Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide


Arracacia xanthorrhiza

Vélez-Gavilán J, 2016. Arracacia xanthorrhiza (arracacha). Invasive Species Compendium. Wallingford, UK: CABI. DOI:10.1079/ISC.6973.20203483412



Arracacia xanthorrhiza (arracacha)


  • Last modified
  • 25 November 2019
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Documented Species
  • Host Plant
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Arracacia xanthorrhiza
  • Preferred Common Name
  • arracacha
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Plantae
  •     Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •       Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •         Class: Dicotyledonae
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • A. xanthorriza is a biennial to perennial herb, which is mainly reported from cultivation or as persistent in old fields and nearby areas. It is mostly confined to South American Andean regions and is a major commercial crop in Brazil. It...

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Arracacia xanthorrhiza Bancr.

Preferred Common Name

  • arracacha

Other Scientific Names

  • Arracacha esculenta DC.
  • Arracacia andina Britton
  • Arracacia esculenta D.C.
  • Bancroftia decipiens R.K.Porter
  • Bancroftia xanthorrhiza (Bancr.) Billb.
  • Conium arracacha Hook.

International Common Names

  • English: peruvian carrot; Peruvian-carrot; Peruvian-parsnip; white-carrot; yellow cassava
  • Spanish: apio criollo; arracacha; arracha (Bolivia); racacha (Bolivia); virraca (Bolivia)
  • French: panéme; pomme de terre céleri
  • Chinese: yalai jia li ya
  • German: Arrakatascha

Local Common Names

  • Bolivia: lacachu
  • Brazil: batata baroa; batata-aipo; batata-cenoura; batata-fiusa; batata-fiúza; batata-jujuba; batata-suiça; batata-tupinambá; cenoura-amarela; mandioquinha; mandioquinha-salsa; pastinaca
  • Chile: lacache
  • Colombia: arocueche; guaud; huahué; pacucarrá; sacarracacha; yengó; zanahoria
  • Cuba: afió
  • Dominican Republic: afió; apio; paneme
  • Ecuador: apio criollo; zanahoria; zanahoria blanca
  • Peru: arrecate; huiasampilla; lacache; oqqe; racacha; ricacha; virraca; zanahoria blanca; zanahoria del país; zanahoria morada
  • Puerto Rico: apio; apio tuberoso
  • Venezuela: apio; apio criollo; aricachi; arrecare; kiu-titsí

EPPO code

  • ABAXA (Arracacia xanthorrhiza)

Summary of Invasiveness

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A. xanthorriza is a biennial to perennial herb, which is mainly reported from cultivation or as persistent in old fields and nearby areas. It is mostly confined to South American Andean regions and is a major commercial crop in Brazil. It is used by an estimated 30 million people in the Andes and 30 million people elsewhere, mainly in Brazil (Heywood, 2014). It is not considered as an invasive species and wild populations are scarce (Hermann, 1997).

Outside of South America, it is reported as commercially cultivated in Puerto Rico and Costa Rica (Hodge, 1954). It is not reported as an invasive species in any of the places where is cultivated. It is listed as a species that has naturalised in Cuba with the tendency to spread in some localities (Oviedo Prieto et al., 2012). Its introduction has been unsuccessful in some countries due to its photoperiod and temperature requirements, long growing cycle, its susceptibility to pests and diseases and the short shelf life of the roots (FAO, 2016).

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Plantae
  •         Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •             Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •                 Class: Dicotyledonae
  •                     Order: Apiales
  •                         Family: Apiaceae
  •                             Genus: Arracacia
  •                                 Species: Arracacia xanthorrhiza

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

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The Apiaceae, the family of the celery and the carrot, has about 300 genera and 2500–3000 species (Hermann, 1997; International Potato Center, 2016). Arracacia is a genus of about 30 species, extending from Mexico and Central America to South America, with A. xanthorrhiza being the only cultivated species (Hermann, 1997). Some of its common names, like racacha, virraca, lacache and arrecate have Andean origins (Kays and Dias, 1995; Hermann, 1997). Although the type for the species is from Jamaica; it is from a cultivated specimen, annotated to be of South American origin (Missouri Botanical Garden, 2016). The specific epithet xanthorrhiza comes from the Greek, meaning ‘yellow-rooted’, which refers to the yellowish varieties that are preferred in some countries (Hermann, 1997).

Some of the Arracacia species are regarded as not properly delimited, mainly due to the lack of appropriate herbarium material, some without reproductive structures or being at immature stages (Hermann, 1997).


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The following description is from Hermann (1997):

Plants stout, caulescent, 0.5–l.2 m tall, minutely squamulose and scaberulous, from a greatly swollen taproot. Leaves broadly ovate, l–3 cm long and broad, biternate or bipinnate, the leaflets ovate-lanceolate to ovate, 4–12 cm long, 1.5–6.5 cm broad, acuminate, mucronate-serrate and coarsely incised or lobed, squamulose or scaberulous. Petioles 8–45 cm long. Cauline leaves with narrow sheaths. Inflorescence a compound umbel; involucre lacking; rays 5–15, spreading-ascending, 1.5–4 cm long, scaberulous; involucel of 5–8 setaceous, entire bractlets 2–5 mm long. Pedicels 2–4 mm long; petals purple or greenish, oval; styles slender, the stylopodium depressed; carpophore 2–parted; fruit oblong, 10 mm long, 2–3 mm broad, constricted below apex, the ribs prominent, acute; vittae solitary in the intervals, 2 on the commissure.

Plant Type

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Vegetatively propagated


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A. xanthorrhiza is a biannual to perennial herb native to the Andes in South America, and has been cultivated for thousands of years (Heywood, 2014). Wild populations are rare (Hermann, 1997). It is mostly cultivated on a large scale in Venezuela, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, Bolivia, Chile, and Brazil (Hermann, 1997). It is also cultivated, but on a smaller scale, in Central America and the Caribbean (Heiser, 1965; Kay, 1987; Hermann, 1997). It is also reported from a few countries in Asia, Indonesia, Africa, North America, Europe and Oceania. The species is no longer present in some of the countries where it was introduced, and there is some uncertainty about its current presence in others (Hodge, 1954).

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 17 Feb 2021
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes


BurundiAbsent, Formerly present
RwandaAbsent, Formerly present


IndiaAbsent, Formerly present
Sri LankaAbsent, Formerly present


FranceAbsent, Formerly present
SwitzerlandAbsent, Formerly present
United KingdomAbsent, Formerly present

North America

Costa RicaPresent, Only in captivity/cultivationIntroduced1940
CubaPresentIntroducedNaturalizedAs a naturalized species with a tendency to spread in some localities.
Dominican RepublicPresentIntroduced
El SalvadorPresentIntroducedAhuachapán
HondurasPresent, Only in captivity/cultivationIntroduced
PanamaAbsent, Formerly present
Puerto RicoPresent, Only in captivity/cultivationIntroduced1903Barranquitas, Orocovis. Not a major crop.


New ZealandPresent, Only in captivity/cultivationIntroduced1986

South America

BoliviaPresentNativeChuquisaca, Cochamba, La Paz, Potosí.
BrazilPresent, Only in captivity/cultivationIntroducedIntroduced in the early 1900’s.
-Distrito FederalPresent, Only in captivity/cultivation
-Espirito SantoPresent, Only in captivity/cultivationIntroduced
-GoiasPresent, Only in captivity/cultivationIntroduced
-Minas GeraisPresent, Only in captivity/cultivationIntroduced
-ParanaPresent, Only in captivity/cultivationIntroduced
-Santa CatarinaPresent, Only in captivity/cultivationIntroduced
-Sao PauloPresent, Only in captivity/cultivationIntroduced
-TocantinsPresent, Only in captivity/cultivationIntroduced
ChilePresent, Only in captivity/cultivationNativeMarginal production and use. Considered on the verge of extinction in this country.
ColombiaPresent, Only in captivity/cultivationNativeAntioquia, Cundinamarca, Bocayá Santander, Nariño, Norte de Santander, Tolimam
EcuadorPresent, Only in captivity/cultivationNativeBaños, Inbabura, Loja, San José
PeruPresent, Only in captivity/cultivationNativeAmazonas, Anacash, Apurimac, Arequipa, Cajamarca, Cusco, Huanuco, La Libertad, Moquegua, Piura, Tacna
VenezuelaPresent, Only in captivity/cultivationIntroducedMonagas, Trujillo, Sucre, Táchira, Yaracuy, Mérida.

History of Introduction and Spread

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A. xanthorrhiza is a species from the Andes with a long history of cultivation by the highland Andean Indians, with plant remnants found in Peruvian tombs and depicted in Nasca pottery (Heiser, 1965; Bruhns, 1981; Hermann, 1997). Its exact origin is debated, but wild types had been collected from Peru and Ecuador (Hermann, 1997). It is noted as one of the four root crops grown in the Chuquimayo Valley of Peru in communications to the King of Spain in 1549 (Ugent et al., 1984). It is present in the Caribbean probably since the Spanish conquest and was introduced to Cuba by Haitian immigrants (Volpato et al., 2009; Hanelt and IPK, 2016). The species was apparently more widespread in the Caribbean, with the type from a cultivated plant in Jamaica (Hermann, 1997). There are reports from Puerto Rico since the early 1900’s, where it is commercially cultivated on a smaller scale and can be found labelled as Apio in supermarkets (Hodge, 1954; Hermann, 1997).

A. xanthorrhiza was introduced to Brazil towards the end of the 1900’s, where it is grown commercially on a large scale (Hanelt and IPK, 2016). It is also reported as locally grown in some parts of Central America and Africa (Hermann, 1997; Hanelt and IPK, 2016). It was introduced in the late 1800’s into India and Sri Lanka by the British government, but although listed as present in those countries, its current status is not known (Hermann, 1997). It was introduced to New Zealand in 1986 for its possible cultivation (Fletcher and Fletcher, 2001).

Several trials have been made to use the species as a crop in Europe, North America and Australia without success (Hermann, 1997; Hanelt and IPK, 2016). There are reports of introductions in the mid 1800’s in Europe, but storage roots failed to develop (Hodge, 1954). It was introduced into the USA as a potential crop in 1825 without success as the species does not adapt well to temperate region conditions and is highly susceptible to nematode infestations (Hodge, 1954; Hermann, 1997).


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Introduced toIntroduced fromYearReasonIntroduced byEstablished in wild throughReferencesNotes
Natural reproductionContinuous restocking
New Zealand Peru 1986 Crop production (pathway cause) No No Fletcher and Fletcher (2001)

Risk of Introduction

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A. xanthorrhiza is a species with a low risk of introduction. It is mainly known from cultivation, with some wild populations known from the Andean highlands (Hermann, 1997). It is only listed as a species that might become invasive in Cuba, without further details (Oviedo Prieto et al., 2012). The species rarely reproduces by seeds, being vegetatively reproduced through its cormels (Hermann, 1997). It has been tried as a crop in various countries in the past without success, mainly due to its specific environmental requirements and its susceptibility to pests and diseases in warmer tropical areas. It does not develop storage roots under warm tropical conditions or in temperate zones, so the introduction to those areas is unlikely (Hermann, 1997; Hanelt and IPK, 2016).


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A. xanthorrhiza natural habitat is not well known since the species is principally known from cultivation in tropical highlands (Hermann, 1997). The species is believed to have its origins in the Andean tropical highlands, in “cloudy areas with a constant humidity” (FAO, 2016). The reported wild populations occur along roadsides, disturbed sites or in “borders of natural vegetation” (Hermann, 1997).

Habitat List

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Terrestrial ManagedCultivated / agricultural land Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Terrestrial ManagedDisturbed areas Present, no further details Natural
Terrestrial ManagedRail / roadsides Present, no further details Natural

Biology and Ecology

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Development and Reproductive Biology
The central rootstock is a swollen and compressed structure, and bears conical to cylindrical storage roots that each weigh 100 to 330 g. The rootstock also bears aerial stems or offshoots known as cormels which are segmented structures derived from stem tissue and have internodes, nodes and scars left from shed leaves. These may be used to propagate new plants. These offshoots bear 3–5 petiolate leaves and each will develop an inflorescence, a terminal umbel. Normally under cultivation flowering is rare but if allowed to flower the flowering period is 1–2 months long (Hermann, 1997).

The species seems to be a facultative outbreeder. Seeds are orthodox with a germination not higher than 30% (Hermann, 1997). Seeds are seldom formed, as plants are usually harvested before the flowers are produced (Hodge, 1954; Kay, 1987). Seed set is impaired by high temperatures and anthers shrivel before they can shed pollen at those temperatures (Hodge, 1954).

Physiology and Phenology
A. xanthorrhiza has slow growth and will take 10–16 months for the roots to be ready for harvesting (Hermann, 1997). Short days and a moderate and evenly distributed rainfall of at least 600 mm are preferred for the storage roots to develop well (Kay, 1987). The application of phosphorus has been found to increase yields considerably, while heavy applications of nitrogen have an adverse effect (Heywood, 2014).

The cultivated plants rarely flower due to the plants being harvested before flowering and because of the specific environmental conditions required. A combination of low temperatures, short days and drought periods are apparently needed to induce flowering. Flowering duration is 1–2 months (Hermann, 1997).

Environmental Requirements
The species grows best in the tropical highlands, from 900 to 3300 m elevation, with an annual rainfall ranging from 600 to 5000 mm and mean temperatures of 15–20°C. It is not tolerant of frosts. The species will not develop the storage roots and will be affected by pests and diseases at higher frequencies in hot and wet environments. Plants thrive best when soil moisture is available throughout the cultivation period (Hodge, 1954; Hermann, 1997). Shading reduces the production of the storage roots (Barrella et al., 2011). It grows in well-drained medium (loamy) soils with acid, neutral or alkaline pH (PFAF, 2016).


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Af - Tropical rainforest climate Preferred > 60mm precipitation per month
Aw - Tropical wet and dry savanna climate Preferred < 60mm precipitation driest month (in winter) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
Cw - Warm temperate climate with dry winter Tolerated Warm temperate climate with dry winter (Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry winters)

Latitude/Altitude Ranges

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Latitude North (°N)Latitude South (°S)Altitude Lower (m)Altitude Upper (m)
19 -43 1500 3500

Air Temperature

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Parameter Lower limit Upper limit
Mean annual temperature (ºC) 10 28


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ParameterLower limitUpper limitDescription
Mean annual rainfall6001800mm; lower/upper limits

Rainfall Regime

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Soil Tolerances

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Soil drainage

  • free

Soil reaction

  • acid
  • alkaline
  • neutral

Soil texture

  • medium

Notes on Natural Enemies

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Many pests and diseases affect A. xanthorrhiza but they are usually controlled by crop rotations and management practices (Henz, 2002). Some of the organisms reported affecting the species are: the bacteria Pectobacterium spp., Erwinia spp. and Xanthomonas campestris; the insects Tetranychus spp., Agrotis ipsilon, Conotrachelus cristatus, Epitrix spp., Systena sp., Papilio polyxenes, Automeris spp., Erythrogonia quadriguttata, Amastris simillima, Ellipes minuta, Ancognatha scarabeoides, Tetranychus spp. and several genera of the subfamily Melolonthinae of the Scarabaeidae; the fungi Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, Athelia rolfsii, Fusarium spp., Phoma sp., Rhizopus sp., Cercospora spp., Passalora depressa, Septoria apiicola, Gloeosporium sp., Ceratocystis fimbriata and Rhizoctonia sp.; the nematodes Meloidogyne sp. and Pratylenchus penetrans; and the oomycete Phytophthora palmivora (Lenys et al., 1984, Romeiro et al., 1988, Fornazier 1996, Rosa-Márquez et al., 2000, Henz et al., 2005, FAO, 2016, Melo et al., 2016).

Some viruses have been described for the species, their effects still not fully known: AVA (arracacha virus A), AVB (arracacha virus B), the potyvirus AP-1, the carlavirus AV-3 and PBRV/A (Kay, 1987; Orílio et al., 2009). Bidens mosaic virus was first reported on an arracacha crop in Brazil by Orílio et al. (2017).

Means of Movement and Dispersal

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A. xanthorrhiza is a cultivated species from the Andean highlands. It has been successfully introduced by man to Brazil, where it is grown at a large commercial scale, and to a lesser extent in Costa Rica and Puerto Rico (Hermann, 1997; Kappelle et al., 2000). Although there are reports of attempts of cultivation in other continents, most have been unsuccessful (Hermann, 1997).

Pathway Causes

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CauseNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Crop productionCommercial crop and a cash crop for local farmers, mainly in tropical highlands Yes Yes Hermann (1997)
Food Yes Yes Hermann (1997)
Forage Yes Hermann (1997)
Medicinal useWith some local ethnobotanical and veterinary uses. Yes Hermann (1997)
Off-site preservation Preserved at various institutions, mainly in South America. Yes Yes FAO (2016)

Pathway Vectors

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VectorNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
GermplasmPreserved at various institutions, including In vitro propagation, mainly in South America. Yes Yes FAO (2016)

Risk and Impact Factors

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  • Reproduces asexually


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Economic Value
A. xanthorrhiza is mainly cultivated commercially for its roots that are consumed boiled, pureed, roasted or fried (Hermann, 1997). They are also eaten mashed and made into gnocchi. The leaves are eaten raw or cooked. It is used as a thickener for baby food formula, instant soups, in baking, and to prepare a mildly alcoholic beverage. It is a cash crop for thousands of families in South America, and cheaper to produce than potatoes (Vietmeyer, 1986). The species is often intercropped with maize, beans, and coffee (Hodge, 1954; Hermann, 1997; International Potato Center, 2016). It is considered as a good source of minerals and vitamins (FAO, 2016). Crude starch granule size was determined to be 5.36–23.8 µm for arracacha and optimum cooking temperature was 89.1°C and cooking times were shorter than for potato (Bellido-Valencia et al., 2017). Experimental studies where cornflour was substituted with flour from roots and shoots produced biscuits that had increased fibre content, a darker colour and a harder texture. Calorific value was reduced (Gassi et al., 2016). 

The plant is also used as a fodder and to prepare animal meal (Hodge, 1954). Much of Brazil's crop is processed into dried chips that are added to dehydrated soups.

The constraints to exploitation of this crop are that the roots are highly perishable, rotting within a few days after harvest and are very susceptible to mechanical damage (Henz, 2002).

Social Benefit
The medicinal uses reported for the species are: to induce post-partum placental elimination, in both humans and domestic animals, as a purgative and for breastfeeding pains (Hermann, 1997).

Environmental Services
The roots of A. xanthorrhiza might be effective in the phytoremediation of toxic nitro compounds (Pacheco et al., 2007).

Uses List

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Animal feed, fodder, forage

  • Fodder/animal feed

Human food and beverage

  • Beverage base
  • Flour/starch
  • Food additive
  • Root crop
  • Vegetable

Medicinal, pharmaceutical

  • Traditional/folklore
  • Veterinary

Similarities to Other Species/Conditions

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The South American Arracacia species are not well defined, as some of the descriptions are poor due to lack of good herbarium specimens (Hermann, 1997). Molecular and morphological studies show that A. xanthorrhiza and A. equatorialis are closely related (Blas et al., 2008). These species are differentiated by the incisions of leaflets, and the shape and margin of involucel. The taxonomic differentiation among the wild Andean species is even more complicated as hybridization between the cultivated varieties and the wild populations occurs. A. incisa and A. xanthorrhiza are also morphologically similar (Hermann, 1997). A. xanthorrhiza is widely distributed through Bolivia, Peru and Ecuador at elevations of 2000-4000 m; A. incisa is confined to the highlands of the central and southern regions of Peru.

Prevention and Control

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Due to the variable regulations around (de)registration of pesticides, your national list of registered pesticides or relevant authority should be consulted to determine which products are legally allowed for use in your country when considering chemical control. Pesticides should always be used in a lawful manner, consistent with the product's label.

The herbicides halosulfuron, flazasulfuron, imazamox and bentazon have been reported to cause high toxicity and damage to A. xanthorrhiza when grown as a crop. Low and medium doses of linuron and oxadiazon, and low doses of ammonium-glufosinate, can be toxic in the early stages, but plants eventually recover (Freitas et al., 2004).

Gaps in Knowledge/Research Needs

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Hermann (1997) reports the following research needs: the systematic relationships of the species to its closely related wild relatives; studies of the factors inducing flowering, research on the breeding system, seed conservation; how can the crop duration be reduced; and the improvement of the storage life of the root.

In terms of invasiveness, more information is needed to assess whether the species is invasive and has any effects on other species or habitats outside its cultivation.


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Orílio, A. F., Dusi, A. N., Madeira, N. R., Inoue-Nagata, A. K., 2009. Characterization of a member of a new Potyvirus species infecting arracacha in Brazil., Archives of Virology, 154(2):181-185

Orílio, A. F., Dusi, A. N., Madeira, N. R., Inoue-Nagata, A. K., 2017. First report of Bidens mosaic virus in Arracacha (Arracacia xanthorriza) from Brazil., Plant Disease, 101(1):262

Orílio, A. F., Lucinda, N., Dusi, A. N., Nagata, T., Inoue-Nagata, A. K., 2013. Complete genome sequence of arracacha mottle virus., Archives of Virology, 158(1):291-295

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Distribution References

Acevedo-Rodríguez P, Strong M T, 2012. Catalogue of the Seed Plants of the West Indies. Washington, DC, USA: Smithsonian Institution. 1192 pp.

CABI, Undated. Compendium record. Wallingford, UK: CABI

Fletcher P J, Fletcher J D, 2001. In vitro virus elimination in three Andean root crops: oca (Oxalis tuberosa), ulluco (Ullucus tuberosus), and arracacha (Arracacia xanthorrhiza). New Zealand Journal of Crop and Horticultural Science. 29 (1), 23-27.

Hermann M, 1997. Arracacha. (Arracacia xanthorrhiza Bancroft). In: Andean roots and tubers: Ahipa, arracacha, maca and yacon, [ed. by Hermann M, Heller J]. Rome, Italy: Institute of Plant Genetics and Crop Plant Research, Gatersleben/International Plant Genetic Resources Institute. 75-172.

Hodge W H, 1954. The edible arracacha-a little-known root crop of the Andes. Economic Botany. 195-221. DOI:10.1007/BF02984890

Kay DE, 1987. Crop and product digest No. 2-Root Crops., London, England: Tropical Development and Research Institute. 380 pp.

Melo M P, Pimenta L, Oliveira L S S, Ferreira M A, 2016. First report of Ceratocystis fimbriata causing black rot on Arracacia xanthorrhiza in Brazil. Plant Disease. 100 (3), 652-653. DOI:10.1094/PDIS-03-15-0325-PDN

Missouri Botanical Garden, 2016. Tropicos database., St. Louis, Missouri, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden.

Orílio A F, Dusi A N, Madeira N R, Inoue-Nagata A K, 2017. First report of Bidens mosaic virus in Arracacha (Arracacia xanthorriza) from Brazil. Plant Disease. 101 (1), 262. DOI:10.1094/PDIS-05-16-0616-PDN

Oviedo Prieto R, Herrera Oliver P, Caluff M G, et al, 2012. National list of invasive and potentially invasive plants in the Republic of Cuba - 2011. (Lista nacional de especies de plantas invasoras y potencialmente invasoras en la República de Cuba - 2011). Bissea: Boletín sobre Conservación de Plantas del Jardín Botánico Nacional de Cuba. 6 (Special Issue No. 1), 22-96.

Souza J de, Gamarra H, Müller G, Kreuze J, 2018. First report of Potato virus s naturally infecting arracacha (Arracacia xanthorrhiza) in Peru. Plant Disease. 102 (2), 460. DOI:10.1094/PDIS-07-17-0945-PDN

Links to Websites

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Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO)
Mansfeld’s World Database of Agricultural and Horticultural Crops
New York Botanical Garden Database
Plants for a Future
The Barcode of Life Data Systems


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01/12/2016 Original text by:

Jeanine Vélez-Gavilán, University of Puerto Rico at Mayagüez

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