African swine fever
Don't need the entire report?
Generate a print friendly version containing only the sections you need.Generate report
PicturesTop of page
IdentityTop of page
Preferred Scientific Name
- African swine fever
International Common Names
- English: african swine fever - exotic
- Spanish: peste porcina africana
- French: peste porcine africaine
Local Common Names
- Italy: peste suina africana
OverviewTop of page
African swine fever (ASF) is a highly contagious disease of pigs, first described in Kenya by Montgomery (1921). It is caused by a large DNA virus (170 to 190 kbp), classified as a unique member of the Asfarviridae family, and is considered by many experts to be one of the most complex viral diseases to affect domestic animals.
The disease is endemic in many African countries south of the Sahara desert. Until 2007, the Italian island of Sardinia was the only European ASF-infected area (Mur et al., 2016). However, in 2007, ASF was introduced into Georgia (Rowlands et al., 2008); from there it spread to neighbouring countries (Azerbaijan, Armenia and Russia) and subsequently to Ukraine, Belarus and Moldova.
ASF was introduced into the Baltic States (Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania) and then Poland in 2014 and the disease has continued to spread within these regions. In 2017, the virus spread further west and the first cases of disease were reported in the Czech Republic and Romania, in wild boar and domestic pigs, respectively (Olesen et al., 2018). ASF was detected in wild boar in Hungary in April 2018, in wild boar in Belgium in September 2018 and in wild boar in Bulgaria in October 2018. In 2019, the disease was reported in Slovakia and Serbia. Greece reported ASF in domestic pigs in a backyard farm in February 2020 and Germany detected ASF in wild boar in September 2020.
In August 2018, ASF was reported for the first time in pigs in China. As China is the world’s largest pig producer and pork is the most important protein source for Chinese people, the outbreaks of ASF will have large consequences on both local and the world pig industry (Li and Tian, 2018). The disease has since spread rapidly in China, reaching almost all provinces of the country. ASF has also spread beyond China within East and Southeast Asia (Normile, 2019). According to FAO’s Emergency Prevention System for Animal Health, the disease has been reported in Vietnam, Cambodia, Mongolia, the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea and the Lao People’s Democratic Republic, where millions of pigs perished or have been culled (FAO, 2019). The disease has also spread to the Philippines, Myanmar, Indonesia, Papua New Guinea and Timor-Leste (Penrith, 2020). Unusual deaths among village pigs in north-eastern India commenced in the Arunachal Pradesh district in late January 2020. The cause of the deaths was confirmed to be ASF in May 2020 (Penrith, 2020).
ASF inflicts significant socioeconomic impact on affected countries. The ASF virus affects both wild and domesticated pigs of all ages and breeds and is transmitted by soft ticks (Argasidae) of the genus Ornithodoros. Control of the disease is more difficult in outdoor systems than indoors, as this is usually achieved by the control of vectors. No treatment or effective vaccines are available.
The spread of ASF in recent years has been attributed to endemic establishment in free-living wild pig populations and in domestic pigs reared under hazardous husbandry conditions. High-risk activities on the part of humans have also been a contributing factor (Penrith, 2020).
This disease is on the list of diseases notifiable to the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE). The distribution section contains data from OIE's WAHID database on disease occurrence. Please see the AHPC library for further information on this disease from OIE, including the International Animal Health Code and the Manual of Standards for Diagnostic Tests and Vaccines. Also see the website: http://www.oie.int
Host AnimalsTop of page
|Animal name||Context||Life stage||System|
|Sus scrofa (pigs)||Domesticated host; Experimental settings; Wild host||Pigs|All Stages|
Systems AffectedTop of page
digestive diseases of pigs
multisystemic diseases of pigs
nervous system diseases of pigs
reproductive diseases of pigs
respiratory diseases of pigs
skin and ocular diseases of pigs
DistributionTop of page
[See: OIE reports on African swine fever for an overview of the latest situation.]
ASF is widespread in Africa, particularly south of the Sahara, where the disease is mostly endemic. Thirty-four countries in sub-Saharan Africa have experienced at least one confirmed ASF outbreak (Penrith, 2020).
In Europe, ASF is endemic in Sardinia (Italy). In 2007, ASF entered Eastern Europe. ASF was detected in Georgia, near the port of Poti (Beltrán-Alcrudo et al., 2008) and from there, the disease quickly spread to neighbouring countries (Armenia, Azerbaijan and Russian Federation) and subsequently to Ukraine, Belarus and Moldova. ASF spread into four EU member countries in 2014, namely Lithuania, Poland, Latvia, and Estonia; and in 2017, ASF was reported for the first time in Czech Republic and Romania (Jurado et al., 2018). In 2018, ASF was detected in wild boar in Hungary, Belgium and Bulgaria. In 2019, the disease was reported in Slovakia and Serbia and in February 2020 it was reported in Greece (Penrith, 2020). Germany reported ASF in wild boar in September 2020 (for more information, see OIE’s World Animal Health Information Database (WAHIS) Interface).
The first case of ASF in China was reported in August 2018 and the disease has spread rapidly (Li and Tian, 2018). ASF was first reported in Mongolia in January 2019, Vietnam in February 2019, Cambodia in April 2019, Democratic People’s Republic of Korea in May 2019, Hong Kong in May 2019 and Laos in June 2019. The disease has also spread to the Philippines, Myanmar, Indonesia, Papua New Guinea and Timor-Leste (Penrith, 2020). Deaths among village pigs in north-eastern India commenced in the Arunachal Pradesh district in late January 2020, with outbreaks occurring in 11 villages in Arunachal Pradesh and Assam between January and April, with the deaths of 3701 pigs. The cause of the deaths was confirmed to be a genotype II ASF virus on 18 May 2020 (Penrith, 2020).
Distribution TableTop of page
The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.Last updated: 05 Feb 2021
|Continent/Country/Region||Distribution||Last Reported||Origin||First Reported||Invasive||Reference||Notes|
|Botswana||Absent, No presence record(s)|
|Burkina Faso||Present||2008||Last reported: 200805|
|Congo, Democratic Republic of the||Present|
|Congo, Republic of the||Present|
|Equatorial Guinea||Present, Widespread|
|Eswatini||Absent, No presence record(s)|
|Ethiopia||Present||Original citation: AU-IBAR (2011)|
|Gambia||Present||Original citation: AU-IBAR (2011)|
|Liberia||Present||Original citation: AU-IBAR (2011)|
|Libya||Absent, No presence record(s)|
|Réunion||Absent, No presence record(s)|
|Somalia||Absent, No presence record(s)|
|Sudan||Absent, No presence record(s)|
|Tunisia||Absent, No presence record(s)|
|Armenia||Absent, No presence record(s)|
|Azerbaijan||Absent, No presence record(s)|
|Bahrain||Absent, No presence record(s)|
|Bangladesh||Absent, No presence record(s)|
|Bhutan||Absent, No presence record(s)|
|Brunei||Absent, No presence record(s)|
|India||Absent, No presence record(s)|
|Iran||Absent, No presence record(s)|
|Iraq||Absent, No presence record(s)|
|Israel||Absent, No presence record(s)|
|Japan||Absent, No presence record(s)|
|Kazakhstan||Absent, No presence record(s)|
|Kuwait||Absent, No presence record(s)|
|Kyrgyzstan||Absent, No presence record(s)|
|Laos||Present||Original citation: FAO (2019)|
|Lebanon||Absent, No presence record(s)|
|Malaysia||Absent, No presence record(s)|
|-Peninsular Malaysia||Absent, No presence record(s)|
|-Sabah||Absent, No presence record(s)|
|-Sarawak||Absent, No presence record(s)|
|Mongolia||Present||Original citation: FAO (2019)|
|Nepal||Absent, No presence record(s)|
|North Korea||Present||Original citation: FAO (2019)|
|Oman||Absent, No presence record(s)|
|Saudi Arabia||Absent, No presence record(s)|
|Singapore||Absent, No presence record(s)|
|South Korea||Absent, No presence record(s)|
|Sri Lanka||Absent, No presence record(s)|
|Syria||Absent, No presence record(s)|
|Taiwan||Absent, No presence record(s)|
|Tajikistan||Absent, No presence record(s)|
|Turkey||Absent, No presence record(s)|
|Turkmenistan||Absent, No presence record(s)|
|United Arab Emirates||Absent, No presence record(s)|
|Uzbekistan||Absent, No presence record(s)|
|Albania||Absent, No presence record(s)|
|Austria||Absent, No presence record(s)|
|Bosnia and Herzegovina||Absent, No presence record(s)|
|Croatia||Absent, No presence record(s)|
|Cyprus||Absent, No presence record(s)|
|Czechia||Present||Original citation: Kucínský (2017)|
|Denmark||Absent, No presence record(s)|
|Finland||Absent, No presence record(s)|
|France||Absent, No presence record(s)|
|Germany||Absent, No presence record(s)|
|Hungary||Present||Original citation: Štukelj and Plut (2018)|
|Iceland||Absent, No presence record(s)|
|Ireland||Absent, No presence record(s)|
|Isle of Man||Absent, No presence record(s)|
|Jersey||Absent, No presence record(s)|
|Latvia||Present||Original citation: Olševskis et al. (2016)|
|Liechtenstein||Absent, No presence record(s)|
|Luxembourg||Absent, No presence record(s)|
|Malta||Absent, No presence record(s)|
|Montenegro||Absent, No presence record(s)|
|Netherlands||Absent, No presence record(s)|
|North Macedonia||Absent, No presence record(s)|
|Norway||Absent, No presence record(s)|
|Portugal||Absent, No presence record(s)|
|Slovenia||Absent, No presence record(s)|
|Spain||Absent, No presence record(s)|
|Sweden||Absent, No presence record(s)|
|Switzerland||Absent, No presence record(s)|
|United Kingdom||Absent, No presence record(s)|
|-Northern Ireland||Absent, No presence record(s)|
|Barbados||Absent, No presence record(s)|
|Belize||Absent, No presence record(s)|
|Bermuda||Absent, No presence record(s)|
|British Virgin Islands||Absent, No presence record(s)|
|Canada||Absent, No presence record(s)|
|Cayman Islands||Absent, No presence record(s)|
|Costa Rica||Absent, No presence record(s)|
|Cuba||Absent, No presence record(s)|
|Curaçao||Absent, No presence record(s)|
|Dominica||Absent, No presence record(s)|
|Dominican Republic||Absent, No presence record(s)|
|El Salvador||Absent, No presence record(s)|
|Greenland||Absent, No presence record(s)|
|Guadeloupe||Absent, No presence record(s)|
|Guatemala||Absent, No presence record(s)|
|Honduras||Absent, No presence record(s)|
|Jamaica||Absent, No presence record(s)|
|Martinique||Absent, No presence record(s)|
|Mexico||Absent, No presence record(s)|
|Nicaragua||Absent, No presence record(s)|
|Panama||Absent, No presence record(s)|
|Saint Kitts and Nevis||Absent, No presence record(s)|
|Saint Vincent and the Grenadines||Absent, No presence record(s)|
|Trinidad and Tobago||Absent, No presence record(s)|
|United States||Absent, No presence record(s)|
|Australia||Absent, No presence record(s)|
|French Polynesia||Absent, No presence record(s)|
|New Caledonia||Absent, No presence record(s)|
|New Zealand||Absent, No presence record(s)|
|Samoa||Absent, No presence record(s)|
|Vanuatu||Absent, No presence record(s)|
|Argentina||Absent, No presence record(s)|
|Bolivia||Absent, No presence record(s)|
|Brazil||Absent, No presence record(s)|
|Chile||Absent, No presence record(s)|
|Colombia||Absent, No presence record(s)|
|Ecuador||Absent, No presence record(s)|
|Falkland Islands||Absent, No presence record(s)|
|French Guiana||Absent, No presence record(s)|
|Guyana||Absent, No presence record(s)|
|Paraguay||Absent, No presence record(s)|
|Peru||Absent, No presence record(s)|
|Uruguay||Absent, No presence record(s)|
|Venezuela||Absent, No presence record(s)|
PathologyTop of page
Post-mortem lesions and histopathological findings in ASFV infections vary widely depending on the virulence of the virus isolate and the species of pig infected; African wild pigs do not normally show lesions (Oura et al., 1988). Lesions are indistinguishable from those of hog cholera.
Three forms of ASF have been described: acute, sub-acute and chronic.
The acute form of SAF is characterised by extensive haemorrhages in lymph nodes (mandibular, renal and gastro-hepatic), spleen and kidney and occasionally in the heart. Lymph nodes look like a red dark haematoma with oedema and a friable consistency. The spleen may show congestive splenomegaly when it is dark, enlarged, infarcted and friable. The kidneys usually have petechial haemorrhages of the renal cortex, in the medulla and renal pelvis. An intensive hydropericardium of sero-haemorrhagic liquid, and petechiae in the epicardium and endocardium are also frequently observed. Other lesions include petechiae in the mucous membrane of the urinary bladder, larynx and pleura. Congestion in the liver, fluid in the abdominal cavity and hydrothorax are also frequently observed (Sanchez Botija, 1982; Gomez-Villamandos et al., 1996).
The lesions observed in the sub-acute form of ASF are mild versions of those described for the acute form; that is large haemorrhages in lymph nodes and kidneys. An enlarged and haemorrhagic spleen, and congested and oedematous lung and in some cases an interstitial pneumonia are the lesions most frequently observed in the sub-acute form (Mebus et al., 1983).
The chronic form is characterised by enlarged lymph nodes and spleen, pleuritis and fibrous pericarditis. Focal caseous necrosis and mineralization of the lung have also been described (Mebus et al., 1983).
DiagnosisTop of page
Due to the great similarity of the clinical signs and lesions of ASF and those of other haemorrhagic pig diseases, laboratory diagnosis is an essential prerequisite for correct diagnosis (Sánchez-Vizcaíno, 2006).
The clinical presentation varies depending on the virulence of the virus, the route of exposure, dose of virus and the species of pig infected, normally wild boar are more resistant (Sánchez-Vizcaíno, 2006).
Three forms of ASF have been described: acute, sub-acute and chronic.
The isolate currently circulating in the Russian Federation and Caucasus region belongs to genotype II (Rowlands et al., 2008) and only induces acute forms of the disease. Other forms of the disease can be observed in Sardinia (Italy) where ASF virus genotype I is circulating or in Africa where all the 22 ASF virus genotypes are circulating (Sánchez-Vizcaíno, 2006).
Acute infections are characterised by high mortality (90-100%), fever (40-42ºC), leucopaenia and thrombocytopaenia. Reddening of the skin at the tips of ears, and chest and abdominal areas are frequently observed in white pigs. Vomiting and haemorrhagic diarrhoea may be observed. Abortion in pregnant sows is frequently described. One or two days before dying, the affected animals usually present anorexia, listlessness, cyanosis and incoordination (Mebus et al., 1983).
Sub-acute infections are produced by moderately virulent virus isolates, which present similar but less intense symptoms than those in the acute form. The mortality of the sub-acute form is approximately 30-70%, depending on the virus isolate. Illness and abortion is frequently observed.
Chronic infections result in low mortality (2-10%). Symptoms include weight loss, respiratory problems, arthritis, chronic skin ulcers or necrosis.
Differential diagnosis should consider the following diseases:
- classical swine fever or hog cholera
The samples that should be collected for ASF laboratory diagnosis are lymph nodes, kidneys, spleen, lung, blood and serum. Tissues are used for virus isolation (HA test) and viral antigen detection (PCR techniques and DIF test), while blood is used for virus isolation and PCR. Tissue exudates and serum are used for antibody detection by: IIF, ELISA or IB.
A wide variety of laboratory tests are available for ASF viral DNA and antibody detection (Sánchez-Vizcaíno, 2006). The most convenient, safe and specific tests for virus detection are: PCR techniques (both real time and conventional) (King et al., 2003; Agüero et al., 2004), direct immunofluorescence (DIF) (Bool et al., 1969) and haemadsortion (Malmquist and Hay, 1960).
The detection of the ASF virus genome by PCR has been developed with the use of sets of primers from a highly conserved region of the viral DNA, to detect all range of ASF isolates belonging to all the known virus genotypes including both non-haemadsorbing viruses and low virulence ones. This test is particularly useful for viral DNA identification from tissues which are poorly conserved, even if they have undergone putrefaction or the virus has been inactivated. It is an excellent and relatively rapid technique (results could be obtained in 5 hours) for ASF diagnosis, and is the most frequently technique used in worldwide laboratories for ASF virus detection. It needs good training and good laboratory practices to avoid contaminations and false positive results . Two types of PCR are validated by OIE for ASF diagnosis, conventional PCR (Agüero et al., 2003) and real-time PCR (King et al., 2003).
Direct immunofluorescence (DIF) is based on the detection of viral antigen in impression smears or frozen tissue sections with a fluorescein labelled immunoglobulin directed against the ASF virus. It is a very rapid (one hour) and economic test with high sensitivity to the acute form of ASF. However, for sub-acute or chronic infections, the DIF test has a sensitivity of only 40%. This decrease in sensitivity seems to be related to the formation of antigen-antibody complexes, which do not facilitate the reaction with the ASF conjugate (Sánchez-Vizcaíno, 1986). The use of DIF together with an indirect immunofluorescence test (IIF) makes it possible to detect 85 to 95% of all ASF cases (acute, sub-acute and chronic) in less than three hours (Sánchez-Vizcaíno, 1986).
The haemadsorption test (HA) is a technique used as the gold standard test for ASF virus identification due to its sensitivity and specificity. This test is usually only performed in ASF reference laboratories in order to confirm any new outbreak and when other tests have yielded negatives. HA is based on the haemadsorption characteristics that most ASF virus isolates induce when pig macrophages are infected in the presence of erythrocytes. A characteristic rosette around the infected macrophages develops before the cytopathic effect appears. A small number of field strains have shown cytopathic effect without producing the haemadsorption phenomenon (Sanchez Botija, 1982); these strains are identified using the DIF test on the sediments of these cell cultures. HA is relatively economical but access to ASF-free pigs and sterile facilities are also needed.
The lack of an effective vaccine against ASF virus and the long duration of the specific ASF-IgG reaction in infected pigs (detectable in blood on days 6-10 post-inoculation and subsequently for protracted periods, even years) has made the study of ASF antibody reactions an important prerequisite for the detection of sub-acute and chronic forms of ASF, and for ASF eradication programs (Arias and Sánchez-Vizcaíno, 2002). Several techniques have been adapted for ASF antibody detection, but the most common, practical and inexpensive tests are ELISA (Sánchez-Vizcaíno et al.,1986), immunoblotting (IB) (Pastor et al., 1987) and IIF (Bool et al., 1969).
The IIF test is a fast technique and has high sensitivity and specificity for the detection of ASF antibodies from either sera or tissue exudates (Sanchez Botija et al., 1970). It is based on the detection of ASF antibodies that bind to a monolayer of cell lines (by MS) infected with an adapted ASF virus. The antibody-antigen reaction is detected by a fluorescein labelled protein A. ELISA testing is the most useful method for large-scale serological studies. It is highly sensitive and specific, simple, rapid and economic and commerical kits are available. It is based on the detection of ASF antibodies bound to the viral proteins which are attached to a solid phase by addition of protein A-conjugated with an enzyme that produces a visible colour reaction when it reacts with the appropriate substrate.
The IB test is a highly specific, sensitive and easy to interpret technique which has been successfully used as a confirmatory method to IIF for low or doubtful ELISA sera (Sánchez-Vizcaíno, 2006).
The immune response to ASF virus infection is still poorly understood. The main difficulty encountered has been the lack of neutralising antibodies and the great variability of the virus isolates. These characteristics made the production of an effective vaccine impossible to date.
Monocytes and macrophages are the main target cells for ASF virus replication; no evidence of virus replication in T or B lymphocytes has been observed (Minguez et al., 1988; Gomez-Villamandos et al., 1995). However, a lymphopenia, due to apoptosis of lymphocytes, mainly in the T area of the lymphatic organs, have been described (Carrasco et al., 1996).
Another characteristic of the response to ASFV is the lack of viral neutralisation. ASF virus-specific neutralised antibodies have never been demonstrated to entirely fulfil the classic definition of antibody neutralisation. It has proved impossible to neutralise 100% of the homologous virus, even with sera from recovered animals infected with attenuated ASF isolate; in this case a 10% fraction of non-neutralising virus is observed to persist (Ruiz et al., 1986). In contrast, animals that have recovered from ASFV infections can produce neutralised antibodies to foot and mouth virus (De Boer, 1967), and T cytotoxic lymphocytes (CD 8+) from recovered pigs are able to destroy macrophages infected with ASFV (Martin and Leitao, 1994).
ASF virus is very antigenic, inducing antibodies to a great number of viral proteins. IgM is detectable in animal sera at 4-6 days post inoculation and IgG is detectable at 6-9 days post inoculation with low or medium virulent ASF isolates (Sánchez-Vizcaíno, 2006).
Humoral and cell-mediated immunity does not seem to be affected in pigs infected with ASF virus.
List of Symptoms/SignsTop of page
|Cardiovascular Signs / Increased strength of pulse||Pigs|All Stages||Sign|
|Cardiovascular Signs / Tachycardia, rapid pulse, high heart rate||Pigs|All Stages||Sign|
|Digestive Signs / Anorexia, loss or decreased appetite, not nursing, off feed||Pigs|All Stages||Sign|
|Digestive Signs / Bloody stools, faeces, haematochezia||Sign|
|Digestive Signs / Dark colour stools, faeces||Pigs|All Stages||Sign|
|Digestive Signs / Decreased amount of stools, absent faeces, constipation||Sign|
|Digestive Signs / Diarrhoea||Pigs|All Stages||Sign|
|Digestive Signs / Hepatosplenomegaly, splenomegaly, hepatomegaly||Pigs|All Stages||Diagnosis|
|Digestive Signs / Melena or occult blood in faeces, stools||Sign|
|Digestive Signs / Mucous, mucoid stools, faeces||Sign|
|Digestive Signs / Vomiting or regurgitation, emesis||Pigs|All Stages||Sign|
|General Signs / Abnormal proprioceptive positioning, knuckling||Sign|
|General Signs / Ataxia, incoordination, staggering, falling||Pigs|All Stages||Sign|
|General Signs / Cyanosis, blue skin or membranes||Pigs|All Stages||Diagnosis|
|General Signs / Dehydration||Pigs|All Stages||Sign|
|General Signs / Dysmetria, hypermetria, hypometria||Sign|
|General Signs / Fever, pyrexia, hyperthermia||Pigs|All Stages||Sign|
|General Signs / Forelimb swelling, mass in fore leg joint and / or non-joint area||Pigs|All Stages||Sign|
|General Signs / Generalized weakness, paresis, paralysis||Sign|
|General Signs / Haemorrhage of any body part or clotting failure, bleeding||Sign|
|General Signs / Icterus, jaundice||Sign|
|General Signs / Inability to stand, downer, prostration||Pigs|All Stages||Sign|
|General Signs / Lack of growth or weight gain, retarded, stunted growth||Pigs|All Stages||Sign|
|General Signs / Lymphadenopathy, swelling, mass or enlarged lymph nodes||Pigs|All Stages||Diagnosis|
|General Signs / Pale mucous membranes or skin, anemia||Sign|
|General Signs / Paraparesis, weakness, paralysis both hind limbs||Sign|
|General Signs / Petechiae or ecchymoses, bruises, ecchymosis||Pigs|All Stages||Diagnosis|
|General Signs / Reluctant to move, refusal to move||Pigs|All Stages||Sign|
|General Signs / Sudden death, found dead||Pigs|All Stages||Sign|
|General Signs / Underweight, poor condition, thin, emaciated, unthriftiness, ill thrift||Sign|
|General Signs / Weight loss||Pigs|All Stages||Sign|
|Nervous Signs / Dullness, depression, lethargy, depressed, lethargic, listless||Sign|
|Nervous Signs / Seizures or syncope, convulsions, fits, collapse||Sign|
|Nervous Signs / Tremor||Pigs|All Stages||Sign|
|Ophthalmology Signs / Blindness||Sign|
|Ophthalmology Signs / Chemosis, conjunctival, scleral edema, swelling||Sign|
|Ophthalmology Signs / Conjunctival, scleral, injection, abnormal vasculature||Sign|
|Ophthalmology Signs / Conjunctival, scleral, redness||Sign|
|Ophthalmology Signs / Corneal edema, opacity||Pigs|All Stages||Sign|
|Ophthalmology Signs / Lacrimation, tearing, serous ocular discharge, watery eyes||Pigs|All Stages||Sign|
|Ophthalmology Signs / Purulent discharge from eye||Pigs|All Stages||Sign|
|Pain / Discomfort Signs / Skin pain||Sign|
|Reproductive Signs / Abortion or weak newborns, stillbirth||Pigs|All Stages||Sign|
|Respiratory Signs / Abnormal lung or pleural sounds, rales, crackles, wheezes, friction rubs||Pigs|All Stages||Sign|
|Respiratory Signs / Coughing, coughs||Sign|
|Respiratory Signs / Dyspnea, difficult, open mouth breathing, grunt, gasping||Pigs|All Stages||Sign|
|Respiratory Signs / Epistaxis, nosebleed, nasal haemorrhage, bleeding||Pigs|All Stages||Sign|
|Respiratory Signs / Increased respiratory rate, polypnea, tachypnea, hyperpnea||Sign|
|Respiratory Signs / Mucoid nasal discharge, serous, watery||Pigs|All Stages||Sign|
|Respiratory Signs / Nasal mucosal ulcers, vesicles, erosions, cuts, tears, papules, pustules||Pigs|All Stages||Sign|
|Respiratory Signs / Purulent nasal discharge||Sign|
|Skin / Integumentary Signs / Skin erythema, inflammation, redness||Pigs|All Stages||Diagnosis|
|Skin / Integumentary Signs / Skin ulcer, erosion, excoriation||Pigs|All Stages||Sign|
|Urinary Signs / Haematuria, blood in urine||Pigs|All Stages||Sign|
Disease CourseTop of page
ASF virus normally infects the pig through the oral or nasal passages, but infection may also occur by cutaneous scarification or by intramuscular, subcutaneous, intraperitoneal or intravenous injections and by the bite of an infected tick (Colgrove et al., 1969; Plowright et al., 1969; McVicar, 1984). Primary virus replication begins in monocytes and macrophages of the lymph nodes near the site of infection; in oral infection, replication starts in the tonsils and mandibular lymph nodes. After initial replication the virus spreads through the blood (associated with the erythrocyte cell membrane) and/or lymphatic vessels to reach the target organs, where secondary replication takes place. The organs most usually affected are the lymph nodes, bone marrow, spleen, kidney, lungs and liver.
The incubation periods of natural or experimental infection vary widely depending on the virus isolate, route of infection and quantity of virus inoculated. This period will vary in natural infections between 4-8 days for the shortest incubation period and 15-19 days for the longest. In experimental infections, the incubation period is usually shorter than in natural infections, varying from 2 to 5 days.
Viremia in ASF infection generally starts 6-8 days post-infection, and due to a shortage of neutralizing antibodies may remain for a long time, even several months. Antibodies are detectable in sera and tissue exudates 7-10 days post-infection. In sera, they may be present for long periods, sometimes for more than a year post-infection.
EpidemiologyTop of page
The ASF virus is found only in wild and domestic pigs and a number of soft ticks, mainly Ornithodoros moubata in Africa (Plowright et al., 1970) and Ornithodoros erraticus in the Iberian peninsula (Sanchez Botija, 1963). Ornithodoros corinaceus, a tick indigenous to the USA, has also been found to harbour and transmit ASF virus in experimental settings (Groocock et al., 1980), as has Ornithodoros savignyi which is present in Africa (Mellor and Wilkinson, 1985).
Some epidemiological differences have been observed between the transmission of ASF virus in Africa and Europe. In East and South Africa, ASF virus usually induces a non-apparent infection in three wild boar species: warthog (Phacochoerus aethiopicus), giant forest hog (Hylochoerus meinertzhageni) and bushpig (Potamochoerus porcus). Infection is characterised by low levels of virus in the tissues and low or undetectable levels of viremia. In the case of P. porcus, viremia has been observed between 35 and 91 days following infection and the virus can persist in lymphatic tissues for 34 weeks (Anderson et al., 1998). Viral infection normally moves from these animals to domestic pigs through a biological vector, Ornithodoros moubata, and not by direct transmission. In East and South Africa, ASF virus infection is maintained by a cycle of infection between wild boars and ticks, and only when domestic pigs are present is disease observed. In contrast, the European reservoir hosts is the wild boar (Sus scrofa), which is susceptible to ASF infection, exhibiting clinical symptoms and mortality similar to those observed in domestic pigs (Contini et al., 1982; Sanchez Botija, 1982). Similar results were observed in an experimental infection by ASF virus in feral pigs in Florida, USA (McVicar et al., 1981). Direct transmission by contact between sick and healthy animal is the most common mode of transmission, but in Europe indirect transmission by biological vectors, such as Ornithodoros erraticus, has been described in the Iberian Peninsula, especially in outdoor-reared pigs (Arias and Sánchez-Vizcaíno, 2002).
ASF virus infections in the African vector Ornithodoros moubata are transmitted by transovarial and transtadial routes, whilst only transtadial transmission has been observed in the European vector Ornithodoros erraticus.
Impact: EconomicTop of page
ASF has potential for rapid spread, producing serious socioeconomic consequences (OIE, 1999). As there is no vaccine or treatment available for ASF, the identification and slaughter of sick and carrier animals is crucial to the control of the disease. The last five years (1985-1990) of the ASF Spanish eradication programme cost approximately US $92 million.
The spread of ASF within East and Southeast Asia since August 2018 has resulted in the death and culling of millions of pigs. The disease poses a serious threat to the livelihood and food security of large numbers of people relying on the production and processing of pigs. Pig meat accounts for almost half of the meat quantity produced in the sub-region and is a key source of animal protein and income. The disease has had a significant impact on global markets, with prices of pig meat rising rapidly between February and May 2019 (FAO, 2019).
Disease TreatmentTop of page
No effective treatment or vaccine against ASF virus is yet available. Live-attenuated vaccines that have been widely used experimentally, protect some animals against challenge infection with a homologous virus, but not with a heterologous one and most of them become carriers with ASF virus in several lymph nodes. Inactivated vaccine or viral protein vaccine does not appear to induce any protection. The role that some ASF virus genes may play in the modulation of protection is already being researched. These studies are opening new opportunities for the production of an ASF virus vaccine, but until now the only treatment for ASF is eradication, based on the control of animal transport and vectors as well as the early detection and slaughter of infected and carrier animals.
Prevention and ControlTop of page
As no vaccine for ASF is available, the control of this disease is based on rapid laboratory diagnosis and the enforcement of strict sanitary measures. Depending on the epidemiological status of disease in a particular region, different measures are recommended.
Epizootiological studies have shown that the most frequent source of ASF contamination in infection-free countries is refuse from international airports or ports. All leftover food from aeroplanes and ships should be routinely incinerated or efficiently sterilised. Import policy for animals and animal products should consider the disease status of the exporting nation. In infected European areas such as Sardinia (Italy) where the disease is enzootic and where mild or non-apparent clinical signs can be observed, the most important aspects of ASF prevention are the control of animal movement and the use of extensive serological surveys to detect carrier pigs. In endemic areas of Africa, the most important factor is to control the natural tick vectors and wild pig reservoirs, and/or limit their contact with domestic pigs.
During disease outbreaks, the rapid and efficient slaughtering of all pigs and the proper disposal of carcases and all waste material is critical. Other important aspects to consider are the cleaning and disinfecting of affected farms, designation of the infected area and increased control of animal movements. Serological surveys should be undertaken in the surrounding area. In the presence of any suspicious haemorrhagic pig disease, a differential laboratory diagnosis should be undertaken; as low virulence ASF strains do not produce significant lesions.
ReferencesTop of page
African Union-Interafrican Bureau for Animal Resources, 2011. Panafrican Animal Health Yearbook 2011. Pan African Animal Health Yearbook, 2011:xiii + 90 pp. http://www.au-ibar.org/index.php?option=com_flexicontent&view=items&cid=71&id=109&Itemid=56&lang=en
Agüero M, Fernández J, Romero L, Sánchez Mascaraque C, Arias M, Sánchez-Vizcaíno JM, 2003. Highly sensitive PCR assay for routine diagnosis of African swine fever virus in clinical samples. Journal of Clinical Microbiology, 41(9):4431-4434
Agüero M, Fernández J, Romero LJ, Zamora MJ, Sánchez C, Belák S, Arias M, Sánchez-Vizcaíno JM, 2004. A highly sensitive and specific gel-based multiplex RT-PCR assay for the simultaneous and differential diagnosis of African swine fever and Classical swine fever in clinical samples. Veterinary Research, 35(5):551-563
Alcaraz C, Alvarez A, Escribano JM, 1992. Flow cytometric analysis of African swine fever virus-induced plasma membrane proteins and their humoral immune response in infected pigs. Virology (New York), 189(1):266-273; 42 ref
Anderson EC, Hutchings GH, Mukarati N, Wilkinson PJ, 1998. African swine fever virus infection of the bushpig (Potamochoerus porcus) and its significance in the epidemiology of the disease. Veterinary Microbiology, 62(1):1-15; 21 ref
Arias M, Sanchez-Vizcaino JM, 1992. Manual de diagnóstico serológico de la Peste porcina africana. Monografias INIA, 83:5-44
Arias, M., Jurado, C., Gallardo, C., Fernández-Pinero, J., Sánchez-Vizcaíno, J. M., 2018. Gaps in African swine fever: analysis and priorities. Transboundary and Emerging Diseases, 65(s1), 235-247. https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1111/tbed.12695
Beltran-Alcrudo D, Lubroth J, Depner K, Rocque Sde la, 2008. African swine fever in the Caucasus. EMPRES Watch, 2008(April):8 pp
Bool P, Ordas A, Sanchez Botija C, 1969. The diagnosis of African swine fever by immunofluorescence. Bull. Off. Int. Epizoot., 72:819-839
Breese S, De Boer CJ, 1966. Electron microscope observation of Africa swine fever virus in tissue culture cells. Virology, 28:420-428
Carrasco L, Chacon M, Lara J, Martin J, Gomez J, Hervas J, Wilkinson P, Sierra M, 1996. Virus association with lymphocytes in acute African swine fever. Veterinary Research, 27:305-312
Colgrove G, Haelterman EO, Coggins L, 1969. Pathogenesis of African swine fever virus in young pigs. Am. J. Vet. Res., 30:1343-1359
Contini A, Cossu P, Rutili D, Firinu A, 1982. African swine fever in Sardinia. In: Wilkinson PJ, ed. African swine fever, EUR 8466 EN, Pro. CEC/FAO Research seminar, Sardinia, September, 1981, 1-6
De Boer CV, 1967. Studies to determine neutralizing antibody in sera from animals recovered from Africa swine fever and laboratory animals inoculated with Africa swine fever virus with adjuvants. Arch Gesamte Virusforsch, 20:164-179
FAO, 2019. GIEWS Update. East and Southeast Asia - African Swine Fever is rapidly spreading in East and Southeast Asia threatening food security and livelihoods of households relying on pig farming, 2 July 2019. Rome, Italy: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations.http://www.fao.org/3/ca5273en/ca5273en.pdf
Gallardo, C., Fernández-Pinero, J., Pelayo, V., Gazaev, I., Markowska-Daniel, I., Pridotkas, G., Nieto, R., Fernández-Pacheco, P., Bokhan, S., Nevolko, O., Drozhzhe, Z., Pérez, C., Soler, A., Kolvasov, D., Arias, M., 2014. Genetic variation among African swine fever genotype II viruses, eastern and Central Europe. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 20(9), 1544-1547. http://wwwnc.cdc.gov/eid/article/20/9/pdfs/14-0554.pdf
Garigliany, M., Desmecht, D., Tignon, M., Cassart, D., Lesenfant, C., Paternostre, J., Volpe, R., Cay, A. B., Berg, T. van den, Linden, A., 2019. Phylogeographic analysis of African swine fever virus, Western Europe, 2018. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 25(1), 184-186. https://wwwnc.cdc.gov/eid/content/25/1/pdfs/v25-n1.pdf doi: 10.3201/eid2501.181535
Goller, K. V., Malogolovkin, A. S., Katorkin, S., Kolbasov, D., Titov, I., Höper, D., Beer, M., Keil, G. M., Portugal, R., Blome, S., 2015. Tandem repeat insertion in African swine fever virus, Russia, 2012. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 21(4), 731-732. http://wwwnc.cdc.gov/eid/article/21/4/pdfs/14-1792.pdf doi: 10.3201/eid2104.141792
Gomez-Villamandos J, Bautista M, Hervas J, Carrasco J, Cahcon F, Perez J, Sierra M, 1996. Subcellular changes in platelets in acute and subacute African swine fever. J. Comp. Pathol., 59:146-151
Gomez-Villamandos J, Hervas J, Mendez A, Carrasco L, Villeda C, Wilkinson P, Sierra M, 1995. Experimental African swine fever: apoptosis of lymphocytes and virus replication in other cells. J. Gen. Virol., 76:2399-2405
Groocock CM, Hess W, Gladney G, 1980. Experimental transmission of African swine fever virus by Ornithodoros coriaceus, an argasid tick indigenous to United States. Am. J. Vet. Res., 41:591-594
Hess WL, Cox BF, Heuschele WP, Stone SS, 1965. Propagation and modification of African swine fever virus in cell cultures. Am. J. Vet. Res., 26:141-146
Jurado, C., Martínez-Avilés, M., Torre, A. de la, Štukelj, M., Ferreira, H. C. de C., Cerioli, M., Sánchez-Vizcaíno, J. M., Bellini, S., 2018. Relevant measures to prevent the spread of African swine fever in the European Union domestic pig sector. Frontiers in Veterinary Science, 5(April), 77. https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fvets.2018.00077/full doi: 10.3389/fvets.2018.00077
King DP, Reid SM, Hutchings GH, Grierson SS, Wilkinson PJ, Dixon LK, Bastos ADS, Drew TW, 2003. Development of a TaqMan® PCR assay with internal amplification control for the detection of African swine fever virus. Journal of Virological Methods, 107(1):53-61
Le, V.P. , Jeong, D.G. , Yoon, S.W. , Kwon, H.M., Trinh, T.B.N., Nguyen, T.L., Bui, T.T.N., Oh, J., Kim, J.B., Cheong, K.M., Van Tuyen, N., Bae, E., Vu, T.T.H., Yeom, M., Na, W., Song, D. , 2019. Outbreak of African Swine Fever, Vietnam, 2019. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 25(7), 1433-1435. doi: 10.3201/eid2507.190303
Lubisi BA, Bastos ADS, Dwarka RM, Vosloo W, 2005. Molecular epidemiology of African swine fever in East Africa. Archives of Virology, 150(12):2439-2452. http://springerlink.metapress.com/link.asp?id=100423
Malmquist WA, Hay D, 1960. Hemadsorption and cytophathic effect produced by African swine fever virus in swine bone marrow and buffy coat cultures. Am. J. Vet. Res., 21:104-108
Martin C, Leitao A, 1994. Porcine immuno responses to African swine fever virus infection. Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology, 34:99-106
McKercher PD, Yedloutschnig RJ, Callis JJ, Murphy R, Panina GF, Civardi A, Bugnetti M, Foni E, Laddomada A, Scarano C, Scatozza F, 1987. Survival of viruses in Prosciutto di Parma (Parma ham). Canadian Institute of Food Science and Technology Journal, 20(4):267-272; 13 ref
McVicar JW, Mebus C, Becker HN, Belden RC, Gibbs EP, 1981. Induced African swine fever virus in feral pigs. J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc., 179:441-446
Medbus CA, House C, Gonzalvo FR, Pineda JM, Tapiador J, Pire JJ, Bergada J, Yedloutschnig RJ, Sahu S, Becerra V, Sanchez-Vizcaino JM, 1993. Survival of foot-and-mouth disease, African swine fever, and hog cholera viruses in Spanish Serrano cured hams and Iberian cured hams, shoulders and loins. Food Microbiology, 10(2):133-143; 6 ref
Mínguez I, Rueda A, Domínguez J, Sánchez-Vizcaíno JM, 1988. Double labeling immunohistological study of African swine fever virus-infected spleen and lymph nodes. Veterinary Pathology, 25(3):193-198; 25 ref
Montgomery RE, 1921. On a form of swine fever ocurring in British East Africa (Kenya Colony) J. Comp. Pathol., 34:159-191
Mur, L., Atzeni, M., Martínez-López, B., Feliziani, F., Rolesu, S., Sanchez-Vizcaino, J. M., 2016. Thirty-five-year presence of African swine fever in Sardinia: history, evolution and risk factors for disease maintenance. Transboundary and Emerging Diseases, 63(2), e165-e177. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/tbed.12264/abstract doi: 10.1111/tbed.12264
Murphy F, Fauquet C, Bishop D, Ghabrial S, Harvis A, Martinelli G, Mayo M, Summer M, 1995. Virus taxonomy. Sixth report of the International Committee on taxonomy of viruses. Archives of Virology, Suplement 10
Normile, D. , 2019. African swine fever marches across much of Asia. Science, 364(6441), 617-618. doi: 10.1126/science.364.6441.617
Nurmoja, I., Petrov, A., Breidenstein, C., Zani, L., Forth, J. H., Beer, M., Kristian, M., Viltrop, A., Blome, S., 2017. Biological characterization of African swine fever virus genotype II strains from north-eastern Estonia in European wild boar. Transboundary and Emerging Diseases, 64(6), 2034-2041. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/wol1/doi/10.1111/tbed.12614/abstract doi: 10.1111/tbed.12614
OIE Handistatus, 2002. World Animal Health Publication and Handistatus II (dataset for 2001). Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties
OIE Handistatus, 2003. World Animal Health Publication and Handistatus II (dataset for 2002). Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties
OIE Handistatus, 2004. World Animal Health Publication and Handistatus II (data set for 2003). Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties
OIE Handistatus, 2005. World Animal Health Publication and Handistatus II (data set for 2004). Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties
OIE, 1999. Bulletin - November-December 1999. [International disease statistics]. Bulletin - Office International des Epizooties 1999, No. 6, 112 pp
OIE, 2003. African swine fever in Burkina Faso. Disease Information, 16, No. 35
OIE, 2005. African swine fever in Namibia. Follow-up report No. 1. Disease Information, 18(1)
OIE, 2009. World Animal Health Information Database - Version: 1.4. World Animal Health Information Database. Paris, France: World Organisation for Animal Health. http://www.oie.int
OIE, 2012. World Animal Health Information Database. Version 2. World Animal Health Information Database. Paris, France: World Organisation for Animal Health. http://www.oie.int/wahis_2/public/wahid.php/Wahidhome/Home
OIE, 2019. African swine fever, Indonesia (Immediate notification) . In: OIE World Animal Health Information System. Weekly Disease Information, 32(51) . Paris, France: World Organisation for Animal Health.https://www.oie.int/wahis_2/public/wahid.php/Reviewreport/Review?page_refer=MapFullEventReport&reportid=32482
OIE, 2019. African swine fever, Myanmar (Immediate notification). In: OIE World Animal Health Information System. Weekly Disease Information, 32(33) . Paris, France: World Organisation for Animal Health.https://www.oie.int/wahis_2/public/wahid.php/Reviewreport/Review?page_refer=MapFullEventReport&reportid=31365
OIE, 2019. African swine fever, Philippines (Immediate notification). In: OIE World Animal Health Information System. Weekly Disease Information, 32(37) . Paris, France: World Organisation for Animal Health.https://www.oie.int/wahis_2/public/wahid.php/Reviewreport/Review?page_refer=MapFullEventReport&reportid=31677
OIE, 2020. African swine fever, Germany (Immediate notification). In: OIE World Animal Health Information System. Weekly Disease Information , 33(37) Paris, France: World Organisation for Animal Health.https://www.oie.int/wahis_2/public/wahid.php/Reviewreport/Review?page_refer=MapFullEventReport&reportid=35705
OIE, 2020. African swine fever, Greece, (Immediate notification) . In: OIE World Animal Health Information System. Weekly Disease Information, 33(6) . Paris, France: World Organisation for Animal Health.https://www.oie.int/wahis_2/public/wahid.php/Reviewreport/Review?page_refer=MapFullEventReport&reportid=33221
Olesen, A. S., Lohse, L., Boklund, A., Halasa, T., Belsham, G. J., Rasmussen, T. B., Bøtner, A., 2018. Short time window for transmissibility of African swine fever virus from a contaminated environment. Transboundary and Emerging Diseases, 65(4), 1024-1032. https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/tbed.12837
Olševskis, E., Guberti, V., Seržants, M., Westergaard, J., Gallardo, C., Rodze, I., Depner, K., 2016. African swine fever virus introduction into the EU in 2014: experience of Latvia. Research in Veterinary Science, 105, 28-30. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/00345288 doi: 10.1016/j.rvsc.2016.01.006
Oura CA, Powell PP, Anderson E, Parkhouse RM, 1988. The pathogenesis of African swine fever in the resistant bushpig. J. Gen. Viro., 1439-1443
Pastor MJ, Laviada MD, Sanchez-Vizcaino JM, Escribano JM, 1987. Detection of African swine fever virus antibodies by immunoblotting assay. Can. J. Vet. Res., 53:105-107
Pejsak, Z., Truszczynski, M., Niemczuk, K., Kozak, E., Markowska-Daniel, I., 2014. Epidemiology of African Swine Fever in Poland since the detection of the first case. Polish Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 17(4), 665-672. http://www.uwm.edu.pl/pjvsci/content.html
Plowright W, Parker J, Peirce MA, 1969. The epizootiology of African swine fever in Africa. Vet. Rec., 85:668-674
Plowright W, Perry CT, Peirce MA, 1970. Experimental infection of the Argasid tick, Ornithodoros moubata porcinus, with African swine fever virus. Arch. Ges. Virusforsch, 31:33-50
Rowlands RJ, Michaud V, Heath L, Hutchings G, Oura C, Vosloo W, Dwarka R, Onashvili T, Albina E, Dixon LK, 2008. African swine fever virus isolate, Georgia, 2007. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(12):1870-1874. http://www.cdc.gov/eid
Ruiz Gonzalvo F, Carnero M, Caballero C, 1986. Inhibition of African swine fever infection in the presence of immune sera in vivo and in vitro. Am. J. Vet. Res., 47:1125-1131
Sanchez Botija C, 1963. Reservorios del virus de la Peste Porcina Africana. Investigacion del virus de la PPA en los artropodos mediante la prueba de la hemoadsorcion. Bull. Off. Int. Epizoot., 60:895-899
Sanchez Botija C, 1982. African swine fever. New developments Rev. Sci. Techol. Off. Int. Epizoot., 1:1065-1094
Sanchez Botija C, Ordas A, Gonzalez J, 1970. La inmunofluorescencia indirecta aplicada a la investigacion de anticuerpos de la Peste porcina africana. Su valor para el diagnostico. Bull. Off. Int. Epizoot., 74:397-417
Sanchez-Vizcaino JM, 1986. Africa Swine Fever diagnosis. In: Becker J, ed. African swine fever, Martinus Nijhoff Publishing, Boston, 63-71
Sanchez-Vizcaino JM, 1999. African swine fever. In: Leman AD, Straw BE, Mengeling WL, Dallaire S, Taylor DJ, eds. Diseases of swine. 8th edition. Iowa State University
Sánchez-Vizcaíno JM, 2006. African swine fever. In: Straw BE, Zimmerman JJ, D'Allaire S, Taylor DJ, eds. Diseases of Swine, 9th edition. Ames, Iowa: Blackwell Publishing, 291-298
Sánchez-Vizcaíno JM, Martinez-López B, Martinez-Avilés M, Martins C, Boinas F, Vial L, Michaud V, Jori F, Etter E, Albina E, Roger F, 2009. Scientific Review on African Swine Fever. Report for European Food Safety Authority, 1-141
Sanchez-Vizcaino JM, Tabares E, Salvador E, Ordas A, 1982. Comparative studies of two antigens for the use in the indirect Elisa test for the detection of ASF antibodies. In: Wilkinson PJ, ed. African swine fever, EUR 8466 EN Proc CEC/FAO Research seminar, Sardinia, September, 1981, 195-325
Shirai J, Kanno T, Tsuchiya Y, Mitsubayashi S, Seki R, 2000. Effects of chlorine, iodine and quaternary ammonium compound disinfectants on several exotic disease viruses. Journal of Veterinary Medical Science, 62(1):85-92
Sogo JM, Almendral JM, Talavera A, Vinuela E, 1984. Terminal and internal inverted repetitions in African swine fever virus DNA. Virology, 133(2):271-275; 14 ref
Štukelj, M., Plut, J., 2018. A review of African swine fever - disease that is now a big concern in Europe. Contemporary Agriculture, (No.2), 110-118. https://content.sciendo.com/view/journals/contagri/contagri-overview.xml
Tabares E, Marcotegui MA, Fernandez M, Sanchez Botija C, 1980. Proteins specified by African swine fever virus I. Analysis of viral structural proteins and antigenic properties. Arch. Virol., 66:107-117
Wilkinson PJ, Wardley RC, 1978. The replication of ASFV in pig endothelial cells. Br. Vet. J., 134:280-282
Yañez R, Rodriguez J, Nogal L, Enriquez C, Rodriguez J, Viñuela E, 1995. Analysis of the complete nucleotide sequence of Africa swine fever virus. Virology, 208:249-278
CABI, Undated. Compendium record. Wallingford, UK: CABI
CABI, Undated a. CABI Compendium: Status as determined by CABI editor. Wallingford, UK: CABI
Contini A, Cossu P, Rutili D, Firinu A, 1982. African swine fever in Sardinia. In: African swine fever, [ed. by Wilkinson PJ]. 1-6.
Gallardo C, Fernández-Pinero J, Pelayo V, Gazaev I, Markowska-Daniel I, Pridotkas G, Nieto R, Fernández-Pacheco P, Bokhan S, Nevolko O, Drozhzhe Z, Pérez C, Soler A, Kolvasov D, Arias M, 2014. Genetic variation among African swine fever genotype II viruses, eastern and Central Europe. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 20 (9), 1544-1547. http://wwwnc.cdc.gov/eid/article/20/9/pdfs/14-0554.pdf
Garigliany M, Desmecht D, Tignon M, Cassart D, Lesenfant C, Paternostre J, Volpe R, Cay A B, Berg T van den, Linden A, 2019. Phylogeographic analysis of African swine fever virus, Western Europe, 2018. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 25 (1), 184-186. DOI:10.3201/eid2501.181535
Goller K V, Malogolovkin A S, Katorkin S, Kolbasov D, Titov I, Höper D, Beer M, Keil G M, Portugal R, Blome S, 2015. Tandem repeat insertion in African swine fever virus, Russia, 2012. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 21 (4), 731-732. http://wwwnc.cdc.gov/eid/article/21/4/pdfs/14-1792.pdf DOI:10.3201/eid2104.141792
Jurado C, Martínez-Avilés M, Torre A de la, Štukelj M, Ferreira H C de C, Cerioli M, Sánchez-Vizcaíno J M, Bellini S, 2018. Relevant measures to prevent the spread of African swine fever in the European Union domestic pig sector. Frontiers in Veterinary Science. 5 (April), 77. https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fvets.2018.00077/full DOI:10.3389/fvets.2018.00077
Le VP, Jeong DG, Yoon SW, Kwon HM, Trinh TBN, Nguyen TL, Bui TTN, Oh J, Kim JB, Cheong KM, Van Tuyen N, Bae E, Vu TTH, Yeom M, Na W, Song D, 2019. Outbreak of African Swine Fever, Vietnam, 2019. In: Emerging Infectious Diseases, 25 (7) 1433-1435. DOI:10.3201/eid2507.190303
Montgomery RE, 1921. On a form of swine fever ocurring in British East Africa (Kenya Colony). In: J. Comp. Pathol. 34 159-191.
Nurmoja I, Petrov A, Breidenstein C, Zani L, Forth J H, Beer M, Kristian M, Viltrop A, Blome S, 2017. Biological characterization of African swine fever virus genotype II strains from north-eastern Estonia in European wild boar. Transboundary and Emerging Diseases. 64 (6), 2034-2041. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/wol1/doi/10.1111/tbed.12614/abstract DOI:10.1111/tbed.12614
OIE Handistatus, 2005. World Animal Health Publication and Handistatus II (dataset for 2004)., Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties.
OIE, 1999. Bulletin - November-December 1999. [International disease statistics]. In: Bulletin - Office International des Epizooties 1999, 112 pp.
OIE, 2009. World Animal Health Information Database - Version: 1.4., Paris, France: World Organisation for Animal Health. https://www.oie.int/
OIE, 2012. World Animal Health Information Database. Version 2., Paris, France: World Organisation for Animal Health. https://www.oie.int/wahis_2/public/wahid.php/Wahidhome/Home
OIE, 2019. African swine fever, Indonesia (Immediate notification). Paris, France: World Organisation for Animal Health. https://www.oie.int/wahis_2/public/wahid.php/Reviewreport/Review?page_refer=MapFullEventReport&reportid=32482
OIE, 2019a. African swine fever, Myanmar (Immediate notification). Paris, France: World Organisation for Animal Health. https://www.oie.int/wahis_2/public/wahid.php/Reviewreport/Review?page_refer=MapFullEventReport&reportid=31365
OIE, 2019b. African swine fever, Philippines (Immediate notification). Paris, France: World Organisation for Animal Health. https://www.oie.int/wahis_2/public/wahid.php/Reviewreport/Review?page_refer=MapFullEventReport&reportid=31677
Olesen A S, Lohse L, Boklund A, Halasa T, Belsham G J, Rasmussen T B, Bøtner A, 2018. Short time window for transmissibility of African swine fever virus from a contaminated environment. Transboundary and Emerging Diseases. 65 (4), 1024-1032. https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/tbed.12837
Pejsak Z, Truszczyński M, Niemczuk K, Kozak E, Markowska-Daniel I, 2014. Epidemiology of African Swine Fever in Poland since the detection of the first case. Polish Journal of Veterinary Sciences. 17 (4), 665-672. http://www.uwm.edu.pl/pjvsci/content.html
Distribution MapsTop of page
Select a dataset
CABI Summary Records
Unsupported Web Browser:
One or more of the features that are needed to show you the maps functionality are not available in the web browser that you are using.
Please consider upgrading your browser to the latest version or installing a new browser.
More information about modern web browsers can be found at http://browsehappy.com/