504-512. DOI: 10.1007/s12230-018-9655-z

Arp, A., Munyaneza, J.E., Crosslin, J.M., Trumble, J., Bextine, B., 2014. A global comparison of Bactericera cockerelli (Hemiptera: Triozidae) microbial communities. Environmental Entomology, 43(2):344-352. DOI: 10.1603/EN13256

Arslan, A., Bessey, P.M., Matsuda, K., Oebker, N.F., 1985. Physiological effects of psyllid (Paratrioza cockerelli) on potato. American Potato Journal, 62(1):9-22.

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Barnes, A., Vereijssen, J., Thompson, S.E., Butler, R.C., 2014. Effect of biorational and selective insecticides on transmission of Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum to potato plants. New Zealand Plant Protection, 67:191-196. http://www.nzpps.org/journal/67/nzpp_671910.pdf

Barnes, A.M., Butler, R.C., Vereijssen, J., 2013. Effect of selected biorational insecticides and conventional insecticides on transmission of Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum by tomato potato psyllid (Bactericera cockerelli) on potato plants. In: A report prepared for: potatoes New Zealand, Milestone No. 6a. Auckland, New Zealand: Plant & Food Research. https://potatoesnz.co.nz/mdocs-posts/8516-j-dohmen-vereijssen-effect-of-selected-biorational-insecticides-fin/

Barnes, A.M., Taylor, N.M., Vereijssen, J., 2015. Non-crop host plants: prime real estate for the tomato potato psyllid in New Zealand?. New Zealand Plant Protection, 68:441.

Barnes, H., 2017. New biocontrol agent released. NZGrower, 72:18-20. https://www.pressreader.com/new-zealand/nz-grower/20171001/281676845141596

Berg, M.A. van den, Vuuren, S.P. van, Deacon, V.E., 1992. Studies on greening disease transmission by the citrus psylla, Trioza erytreae (Hemiptera: Triozidae). Israel Journal of Entomology, XXV-XXVI:51–56.

Berry, N.A., Walker, M.K., Butler, R.C., 2009. Laboratory studies to determine the efficacy of selected insecticides on tomato/potato psyllid. New Zealand Plant Protection, 62:145-151. http://www.nzpps.org/journal/62/nzpp_621450.pdf

Bextine, B., Aguilar, E., Rueda, A., Caceres, O., Sengoda, V.G., McCue, K.F., Munyaneza, J.E., 2013a. First report of 'Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum' on tomato in El Salvador. Plant Disease, 97(9):1245. DOI: 10.1094/PDIS-03-13-0248-PDN

Bextine, B., Arp, A., Flores, E., Aguilar, E., Lastrea, L., Gomez, F.S., Powell, C., Rueda, A., 2013b. First report of zebra chip and 'Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum' on potatoes in Nicaragua. Plant Disease, 97(8):1109. DOI: 10.1094/PDIS-09-12-0824-PDN

Bextine, B., Powell, C., Arp, A., Alvarez, E., Ramon, F., Gomez, S., Florez, E., Schindler, L., Rueda, A., 2012. Zebra chip developments in Central America. In: Proceedings of the 2012 annual zebra chip reporting Session [ed. by Workneh, F., Rashed, A., Rush, C.M.].

Binkley, A.M., 1929. Transmission studies with the new psyllid-yellows disease of solanaceous plants. Science (Washington), 70(1825):615.

Brown, J.K., Rehman, M., Rogan, D., Martin, R.R., Idris, A.M., 2010. First report of 'Candidatus Liberibacter psyllaurous' (synonym 'Ca. L. solanacearum') associated with 'tomato vein-greening' and 'tomato psyllid yellows' diseases in commercial greenhouse in Arizona. Plant Disease, 94(3):376. DOI: 10.1094/PDIS-94-3-0376B

Buchman, J.L., Heilman, B.E., Munyaneza, J.E., 2011a. Effects of liberibacter-infective Bactericera cockerelli (Hemiptera: Triozidae) density on zebra chip potato disease incidence, potato yield and tuber processing quality. Journal of Economic Entomology, 104(6):1783-1792. DOI: 10.1603/EC11146

Buchman, J.L., Sengoda, V.G., Munyaneza, J.E., 2011b. Vector transmission efficiency of liberibacter by Bactericera cockerelli (Hemiptera: Triozidae) in zebra chip potato disease: effects of psyllid life stage and inoculation access period. Journal of Economic Entomology, 104(5):1486-1495. DOI: 10.1603/EC11123

Burckhardt, D., Lauterer, P., 1997. A taxonomic reassessment of the triozid genus Bactericera (Hemiptera: Psylloidea). Journal of Natural History, 31(1):99-153. DOI: 10.1080/00222939700770081

Burckhardt, D., Ouvrard, D., 2012. A revised classification of the jumping plant-lice (Hemiptera: Psylloidea). Zootaxa, 3509:1-34. http://www.mapress.com/zootaxa/2012/f/z03509p034f.pdf

Burckhardt, D., Ouvrard, D., Percy, D.M., 2021. An updated classification of the jumping plant-lice (Hemiptera: Psylloidea) integrating molecular and morphological evidence. European Journal of Taxonomy, 736:137-182. DOI: 10.5852/ejt.2021.736.1257

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Links to Websites

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WebsiteURLComment
Halbert SE, Munyaneza JE, 2012. Potato psyllids and associated pathogens: a diagnostic aid. Florida http://www.fsca-dpi.org/Homoptera_Hemiptera/Potato_psyllids_and_associated_pathogens.pdf

Contributors

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04/10/2014 Updated by:

Joseph E Munyaneza, USDA-ARS, USA

19/11/12 Original text by:

Joseph E Munyaneza, USDA-ARS, USA

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