Invasive Species Compendium

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Datasheet

Axonopus compressus
(carpet grass)

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Datasheet

Axonopus compressus (carpet grass)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 20 November 2019
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Pest
  • Natural Enemy
  • Host Plant
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Axonopus compressus
  • Preferred Common Name
  • carpet grass
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Plantae
  •     Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •       Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •         Class: Monocotyledonae

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Foliage and inforescence of A. compressus in Bhutan.
TitleFoliage
CaptionFoliage and inforescence of A. compressus in Bhutan.
Copyright©Chris Parker/Bristol, UK
Foliage and inforescence of A. compressus in Bhutan.
FoliageFoliage and inforescence of A. compressus in Bhutan.©Chris Parker/Bristol, UK
a. ligule, ventral side; b. part of raceme; c1. spikelet, abaxial side, showing G2; c2. ditto, adaxial side, showing L1; d. upper glume (G2), dorsal view (opened); e. lower lemma (L1), dorsal view (opened); f. upper floret; g. upper lemma (L2), ventral view (slightly opened); h. upper palea (P2), ventral view; i. caryopsis, two views.
TitleA. compressus - line drawing
Captiona. ligule, ventral side; b. part of raceme; c1. spikelet, abaxial side, showing G2; c2. ditto, adaxial side, showing L1; d. upper glume (G2), dorsal view (opened); e. lower lemma (L1), dorsal view (opened); f. upper floret; g. upper lemma (L2), ventral view (slightly opened); h. upper palea (P2), ventral view; i. caryopsis, two views.
CopyrightSEAMEO-BIOTROP
a. ligule, ventral side; b. part of raceme; c1. spikelet, abaxial side, showing G2; c2. ditto, adaxial side, showing L1; d. upper glume (G2), dorsal view (opened); e. lower lemma (L1), dorsal view (opened); f. upper floret; g. upper lemma (L2), ventral view (slightly opened); h. upper palea (P2), ventral view; i. caryopsis, two views.
A. compressus - line drawinga. ligule, ventral side; b. part of raceme; c1. spikelet, abaxial side, showing G2; c2. ditto, adaxial side, showing L1; d. upper glume (G2), dorsal view (opened); e. lower lemma (L1), dorsal view (opened); f. upper floret; g. upper lemma (L2), ventral view (slightly opened); h. upper palea (P2), ventral view; i. caryopsis, two views.SEAMEO-BIOTROP
Inflorescences a slender stalk bearing two slender, 1-sided spikes usually 5-10 cm long, usually with a third inserted 1-2 cm below.
TitleInflorescence - line drawing
CaptionInflorescences a slender stalk bearing two slender, 1-sided spikes usually 5-10 cm long, usually with a third inserted 1-2 cm below.
CopyrightNOVARTIS
Inflorescences a slender stalk bearing two slender, 1-sided spikes usually 5-10 cm long, usually with a third inserted 1-2 cm below.
Inflorescence - line drawingInflorescences a slender stalk bearing two slender, 1-sided spikes usually 5-10 cm long, usually with a third inserted 1-2 cm below.NOVARTIS
Spikelets green, elliptical, pointed, flattened, shortly-stalked, 2-3.5 mm x 1-1.25 mm.
TitleSpikelets - line drawing
CaptionSpikelets green, elliptical, pointed, flattened, shortly-stalked, 2-3.5 mm x 1-1.25 mm.
CopyrightNOVARTIS
Spikelets green, elliptical, pointed, flattened, shortly-stalked, 2-3.5 mm x 1-1.25 mm.
Spikelets - line drawingSpikelets green, elliptical, pointed, flattened, shortly-stalked, 2-3.5 mm x 1-1.25 mm.NOVARTIS
Leaf sheath fine, hairy along the outer margin; nodes densely pubescent; ligule very short, fringed with short hairs; leaf blade is lanceolate, flat.
TitleLeaf and ligule - line drawing
CaptionLeaf sheath fine, hairy along the outer margin; nodes densely pubescent; ligule very short, fringed with short hairs; leaf blade is lanceolate, flat.
CopyrightNOVARTIS
Leaf sheath fine, hairy along the outer margin; nodes densely pubescent; ligule very short, fringed with short hairs; leaf blade is lanceolate, flat.
Leaf and ligule - line drawingLeaf sheath fine, hairy along the outer margin; nodes densely pubescent; ligule very short, fringed with short hairs; leaf blade is lanceolate, flat.NOVARTIS

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Axonopus compressus (Swartz) P. Beauv (1812)

Preferred Common Name

  • carpet grass

Other Scientific Names

  • Agrotis compressus (Sw.) Poir. (1810)
  • Anastrophus compressus Schlechtendal ex Doell (1877)
  • Anastrophus platycaulis Schlecht. ex Jacks. (1893)
  • Axonopus brevipedunculatus Gledhill (1966)
  • Axonopus kesantuensis Vanderyst (1925)
  • Digitaria domingensis Desv. ex Kunth (1833)
  • Digitaria platicaulis Desv. (1833)
  • Echinichloa compressa (SW.) Roberty (1955)
  • Helopus barbatus Trin. (1821) Doell (1877)
  • Milium compressum Swartz (1788)
  • Panicum platicaulon (Poir.) O. Ktze. (1898)
  • Panicum raunkiaerii Mez (1917)
  • Paspalum compressum (Sw.) Raspail (1825)
  • Paspalum depressum Steud.
  • Paspalum filostachyum A. Rich. ex. Steud.
  • Paspalum guadeloupense Steud. (1854)
  • Paspalum kisantuense Vanderyst (1918)
  • Paspalum laticulmum Spreng. (1825)
  • Paspalum platicaulon Poiret (1804)
  • Paspalum tristachyon Lamk, (1791)

International Common Names

  • English: broadleaf carpet grass; flat grass; savanna grass; tropical carpet grass
  • Spanish: baracoa; cardo santo; grama
  • French: axonope; herbe gazon

Local Common Names

  • Argentina: pasto chato; pasto jesuita; zucate amargo
  • Bangladesh: shial kata
  • Brazil: capim-cabain; capim-tres-forquilhas; capitinga; grama-argentina; grama-missioneira; grama-sempre-verde; grama-tapete
  • Germany: Teppichrasengras, Breitblättriges
  • Indonesia: djoekoet pahit; djukut pait; roempoet pait; Rumput pahit
  • Malaysia: Rumput parit
  • Philippines: kulape
  • Sri Lanka: potu-tana; sappu pul
  • Thailand: Ya baimaln; ya-help

EPPO code

  • AXOCO (Axonopus compressus)

Taxonomic Tree

Top of page
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Plantae
  •         Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •             Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •                 Class: Monocotyledonae
  •                     Order: Cyperales
  •                         Family: Poaceae
  •                             Genus: Axonopus
  •                                 Species: Axonopus compressus

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

Top of page Axonopus is a genus of about 100 species, of which very few are widespread weeds. Although many other names have been applied to it in the past, the most widespread weedy species is now always known as A. compressus. There can be some confusion between this and the related lawn grass species A. affinis A. Chase (see Similarities to other Species).

Description

Top of page A. compressus has a creeping stem which roots at the nodes. It is a perennial, stoloniferous, short-spreading grass (Manidool, 1992). Culms ascendent, 20-50 cm tall, solid, and laterally compressed. The leaf sheath is fine and hairy along the outer margin; the nodes densely pubescent; ligule very short, fringed with short hairs; the leaf blade is lanceolate, flat, relatively short, 5-15 cm long by 2.5-16 mm wide, base broadly rounded; margin ciliate, apex obtuse.

There are usually 2-4 inflorescences arising from the uppermost leaf axil (Henderson, 1959), the inflorescences are a slender stalk bearing two slender, 1-sided spikes usually 5-10 cm long, usually with a third inserted 1-2 cm below.

Spikelets green, elliptical, pointed, flattened, shortly-stalked, 2-3.5 mm x 1-1.25 mm, pale-green, or purplish tinged, with a sterile lower floret, and a bisexual upper floret, lower empty glume absent, upper empty glume on the face of the spikelet away from the axil of spike, with green veins, lower flowering glume like the upper empty glume, upper flowering glume smooth, pale, very faintly-veined, stigmas white or purplish (Henderson, 1959).

The caryopsis is elliptical, 1.25 mm long, dorsally compressed, yellow-brown (Manidool, 1992).

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 10 Jan 2020
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

NigeriaPresentAdeyemi (1989)

Asia

BruneiPresentWaterhouse (1993)
IndiaPresentCABI (Undated)Original citation: Paresh and Misra (1977)
-BiharPresent, LocalizedJha and Varma (1991)
-West BengalPresentCABI (Undated)Original citation: Lana and Khatua (1985)
IndonesiaPresentCABI (Undated a)Present based on regional distribution.
-JavaPresent, WidespreadEndang et al. (1985); Manidool (1992)
-SumatraPresent, WidespreadNanan Kadnan (1979)
JapanPresentCABI (Undated a)Present based on regional distribution.
-KyushuPresentNada (1985)
MalaysiaPresentCABI (Undated a)Present based on regional distribution.
-Peninsular MalaysiaPresent, WidespreadCABI (Undated)Original citation: Henderson (1959, Malaysian Wild Flowers)
-SabahPresent, WidespreadCABI (Undated)Original citation: Henderson (1959, Malaysian Wild Flowers)
-SarawakPresent, WidespreadCABI (Undated)Original citation: Henderson (1959, Malaysian Wild Flowers)
MyanmarPresentWaterhouse (1993)
PhilippinesPresent, WidespreadLubigan and Moody (1987); Waterhouse (1993)
SingaporePresent, WidespreadLeong (1987); Waterhouse (1993); CABI (Undated)
ThailandPresent, WidespreadBoonklinkajorn (1979); Waterhouse (1993)
VietnamPresentWaterhouse (1993)

North America

Costa RicaPresentVargas et al. (1988)
MexicoPresent, WidespreadManidool (1992)
United StatesPresent, WidespreadManidool (1992)
-FloridaPresentTarrant and McCoy (1985)

Oceania

AustraliaPresentSun and Liddle (1993)
Papua New GuineaPresentCABI (Undated)Original citation: Ghouri (1982)
Solomon IslandsPresentWatson (1986)

South America

ArgentinaPresentAl-de et al. (1973)
BrazilPresent, WidespreadManidool (1992)
ColombiaPresentMaldonado and Velasquez (1994)
PeruPresentAlegría et al. (1988)

Habitat

Top of page A. compressus is common on roadsides and in gardens, waste areas and plantations (Henderson, 1959; Manidool, 1992). It is best adapted to moist, warm environments and is moderately shade tolerant, although it grows well in full sunlight. It occurs at altitudes of up to 2300 m in Indonesia. It is one of the most persistent grasses and can withstand trampling. It cannot withstand waterlogged conditions for long periods but grows on a wide range of soils, from sandy to heavy clay loams.

Habitat List

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CategorySub-CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Terrestrial

Hosts/Species Affected

Top of page A. compressus is considered to be a common weed in immature rubber (Tasrif et al., 1991), young oil palm (Barnes and Luz Chan, 1990; Hashim and Teoh, 1992), coffee (Alwa and Roa, 1992), cashew (Adeyemi, 1989), pineapple (Lee, 1976), guava (Somarriba and Somarriba, 1988), citrus (Lubigan and Moody, 1987), pastures (Chen and Othman, 1986), coconut (Smith and Whiteman, 1983), tea (Roa et al. 1981) and on golf courses (Leong, 1987).

Host Plants and Other Plants Affected

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Plant nameFamilyContext
Anacardium occidentale (cashew nut)AnacardiaceaeOther
Ananas comosus (pineapple)BromeliaceaeMain
Camellia sinensis (tea)TheaceaeOther
CitrusRutaceaeOther
Cocos nucifera (coconut)ArecaceaeMain
Coffea (coffee)RubiaceaeOther
Durio zibethinus (durian)BombacaceaeMain
Elaeis guineensis (African oil palm)ArecaceaeMain
Hevea brasiliensis (rubber)EuphorbiaceaeMain
Mangifera indica (mango)AnacardiaceaeMain
pasturesOther
Psidium guajava (guava)MyrtaceaeOther
Theobroma cacao (cocoa)MalvaceaeMain

Biology and Ecology

Top of page A. compressus is a stoloniferous perennial spreading by above-ground runners which root at each node. When planted as a forage or lawn grass, pieces of the stolon with roots can be used as planting material. It may also be spread as a weed by vegetative means. It does, however, reproduce by seed and this means can also be used for turf establishment, at a seed rate of 6 kg/ha (Manidool, 1992). Although A. compressus and Asystasia gangetica are considered common weeds in oil palm and rubber plantations, their seeds were not detected in imported samples of legume cover crop seeds including Calopogonium mucunoides, C. caeruleum, Centrosema pubescens, Mucuna cochinchinensis and Pueraria phaseoloides (Tasrif et al., 1991).

A. compressus seeds had a germination rate of 45% after 2 weeks, 55% after 8 weeks, 65% after 8 weeks, and 65% after 24 weeks, under alternating temperatures of 15°C (16 h) and 35°C (8 h) daily (Lee, 1976). The method of seed germination testing was described by Johnston and Harty (1981).

A. compressus is not a particularly rapid colonizer of abandoned farmlands, and it is usually Imperata cylindrica, Asystasia gangetica and Chromolaena odorata which dominate these areas. In some instances, A. compressus has become the co-dominant species with Euphorbia heterophylla in Kwara State, Nigeria (Afolayan, 1988).

Lee (1976) studied weed succession in pineapple areas on peat for 12 months starting from the time of planting. A. compressus survived in three plots despite competition from pineapple and 15 other weed species. A. compressus competes well in oil palm, rubber and cocoa plantations and is considered a weed on golf courses which have been planted with Bermuda grass (Cynodon dactylon) or Zoysia grass as the sole species.

A. compressus responded poorly to fertilizer application in coconut-growing areas of southern Thailand (Boonklinkajorn, 1979).

The morphology of the weed in relation to simulated trampling was studied by Sun (1992). He subjected A. compressus, Cynodon dactylon, Eragrotis tenuifolia, Hypochoeris radicata, Lolium perenne, Panicum maximum, Sporobolus elongatus and Trifolium repens to trampling. A. compressus and C. dactylon had the highest growth rate which was positively correlated with recovery rate after trampling (Sun, 1992).

In Cuba, A. compressus provided the highest biomass of living plant material above ground (299 g/m²) in savanna communities at the end of the rainy season (Fiala and Herrera, 1988).


Alternative Host

A. compressus is an alternate host of maize streak monogeminivirus (MSV) in Nigeria (Mesfin et al., 1992). Haplaxius sp., a suspected vector of lethal yellowing disease of coconuts, was isolated at the nymph stage from the roots of the weed (Eden, 1978).

Impact

Top of page There is little information on the effect of A. compressus on crops. It has been recorded as a weed of rice in the Philippines (Lubigan and Moody, 1987) and is considered to be a common weed in immature rubber (Tasrif et al., 1991), young oil palm (Barnes and Luz Chan, 1990; Hashim and Teoh, 1992), coffee (Alwa and Roa, 1992), cashew (Adeyemi, 1989), pineapple (Lee, 1976), guava (Somarriba and Somarriba, 1988), citrus (Lubigan and Moody, 1987), pastures (Chen and Othman, 1986), coconut (Smith and Whiteman, 1983), tea (Roa et al. 1981) and on golf courses (Leong, 1987).

A. compressus has been classified as a Class B plant (acceptable/tolerable as ground cover) (Chee, 1993) and is considered acceptable/tolerable as ground cover in the inter-rows of rubber, oil palm and orchards (Lee and Teoh, 1994). However, it is generally considered to be a weed when a dense cover surrounds young crops.

The weed should be controlled in the circles and strips, but it can be allowed to persist in the inter-rows of rubber, oil palm, cocoa, coconut and fruit trees as a natural soft grass cover (Chee, 1993; Lee and Teoh, 1994; SA Lee, MARDI, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, personal communication, 1993).

There is a trend towards using A. compressus as a natural cover crop on hill-slopes where rubber, oil palm, coffee, tea and fruit trees are grown. As a covering mat, it can control erosion and provide some protection against infestation by more noxious weeds. Broughton (1977) was the first to review the status of A. compressus and noted that A. compressus and Paspalum conjugatum had the lowest detrimental effect on fruit yield of oil palm on various soil types.

Uses List

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Animal feed, fodder, forage

  • Forage

Environmental

  • Erosion control or dune stabilization

General

  • Ornamental

Detection and Inspection

Top of page A. compressus can be distinguished by its elliptical seed, 1.25 mm long, dorsally compressed and yellow-brown. The terminal inflorescence, with two rows of alternating spikelets, is also a distinguishing feature.

Similarities to Other Species/Conditions

Top of page A. compressus may be confused with the closely related A. affinis, which has been introduced from South America to a number of countries of Asia and Australasia, also Hawaii. It has often been introduced deliberately, for use as a lawn grass, but it is now classed as a weed in at least nine countries (Holm et al., 1979). It has a similar growth habit and inflorescence but may be distinguished by its glabrous nodes (hairy in A. compressus), narrower leaf blades, rarely over 5 mm wide, and more obtuse spikelets (Bor, 1979).

Prevention and Control

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Due to the variable regulations around (de)registration of pesticides, your national list of registered pesticides or relevant authority should be consulted to determine which products are legally allowed for use in your country when considering chemical control. Pesticides should always be used in a lawful manner, consistent with the product's label.

Cultural Control and Preventative Methods

It is important to exclude dung as a fertilizer supplement in nurseries where crop plants are raised because the seeds of A. compressus are easily disseminated by the dung of cows. The weed should also be controlled before it sets seed.

The traditional hoe is used to control A. compressus in the tropics. Rooted stolons can be quite tenacious and some force is needed to dislodge clumps of the weed from the soil. Because of the ability of the stolons to re-root, care is needed to remove and dispose of the hoed material to prevent re-infestation.

A. compressus is hand-weeded in pineapple-growing areas and the stem fragments are often placed on top of the crop to allow sunlight to desiccate the weed. The tajak, a triangular plate or hoe with a long handle, is still used to dislodge the weed from peat, in which pineapple is mainly grown (Wee and Ng, 1970).

Chemical Control

It is inadvisable to eliminate A. compressus completely in rubber and oil palm because it has minimal effects on growth and yield; it also minimizes soil erosion in undulating and hilly areas (Chee, 1993).

Circles of young crop plants are often sprayed with herbicides to reduce infestation by A. compressus. Herbicides used in rubber include MSMA and DSMA (Wuan et al., 1982), paraquat + diuron (Lam et al., 1993), glyphosate + dicamba (Teng and Teh, 1990), paraquat + diuron (Endang et al., 1985) and glyphosate + picloram (Endang et al., 1985).

Hashim and Teoh (1992) identified eight cost-effective chemical treatments for the control of A. compressus in extensive trials conducted in a 2-year old oil palm plantation in Malaysia; effective treatments included glyphosate with dicamba, or metsulfuron-methyl or fluroxypyr; paraquat mixtures were also cost-effective.

Paraquat + diuron, diuron and dalapon + MSMA were most effective against A. compressus in tea (Roa et al., 1981). In banana, diuron pre-emergence gave effective control of the weed at high rates (Paresh and Misra, 1977).

In pineapple, sensitivity to most of the post-emergence herbicides such as paraquat, glyphosate, dalapon, 2,4-D amine, MSMA and sodium chlorate resulted in their exclusion, but simazine or diuron can be used as pre-emergence herbicides, to be sprayed on clean-weeded soil.

MSMA selectively controlled the weed in Bermuda turf grass (Cynodon dactylon) (Leong, 1987).


Animal Grazing

'Biological lawn mowers' like the banteng have a preference for A. compressus (Sumardja and Katawinata, 1977). Intensive grazing causes the weed to disappear (Jjong and Hung, 1975). Cattle graze on A. compressus in Malaysia (Dahlan et al., 1988) and, recently, sheep have shown potential to control the weed in oil palm and rubber plantations (Velayuthan and Lim, 1986). The feasibility of using sheep instead of chemicals has been investigated by Velayuthan and Lim (1986).

Mechanical Control

A. compressus may be mowed at weekly intervals in circles of citrus, durian, guava, rambutan and mango. Although weekly mowing is only practised by a minority of farmers, it has the advantage of maintaining a green mat on the soil. Hand-held rotary mowers are carried by operators on hill slopes; many annual weeds without subterranean rhizomes or tubers can be controlled in this way.

Integrated Weed Management

The trend is towards integrated management so that agriculture is sustained with minimal side-effects on the agro-ecosystem. A. compressus is hand-weeded or sprayed chemically in the strips of rubber, or circles of oil palm. However, it is purposely retained in the inter-rows to control soil erosion and form a covering mat against weed infestation. In rubber and oil palm plantations, A. compressus is now retained as natural cover in the inter-rows, but is considered a weed when it is found in the circles of young crops.

References

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Adeyemi AA, 1989. Cultural weed control in cashew plantations: use of intercrops to reduce weed incidence in cashew plots. Proceedings: Integrated pest management in tropical and subtropical cropping systems '89, vol. 3, February 8-15 1989, Bad Durkheim, Germany Frankfurt am Main, Germany; DLG Verlag GmbH, 827-842

Afolayan AJ, 1988. Phytosociological investigations of three abandoned farmlands in Oyo, Ondo and Kwara states of Nigeria. Nigerian Journal of Weed Science, 1(2):77-82

Alegria C; Echevarria MG; Garcia M; Valdivia R; Rosemberg M; McDowell LR, 1988. Mineral supplementation and fertility in crossbred zebu heifers fed regional grasses in the Peruvian tropical lowlands. Nutrition Reports, Internat., 37(4):805-810.

Alwar RPA; Roa WK, 1992. Secondary and micro nutrient composition of a few common weeds of coffee plantations. Journal of Coffee Research, 22(2):143-147

Barnes DE; Luz Chan G, 1990. Common weeds of Malaysia and their control. Malaysia: Shah Alam, Ancom.

Boonklinkajorn P, 1979. Herbage production of grasses under coconuts in Southern Thailand. Thai Journal of Agricultural Science, 12(1):13-50.

Bor NL, 1979. The Grasses of Burma, Ceylon, India and Pakistan (excluding Bambuseae). Dehra Dun, India: R. P. S. Galot, International Book Distributors.

Broughton WJ, 1977. Effects of different covers on the performance of oil palm on different soils. In: Earp DA, Newall W, eds. International Developments in Oil Palm. Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia: Incorporated Society of Planters, Taman U Thant, 510-525.

Chee YK, 1993. Weed management in rubber. I. Classification of ground covers. Planters' Bulletin, No. 216:75-79

Chen CP; Othman O, 1986. Effects of stocking rate and grazing management on cattle production from tropical grass Digitaria setivalva Stent. MARDI Research Bulletin, 14(1):69-80; 11 ref.

Dahlan I; Mahyuddin MD; Yamada Y; Liang JB, 1988. Voluntary dry matter intake of grazing cattle in oil palm plantation. Proceedings of the 11th Annual Conference of the Malaysian Society of Animal Production. Malaysia: Department of Veterinary Science, Universiti Pertanian, 133-138.

Eden-Green SJ, 1978. Rearing and transmission techniques for Haplaxius sp. (Hom.: Cixiidae), a suspected vector of lethal yellowing disease of coconuts. Annals of Applied Biology, 89(2):173-176

Endang S; Lumbantong T; Tobing TL, 1985. The use of scout herbicide to control weeds in palm circles and interrow paths in oil palm plantations. Bulletin Pusat Penelitan Marihat, 4(3):76-85.

Fiala K; Herrera R, 1988. Living and dead below ground biomass and its distribution in some savanna communities in Cuba. Folia Geobotanico et Phytotoxonomica, 23(3):225-237.

Ghauri MSK, 1982. A new subspecies of Dimorphopterus cornutus Slater (Hemiptera: Lygpidae) from Papua New Guinea on rice and carpet grass. Bulletin of Entomological Research, 72(1):133-137

Hashim K; Teoh CH, 1992. Evaluation of new herbicides for general weed control in oil palm. The Planter, 68(794):257-269.

Henderson MR; 1959, Malaysian Wild Flowers. Part 1: Monocotyledons. Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia: Caxton Press, 357 pp.

Holm LG; Pancho JV; Herberger JP; Plucknett DL, 1979. A geographical atlas of world weeds. New York, USA: John Wiley and Sons, 391 pp.

Holm LG; Plucknett DL; Pancho JV; Herberger JP, 1977. The World's Worst Weeds. Distribution and Biology. Honolulu, Hawaii, USA: University Press of Hawaii.

Jha RR; Varma SK, 1991. New records of grasses from Bihar, India. Indian Botanical Reporter, 10(1-2):45-46.

Jjong A; Hung AR, 1975. Landbouw proefstation Surinam. Bull. No. 97, 44-48.

Johnston MEH; Harty RL, 1981. Report of the germination committee working group on tropical and sub-tropical seeds 1977 - 1980. Seed Science and Technology, 9(1):137-140.

Lam CH; Lim JK; Jantan B, 1993. Comparative studies of a paraquat mixture and glyphosate and/or its mixtures on weed succession in plantation crops. Planter, 69(812):525-535

Lana SK; Khatua DC, 1984. Axonopus compressus, a grass host for Rhizoctonia solani. International Rice Research Newsletter, 9(1):21

Lee SA, 1976. Weed studies in Pineapple Growing Areas. M. Agric. Sc. Dissertation, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

Lee SA; Teoh CH, 1994. Integrated weed management in malaysia. In: Soetikno SS, Auld B, eds. Appropriate Weed Control in South East Asia. Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia: CAB International, 98-105.

Leong CC, 1987. MSMA for controlling Cyperus kyllingia, Axonopus compressus and Brachiara distachya in tifgreen Bermuda grass turf. Gardens' Bulletin, 40(2):103-112

Lubigan RT; Moody K, 1987. Weeds in shifting cultivation in Quezon Province, Philippines. International Rice Research Newsletter, 12(1):24

Maldonado G; Velasquez JE, 1994. Determination of the stocking capacity and liveweight gain of cattle grazing native grasses in the Amazon Piedmonte, Colombia. Pastures - Tropicales, 16(2):2-8.

Manidool C, 1992. Axonopus compressus in "Plant Resources of South-East Asia. Wageningen, Netherlands: Pudoc Scientific Publishers, 53-54.

Mesfin T; Bosque-Pérez NA; Buddenhagen IW; Thottappilly G; Olojede SO, 1992. Studies on maize streak virus isolates from grass and cereal hosts in Nigeria. Plant Disease, 76(8):789-795; 28 ref.

Nada Y, 1985. Palatability and adaptability of 10 tropical grasses used as grazing pasture in Kyushu. Journal of the Japanese Society of Grassland Science, 30(4):434-440.

Nanan Kadnan, 1979. Study of weed populations in two rubber estates and one oil palm estate. Bulletin Balai Penelitian Perkebunan Medan, 10(2):54, 87-102

Paresh Chandra Das; Misra AK; Effect of herbicides on growth; yield, and quality of banana. Program and Abstracts of Papers, Weed Science Conference and Workshop in India, 1977., Paper No. 91:55

Pina Al-de; Diaz RA; Garbosky AJ; Gianneto R; Rodrigues NF; Sabella LJ, 1973. Geogosphical distribution of crop indexes in the Mesopotamia region of Argentina and its causes. Suelos Public, Centro-de-Investigaciones-de-Recursos Naturales, No. 143.

Rao VS; Kotoky B; Sarmah SN, 1981. Perennial weed control in tea. Proceedings of the Eighth Asian-Pacific Weed Science Society Conference., 295-299

Sharma BM, 1990. Ecological characteristics of some common weeds of Ibadan (south-west Nigeria). Feddes Repertorium, 101(11-12):603-609

Smith MA; Whiteman PC, 1983. Evaluation of tropical grasses in increasing shade under coconut canopies. Experimental Agric., 19(2):153-161.

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Sumardja EA; Kartawinata K, 1977. Vegetation analysis of the habitat of banteng (Bos javanicus) at the Pananjung-Pangandaran nature reserve, West Java. Biotrop Bulletin, No.13:43pp.

Sun D, 1992. Trampling resistance, recovery and growth rate of eight plant species. Agriculture-Ecosystems and Environment, 38(1):265-273.

Sun D; Liddle MJ, 1993. Trampling resistance, stem flexibility and leaf strength in nine Australian grasses and herbs. Biological Conservation, 65(1):35-41

Tarrant CA; McCoy CW, 1985. Sampling and distribution of Artipus floridanus Horn (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) on citrus and weed hosts. Florida Entomologist, 68(3):393-398; [1 fig.; in Symposium: Biology and control of weevils associated with citrus in Florida and the West Indies]; 8 ref.

Tasrif A; Sahid IB; Sastroutomo SS; Latiff A, 1991. Purity study of imported leguminous cover crops. Plant Protection Quarterly, 6(4):190-193.

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Vargas E; Sanchez JM; Campabadal C, 1988. Protein and mineral content in forages from the North Huetar and the Atlantic regions of Costa Rica. I. Effect of season and growth stage. Agronomia Costarricence, 12(1):33-43.

Velayuthan A; Lim CY, 1986. Sheep farming - another tool for weed control under oil palm/rubber plantations by using a cheaper management technique. Planter, 62(725):319-332; 7 ref.

Waterhouse DF, 1993. The Major Arthropod Pests and Weeds of Agriculture in Southeast Asia. ACIAR Monograph No. 21. Canberra, Australia: Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research, 141 pp.

Watson SE, 1986. The productivity of pastures on open plains and under coconuts in the Soloman Islands. Journal of the Australian Institue of Agricultural Science, 52(2):107-108.

Wee YC; Ng JC, 1970. Weeds of pineapple areas. Research Bulletin No. 3, Pineapple Research Station, Pekan Nenas, Malaysia.

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Distribution References

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Al-de Pina, Diaz RA, Garbosky AJ, Gianneto R, Rodrigues NF, Sabella LJ, 1973. Geogosphical distribution of crop indexes in the Mesopotamia region of Argentina and its causes. In: Suelos Public, Centro-de-Investigaciones-de-Recursos Naturales, No. 143,

Alegría C, Echevarría M G, García M, Valdivia R, Rosemberg M, McDowell L R, 1988. Mineral supplementation and fertility in crossbred Zebu heifers fed regional grasses in the Peruvian tropical lowlands. Nutrition Reports International. 37 (4), 805-810.

Boonklinkajorn P, 1979. Herbage production of grasses under coconuts in Southern Thailand. In: Thai Journal of Agricultural Science, 12 (1) 13-50.

CABI, Undated. Compendium record. Wallingford, UK: CABI

CABI, Undated a. CABI Compendium: Status inferred from regional distribution. Wallingford, UK: CABI

CABI, Undated b. CABI Compendium: Status as determined by CABI editor. Wallingford, UK: CABI

Endang S, Lumbantong T, Tobing TL, 1985. The use of scout herbicide to control weeds in palm circles and interrow paths in oil palm plantations. In: Bulletin Pusat Penelitan Marihat, 4 (3) 76-85.

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Leong C C, 1987. MSMA for controlling Cyperus kyllingia, Axonopus compressus and Brachiara distachya in tifgreen Bermuda grass turf. Gardens' Bulletin. 40 (2), 103-112.

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Maldonado G, Velasquez J E, 1994. Determination of stocking rate and liveweight gain of cattle on native pastures in the Amazonian foothills of Colombia. (Determinacion de la capacidad de carga y la ganancia de peso de bovinos en pastoreo de gramineas nativas en el Piedemonte amazonico de Colombia.). Pasturas Tropicales. 16 (2), 2-8.

Manidool C, 1992. Axonopus compressus in "Plant Resources of South-East Asia., Wageningen, Netherlands: Pudoc Scientific Publishers. 53-54.

Nada Y, 1985. Palatability and adaptability of 10 tropical grasses used as grazing pasture in Kyushu. Journal of the Japanese Society of Grassland Science. 30 (4), 434-440.

Nanan Kadnan, 1979. Study of weed populations in two rubber estates and one oil palm estate. Bulletin Balai Penelitian Perkebunan Medan. 10 (2), 54, 87-102.

Sun D, Liddle M J, 1993. Trampling resistance, stem flexibility and leaf strength in nine Australian grasses and herbs. Biological Conservation. 65 (1), 35-41. DOI:10.1016/0006-3207(93)90194-6

Tarrant C A, McCoy C W, 1985. Sampling and distribution of Artipus floridanus Horn (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) on citrus and weed hosts. In: Florida Entomologist, 68 (3) 393-398. DOI:10.2307/3495124

Vargas E, Sanchez JM, Campabadal C, 1988. Protein and mineral content in forages from the North Huetar and the Atlantic regions of Costa Rica. I. Effect of season and growth stage. In: Agronomia Costarricence, 12 (1) 33-43.

Waterhouse D F, 1993. The major arthropod pests and weeds of agriculture in Southeast Asia. Canberra, Australia: ACIAR. v + 141 pp.

Watson S E, 1986. The productivity of pastures on open plains and under coconuts in the Solomon Islands. Journal of the Australian Institute of Agricultural Science. 52 (2), 107-108.

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