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rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus

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Datasheet

rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 22 November 2019
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Virus
  •   Group: "Positive sense ssRNA viruses"
  •     Group: "RNA viruses"
  •       Family: Caliciviridae
  •         Genus: Lagovirus

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
RHDV (rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus); this transmission electron micrograph (TEM) shows rabbit calicivirus isolated from the liver of an infected rabbit. The virus has been prepared using negative contrast electron microscopy. The virus has been labeled (inner box) with anti-rabbit calicivirus antibodies and colloidal gold. (Image produced by Electron Microscopy Unit, Australian Animal Health Laboratory)
TitleTEM showing rabbit calicivirus isolated from the liver of an infected rabbit
CaptionRHDV (rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus); this transmission electron micrograph (TEM) shows rabbit calicivirus isolated from the liver of an infected rabbit. The virus has been prepared using negative contrast electron microscopy. The virus has been labeled (inner box) with anti-rabbit calicivirus antibodies and colloidal gold. (Image produced by Electron Microscopy Unit, Australian Animal Health Laboratory)
Copyright©Electron Microscopy Unit AAHL/CSIRO - CC BY 3.0
RHDV (rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus); this transmission electron micrograph (TEM) shows rabbit calicivirus isolated from the liver of an infected rabbit. The virus has been prepared using negative contrast electron microscopy. The virus has been labeled (inner box) with anti-rabbit calicivirus antibodies and colloidal gold. (Image produced by Electron Microscopy Unit, Australian Animal Health Laboratory)
TEM showing rabbit calicivirus isolated from the liver of an infected rabbitRHDV (rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus); this transmission electron micrograph (TEM) shows rabbit calicivirus isolated from the liver of an infected rabbit. The virus has been prepared using negative contrast electron microscopy. The virus has been labeled (inner box) with anti-rabbit calicivirus antibodies and colloidal gold. (Image produced by Electron Microscopy Unit, Australian Animal Health Laboratory)©Electron Microscopy Unit AAHL/CSIRO - CC BY 3.0

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus

International Common Names

  • English: rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus

English acronym

  • RHDV

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Virus
  •     Group: "Positive sense ssRNA viruses"
  •         Group: "RNA viruses"
  •             Family: Caliciviridae
  •                 Genus: Lagovirus
  •                     Species: rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 04 Jan 2022
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

AlgeriaAbsentJul-Dec-2019
BeninPresentJul-Dec-2020
BotswanaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2018
BurundiAbsentJul-Dec-2018
Cabo VerdeAbsentJul-Dec-2019
Central African RepublicAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
Congo, Democratic Republic of theAbsentJul-Dec-2019
Côte d'IvoirePresentJul-Dec-2020
DjiboutiAbsentJul-Dec-2019
EgyptAbsentJul-Dec-2019
EritreaAbsentJul-Dec-2019
EswatiniAbsent, No presence record(s)
EthiopiaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2018
GhanaPresentJan-Jun-2019
GuineaAbsent, No presence record(s)
KenyaAbsentJul-Dec-2019
LesothoAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2020
LibyaAbsentJul-Dec-2019
MadagascarAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
MalawiAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2018
MauritiusAbsentJul-Dec-2019
MayotteAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
MoroccoAbsent, No presence record(s)
MozambiqueAbsentJul-Dec-2019
NamibiaAbsentJul-Dec-2019
NigerAbsentJul-Dec-2019
NigeriaPresentJul-Dec-2020
RéunionPresentJul-Dec-2019
RwandaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2018
Saint HelenaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
São Tomé and PríncipeAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
SenegalPresentJul-Dec-2020
SeychellesAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2018
Sierra LeoneAbsentJan-Jun-2018
SomaliaAbsentJul-Dec-2020
South AfricaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
SudanAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
TogoAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
TunisiaPresentJul-Dec-2019
ZimbabweAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019

Asia

AfghanistanAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
ArmeniaAbsentJul-Dec-2019
AzerbaijanAbsentJul-Dec-2019
BahrainAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2020
BangladeshAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2020
BhutanAbsentJan-Jun-2020
BruneiAbsent, No presence record(s)
ChinaPresentJul-Dec-2020
GeorgiaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
Hong KongAbsent, No presence record(s)
IndiaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
IndonesiaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
IranAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
IraqAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
IsraelAbsentJul-Dec-2020
JapanPresentJan-Jun-2020
JordanAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2018
KazakhstanAbsentJul-Dec-2019
KuwaitAbsentJan-Jun-2019
KyrgyzstanAbsentJan-Jun-2019
LaosAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
LebanonAbsent, No presence record(s)
MalaysiaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
-Peninsular MalaysiaAbsent, No presence record(s)
-SabahAbsent, No presence record(s)
-SarawakAbsent, No presence record(s)
MaldivesAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
MongoliaAbsentJan-Jun-2019
NepalAbsent, No presence record(s)
North KoreaPresent
OmanAbsentJul-Dec-2019
PalestineAbsentJul-Dec-2019
PhilippinesAbsent, No presence record(s)
QatarAbsentJul-Dec-2019
Saudi ArabiaAbsentJan-Jun-2020
SingaporePresentJul-Dec-2020
South KoreaPresentJul-Dec-2019
Sri LankaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2018
SyriaAbsentJul-Dec-2019
TaiwanAbsentJul-Dec-2019
TajikistanAbsentJan-Jun-2019
ThailandAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2020
TurkmenistanAbsentJan-Jun-2019
United Arab EmiratesAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2020
UzbekistanAbsentJul-Dec-2019
VietnamAbsentJul-Dec-2019

Europe

AndorraAbsentJul-Dec-2019
BelarusAbsentJul-Dec-2019
BelgiumPresentJul-Dec-2019
Bosnia and HerzegovinaAbsentJul-Dec-2019
BulgariaAbsentJan-Jun-2019
CroatiaAbsentJul-Dec-2019
CyprusPresentJul-Dec-2019
CzechiaPresentJul-Dec-2019
DenmarkPresentJul-Dec-2020
EstoniaAbsentJul-Dec-2019
Faroe IslandsAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2018
FinlandPresentJul-Dec-2020; in wild animals only
FrancePresentJul-Dec-2019
GermanyPresentJul-Dec-2019
GreeceAbsentJan-Jun-2018
HungaryAbsentJul-Dec-2019
IcelandPresentJul-Dec-2020
IrelandPresentJul-Dec-2019
ItalyPresent, LocalizedJul-Dec-2020
JerseyPresent
LatviaAbsentJul-Dec-2020
LiechtensteinAbsentJul-Dec-2019
LithuaniaAbsentJul-Dec-2019
LuxembourgPresent
MaltaPresentJan-Jun-2019
MoldovaAbsentJan-Jun-2020
MontenegroAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
NetherlandsPresentJul-Dec-2019; in wild animals only; suspected in domestic animals
North MacedoniaAbsentJul-Dec-2019
NorwayAbsentJul-Dec-2019
PolandPresentJan-Jun-2019
PortugalPresentJul-Dec-2019
RussiaPresent, LocalizedJan-Jun-2020
San MarinoAbsentJan-Jun-2019
SerbiaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
SlovakiaAbsentJul-Dec-2020
SloveniaAbsentJul-Dec-2018
SpainPresentJul-Dec-2020
SwedenPresentJul-Dec-2020
SwitzerlandPresentJul-Dec-2020
UkraineAbsentJul-Dec-2020
United KingdomPresentJul-Dec-2019

North America

BahamasAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2018
BarbadosAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2020
BelizeAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
BermudaAbsent, No presence record(s)
British Virgin IslandsAbsent, No presence record(s)
CanadaPresentJul-Dec-2020
Cayman IslandsAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
Costa RicaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
CubaAbsentJan-Jun-2019
CuraçaoAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
DominicaAbsent, No presence record(s)
Dominican RepublicAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
El SalvadorAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
GreenlandAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2018
GuatemalaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
HaitiAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
HondurasAbsent, No presence record(s)
JamaicaAbsentJul-Dec-2018
MartiniqueAbsentJul-Dec-2019
MexicoPresentJul-Dec-2020
NicaraguaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
PanamaAbsent, No presence record(s)
Saint Kitts and NevisAbsent, No presence record(s)
Saint LuciaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2018
Saint Vincent and the GrenadinesAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
Trinidad and TobagoAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2018
United StatesPresentJul-Dec-2020

Oceania

AustraliaPresentJul-Dec-2019
Cook IslandsAbsentJan-Jun-2019
Federated States of MicronesiaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
FijiAbsentJan-Jun-2019
French PolynesiaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
KiribatiAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2018
Marshall IslandsAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
New CaledoniaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
New ZealandPresentJul-Dec-2019
PalauAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2020
SamoaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
Timor-LesteAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2018
TongaAbsentJul-Dec-2019
VanuatuAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019

South America

ArgentinaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
BoliviaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
BrazilAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
ChileAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
ColombiaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
EcuadorAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
Falkland IslandsAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
French GuianaAbsentJul-Dec-2019
GuyanaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2018
ParaguayAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
PeruAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
SurinameAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
UruguayAbsentJul-Dec-2019
VenezuelaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019

Pathogen Characteristics

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Rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV), a calicivirus (genus Lagovirus, family Caliciviriade), is a small non-enveloped single-stranded RNA virus, with a genome of ~7.4 kb and only one major capsid protein (VP60) (Ohlinger et al., 1990). RHDV causes a highly contagious and acute fatal hepatitis of wild and domestic European rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) (reviewed by Abrantes et al., 2012). The genus Lagovirus also includes European brown hare syndrome virus (EBHSV), which causes disease in brown hares (Lepus europaeus). Despite their high genetic relationship (VP60 nucleotide similarity of 70%), RHDV and EBHSV are two distinct viral species (Lavazza et al., 1996; Wirblich et al., 1994).

There are three main RHDV groups:

i) “Classical RHDV”, including genogroups G1-G5, first reported in China in 1984 (Liu et al., 1984). This RHDV has been reported in Asia, Africa, Americas, Europe and Oceania and is endemic in most parts of the world where European rabbits live naturally or are domesticated.

ii) Subtype RHDVa/G6 identified in Europe in 1996 (Capucci et al., 1998; Schirrmeier et al., 1999) and since reported in Oceania, Asia and Americas.

iii) “New” RHDV (provisionally called RHDV2 or RHDVb), first reported in France in 2010 in wild and farmed vaccinated rabbits (Dalton et al., 2012; Le Gall-Reculé et al., 2011, 2013), that has since spread in Europe and was reported in Australia in 2015 (Hall et al., 2015). With a unique antigenic profile, it causes mortality in young rabbits (less than two months old) and vaccinated rabbits, typically not susceptible to G1-G6 strains (Dalton et al., 2012). RHDV2 appears to be replacing classical RHDV strains among some wild rabbit populations in Europe (Le Gall-Reculé et al., 2013; Lopes et al., 2015) and is capable of infecting lagomorphs from the Lepus genus (Puggioni et al., 2013; Camarda et al., 2014).

Weak pathogenic and non-pathogenic forms of the virus also exist, which are genetically different from the pathogenic RHDV (Capucci et al., 1996; Strive et al., 2009).

Rabbit haemorrhagic disease is on the list of diseases notifiable to the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE). For more information, see the website: www.oie.int

Host Animals

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Animal nameContextLife stageSystem
Oryctolagus cuniculus (rabbits)

References

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Abrantes J; Loo Wvan der; Pendu Jle; Esteves PJ, 2012. Rabbit haemorrhagic disease (RHD) and rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV): a review. Veterinary Research, 43(12):(10 February 2012). http://www.veterinaryresearch.org/content/pdf/1297-9716-43-12.pdf

Camarda A; Pugliese N; Cavadini P; Circella E; Capucci L; Caroli A; Legretto M; Mallia E; Lavazza A, 2014. Detection of the new emerging rabbit haemorrhagic disease type 2 virus (RHDV2) in Sicily from rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) and Italian hare (Lepus corsicanus). Research in Veterinary Science, 97(3):642-645. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/00345288

Capucci L; Fallacara F; Grazioli S; Lavazza A; Pacciarini ML; Brocchi E, 1998. A further step in the evolution of rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus: the appearance of the first consistent antigenic variant. Virus Research, 58(1/2):115-126.

Capucci L; Fusi P; Lavazza A; Pacciarini ML; Rossi C, 1996. Detection and preliminary characterization of a new rabbit calicivirus related to rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus but nonpathogenic. Journal of Virology, 70(12):8614-8623.

Dalton KP; Nicieza I; Balseiro A; Muguerza MA; Rosell JM; Casais R; Álvarez ÁL; Parra F, 2012. Variant rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus in young rabbits, Spain. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 18(12):2009-2012. http://wwwnc.cdc.gov/eid/article/18/12/pdfs/12-0341.pdf

Gall-Reculé Gle; Lavazza A; Marchandeau S; Bertagnoli S; Zwingelstein F; Cavadini P; Martinelli N; Lombardi G; Guérin JL; Lemaitre E; Decors A; Boucher S; Normand Ble; Capucci L, 2013. Emergence of a new lagovirus related to rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus. Veterinary Research, 44(81):(8 September 2013). http://www.veterinaryresearch.org/content/44/1/81/abstract

Gall-Reculé Gle; Zwingelstein F; Boucher S; Normand Ble; Plassiart G; Portejoie Y; Decors A; Bertagnoli S; Guérin JL; Marchandeau S, 2011. . http://veterinaryrecord.bvapublications.com/archive/

Hall RN; Mahar JE; Haboury S; Stevens V; Holmes EC; Strive T, 2015. . http://wwwnc.cdc.gov/eid/article/21/12/pdfs/15-1210.pdf

Lavazza A; Scicluna MT; Capucci L, 1996. Susceptibility of hares and rabbits to the European brown hare syndrome virus (EBHSV) and rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV) under experimental conditions. Journal of Veterinary Medicine. Series B, 43(7):401-410.

Liu SJ; Xue HP; Pu BQ; Qian NH, 1984. A new viral disease in rabbits. Animal Husbandry and Veterinary Medicine (Xumu yu Shouyi), 16(6):253-255.

Lopes AM; Correia J; Abrantes J; Melo P; Ramada M; Magalhães MJ; Alves PC; Esteves PJ, 2015. Is the new variant RHDV replacing genogroup 1 in Portuguese wild rabbit populations? Viruses, 7(1):27-36. http://www.mdpi.com/1999-4915/7/1/27/htm

Ohlinger VF; Haas B; Meyers G; Weiland F; Thiel HJ, 1990. Identification and characterization of the virus causing rabbit hemorrhagic disease. Journal of Virology, 64(7):3331-3336.

OIE Handistatus, 2002. World Animal Health Publication and Handistatus II (dataset for 2001). Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties.

OIE Handistatus, 2003. World Animal Health Publication and Handistatus II (dataset for 2002). Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties.

OIE Handistatus, 2004. World Animal Health Publication and Handistatus II (data set for 2003). Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties.

OIE Handistatus, 2005. World Animal Health Publication and Handistatus II (data set for 2004). Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties.

Puggioni G; Cavadini P; Maestrale C; Scivoli R; Botti G; Ligios C; Gall-Reculé Gle; Lavazza A; Capucci L, 2013. The new French 2010 Rabbit Hemorrhagic Disease Virus causes an RHD-like disease in the Sardinian Cape hare (Lepus capensis mediterraneus). Veterinary Research, 44(96):(7 October 2013). http://www.veterinaryresearch.org/content/pdf/1297-9716-44-96.pdf

Schirrmeier H; Reimann I; Köllner B; Granzow H, 1999. Pathogenic, antigenic and molecular properties of rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV) isolated from vaccinated rabbits: detection and characterization of antigenic variants. Archives of Virology, 144(4):719-735.

Strive T; Wright JD; Robinson AJ, 2009. Identification and partial characterisation of a new lagovirus in Australian wild rabbits. Virology, 384(1):97-105. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?_ob=ArticleURL&_udi=B6WXR-4V28ST8-3&_user=6686535&_coverDate=02%2F05%2F2009&_rdoc=15&_fmt=high&_orig=browse&_srch=doc-info(%23toc%237165%232009%23996159998%23863056%23FLA%23display%23Volume)&_cdi=7165&_sort=d&_docanchor=&_ct=32&_acct=C000066028&_version=1&_urlVersion=0&_userid=6686535&md5=47b44d5cc5fcfb28686ab86589f04d0c

Wirblich C; Meyers G; Ohlinger VF; Capucci L; Eskens U; Haas B; Thiel HJ, 1994. European brown hare syndrome virus: relationship to rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus and other caliciviruses. Journal of Virology, 68(8):5164-5173.

Distribution References

OIE Handistatus, 2005. World Animal Health Publication and Handistatus II (dataset for 2004)., Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties.

OIE, 2018. World Animal Health Information System (WAHIS): Jul-Dec. In: OIE-WAHIS Platform, Paris, France: OIE (World Organisation for Animal Health). unpaginated. https://wahis.oie.int/

OIE, 2018a. World Animal Health Information System (WAHIS): Jan-Jun. In: OIE-WAHIS Platform, Paris, France: OIE (World Organisation for Animal Health). unpaginated. https://wahis.oie.int

OIE, 2019. World Animal Health Information System (WAHIS): Jul-Dec. In: OIE-WAHIS Platform, Paris, France: OIE (World Organisation for Animal Health). unpaginated. https://wahis.oie.int/

OIE, 2019a. World Animal Health Information System (WAHIS): Jan-Jun. In: OIE-WAHIS Platform, Paris, France: OIE (World Organisation for Animal Health). unpaginated. https://wahis.oie.int/

OIE, 2020. World Animal Health Information System (WAHIS): Jul-Dec. In: OIE-WAHIS Platform, Paris, France: OIE (World Organisation for Animal Health). unpaginated. https://wahis.oie.int/

OIE, 2020a. World Animal Health Information System (WAHIS). Jan-Jun. In: OIE-WAHIS Platform, Paris, France: OIE (World Organisation for Animal Health). unpaginated. https://wahis.oie.int/

Distribution Maps

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