Invasive Species Compendium

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Corchorus hirtus
(Orinoco jute)

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Datasheet

Corchorus hirtus (Orinoco jute)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 22 November 2019
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Documented Species
  • Pest
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Corchorus hirtus
  • Preferred Common Name
  • Orinoco jute
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Plantae
  •     Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •       Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •         Class: Dicotyledonae
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • C. hirtus is a herb or subshrub found to be infesting wetlands in Minas Gerias, Brazil due to its high frequency and density (Mascarenhas et al., 199...

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Corchorus hirtus (Orinoco jute); flowEring habit. Parque Olhos D'Água, Brasília, Brasil.  February 2011.
TitleHabit
CaptionCorchorus hirtus (Orinoco jute); flowEring habit. Parque Olhos D'Água, Brasília, Brasil. February 2011.
Copyright©João de Deus Medeiros/via wikipedia - CC BY 2.0
Corchorus hirtus (Orinoco jute); flowEring habit. Parque Olhos D'Água, Brasília, Brasil.  February 2011.
HabitCorchorus hirtus (Orinoco jute); flowEring habit. Parque Olhos D'Água, Brasília, Brasil. February 2011.©João de Deus Medeiros/via wikipedia - CC BY 2.0
Corchorus hirtus (Orinoco jute); flower. Parque Olhos D'Água, Brasília, Brasil.  February 2011.
TitleFlower
CaptionCorchorus hirtus (Orinoco jute); flower. Parque Olhos D'Água, Brasília, Brasil. February 2011.
Copyright©João de Deus Medeiros/via wikipedia - CC BY 2.0
Corchorus hirtus (Orinoco jute); flower. Parque Olhos D'Água, Brasília, Brasil.  February 2011.
FlowerCorchorus hirtus (Orinoco jute); flower. Parque Olhos D'Água, Brasília, Brasil. February 2011.©João de Deus Medeiros/via wikipedia - CC BY 2.0
Corchorus hirtus (Orinoco jute); seedpod. Parque Olhos D'Água, Brasília, Brasil.  February 2011.
TitleSeedpod
CaptionCorchorus hirtus (Orinoco jute); seedpod. Parque Olhos D'Água, Brasília, Brasil. February 2011.
Copyright©João de Deus Medeiros/via wikipedia - CC BY 2.0
Corchorus hirtus (Orinoco jute); seedpod. Parque Olhos D'Água, Brasília, Brasil.  February 2011.
SeedpodCorchorus hirtus (Orinoco jute); seedpod. Parque Olhos D'Água, Brasília, Brasil. February 2011.©João de Deus Medeiros/via wikipedia - CC BY 2.0

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Corchorus hirtus L.

Preferred Common Name

  • Orinoco jute

Other Scientific Names

  • Corchorus biflorus Sessé & Moc
  • Corchorus bullatus J.Jacq
  • Corchorus humilis A. St.-Hil.
  • Corchorus lasiolobus Spreng.
  • Corchorus mompoxensis Kunth
  • Corchorus pilolobus Link
  • Corchorus pilosus Kunth
  • Corchorus tetrangulus Langsd.
  • Corchorus tortipes A. St.-Hil.
  • Corchorus villosissimus A. St.-Hil.
  • Maerlensia hirsuta Vell.
  • Maerlensia hirsuta Vell.
  • Riddellia antiphylla Raf.

International Common Names

  • English: hairy jute; red jute

Local Common Names

  • Colombia: espadilla
  • Cuba: malva té
  • Curaçao: funfun muhé
  • Dominican Republic: escoba; malvaté
  • El Salvador: pearl tea
  • Jamaica: ping wing
  • Lesser Antilles: balai velu; petit balai; petit balai velu
  • Mexico: chichibe
  • Puerto Rico: malvaté

Summary of Invasiveness

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C. hirtus is a herb or subshrub found to be infesting wetlands in Minas Gerias, Brazil due to its high frequency and density (Mascarenhas et al., 1995). In Brazil, it is widely distributed and grows either as a ruderal or as an invading weed infesting pastures. It was listed as a weed in a checklist of invasive plants in forestry plantations in the Lower Amazon (Pires, 1992), but the paper states that the term ‘invasive’ is equated with ‘weed’ defined as any plant growing where it is not wanted, so its status as a true invasive is dubious. It is listed as a weed in several countries by Sinha et al. (2011). It often grows as a weed in grain fields in Central America (Standley and Steyermark, 1949).

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Plantae
  •         Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •             Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •                 Class: Dicotyledonae
  •                     Order: Malvales
  •                         Family: Tiliaceae
  •                             Genus: Corchorus
  •                                 Species: Corchorus hirtus

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

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The primary centre of origin for the genus Corchorus is thought to be Africa, with Australia being identified as a secondary centre (Georgia Botanical Society, 2013). The genus Corchorus belongs to the family Malvaceae and the subfamily Grewioideae, but has previously been included in the plant family Tiliaceae. The 1981 classification system of Cronquist still recognized Tiliaceae as a separate family which included Corchorus, but based on molecular genetic techniques to determine phylogenetic relationships, the Malvaceae was expanded to include the formerly separate families Bombacaceae, Sterculiaceae, and Tiliaceae in the APGII classification system published in 2003.

The Plant List (2013) currently recognizes 77 accepted species names within the genus. Corchorushirtus was described by Carl Linnaeus in 1762. It is considered a validly published name. The botanical epithet is from the Latin hirtus meaning “hairy”.

C. hirtus has numerous synonyms. C. orinocensis is regarded as a separate species by The Plant List (2013), but the Tropicos database of the Missouri Botanical Garden (2016) regards it as a synonym of Corchorus hirtus var. orinocensis (Kunth) K. Schum. C. hirtus has also been used as an illegitimate homonym for Zelkova serrata (USDA-ARS, 2016).

Description

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C. hirtus is an approx. 50 cm high, annual/ perennial herbaceous, erect or spreading plant. The following description is taken from the Flora of North America Editorial Committee (2016):

Stems erect, 5–10(–25) dm, puberulent in lines, hairs retrorse, blunt-tipped. Leaves: petiole 2–20 mm; blade narrowly lanceolate to elliptic-lanceolate, 2–7 cm, base rounded to obtuse, margins crenate-serrate, proximal teeth not prolonged, apex acute, surfaces glabrous or sparsely hirsute-strigose on veins. Inflorescences usually solitary flowers, sometimes fasciculate or cymose, 2–3-flowered. Pedicels 3–4 mm. Flowers: sepals narrowly oblong-lanceolate, 3–5(–7) mm, not awned, hirsute; petals 4–6 mm; stamens 15–25. Capsules cylindric, terete, not wing-angled, 2-valved, distally abruptly constricted to beaklike apex, without awns, (20–)25–45(–60) × 2 mm, sparsely to moderately strigose to strigulose.

Plant Type

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Annual
Herbaceous
Perennial
Shrub

Distribution

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The genus Corchorus is distributed throughout tropical and subtropical regions of the world. C. hirtus is native to Mexico and tropical America, and possibly introduced in the southern states of the USA (Flora of North America Editorial Committee, 2016), although it has also been listed as native here (USDA-ARS, 2016; USDA-NRCS, 2016). It is also recorded in France, parts of Asia and Australia: see Distribution Table for details.

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 10 Jan 2020
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

SudanPresentWeed

Asia

AfghanistanPresentIntroduced
BangladeshPresentIntroduced
IndiaPresentIntroduced
IndonesiaPresentIntroduced
JapanPresentWeed
PakistanPresentIntroduced
PhilippinesPresentIntroduced
ThailandPresentIntroduced
TurkeyPresentIntroduced

Europe

FrancePresentIntroduced

North America

Antigua and BarbudaPresentNative
ArubaPresent
BarbadosPresentNativeOriginal citation: New York Botanical Garden (2016)
Bonaire, Saint Eustatius and Saba
-BonairePresent
Costa RicaPresentNative
CubaPresentNative
CuraçaoPresent
DominicaPresentNative
Dominican RepublicPresentNativeOriginal citation: New York Botanical Garden (2016)
El SalvadorPresent
GuadeloupePresentNativeOriginal citation: New York Botanical Garden (2016)
GuatemalaPresentNative
HaitiPresentNative
HondurasPresent
JamaicaPresentNative
MartiniquePresentNative
MexicoPresentNativeOriginal citation: New York Botanical Garden (2016)
NicaraguaPresent
PanamaPresentNative
Puerto RicoPresentNative
Saint LuciaPresentNative
Saint Vincent and the GrenadinesPresentNative
Trinidad and TobagoPresentNative
U.S. Virgin IslandsPresentNative
United StatesPresentIntroduced
-AlabamaPresentIntroduced
-ArizonaPresentIntroduced
-FloridaPresentNative
-MississippiPresentIntroduced
-TexasPresentIntroduced

Oceania

AustraliaPresentWeed

South America

ArgentinaPresentNative
BoliviaPresentNative
BrazilPresentNative
-AlagoasPresentNative
-AmazonasPresentNative
-BahiaPresentNative
-CearaPresentNative
-Espirito SantoPresentNative
-GoiasPresentNative
-MaranhaoPresentNative
-Mato GrossoPresentNative
-Mato Grosso do SulPresentNative
-Minas GeraisPresentNative
-ParaibaPresent
-ParanaPresentNative
-PernambucoPresentNative
-Rio de JaneiroPresentNative
-Sao PauloPresentNativeOriginal citation: New York Botanical Garden (2016)
-SergipePresentNative
ColombiaPresent
EcuadorPresentNative
-Galapagos IslandsPresent
GuyanaPresentNative
ParaguayPresentNative
PeruPresentNative
SurinamePresent
VenezuelaPresentNativeOriginal citation: New York Botanical Garden (2016)

History of Introduction and Spread

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Attributions of C. hirtus to Alabama have been based on garden-grown plants from Mobile and Tuscaloosa counties, with one collection of naturalized plants from Mobile County (Flora of North America Editorial Committee, 2016). In Mississippi, it is known from collections in 1985 and 1986 from the adjacent counties Issaquena and Sharkey (Flora of North America Editorial Committee, 2016).

Introductions

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Introduced toIntroduced fromYearReasonIntroduced byEstablished in wild throughReferencesNotes
Natural reproductionContinuous restocking
Australia Yes No Sinha et al. (2011)

Habitat

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C. hirtus has been found in habitats including hammock edges, fallow fields, ponds, floodplains, roadsides, ditches, grazed pastures, desert grasslands and the edges of lakes, streams and marshes (Flora of North America Editorial Committee, 2016). It has the ability to colonize very shallow soils (Sinha et al., 2011). Specimens submitted to the New York Botanical Garden (2016) herbarium come from locations including river beds, hillsides, pastures, sand dunes, tropical deciduous forests and rocky campo. Listed in the Flora of Nicaragua (2016) as common in open, disturbed sites.

Hosts/Species Affected

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C. hirtus is one of the weed species present in rice crops in Colombia (Ramírez et al., 2015). It is also found growing with other agricultural crops such as cotton, cassava, maize and beans (Blawid et al., 2013).

Host Plants and Other Plants Affected

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Plant nameFamilyContextReferences
Glycine max (soyabean)FabaceaeOther
    Gossypium (cotton)MalvaceaeOther
      Manihot esculenta (cassava)EuphorbiaceaeOther
        Oryza sativa (rice)PoaceaeMain
          Zea mays (maize)PoaceaeOther

            Biology and Ecology

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            Genetics

            Most Corchorus species are diploids with 2n = 14, while wild species like, C. cunninghamii, C. hirtus, C. junodii, and C. siliquosus are similar in chromosome structure and are tetraploids (Belay, 2011). C. hirtus has a chromosome number 2n=4x=28 (Sinha et al., 2011; Flora of North American Editorial Committee, 2016).
             
            Physiology and Phenology

            C. hirtus flowers and fruits all year (Axelrod, 2011). The flowers are bright yellow and 1.5 cm wide, and open in the afternoon (Missouri Botanical Garden, 2016).

            Reproductive Biology

            Most Corchorus species can be identified during the reproductive stage using capsule and seed morphology (Belay, 2011). Seed is the main medium of reproduction (Mascarenhas et al., 1995).

            Ideal germination conditions in the laboratory have been found to be 31°C, 12/12 meaning seeds were incubated at 31°C during 12 light hours (Royal Botanical Gardens Kew, 2008).

            Environmental Requirements

            C. hirtus needs a tropical climate to grow but it is also present in some southern states of the USA including Arizona, Alabama and Florida. It is usually found in deciduous tropical forests, semi-deciduous and evergreen tropical forests. It prefers soils that are well drained and mostly calcareous (Mas and Lugo-Torres, 2013).

            Climate

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            ClimateStatusDescriptionRemark
            A - Tropical/Megathermal climate Preferred Average temp. of coolest month > 18°C, > 1500mm precipitation annually
            Af - Tropical rainforest climate Preferred > 60mm precipitation per month
            Am - Tropical monsoon climate Preferred Tropical monsoon climate ( < 60mm precipitation driest month but > (100 - [total annual precipitation(mm}/25]))
            Cf - Warm temperate climate, wet all year Tolerated Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, wet all year

            Latitude/Altitude Ranges

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            Latitude North (°N)Latitude South (°S)Altitude Lower (m)Altitude Upper (m)
            33 27

            Soil Tolerances

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            Soil drainage

            • free

            Soil reaction

            • alkaline

            Special soil tolerances

            • shallow

            Notes on Natural Enemies

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            In Brazil, a new virus known as 'Corchorus mottle virus' (CoMoV) has been reported to be infecting C. hirtus (Blawid et al., 2013).

            Pathway Causes

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            CauseNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
            Crop production Yes Belay, 2011

            Risk and Impact Factors

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            Invasiveness
            • Has a broad native range
            • Abundant in its native range
            • Pioneering in disturbed areas

            Uses

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            Wild Corchorus species can be used in the pulp and paper industry (Sinha et al., 2011). Corchorus spp. are widely used as a raw material in the field of packing, textiles and agriculture. C. hirtus leaves mixed with water are also used for lice treatment on the head in Guyana (Tiwari, 1999).

            Uses List

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            Human food and beverage

            • Beverage base

            Medicinal, pharmaceutical

            • Source of medicine/pharmaceutical

            Prevention and Control

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            Due to the variable regulations around (de)registration of pesticides, your national list of registered pesticides or relevant authority should be consulted to determine which products are legally allowed for use in your country when considering chemical control. Pesticides should always be used in a lawful manner, consistent with the product's label.

            In maize fields, C. hirtus can be controlled by hoeing and intercropping with Mimosa caesalpiniifolia (Sampaio et al., 2015).

            References

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            Acevedo-Rodríguez P, Strong MT, 2012. Catalogue of the Seed Plants of the West Indies. Smithsonian Contributions to Botany, 98:1192 pp. Washington DC, USA: Smithsonian Institution. http://botany.si.edu/Antilles/WestIndies/catalog.htm

            Axelrod F, 2011. A systematic vademecum to the vascular plants of Puerto Rico. Sida Botanical Miscellany, 34:1-428. Fort Worth, TX, Botanical Research Institute of Texas

            Belay SB, 2011. Phylogeny of the Genus Corchorus (Malvaceae S.l.) and Diversity Analyses in Selected Species: Evidence from Morphology, Flow Cytometry, and Molecular Data. Cuvillier, 4-9. https://cuvillier.de/uploads/preview/public_file/514/9783869559247.pdf

            Blawid, R., Fontenele, R. S., Lacorte, C., Ribeiro, S. G., 2013. Molecular and biological characterization of corchorus mottle virus, a new begomovirus from Brazil. Archives of Virology, 158(12), 2603-2609. http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs00705-013-1764-x doi: 10.1007/s00705-013-1764-x

            Catalogue of Life, 2016. Corchorus hirtus in the Catalogue of Life. http://www.catalogueoflife.org/col/details/species/id/498337d1182165d0b930be122babcf71

            Degen R, Mereles F, 1996. Check-List of plants collected in the Chaco Boreal, Paraguay. Rojasiana, 3:1-176

            Dodson CH, Gentry AH, Badillo FMV, 1985. La Flora de Jauneche. Los Ríos, Ecuador: Banco Central del Ecuador

            Dutch Caribbean Biodiversity Explorer, 2016. Dutch Caribbean Biodiversity Explorer. http://biodivexplorer.dcbd.nl/explorer/home

            Flora do Brasil, 2016. Brazilian Flora 2020 in construction. http://reflora.jbrj.gov.br/reflora/listaBrasil/ConsultaPublicaUC/ConsultaPublicaUC.do#CondicaoTaxonCP

            Flora of Nicaragua, 2016. Flora of Nicaragua, Tropicos website. St. Louis, MO, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden. http://tropicos.org/Project/FN

            Flora of North America Editorial Committee, 2016. Flora of North America North of Mexico. St. Louis, Missouri and Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden and Harvard University Herbaria. http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=1

            Georgia Botanical Society, 2013. Red Jute. BotSoc News, 88(2): 1, 4-5 http://www.gabotsoc.org/wordpress/wp-content/uploads/2013/03/march2013.pdf

            Mas EG, Lugo-Torres M de L, 2013. Common Weeds in Puerto Rico & U.S. Virgin Islands. Universidad de Puerto Rico

            Mascarenhas, M. H. T., Laca-Buendia, J. P., Brandão, M., Lara, J. F. R., 1995. Weeds rarely mentioned as infesting wetlands in Minas Gerais, Brazil. (Plantas daninhas raramente mencionadas como infestantes de várzeas em Minas Gerais, Brasil). Daphne, Revista do Herbário PAMG da EPAMIG, 5(1), 72-78.

            Missouri Botanical Garden, 2016. Tropicos database. St. Louis, Missouri, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden. http://www.tropicos.org/

            New York Botanical Garden, 2016. The C.V. Starr Virtual Herbarium. New York, USA: The New York Botanical Garden. http://sweetgum.nybg.org/science/vh/

            Novara LJ, 1992. Flora of the Valle de Lerma. (Flora del Valle de Lerma). Contributions Bot. Salta, Ser. Fl. , 1(9), 1-8.

            Pires MJ, 1992. A checklist of the invasive species of forestry plantations in Lower Amazon, NW. Acta Amazonica, 22(1), 3-15.

            Ramírez JS, Hoyos V, Plaza GT, 2015. Phytosociology of weeds associated with rice crops in the department of Tolima, Colombia. Columbian Agronomy , 33(1), 64-73.

            Royal Botanic Gardens Kew, 2008. Seed Information Database. London, UK: Royal Botanic Gardens Kew

            Sampaio, H. N., L. e Silva, P. S., Monteiro, A. L., Tavella, L. B., Oliveira, V. R. de, 2015. Weed management in maize using hoeing and intercropping with Mimosa caesalpiniifolia. Revista Brasileira de Engenharia Agrícola e Ambiental, 19(5/6), 541-547. http://www.agriambi.com.br/

            Sinha MK, Kar CS, Ramasubraniam T, Kundu A, Mahapatra BS, 2011. Corchorus. In: Kole C, Ed. Wild Crop Relatives: Genomic and Breeding Resources: Industrial Crops. Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media, 183 pp

            Standley, P. C., Steyermark, J. A., 1949. Flora of Guatemala. VI. Fieldiana: Botany, 24(6), 440.

            The Plant List , 2013. The Plant List: a working list of all plant species. Version 1.1. London, UK: Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. http://www.theplantlist.org

            USDA-ARS, 2016. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Online Database. National Germplasm Resources Laboratory, Beltsville, USA. http://www.ars-grin.gov/cgi-bin/npgs/html/tax_search.pl

            USDA-NRCS, 2016. The PLANTS Database. Baton Rouge, USA: National Plant Data Center. http://plants.usda.gov/

            Wunderlin RP, Hansen BF, 2016. Atlas of Florida vascular plants. Tampa, Florida, USA: Institute for Systematic Botany, University of South Florida. http://www.florida.plantatlas.usf.edu/

            Zuloaga FO, Morrone O, Belgrano MJ, 2008. Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares del Cono Sur: (Argentina, Sur de Brasil, Chile, Paraguay y Uruguay) (Catalogue of the vascular plants of the southern cone (Argentina, southern Brazil, Chile, Paraguay and Uruguay)). USA: Missouri Botanical Garden Press, 3348 pp

            Distribution References

            Acevedo-Rodríguez P, Strong M T, 2012. Catalogue of the Seed Plants of the West Indies. Washington, DC, USA: Smithsonian Institution. 1192 pp. http://botany.si.edu/Antilles/WestIndies/catalog.htm

            CABI, Undated. Compendium record. Wallingford, UK: CABI

            Catalogue of Life, 2016. Corchorus hirtus in the Catalogue of Life., http://www.catalogueoflife.org/col/details/species/id/498337d1182165d0b930be122babcf71

            Degen R, Mereles F, 1996. Check-List of plants collected in the Chaco Boreal, Paraguay. In: Rojasiana, 3 1-176.

            Dodson CH, Gentry AH, Badillo FMV, 1985. (La Flora de Jauneche)., Los Ríos, Ecuador: Banco Central del Ecuador.

            Dutch Caribbean Biodiversity Explorer, 2016. Dutch Caribbean Biodiversity Explorer., http://biodivexplorer.dcbd.nl/explorer/home

            Flora do Brasil, 2016. Brazilian flora 2020. In: Brazilian flora 2020. Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: Rio de Janeiro Botanic Garden. http://floradobrasil.jbrj.gov.br

            Flora of Nicaragua, 2016. Flora of Nicaragua. (Flora de Nicaragua.). In: Flora de Nicaragua. St. Louis, Missouri, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden. http://tropicos.org/Project/FN

            Novara LJ, 1992. Flora of the Valle de Lerma. (Flora del Valle de Lerma). In: Contributions Bot. Salta, Ser. Fl. 1 (9) 1-8.

            Sinha MK, Kar CS, Ramasubraniam T, Kundu A, Mahapatra BS, 2011. Corchorus. In: Wild Crop Relatives: Genomic and Breeding Resources: Industrial Crops, [ed. by Kole C]. Springer Science & Business Media. 183 pp.

            Standley P C, Steyermark J A, 1949. Flora of Guatemala. VI. Fieldiana: Botany. 24 (6), 440.

            USDA-ARS, 2016. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Online Database. In: Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Online Database. Beltsville, Maryland, USA: National Germplasm Resources Laboratory. https://npgsweb.ars-grin.gov/gringlobal/taxon/taxonomysimple.aspx

            Wunderlin R P, Hansen B F, Franck A R, Essig F B, 2016. Atlas of Florida vascular plants. In: Atlas of Florida vascular plants. Tampa, USA: University of South Florida. http://www.florida.plantatlas.usf.edu/

            Zuloaga F O, Morrone O, Belgrano M J, 2008. Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares del Cono Sur (Argentina, Sur de Brasil, Chile, Paraguay y Uruguay). Volumen 1: Pteridophyta, Gymnospermae y Monocotyledoneae. [ed. by Zuloaga F O, Morrone O, Belgrano M J]. St. Louis, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden Press. xcvi + 983 pp.

            Contributors

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            05/12/2016 Original text by:

            Shruti  Dube, Department of Botany, Smithsonian NMNH, Washington DC, USA

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