Invasive Species Compendium

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Datasheet

Bauhinia monandra
(Napoleon's plume)

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Datasheet

Bauhinia monandra (Napoleon's plume)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 08 February 2019
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Bauhinia monandra
  • Preferred Common Name
  • Napoleon's plume
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Plantae
  •     Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •       Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •         Class: Dicotyledonae
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • Many species in the genus Bauhinia have been actively introduced as ornamentals in many tropical and subtropical regions of the world (

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Bauhinia monandra (Napoleon's plume); habit, flowering and seeding tree. Paani Mai Park Hana, Maui, Hawaii, USA. June 2009.
TitleHabit
CaptionBauhinia monandra (Napoleon's plume); habit, flowering and seeding tree. Paani Mai Park Hana, Maui, Hawaii, USA. June 2009.
Copyright©Forest Starr & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Bauhinia monandra (Napoleon's plume); habit, flowering and seeding tree. Paani Mai Park Hana, Maui, Hawaii, USA. June 2009.
HabitBauhinia monandra (Napoleon's plume); habit, flowering and seeding tree. Paani Mai Park Hana, Maui, Hawaii, USA. June 2009.©Forest Starr & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Bauhinia monandra (Napoleon's plume); habit. Kahului, Maui, Hawaii, USA. August 2009.
TitleHabit
CaptionBauhinia monandra (Napoleon's plume); habit. Kahului, Maui, Hawaii, USA. August 2009.
Copyright©Forest Starr & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Bauhinia monandra (Napoleon's plume); habit. Kahului, Maui, Hawaii, USA. August 2009.
HabitBauhinia monandra (Napoleon's plume); habit. Kahului, Maui, Hawaii, USA. August 2009.©Forest Starr & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Bauhinia monandra (Napoleon's plume); leaves, seedpods and flowers. Paani Mai Park Hana, Maui, Hawaii, USA. June 2009.
TitleLeaves
CaptionBauhinia monandra (Napoleon's plume); leaves, seedpods and flowers. Paani Mai Park Hana, Maui, Hawaii, USA. June 2009.
Copyright©Forest Starr & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Bauhinia monandra (Napoleon's plume); leaves, seedpods and flowers. Paani Mai Park Hana, Maui, Hawaii, USA. June 2009.
LeavesBauhinia monandra (Napoleon's plume); leaves, seedpods and flowers. Paani Mai Park Hana, Maui, Hawaii, USA. June 2009.©Forest Starr & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Bauhinia monandra (Napoleon's plume); leaves and stem. Paani Mai Park Hana, Maui, Hawaii, USA. June 2009.
TitleLeaves
CaptionBauhinia monandra (Napoleon's plume); leaves and stem. Paani Mai Park Hana, Maui, Hawaii, USA. June 2009.
Copyright©Forest Starr & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Bauhinia monandra (Napoleon's plume); leaves and stem. Paani Mai Park Hana, Maui, Hawaii, USA. June 2009.
LeavesBauhinia monandra (Napoleon's plume); leaves and stem. Paani Mai Park Hana, Maui, Hawaii, USA. June 2009.©Forest Starr & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Bauhinia monandra (Napoleon's plume); flowers and foliage. Launiupoko, Maui, Hawaii, USA. July 2009.
TitleFlowers
CaptionBauhinia monandra (Napoleon's plume); flowers and foliage. Launiupoko, Maui, Hawaii, USA. July 2009.
Copyright©Forest Starr & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Bauhinia monandra (Napoleon's plume); flowers and foliage. Launiupoko, Maui, Hawaii, USA. July 2009.
FlowersBauhinia monandra (Napoleon's plume); flowers and foliage. Launiupoko, Maui, Hawaii, USA. July 2009.©Forest Starr & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Bauhinia monandra (Napoleon's plume); close view of flowers. Launiupoko, Maui, Hawaii, USA. July 2009.
TitleFlowerS
CaptionBauhinia monandra (Napoleon's plume); close view of flowers. Launiupoko, Maui, Hawaii, USA. July 2009.
Copyright©Forest Starr & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Bauhinia monandra (Napoleon's plume); close view of flowers. Launiupoko, Maui, Hawaii, USA. July 2009.
FlowerSBauhinia monandra (Napoleon's plume); close view of flowers. Launiupoko, Maui, Hawaii, USA. July 2009.©Forest Starr & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Bauhinia monandra (Napoleon's plume); mature seedpods and leaves. Paani Mai Park Hana, Maui, Hawaii, USA. June 2009.
TitleSeedpods
CaptionBauhinia monandra (Napoleon's plume); mature seedpods and leaves. Paani Mai Park Hana, Maui, Hawaii, USA. June 2009.
Copyright©Forest Starr & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Bauhinia monandra (Napoleon's plume); mature seedpods and leaves. Paani Mai Park Hana, Maui, Hawaii, USA. June 2009.
SeedpodsBauhinia monandra (Napoleon's plume); mature seedpods and leaves. Paani Mai Park Hana, Maui, Hawaii, USA. June 2009.©Forest Starr & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Bauhinia monandra (Napoleon's plume); seedpods and seeds. Paani Mai Park Hana, Maui, Hawaii, USA. July 2009.
TitleSeeds
CaptionBauhinia monandra (Napoleon's plume); seedpods and seeds. Paani Mai Park Hana, Maui, Hawaii, USA. July 2009.
Copyright©Forest Starr & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Bauhinia monandra (Napoleon's plume); seedpods and seeds. Paani Mai Park Hana, Maui, Hawaii, USA. July 2009.
SeedsBauhinia monandra (Napoleon's plume); seedpods and seeds. Paani Mai Park Hana, Maui, Hawaii, USA. July 2009.©Forest Starr & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Bauhinia monandra (Napoleon's plume); seedling. Paani Mai Park Hana, Maui, Hawaii, USA. June 2009.
TitleSeedling
CaptionBauhinia monandra (Napoleon's plume); seedling. Paani Mai Park Hana, Maui, Hawaii, USA. June 2009.
Copyright©Forest Starr & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Bauhinia monandra (Napoleon's plume); seedling. Paani Mai Park Hana, Maui, Hawaii, USA. June 2009.
SeedlingBauhinia monandra (Napoleon's plume); seedling. Paani Mai Park Hana, Maui, Hawaii, USA. June 2009.©Forest Starr & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Bauhinia monandra (Napoleon's plume); habit. Cultivated trees in park, with naturalized trees jumping the fence. Paani Mai Park Hana, Maui, Hawaii, USA. June 2009.
TitleHabit
CaptionBauhinia monandra (Napoleon's plume); habit. Cultivated trees in park, with naturalized trees jumping the fence. Paani Mai Park Hana, Maui, Hawaii, USA. June 2009.
Copyright©Forest Starr & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Bauhinia monandra (Napoleon's plume); habit. Cultivated trees in park, with naturalized trees jumping the fence. Paani Mai Park Hana, Maui, Hawaii, USA. June 2009.
HabitBauhinia monandra (Napoleon's plume); habit. Cultivated trees in park, with naturalized trees jumping the fence. Paani Mai Park Hana, Maui, Hawaii, USA. June 2009.©Forest Starr & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Bauhinia monandra Kurz

Preferred Common Name

  • Napoleon's plume

Other Scientific Names

  • Bauhinia kappleri Sagot
  • Bauhinia krugii Urb.
  • Bauhinia porosa Baill.
  • Bauhinia punctiflora Baker
  • Bauhinia richardiana Voight
  • Caspareopsis monandra (Kurz) Britton & Rose
  • Caspariopsis monandra (Kurz) Britton & Rose

International Common Names

  • English: butterfly flower; Jerusalem date; orchid tree; pink bauhinia; pink butterfly tree; pink orchid tree; St. Thomas tree
  • Spanish: huella de vaca; orquidea de pobre; pata de vaca

Local Common Names

  • Australia: pink orchid-tree
  • Brazil: mororo; pata-de-vaca
  • Cook Islands: ipena; pi; pine; pipi
  • Cuba: casco de mulo
  • Dominican Republic: flamboyan cubano; flamboyan extranjero; flamboyant chino; palo de vaca; semirubia
  • French Polynesia: pine; piné
  • Haiti: caractere des hommes; deux jumelles; flamboyant etranger; jumelle; les deux jumelles
  • Lesser Antilles: Napoleon's cocked hat
  • Madagascar: bagnaka; banaka; banakafotsy
  • Puerto Rico: alas de angel; baujinia; flamboyan blanco; mariposa; seplina; varital
  • Samoa: vae povi
  • Tonga: fehi; napoleone

Summary of Invasiveness

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Many species in the genus Bauhinia have been actively introduced as ornamentals in many tropical and subtropical regions of the world (Connor, 2002). Evidence available shows that B. monandra is able to escape from cultivation and naturalize in disturbed areas such as roadsides, waste ground, urban areas, grasslands and riparian areas (Wagner et al., 1999; Connor, 2002; Kairo et al., 2003; Queensland Department of Primary Industries and Fisheries, 2011; PIER, 2014). Once naturalized this species may become weedy and invasive and has the potential to displace native vegetation. It has also invaded dry forests and arid zones on several Pacific islands such as in French Polynesia, the Cook Islands, Northern Mariana Islands and the Galápagos Islands (PIER, 2014).  

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Plantae
  •         Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •             Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •                 Class: Dicotyledonae
  •                     Order: Fabales
  •                         Family: Fabaceae
  •                             Subfamily: Caesalpinioideae
  •                                 Genus: Bauhinia
  •                                     Species: Bauhinia monandra

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

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Fabaceae is a highly diverse family of flowering plants. This family includes about 745 genera and 19,500 species which can be found throughout the world growing in a great variety of climates and environments (Stevens, 2012). The genus Bauhinia is listed within the Cercideae clade in the Caesalpinoid subfamily, and includes about 250 species distributed mainly in tropical and temperate regions of the world (Stevens, 2012). The genus includes trees, lianas, and shrubs that are frequently planted for their showy flowers and ornamental foliage (Connor, 2002).

Description

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B. monandra is a tree with young lightly pubescent branches. Leaves ovate- orbicular, up to 20 cm long and almost as wide, chartaceous to subcoriaceous, glabrous above, pubescent on veins below, basally cordate to truncate, apically cleft up to 1/3 the length of the leaf, lobes blunt, rounded; petiole lightly pubescent, up to 6 cm. long, with bilobate callus at insertion of the leaf. Inflorescence a terminal few-flowered raceme. Flowers large, showy; sepals fused to form a spathe about 15-20 mm long. Petals about 4-5 cm long, distinctly clawed. Stamen solitary, filament glabrous, about 25-50 mm long. Anther about 5-6 mm long. Staminodes nine. Style about 35 mm long. Fruits are pods slightly inflated, not flat, about 16-24 x 2-2.5 cm. Pods explosively dehiscent, throwing seeds in all directions. Seeds flat, about 10-12 x 7-8 mm, about 10-20 per pod.

Plant Type

Top of page Perennial
Seed propagated
Shrub
Tree
Woody

Distribution

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B. monandra is native to Madagascar (USDA-ARS, 2014). It has been widely cultivated as an ornamental and is now naturalized in Africa, Asia, Australia, North, Central and South America, the West Indies and on islands in the Pacific Ocean (see distribution table for details; ILDIS, 2014; PROTA, 2014; PIER, 2014). 

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasivePlantedReferenceNotes

Asia

BangladeshPresentIntroducedILDIS, 2014
Christmas Island (Indian Ocean)PresentIntroduced Invasive Orchard, 1993
IndiaPresentIntroducedILDIS, 2014
-KarnatakaPresentIntroducedILDIS, 2014
-MaharashtraPresentIntroducedILDIS, 2014
-Tamil NaduPresentIntroducedILDIS, 2014
-West BengalPresentIntroducedILDIS, 2014
IndonesiaPresentIntroducedILDIS, 2014
MalaysiaPresentIntroducedILDIS, 2014
MyanmarPresentIntroduced Natural ILDIS, 2014
PhilippinesPresentIntroducedPIER, 2014
SingaporePresent only in captivity/cultivationIntroducedChong et al., 2009Only in cultivation
Sri LankaPresentIntroducedILDIS, 2014
ThailandPresentIntroducedILDIS, 2014
VietnamPresentIntroducedILDIS, 2014

Africa

AngolaPresentIntroducedILDIS, 2014
BurundiPresentIntroducedILDIS, 2014
CameroonPresentIntroducedPROTA, 2014
Congo Democratic RepublicPresentIntroducedILDIS, 2014
Côte d'IvoirePresentIntroducedILDIS, 2014
EthiopiaPresentIntroducedWitt and Luke, 2017
GhanaPresentIntroducedILDIS, 2014
KenyaPresentIntroducedWitt and Luke, 2017
LiberiaPresentIntroducedILDIS, 2014
MadagascarPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2014
MaliPresentIntroducedILDIS, 2014
MozambiquePresentIntroducedPROTA, 2014
NigeriaPresentIntroducedILDIS, 2014
Rodriguez IslandPresentIntroducedILDIS, 2014
Sierra LeonePresentIntroducedILDIS, 2014
SomaliaPresentIntroducedILDIS, 2014
TanzaniaPresentIntroducedILDIS, 2014
UgandaPresentIntroducedWitt and Luke, 2017
ZambiaPresentIntroducedILDIS, 2014
ZimbabwePresentIntroducedPROTA, 2014

North America

MexicoPresentIntroducedILDIS, 2014
USAPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-FloridaPresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS, 2014
-HawaiiPresentIntroduced Invasive PIER, 2014
-TexasPresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS, 2014

Central America and Caribbean

BarbadosWidespreadIntroducedBroome et al., 2007Potentially invasive
British Virgin IslandsPresentIntroducedAcevedo-Rodriguez and Strong, 2012Guana, Tortola
Cayman IslandsPresentIntroducedAcevedo-Rodriguez and Strong, 2012
Costa RicaPresentIntroducedHoldridge and Poveda, 1975
CubaPresentIntroducedAcevedo-Rodriguez and Strong, 2012
DominicaWidespreadIntroducedBroome et al., 2007Potentially invasive
Dominican RepublicWidespreadIntroduced Invasive Kairo et al., 2003
El SalvadorPresentIntroducedLinares, 2005
GrenadaWidespreadIntroducedBroome et al., 2007Potentially invasive
GuadeloupeWidespreadIntroducedBroome et al., 2007Potentially invasive
HaitiPresentIntroducedAcevedo-Rodriguez and Strong, 2012
HondurasPresentIntroducedTorres-Colín et al., 2009
MartiniqueWidespreadIntroducedBroome et al., 2007Potentially invasive
Netherlands AntillesWidespreadIntroducedBroome et al., 2007Potentially invasive
PanamaPresentIntroducedCorrea et al., 2004Naturalised
Puerto RicoWidespreadIntroducedKairo et al., 2003Potentially invasive
Saint Kitts and NevisWidespreadIntroducedBroome et al., 2007Potentially invasive
Saint LuciaWidespreadIntroducedBroome et al., 2007Potentially invasive
Saint Vincent and the GrenadinesWidespreadIntroducedBroome et al., 2007Potentially invasive

South America

BrazilPresentIntroducedILDIS, 2014
ColombiaPresentIntroducedIdarraga-Piedrahita et al., 2011
EcuadorPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-Galapagos IslandsPresentIntroduced Invasive McMullen, 1999
French GuianaPresentIntroducedILDIS, 2014
VenezuelaPresentIntroducedHokche et al., 2008

Oceania

American SamoaPresentIntroduced Invasive Space and Flynn, 2000
AustraliaPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-QueenslandPresentIntroduced Invasive Queensland Department of Primary Industries and Fisheries, 2011
Cook IslandsPresentIntroduced Invasive McCormack, 2013
FijiPresentIntroducedPIER, 2014Cultivated
French PolynesiaPresentIntroduced Invasive Florence et al., 2013
GuamPresentIntroduced Invasive PIER, 2014
KiribatiPresentIntroducedPIER, 2014Cultivated
Micronesia, Federated states ofPresentIntroducedHerrera et al., 2010
New CaledoniaPresentIntroducedMacKee, 1994
NiuePresentIntroduced Invasive Space et al., 2004
Northern Mariana IslandsPresentIntroduced Invasive PIER, 2014
PalauPresentIntroducedSpace et al., 2009
Papua New GuineaPresentIntroduced Invasive PIER, 2014
SamoaPresentIntroduced Invasive Space and Flynn, 2002
TongaPresentIntroduced Invasive PIER, 2014
Wallis and Futuna IslandsPresentIntroducedPIER, 2014

History of Introduction and Spread

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In the West Indies, B. monandra was probably introduced later in the 1800s to be used as an ornamental. By the early twentieth century it was reported as naturalized in the Dominican Republic (Urban, 1905) and by 1920 it was also listed for Jamaica, Cuba, Puerto Rico, St Kitts, St Vincent, and Guadeloupe (Urban, 1920). 

Risk of Introduction

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The risk of introduction of B. monandra is moderate to high. This species has been actively introduced to be used as an ornamental, hedge plant and for fuelwood (Connor, 2002). Thus, the risk of new introduction as well as the probability of escape from cultivation is high, mainly in disturbed areas where seeds can be dispersed by humans, birds or water flows (Kairo et al., 2003; Queensland Department of Primary Industries and Fisheries, 2011; PIER, 2014). 

Habitat

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B. monandra has been recorded growing in disturbed forests, roadsides, natural thickets, and river-banks in coastal, limestone, and dry forests. It has the potential to grow well on drier and poor sites. It grows in arid lowlands in the Galápagos Islands and in drier sites with relatively poor soils in Australia (McMullen, 1999). It has also been observed to growing along waterways, forest edges and in grasslands (Connor, 2002; Queensland Department of Primary Industries and Fisheries, 2011; PIER, 2014). 

Habitat List

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CategorySub-CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Terrestrial
 
Terrestrial – ManagedDisturbed areas Present, no further details Natural
Disturbed areas Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Rail / roadsides Present, no further details Natural
Rail / roadsides Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Urban / peri-urban areas Present, no further details Natural
Urban / peri-urban areas Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Terrestrial ‑ Natural / Semi-naturalNatural forests Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Natural forests Present, no further details Natural
Natural grasslands Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Natural grasslands Present, no further details Natural
Riverbanks Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Riverbanks Present, no further details Natural
Arid regions Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Arid regions Present, no further details Natural
Littoral
Coastal areas Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Coastal areas Present, no further details Natural

Biology and Ecology

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Genetics

The chromosome number reported for B. monandra is 2n=24 (Gill and Husaini, 1982).

Reproductive Biology

Some species of Bauhinia including B. monandra have large flowers with showy petals, nocturnal anthesis, and nectar produced inside a cylindrical-tubular hypanthium, which are features matching with bat pollination (Banks et al., 2013).

Physiology and Phenology

B. monandra is a fast-growing tree and reaches reproductive maturity in 3 to 4 years (Connor, 2002).

In Australia, B. monandra has been recorded flowering during late spring and summer (from October to January) and fruiting from summer through to spring (from January to October; Queensland Department of Primary Industries and Fisheries, 2011). In the West Indies, it flowers and fruits throughout most of the year (Connor, 2002).

Environmental Requirements

B. monandra can grow in dry and arid areas as well as in poor soils (PIER, 2014). However, it does best in areas that receive about 600 to 2000 mm of rainfall annually and that have moist, well-drained soils with pH ranging from 6.1 to 7.8 (Connor, 2002; PROTA, 2014). It also grows well in completely sunny to partial shaded areas (PIER, 2014).

 

Climate

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ClimateStatusDescriptionRemark
Af - Tropical rainforest climate Tolerated > 60mm precipitation per month
Am - Tropical monsoon climate Preferred Tropical monsoon climate ( < 60mm precipitation driest month but > (100 - [total annual precipitation(mm}/25]))
As - Tropical savanna climate with dry summer Preferred < 60mm precipitation driest month (in summer) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
Aw - Tropical wet and dry savanna climate Preferred < 60mm precipitation driest month (in winter) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
Cs - Warm temperate climate with dry summer Tolerated Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry summers
Cw - Warm temperate climate with dry winter Tolerated Warm temperate climate with dry winter (Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry winters)

Air Temperature

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Parameter Lower limit Upper limit
Absolute minimum temperature (ºC) -1.1
Mean annual temperature (ºC) 17 35

Rainfall

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ParameterLower limitUpper limitDescription
Mean annual rainfall5002000mm; lower/upper limits

Rainfall Regime

Top of page Bimodal
Uniform

Soil Tolerances

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Soil drainage

  • free

Soil reaction

  • neutral

Soil texture

  • light
  • medium

Special soil tolerances

  • infertile

Means of Movement and Dispersal

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B. monandra reproduces by seed. Seeds are spread when they are ingested and expelled by birds and other animals. Seeds can be also dispersed by water, particularly from ornamental plantings located near waterways, and in dumped garden waste (Queensland Department of Primary Industries and Fisheries, 2011).

Pathway Causes

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CauseNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
DisturbanceEscaped from gardens and often naturalised in disturbed areas Yes Yes PIER, 2014
Escape from confinement or garden escapeOften planted as ornamental Yes Yes Connor, 2002
Garden waste disposalSeeds Yes Yes PIER, 2014
Hedges and windbreaksUsed as hedge-plant Yes Yes Connor, 2002
Landscape improvementOften planted as ornamental Yes Yes Connor, 2002
Nursery tradeOften planted as ornamental Yes Yes Connor, 2002

Pathway Vectors

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VectorNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Debris and waste associated with human activitiesSeeds escaped from gardens Yes Yes Connor, 2002
Land vehiclesSeeds Yes Yes Queensland Department of Primary Industries and Fisheries, 2011
MailSeeds Yes Yes
Soil, sand and gravelSeeds Yes Yes Queensland Department of Primary Industries and Fisheries, 2011
WaterSeeds Yes Yes Queensland Department of Primary Industries and Fisheries, 2011

Impact Summary

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CategoryImpact
Economic/livelihood Positive and negative
Environment (generally) Positive and negative
Human health Positive and negative

Environmental Impact

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B. monandra is regarded as an environmental weed in northern Queensland and is included in the Queensland Priority Weed List. In Australia it invades and displaces native vegetation in open woodlands, forests and conservation areas (Queensland Department of Primary Industries and Fisheries, 2011). It also invades dry forests and arid environments on Pacific islands (i.e., Northern Mariana Islands and Galápagos Islands) and it is considered a weed in Guam and Hawaii (McMullen, 1999; PIER, 2014). In the Dominican Republic this species is also listed as invasive (Kairo et al., 2003). 

Risk and Impact Factors

Top of page Invasiveness
  • Proved invasive outside its native range
  • Highly adaptable to different environments
  • Tolerates, or benefits from, cultivation, browsing pressure, mutilation, fire etc
  • Pioneering in disturbed areas
  • Benefits from human association (i.e. it is a human commensal)
  • Long lived
  • Fast growing
  • Has propagules that can remain viable for more than one year
Impact outcomes
  • Altered trophic level
  • Damaged ecosystem services
  • Ecosystem change/ habitat alteration
  • Modification of nutrient regime
  • Modification of successional patterns
  • Monoculture formation
  • Reduced native biodiversity
  • Soil accretion
  • Threat to/ loss of native species
Impact mechanisms
  • Competition - monopolizing resources
  • Competition - shading
  • Competition - smothering
  • Rapid growth
Likelihood of entry/control
  • Highly likely to be transported internationally deliberately

Uses

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B. monandra is often planted for its showy flowers and ornamental foliage; it is also used for fuelwood in Puerto Rico and for fences in Jamaica (Connor, 2002). This species is commonly cultivated as a garden and street tree in the tropical regions of Australia, America, Asia, and the West Indies (USDA-ARS, 2014). Seeds are a useful source of vitamin A. In general, Bauhinia seeds contain high amounts of linoleic and oleic fatty acids and low amounts of myristic and linolenic fatty acids (Connor, 2002). 

Uses List

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Environmental

  • Amenity
  • Boundary, barrier or support

Fuels

  • Fuelwood

General

  • Botanical garden/zoo

Medicinal, pharmaceutical

  • Traditional/folklore

Ornamental

  • Cut flower
  • Potted plant

Similarities to Other Species/Conditions

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B. monandra is very similar to Bauhinia variegata and Bauhinia purpurea. All these species have been listed as naturalized and invasive in many tropical and subtropical countries. These species can be distinguished by the following differences (Queensland Department of Primary Industries and Fisheries, 2011):

  • B. monandra is a small tree with relatively large leaves (up to 20 cm wide). Its flowers are pale pink or whitish with darker pink or reddish-purple markings and have a single fertile stamen.
  • B. variegata is a small tree with relatively large leaves (up to 15 cm wide). Its flowers vary from entirely white to various shades of pink or purple with darker pink or reddish-purple markings and have five fertile stamens.
  • B. purpurea is a small tree with relatively large leaves (up to 20 cm wide). Its flowers vary from pale purple to bright pinkish-purple and have three fertile stamens.

References

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Acevedo-Rodríguez P, Strong MT, 2012. Catalogue of the Seed Plants of the West Indies. Smithsonian Contributions to Botany, 98:1192 pp. Washington DC, USA: Smithsonian Institution. http://botany.si.edu/Antilles/WestIndies/catalog.htm

Banks H, Forest F, Lewis G, 2013. Palynological contribution to the systematics and taxonomy of Bauhinia s.l. (Leguminosae: Cercideae). South African Journal of Botany, 89:219-226. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0254629913003311

Broome R, Sabir K, Carrington S, 2007. Plants of the Eastern Caribbean. Online database. Barbados: University of the West Indies. http://ecflora.cavehill.uwi.edu/index.html

Chong KY, Tan HTW, Corlett RT, 2009. A checklist of the total vascular plant flora of Singapore: native, naturalised and cultivated species., Singapore: Raffles Museum of Biodiversity Research, National University of Singapore, 273 pp

Connor KF, 2002. Bauhinia monandra. In: Tropical tree seed manual (Vol 721) [ed. by Vozzo, J. A.]., USA: US Department of Agriculture, Forest Service

Correa A, Galdames MDC, Stapf MNS, 2004. Catalogue of vascular plants of Panama (Catalogo de Plantas Vasculares de Panama.), Panama: Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute, 599 pp

Florence J, Chevillotte H, Ollier C, Meyer J-Y, 2013. Base de données botaniques Nadeaud de l'Herbier de la Polynésie Française (PAP) (Botanical database of the Nadeaud Herbarium of French Polynesia). http://www.herbier-tahiti.pf

Gill LS, Husaini SW, 1982. Cytology of some arborescent Leguminosae of Nigeria. Silvae Genetica, 31:117-122

Herrera K, Lorence DH, Flynn T, Balick MJ, 2010. Checklist of the vascular plants of Pohnpei with local names and uses. Lawai, Hawaii, USA: National Tropical Botanical Garden, 146 pp

Hokche O, Berry PE, Huber O, 2008. Nuevo Catálogo de la Flora Vascular de Venezuela (New catalogue of the vascular flora of Venezuela). Caracas, Venezuela: Fundación Instituto Botánico de Venezuela, 860 pp

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Links to Websites

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WebsiteURLComment
International Legume Database and Information Servicehttp://www.ildis.org/
PIERhttp://www.hear.org/pier/index.html
PROTA: Plant Resources of Tropical Africahttp://www.prota4u.org/

Contributors

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18/06/14 Original text by:

Julissa Rojas-Sandoval, Department of Botany-Smithsonian NMNH, Washington DC, USA

Pedro Acevedo-Rodríguez, Department of Botany-Smithsonian NMNH, Washington DC, USA

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