Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Solanum tuberosum
(potato)

Toolbox

Datasheet

Solanum tuberosum (potato)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 21 November 2019
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Host Plant
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Solanum tuberosum
  • Preferred Common Name
  • potato
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Plantae
  •     Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •       Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •         Class: Dicotyledonae
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • Solanum tuberosum is native to Central and South America, but is now widely naturalized beyond its native range in extra-tropical regions and is considered a weed in many places including Australia, Indonesia, Micronesia, India, and Turke...

Don't need the entire report?

Generate a print friendly version containing only the sections you need.

Generate report

Pictures

Top of page
PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Solanum tuberosum (potato); habit, as an invasive, at a fire area spatter vent. Polipoli, Maui, Hawaii, USA. September, 2007.
TitleHabit
CaptionSolanum tuberosum (potato); habit, as an invasive, at a fire area spatter vent. Polipoli, Maui, Hawaii, USA. September, 2007.
Copyright©Forest & Kim Starr-2007 - CC BY 3.0
Solanum tuberosum (potato); habit, as an invasive, at a fire area spatter vent. Polipoli, Maui, Hawaii, USA. September, 2007.
HabitSolanum tuberosum (potato); habit, as an invasive, at a fire area spatter vent. Polipoli, Maui, Hawaii, USA. September, 2007.©Forest & Kim Starr-2007 - CC BY 3.0
Solanum tuberosum (potato); leaves. Polipoli, Maui, Hawaii, USA. September, 2007.
TitleLeaves
CaptionSolanum tuberosum (potato); leaves. Polipoli, Maui, Hawaii, USA. September, 2007.
Copyright©Forest & Kim Starr-2007 - CC BY 3.0
Solanum tuberosum (potato); leaves. Polipoli, Maui, Hawaii, USA. September, 2007.
LeavesSolanum tuberosum (potato); leaves. Polipoli, Maui, Hawaii, USA. September, 2007.©Forest & Kim Starr-2007 - CC BY 3.0
Solanum tuberosum (potato); white flowers. Kula Agriculture Station, Maui, Hawaii, USA. June, 2012.
TitleFlowers
CaptionSolanum tuberosum (potato); white flowers. Kula Agriculture Station, Maui, Hawaii, USA. June, 2012.
Copyright©Forest & Kim Starr-2012 - CC BY 3.0
Solanum tuberosum (potato); white flowers. Kula Agriculture Station, Maui, Hawaii, USA. June, 2012.
FlowersSolanum tuberosum (potato); white flowers. Kula Agriculture Station, Maui, Hawaii, USA. June, 2012.©Forest & Kim Starr-2012 - CC BY 3.0
Solanum tuberosum (potato); purple flowers.
TitleFlowers
CaptionSolanum tuberosum (potato); purple flowers.
CopyrightPublic Domain - Released by the USDA, original photographer Ken Weller/USDA ARS
Solanum tuberosum (potato); purple flowers.
FlowersSolanum tuberosum (potato); purple flowers.Public Domain - Released by the USDA, original photographer Ken Weller/USDA ARS
Solanum tuberosum (potato); fruits, which are typical of Solanacae and, poisonous. They contain solanine, a substance that is toxic to humans, particularly children. Hawea Place, Olinda, Maui, Hawaii, USA. July, 2011.
TitleFruits
CaptionSolanum tuberosum (potato); fruits, which are typical of Solanacae and, poisonous. They contain solanine, a substance that is toxic to humans, particularly children. Hawea Place, Olinda, Maui, Hawaii, USA. July, 2011.
Copyright©Forest & Kim Starr-2011 - CC BY 3.0
Solanum tuberosum (potato); fruits, which are typical of Solanacae and, poisonous. They contain solanine, a substance that is toxic to humans, particularly children. Hawea Place, Olinda, Maui, Hawaii, USA. July, 2011.
FruitsSolanum tuberosum (potato); fruits, which are typical of Solanacae and, poisonous. They contain solanine, a substance that is toxic to humans, particularly children. Hawea Place, Olinda, Maui, Hawaii, USA. July, 2011.©Forest & Kim Starr-2011 - CC BY 3.0
Solanum tuberosum (potato); leaves, stem and a small potato tuber. Polipoli, Maui, Hawaii, USA. September, 2007.
TitleLeaves, stem and tuber
CaptionSolanum tuberosum (potato); leaves, stem and a small potato tuber. Polipoli, Maui, Hawaii, USA. September, 2007.
Copyright©Forest & Kim Starr-2007 - CC BY 3.0
Solanum tuberosum (potato); leaves, stem and a small potato tuber. Polipoli, Maui, Hawaii, USA. September, 2007.
Leaves, stem and tuberSolanum tuberosum (potato); leaves, stem and a small potato tuber. Polipoli, Maui, Hawaii, USA. September, 2007.©Forest & Kim Starr-2007 - CC BY 3.0

Identity

Top of page

Preferred Scientific Name

  • Solanum tuberosum L.

Preferred Common Name

  • potato

Other Scientific Names

  • Solanum cultum (A. DC.) Berth.
  • Solanum esculentum Neck.
  • Solanum tuberosum subsp. andigena Hawkes
  • Solanum tuberosum subsp. tuberosum (L.) Hawkes

International Common Names

  • English: English potato; Irish potato; white potato
  • Spanish: papa; patata
  • French: pomme de terre
  • Russian: kartofel'
  • Chinese: ma ling shu; yang shu
  • Portuguese: batata

Local Common Names

  • Cambodia: dâmlông barang
  • Croatia: krumpir
  • Czech Republic: brambor
  • Germany: Kartoffel
  • Haiti: parmentiére; pomme té; prome té
  • Indonesia: kentang
  • Ireland: práta
  • Italy: patata; pomo di terra
  • Laos: man fàlangx
  • Malaysia: ubi kentang; ubi kenteng
  • Myanmar: ah-lu; ahr-lu; ar-loo
  • Netherlands: aardappel
  • Papua New Guinea: poteto
  • Philippines: papas; patatas
  • Poland: ziemniak
  • Portugal: batata
  • Slovakia: zemiak
  • Slovenia: krumpir
  • Sweden: potatis
  • Thailand: man-alu; man-farang
  • Turkey: patates
  • Ukraine: kartoplya
  • Vietnam: khoai taay

EPPO code

  • SOLTU (Solanum tuberosum)

Summary of Invasiveness

Top of page

Solanum tuberosum is native to Central and South America, but is now widely naturalized beyond its native range in extra-tropical regions and is considered a weed in many places including Australia, Indonesia, Micronesia, India, and Turkey (Holm et al., 1979; Randall, 2012). It has been declared a noxious weed in the United States, Turkey and South Africa (Randall, 2012) and listed in the American Lands Alliance’s “Worst Invasive Species in the conterminous United States” list (Randall, 2012). It is considered an agricultural weed on plantations and cultivated fields in parts of the Pacific Islands where it has been introduced (Randall, 2012). Because of the species’ global importance as a staple food crop, caution and vigilance is essential when cultivating the species in order to minimize escape into the wild.

Taxonomic Tree

Top of page
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Plantae
  •         Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •             Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •                 Class: Dicotyledonae
  •                     Order: Solanales
  •                         Family: Solanaceae
  •                             Genus: Solanum
  •                                 Species: Solanum tuberosum

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

Top of page

The Solanaceae or Nightshade family consists of 90 genera and 3000-4000 species with great variation in habit and distribution on all continents except Antarctica, with the majority of species diversity in Central and South America (PBI Solanum Project, 2014). This family includes some of the world’s most important crop plant species, including potatoes, peppers, and tomatoes, as well as some of the world’s deadliest plant species, including belladonna (Atropa belladonna), jimsonweed (Datura stramonium), satan’s apple (Mandragora officinarum) and black henbane (Hyoscyamus niger).

Solanum is one of the largest genera of vascular plants with between 1000 and 1500 species, 1000 of which are speculated to be of American origin (Hunziker, 1979). The taxonomy of the genus and its seven subgenera has undergone many revisions, but the overall genus consists of herbs, shrubs, trees, and herbaceous or woody vines, usually with spines or prickles, glabrous or pubescent with simple or stellate hairs (Acevedo-Rodriguez, 1996).

The genus Solanum includes the potato, S. tuberosum, the tomato, S. lycopersicum, and the aubergine, S. melongena, with many other members cultivated for medicinal and ornamental uses. While the etymology of the genus’ scientific name is unclear, it may be derived from the Latin word “sol”, meaning "sun," referring to its affinity for sunlight, or from the Latin word “solare”, meaning "to soothe”, the Latin word “solamen”, meaning "a comfort", or the Akkadian word “sululu”, meaning “happy”, in reference to the narcotic effects of some Solanum species after ingestion (Smith, 1971; Wiart, 2006; Quattrocchi, 2012; NZPCN, 2014).

The potato is among the world’s most important crop plants. There are over 5000 cultivars of this species, due to its long and widespread cultivation throughout the world. The species name tuberosum refers to this global use of the tuber as a food.

S. tuberosum is a complex species with diploid, triploid and tetraploid representatives. The tetraploid plants are most important worldwide; they are classified into two cultivar groups: cv. group Andigena (S. tuberosum subsp. andigena) and cv. group Tuberosum (S. tuberosum subsp. tuberosum). The tetraploid subspecies andigena is reportedly derived from a natural cross of the diploid cultivated potato S. stenotomum and the diploid weedy species S. sparsipilum, resulting in a doubled chromosome count (Cribb and Hawkes, 1986; D’Arcy, 1986), with the subspecies tuberosum reportedly derived from andigena through gene mutation and selection in Chile and Europe (Cribb and Hawkes, 1986).

Description

Top of page

S. tuberosum is an erect, juicy herb with numerous fleshy, robust, angular, branched stems up to 1.2 m tall and subterranean tubiform stolons. Root system usually 40-50 cm deep, without obstructions up to 1 m. Tubers developing at the tip of the stolons, globose to ellipsoid, very variable in size, weight and colour; tuber skin with scars of scale leaves ('eyebrows'), axillary buds ('eyes', usually several eye buds per eyebrow), numerous lenticels, almost impermeable to chemicals, gases and liquids, providing good protection against microorganisms and water loss; number of eyes very variable, normally about 10-15 on a tuber of 50 g.

Stems up to 1.5 cm in diameter, usually hollow, winged; wings sometimes decurrent and undulate-crenulate. Leaves alternate, petiolate, odd pinnately compound, with or without numerous interstitial leaflets, in outline 10-30 cm x 5-15 cm; lateral leaflets opposite or alternate, usually 3-4 pairs, very unequal in size, largest ones stalked, ovate to ovate-elliptical, 2-10 cm x 1-6 cm, smallest ones subsessile, ovate to suborbicular, 1-15 mm in diameter; terminal leaflet usually largest; all leaflets thinly to densely pubescent, dark green, pinnatinerved. Inflorescence a many-flowered cymose panicle, sometimes with small bracteoles; peduncle 5-15 cm long, branching above; pedicel up to 3.5 cm long, articulate at or above the middle; flowers white or white suffused with pink or violet, typically with a greenish-yellow central star; calyx campanulate, 1.5-2 cm in diameter, deeply 5-partite, pubescent outside; corolla subrotate to rotate-stellate, 2-4 cm in diameter, with 5 acuminate lobes, finely veined, pubescent outside; anthers 5, 5-7 mm long, free, erect but slightly curved around the style, yellow, dehiscence by 2 apical pores, each on a short, thick filament; style up to 13 mm long, stigma clavellate to capitate. Fruit a subglobose berry, up to 2 cm in diameter, yellow-green, 2-carpellate, many-seeded, poisonous. Seed flat, subcircular to ovate, 1-3 mm in diameter, pale yellow-brownish.

Plant Type

Top of page
Herbaceous
Perennial
Seed propagated
Vegetatively propagated

Distribution

Top of page

The species of Solanum are considered native to Central and South America, mainly to the highland plains ('puna') and Andes mountains between 40°N and 45°S. S. tuberosum is considered native to the Peruvian-Bolivian Andes region, but has been introduced to most parts of the world. It is cultivated throughout the West Indies (Acevedo-Rodriguez and Strong, 2012) and the upland regions of Mesoamerica (Gentry and D’Arcy, 1986), as well as throughout Europe, in much of Asia, and in many other regions. The Distribution Table does not list all the countries where S. tuberosum is grown as a crop.

Distribution Table

Top of page

The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 25 Feb 2021
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

CameroonPresent
EritreaPresent
MadagascarPresent
MaliPresent
MauritiusPresent
NigeriaPresent
RwandaPresent
South AfricaPresentIntroducedNoxious weed
TanzaniaPresent
UgandaPresent
ZimbabwePresent

Asia

AzerbaijanPresent
ChinaPresentIntroduced
-JiangsuPresent
-JilinPresent
-NingxiaPresent
-ShanxiPresent
-ZhejiangPresent
GeorgiaPresent
IndiaPresentIntroduced
-GujaratPresent
-KarnatakaPresent
-OdishaPresent
-Tamil NaduPresent
Indonesia
-JavaPresent
IraqPresent
IsraelPresent
JapanPresentIntroducedNaturalizedNaturalized
KazakhstanPresent
LaosPresent
LebanonPresent
PakistanPresent, Only in captivity/cultivation
Sri LankaPresent
TaiwanPresent
TajikistanPresent
ThailandPresent
TurkeyPresent

Europe

BelgiumPresent
CroatiaPresent
CyprusPresent
DenmarkPresentIntroducedCultivation escape
FinlandPresentIntroducedCultivation escape
IcelandPresent
IrelandPresent
Italy
-SardiniaPresent
MontenegroPresent
NorwayPresent
PortugalPresent
SpainPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-Balearic IslandsPresent
-Canary IslandsPresentIntroducedNaturalizedNaturalized
SwitzerlandPresent
UkrainePresent
United KingdomPresentIntroduced
-WalesPresent

North America

Canada
-British ColumbiaPresent
-ManitobaPresent
-OntarioPresent
-SaskatchewanPresent
Cayman IslandsPresent, Only in captivity/cultivationIntroduced
Costa RicaPresent
CubaPresent, Only in captivity/cultivationIntroduced
Dominican RepublicPresent, Only in captivity/cultivationIntroduced
GreenlandPresent
GuatemalaPresent
HaitiPresent, Only in captivity/cultivationIntroduced
JamaicaPresent, Only in captivity/cultivationIntroduced
MexicoPresent
NicaraguaPresent
PanamaPresent
Puerto RicoPresentIntroduced
United StatesPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-AlaskaPresent
-CaliforniaPresent
-ColoradoPresent
-HawaiiPresentIntroducedNaturalizedNaturalized on Maui
-MissouriPresentIntroduced
-New JerseyPresent
-North CarolinaPresentWeed
-OhioPresent

Oceania

AustraliaPresentIntroduced
-QueenslandPresentIntroducedEnvironmental weed: cultivation escape
-TasmaniaPresent
-Western AustraliaPresent
New CaledoniaPresent
New ZealandPresentIntroducedNaturalizedNaturalized in 1853
Papua New GuineaPresent, Only in captivity/cultivationIntroduced
VanuatuPresent

South America

ArgentinaPresent
BoliviaPresentNativeChuquisaca, La Paz, Oruro, Potosi, Cochabamba
Brazil
-Minas GeraisPresent
-ParanaPresent
-Sao PauloPresent
ChilePresent
ColombiaPresentGuarne, La Unión, Marinilla, Medellín, San Vicente
EcuadorPresentProv. Cañar, Carchi, Chimborazo, Cotopaxi, Galapagos, Napo, Pichincha, Sucumbíos, Tungurahua
PeruPresent
VenezuelaPresent

History of Introduction and Spread

Top of page

The species of Solanum are considered native to Central and South America, mainly to the highland plains ('puna') and Andes mountains between 40°N and 45°S. S. tuberosum includes thousands of varieties that vary by size, shape, colour, and other sensory characteristics. The cultivated potato originated in the Peru-Colombia-Chile region of the South American Andes, but has a wide-ranging centre of diversity from Venezuela, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, Bolivia, Argentina, and Chile across the Pampa and Chaco regions of Argentina, Uruguay, Paraguay, and southern Brazil and northward into Central America, Mexico, and the southwestern United States (Kiple and Ornelas, 2000; Wagner et al., 2014). Based on archaeological and genetic evidence the first domestications occurred at least 8000 years ago in the high Andes of Peru and Bolivia (Hunziker, 1979; Cribb and Hawkes, 1986), and during the Spanish conquest the cultivated potato was being grown in the Andes, from Venezuela to northern Argentina and into the lowland regions of Chile (Cribb and Hawkes, 1986).

Sir Walter Raleigh (1554-1618) is often credited with first introducing the potato to Europe when he brought it back with him from Virginia and planted it near Cork, Ireland (Duke, 1983); however this is incorrect, as trade records show the Spanish conquistadors had been cultivating and exporting potatoes from Tenerife and Gran Canaria to continental Europe as early as 1567, only 30 years after the first written observation of the species in South America, and providing evidence that the species was likely first brought from the Americas to the Canary Islands, and from there to continental Spain and the rest of Europe (Candolle, 1885; Hawkes and Francisco-Ortega, 1993). The species was initially used in Europe to feed pigs, before becoming a staple crop for humans (Wiart, 2006).

During the 18th and 19th Centuries the potato was introduced into several tropical and subtropical countries, including the South-East Asian region, mainly by colonists from Europe. It was introduced into Papua New Guinea in the early 1930s, where it is now a popular cash crop in the highlands at altitudes above 1500 m.

Date of introduction to the West Indies is uncertain. The species was not included in Bello’s works (1881; 1883) or in Urban’s work on the Antilles (1898-1928), but the species was included in Britton’s 1918 work on Bermuda, where he reported it had been cultivated “since the early days of the colony”. A specimen of the species was collected in Haiti in 1928 (Smithsonian Herbarium Collection).

The species has been present in Africa as a widely cultivated food crop since at least the early 19th century (Jaeger and Hepper, 1986).

Risk of Introduction

Top of page

Based on the current literature, the species poses a risk to native flora. It is a declared noxious weed in the United States and South Africa (Randall, 2012; USDA-NRCS, 2014) and listed in the American Lands Alliance’s “Worst Invasive Species in the conterminous United States” list (Randall, 2012). It is considered an agricultural weed on plantations and cultivated fields in parts of the Pacific Islands where it has been introduced (Randall, 2012). Because of the species’ global importance as a staple food crop both in the international commercial industry and on the local scale, caution and vigilance is essential when cultivating the species in order to minimize cultivation escape into the wild.

Habitat

Top of page

S. tuberosum is one of the most important food crops of the world, and grown in cool-temperate regions and at higher altitudes in the tropics (Wagner et al., 2014). It is native to the mountainous areas of Bolivia, Chile and Peru. It is an important food crop in the mountainous countryside of China (An-ming, 1986). In Antioquia, Colombia the species has been reported growing in Lower Montane Rain Forest (bh-MB) and Lower Montane Wet Forest (Vascular Plants of Antioquia, 2014), while in Bolivia it is recorded growing in dry valleys, the Yungas forest, and humid puna grassland of the central Andes region (Bolivia Checklist, 2014).

Habitat List

Top of page
CategorySub-CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Terrestrial ManagedCultivated / agricultural land Principal habitat Productive/non-natural
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalNatural forests Present, no further details Natural
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalNatural forests Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalNatural grasslands Present, no further details Natural
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalNatural grasslands Present, no further details Productive/non-natural

Biology and Ecology

Top of page

Genetics

There are numerous cultivars of S. tuberosum. Sporophytic count has been reported as 2n=24, 36, 48, 72, 96 (Wagner et al., 2014; IPCN Chromosome Reports, 2014).

Botanical Information

Tetraploid S. tuberosum can be classified into two cultivar groups, with the following characteristics:

- cultivar group Andigena (subsp. andigena), mainly occurring in South America from Venezuela to northern Argentina and is supposed to have originated by chromosome doubling in an unknown wild diploid species from the Andean region between Bolivia and Venezuela. Its members are tall, often straggling; leaves intensively dissected with numerous leaflets; adapted to short days; they usually produce rather irregularly shaped, deep-eyed and often pigmented tubers that are usually not acceptable to the more sophisticated markets of Europe and North America. They are also grown to a small extent in Mexico and Guatemala.

- cultivar group Tuberosum (subsp. tuberosum), mainly occurring in Europe and North America, supposed to have originated from selections made during the last 300 years from cv. group Andigena. Its members are smaller, less straggling, with less dissected leaves and are adapted to long days. This group has become a world crop and is now cosmopolitan in distribution. It was first introduced into Europe where selection began and from where cultivars spread to North America. With growing interest in the crop, supplementary introductions from South America were made to both these regions. Continuing selection has led to the establishment of numerous cultivars, a process still going on wherever the crop is grown. Cultivars vary in characteristics of their tubers, sprouts, foliage, flowers, growth cycle and disease resistance; much of the variability is also influenced by the environment. Propagation by true seed, however, produces variability due to genetic recombination.

Growth and Development

The general growth and development patterns of potato plants are characteristic within cultivars, but also vary with the environment and fertilizer treatments.

After harvest, tubers usually enter a period of dormancy, the duration of which depends on cultivar, maturity of the tuber, soil and climatic conditions during growth, and storage conditions. It often lasts for 2-6 months, but in some cases bud growth has already started before harvest. High temperatures during growth and storage tend to shorten dormancy and low temperatures prolong the dormancy period. Dormancy can be broken by treating tubers with chemicals such as chlorohydrin, thiourea or gibberellic acid. However, naturally sprouted tubers without the use of chemicals are preferred as they give more uniform germination and better growth. Once the period of natural dormancy has ended, the seed tuber passes through various subsequent physiological stages: apical dominance of sprouts, multiple sprouting and senility. An apical sprout is dominant over the other buds, so these remain dormant. Only when this apical or top sprout is removed (de-sprouting) will the other buds of the tuber develop sprouts during this phase. The degree of apical dominance depends on the cultivar. The optimum stage for planting is multiple sprouting, not only because of the number of sprouts, but also because of the vigour of individual sprouts. The number of sprouts (germinating eyes) per tuber depends on the extent of apical dominance, which is affected by variety, tuber age and physiological age as affected by chitting. It also depends on nutrition, tuber size and tuber health. After prolonged storage seed tubers may reach the stage of senility and have then become unfit for planting.

After planting, sprouts develop into stems. A main stem grows directly from the seed tuber. The lower lateral branches from the main stem are called secondary stems. Apart from secondary stems, a stem may develop branches at higher nodes several times during its growth. Main and secondary stems grow and behave like independent plants, and develop roots, stolons and tubers. Plant population is, therefore, best expressed as number of stems, rather than number of plants.

In plants growing from tubers, adventitious roots arise from the nodes of the underground stems. Plants grown from true seed develop a slender taproot with lateral branches.

The tuber is a modified stem which develops by the swelling of the tip of an underground stem (stolon).

The length of the growing period depends upon cultivar, amount of fertilizer (particularly N), pest attack (particularly the nematode burden on the roots), disease and weather conditions. In South-East Asia, cultivars generally mature in 3-5 months.

Reproductive Biology

The species produces viable seeds and is also capable of regenerating from its underground tubers.

Ecology

To achieve their yield potential potato crops require well-distributed rainfall of 500-750 mm in a growing period of 3-4.5 months. Cropping is possible in drier areas, as in Northern China, but yields are restricted. It can tolerate an annual temperature of 3.6 to 27.8°C, but is a cool weather crop, growing best at 15-20°C for most cultivars (Duke, 1983). Most commercial cultivars of potato tuberize best in cool climates with night temperatures below 20°C. Little or no tuberization occurs at night temperatures above 22°C. Optimum day temperatures for dry matter production are within the range 20-25°C. High light intensities favour dry matter production through their effect on photosynthesis. Short daylengths (12-13 hours) lead to earlier maturity. Potato is tolerant of moderate frost and cool soils (Missouri Botanical Garden Plant Finder, 2014).

In the short daylength conditions of the tropics and subtropics, maximum yields can usually be obtained in cool highland areas and in cooler seasons. In Papua New Guinea, for example, optimum growth of potato takes place at altitudes between 1500 and 2200 m above sea-level, where day temperatures are about 25°C and night temperatures about 20°C.

Potato is tolerant of most soils, except heavy, waterlogged clays. Good drainage is of great importance. Impermeable layers in the soil limit rooting depth and the amount of available water, and so greatly reduce yields. Deep soils with good water retention and aeration give best growth and yields. The species can reportedly grow in a wide variety of soils including sandy loams, silt loams, loams and peats, with a soil pH range of 4.2 to 8.2 (Duke, 1983). Potatoes perform well across a wider range of soil pH than most crops. It is commonly thought that the optimum range is 4.8 to 7.0, but high yields of good quality potatoes are obtained on soils of above 8.0 pH, as on the Wisbech series in Lincolnshire, UK.

In the Americas, S. tuberosum can be grown from sea level up to 4500 m. In Nicaragua the species has been observed at 800-1000 m (Flora of Nicaragua, 2014), while in Panama it has been observed between 1000 and 2000 m (Panama Checklist, 2014). In Antioquia, Colombia, the species has been reported at elevations of 2000-2500 m in Lower Montane Rain Forest (bh-MB) and Lower Montane Wet Forest (Vascular Plants of Antioquia, 2014). In Pakistan the species apparently does well in hilly areas up to 3000 m (Flora of Pakistan, 2014). In Ecuador the species has been reported between 0 and 4500 m (Vascular Plants of Ecuador, 2014), and in Bolivia it has been observed between 2500 and 4000 m and is capable of tolerating dry soil (Bolivia Checklist, 2014).

Climate

Top of page
ClimateStatusDescriptionRemark
Af - Tropical rainforest climate Preferred > 60mm precipitation per month
Am - Tropical monsoon climate Preferred Tropical monsoon climate ( < 60mm precipitation driest month but > (100 - [total annual precipitation(mm}/25]))
As - Tropical savanna climate with dry summer Preferred < 60mm precipitation driest month (in summer) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
Aw - Tropical wet and dry savanna climate Preferred < 60mm precipitation driest month (in winter) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
Cf - Warm temperate climate, wet all year Preferred Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, wet all year
Cs - Warm temperate climate with dry summer Preferred Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry summers
Cw - Warm temperate climate with dry winter Preferred Warm temperate climate with dry winter (Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry winters)

Air Temperature

Top of page
Parameter Lower limit Upper limit
Mean annual temperature (ºC) 3.6 27.8

Rainfall

Top of page
ParameterLower limitUpper limitDescription
Mean annual rainfall904100mm; lower/upper limits

Soil Tolerances

Top of page

Soil reaction

  • acid
  • alkaline
  • neutral

Soil texture

  • light
  • medium

Notes on Natural Enemies

Top of page

Diseases of S. tuberosum are numerous and widespread, affecting yield and quality where the plant is grown as a crop. The most prevalent diseases are:

- bacterial diseases, including bacterial wilt caused by Ralstonia solanacearum, bacterial soft rot caused mainly by Erwinia carotivora, and common scab caused by Streptomyces scabies

- fungal diseases including late blight caused by Phytophthora infestans, early blight or target spot caused by Alternaria solani, black scurf caused by Rhizoctonia solan[Thanetophorus cucumeris], and pink rot caused by Phytophthora erythroseptica

- several viral diseases including potato leafroll luteovirus (PLRV) and the mosaic viruses, notably potato X potexvirus (PVX) and potato Y potyvirus (PVY).

Duke (1983) states: In the USA, potatoes are injured by more than 100 species of insects, especially the Colorado potato beetle (Leptinotarsa decemlineata). It and the flea beetle (principally Epitrix spp.) reduce yields by feeding on the foliage. The potato aphid attacks the foliage and also spreads several viral diseases. Potato leaf hoppers cause a destructive disease-like condition known as hopperburn by sucking juices from the plants. The tubers are attacked by wireworms, often rendering the potatoes unsuitable for sale. 

Pathway Causes

Top of page
CauseNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Breeding and propagationHas a long history of cultivation Yes Yes
Crop productionA staple crop in many countries Yes Yes
Escape from confinement or garden escape Yes Yes
FoodA staple crop worldwide, tubers capable of regenerating Yes Yes
Garden waste disposalSpecies has a long and wide history of cultivation; can reproduce by both seed and tubers Yes Yes
Industrial purposesCrop processed for many uses Yes Yes
People foragingSpecies has a long and wide history of cultivation both locally and commercially Yes Yes
Research Yes Yes

Pathway Vectors

Top of page
VectorNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
ConsumablesImportant food crop: edible tubers capable of regenerating Yes Yes
Soil, sand and gravelSoil that contains fragments of tuber can be transported. Tubers are capable of regenerating Yes Yes

Impact Summary

Top of page
CategoryImpact
Economic/livelihood Positive
Environment (generally) Negative
Human health Positive and negative

Environmental Impact

Top of page

S. tuberosum has a negative environmental impact if given the chance to become weedy; however because of its importance as one of the top staple food crops of the world, the species continues to be widely commercially cultivated. 

Social Impact

Top of page

Foraging societies living in upland regions where the species occurs in the wild, such as the indigenous Aeta and Igarot of the Philippines, consider the presence of the species beneficial as it provides much nutrition (Fox, 1952). However, all parts of the plant except the tubers are poisonous, and the species poses a health threat to humans and mammals if the species becomes invasive. Tubers that have become green are poisonous, as the green colour indicates these tubers have produced alkaloids.

Risk and Impact Factors

Top of page
Invasiveness
  • Abundant in its native range
  • Highly adaptable to different environments
  • Tolerates, or benefits from, cultivation, browsing pressure, mutilation, fire etc
  • Benefits from human association (i.e. it is a human commensal)
  • Long lived
  • Fast growing
  • Has high reproductive potential
  • Has propagules that can remain viable for more than one year
  • Reproduces asexually
Impact outcomes
  • Negatively impacts agriculture
Impact mechanisms
  • Hybridization
Likelihood of entry/control
  • Highly likely to be transported internationally deliberately

Uses

Top of page

Worldwide, tubers of the potato crop are used for direct human consumption (48%), processing (11%, of which 2% is for the production of starch), vegetative propagation (13%), stock feed (20%) and the remaining 8% is waste. Worldwide, the use of potatoes for alcohol production is negligible, but can be important in some locations. The species is a rich source of protein, vitamin C and starch.

Potato tubers are consumed in many forms. Whole, they may be boiled, roasted or steamed in their skins; they may be peeled and then boiled or steamed and mashed with margarine or butter, with or without milk, or they may be baked or roasted. Large quantities are consumed fried as chips (French fries, pommes frites) or as thinly sliced crisps. In the USA, 32% of the potato harvest was processed into French fries during 1989-1990. Dutch processors produced 1.47 million t of frozen French fries in 1990 compared with 6000 t in 1960. In many Asian countries, potatoes are part of various curry dishes.

The fairly good storing ability of the raw tuber, in addition to processing into many forms of dehydrated, frozen and canned tubers, results in a supply reasonably independent of season. This and the simple cooking methods contribute to potato's importance as a major world crop.

Transgenic potatoes have been engineered to generate an immune response to Escherichia coli infection in humans and have potential as a new strategy for development of safe and inexpensive vaccines against diseases such as tetanus, diphtheria and hepatitis B. The species has been the subject of genetic research to improve cultivars for agricultural purposes. As a member of the Solanum genus, S. tuberosum has also been studied for its production of potentially medicinal alkaloids.

Uses List

Top of page

Animal feed, fodder, forage

  • Fodder/animal feed

Genetic importance

  • Gene source

Human food and beverage

  • Beverage base
  • Flour/starch
  • Vegetable

Medicinal, pharmaceutical

  • Source of medicine/pharmaceutical
  • Traditional/folklore

Prevention and Control

Top of page

Due to the variable regulations around (de)registration of pesticides, your national list of registered pesticides or relevant authority should be consulted to determine which products are legally allowed for use in your country when considering chemical control. Pesticides should always be used in a lawful manner, consistent with the product's label.

Papers on control of S. tuberosum are generally studies on volunteer potatoes as a weed in succeeding crops. Rahman (1980) reviews the literature on S. tuberosum as a weed, including mechanical, cultural and chemical control methods. Lainsbury et al. (1998) report that clopyralid and ethofumesate reduce the vigour and population density of S. tuberosum in sugarbeet crops. Boydston and Seymour (2002) found that fluroxypyr plus bromoxynil reduced tuber weight of S. tuberosum acting as a weed in onion. Fluroxypyr was found by Riggle et al. (1999) to suppress volunteer S. tuberosum in wheat and barley crops, while Bond (1993) found treatments containing fluroxypyr more effective than ioxynil or clopyralid for control of S. tuberosum in vegetable crops. 

References

Top of page

Acevedo-Rodríguez P, 1996. Flora of St. John, U.S. Virgin Islands. Memoirs of the New York Botanical Garden, 78:1-581.

Acevedo-Rodríguez P, Strong MT, 2012. Catalogue of the Seed Plants of the West Indies. Smithsonian Contributions to Botany, 98:1192 pp. Washington DC, USA: Smithsonian Institution. http://botany.si.edu/Antilles/WestIndies/catalog.htm

An-ming L, 1986. Solanaceae in China. In: Solanaceae: Biology and Systematics. Papers from the International Symposium on the Biology and Systematics of the Solanaceae [ed. by D'Arcy, W. G.]. New York, USA: Columbia University Press, 79-85.

Bello D, 1883. [English title not available]. (Apuntes para la flora de Puerto Rico. Segunda parte. Monoclamídeas.) Anales de la Sociedad Española de Historia Natural, 12:103-130.

Bello Espinosa D, 1881. [English title not available]. (Apuntes para la flora de Puerto Rico. Primera parte.) Anal. Soc. Española de Hist. Nat, 10:231-304.

Beukema HP, van der Zaag, DE, 1990. Introduction to potato production. Wageningen, the Netherlands: Centre for Agricultural Publishing and Documentation (Pudoc)

Bolivia Checklist, 2014. Catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Bolivia, Tropicos website. St. Louis, Missouri and Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden and Harvard University Herbaria. http://tropicos.org/NameSearch.aspx?projectid=13

Bond JK, 2014. Potato utilization and markets. In: The potato: botany, production and uses [ed. by Navarre, R.\Pavek, M. J.]. Wallingford, UK: CABI, 29-44. http://www.cabi.org/cabebooks/ebook/20143417135

Bond W, 1993. Evaluation of ioxynil, fluroxypyr and clopyralid for the control of volunteer potato in vegetable crops. In: Aspects of Applied Biology, No. 35. 123-130.

Boydston RA, Seymour MD, 2002. Volunteer potato (Solanum tuberosum) control with herbicides and cultivation in onion (Allium cepa). Weed Technology, 16(3):620-626.

Britton NL, 1918. Flora of Bermuda. New York, USA: Charles Scribner's Sons. 585 pp.

Burton WG, 1966. The potato. 2nd edition. Wageningen, the Netherlands: Veenman, HZ.

Candolle Ade, 1885. Origin of Cultivated Plants. New York, USA: D. Appleton and Co., 468 pp.

Cribb PJ, Hawkes JG, 1986. Experimental evidence for the origin of Solanum tuberosum subspecies andigena.. In: Solanaceae: biology and systematics [ed. by D'Arcy, W. G.]. New York, USA: Columbia University Press, 383-404.

D'Arcy WG, 1986. Origin and distinctions of domesticates. In: Solanaceae: Biology and Systematics. Papers from the International Symposium on the Biology and Systematics of the Solanaceae [ed. by D'Arcy, W. G.]. New York, USA: Columbia University Press, 379-382.

Dodds KS, 1962. Classification of cultivated potatoes. In: Correll DS, ed. The potato and its wild relatives. Renner, Texas, USA: Texas Research Foundation, 499-507, 517-539.

Duke JA, 1983. Handbook of Energy Crops. Unpublished. Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana, USA: Centre for New Crops and Plant Products. World Wide Web page at http://www.hort.purdue.edu/newcrop/Indices/index_ab.html.

Dyakov YuT, Derevjagina MK, 2000. Late blight of potato [Phytopthora infestans] and its control in Russia. Pesticide Outlook, 11(6):230-232; 11 ref.

Elzebroek, T., Wind, K., 2008. Guide to cultivated plants., Guide to cultivated plants:vii-xi + 516 pp.

FAO, 1991. Potato production and consumption in developing countries. Plant production and protection paper 110. Rome, Italy: Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO).

FAO, 1996. FAO Statistics Series No. 135. Production. Italy, Rome: Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), 89-90.

Flora Mesoamericana, 2014. Flora Mesoamericana. St. Louis, Missouri, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden. http://www.tropicos.org/Project/FM

Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2014. Flora of China. St. Louis, Missouri and Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden and Harvard University Herbaria. http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2

Flora of Missouri, 2014. Flora of Missouri, eFloras website. St. Louis, MO and Cambridge, MA, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden and Harvard University Herbaria. http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=11

Flora of Nicaragua, 2014. Flora of Nicaragua, Tropicos website. St. Louis, Missouri and Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden and Harvard University Herbaria. http://tropicos.org/NameSearch.aspx?projectid=7

Flora of Pakistan, 2014. Flora of Pakistan/Pakistan Plant Database (PPD). Tropicos website St. Louis, Missouri and Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden and Harvard University Herbaria. http://www.tropicos.org/Project/Pakistan

Fox RB, 1952. The Pinatubo Negritos. Philippine Journal of Science, 81:173-413.

Gentry Jr JL, D'Arcy WG, 1986. Solanaceae of Mesoamerica. In: Solanaceae: Biology and Systematics. Papers from the International Symposium on the Biology and Systematics of the Solanaceae [ed. by D'Arcy, W. G.]. New York, USA: Columbia University Press, 15-26.

Harris PM, ed. , 1978. The potato crop. The scientific basis for improvement. The potato crop. The scientific basis for improvement. Chapman & Hall Ltd. London UK, xxii + 730 pp.

Hawkes JG, Francisco-Ortega J, 1993. The early history of the potato in Europe. Euphytica, 70(1-2):1-7.

Hijmans RJ, Forbes GA, Walker TS, 2000. Estimating the global severity of potato late blight with GIS-linked disease forecast models. Plant Pathology, 49(6):697-705; 24 ref.

Hims M, Hill S, 2001. Addressing pest and disease problems for the UK potato industry. Pesticide Outlook, 12:50-54.

Holm LG, Pancho JV, Herberger JP, Plucknett DL, 1979. A geographical atlas of world weeds. New York, USA: John Wiley and Sons, 391 pp.

Holm LG, Pancho JV, Herberger JP, Plucknett DL, 1991. A Geographic Atlas of World Weeds. Malabar, Florida, USA: Krieger Publishing Company.

Hughes MJ, Pitt AJ, Gorogo GD, Waiange JK, 1989. Papua New Guinea seed potato scheme technoguide. Port Moresby, Papua New Guinea: Department of Agriculture and Livestock, Food Management Branch.

Hunziker AT, 1979. South American Solanaceae: a synoptic survey. In: The Biology and taxonomy of the Solanaceae [ed. by Hawkes, J. G. \Lester, R. N. \Skelding, A. D.]. London, UK: Published for the Linnean Society of London by Academic Press, 49-85.

IPCN Chromosome Reports, 2014. Index to Plant Chromosome Numbers (IPCN), Tropicos website. St. Louis, Missouri, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden. http://tropicos.org/Project/IPCN

Jaeger P-ML, Hepper FN, 1986. A review of the genus Solanum in Africa. In: D'Arcy WG, ed. Solanaceae: Biology and Systematics. New York, USA: Columbia University Press, 41-55.

Kiple KF, Ornelas KC, 2000. The Cambridge world history of food. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. http://www.cambridge.org/us/books/kiple/potatoes.htm

Kress WJ, Defilipps RA, Farr E, Kyi DYY, 2003. A checklist of the trees, shrubs, herbs, and climbers of Myanmar. Contributions from the United States National Herbarium, 45:1-590.

Kuc J, 1982. Phytoalexins from the Solanaceae. Phytoalexins [ed. by Bailey, J. A.\Mansfield, J. W.]. Glasgow, UK: Blackie & Son Ltd., 82-105.

Lainsbury MA, Hilton JG, Pollak R, 1998. Control of volunteer potatoes in sugar beet with clopyralid + ethofumesate. In: Aspects of Applied Biology, No. 52 [ed. by Dale, M. F. B.\Dewar, A. M.\Fisherr, S. J.\Haydock, P. P. J.\Jaggard, K. W.\May, M. J.\Smith, H. G.\Storey, R. M. J.\Wiltshire, J. J. J.]. 387-392.

MacKerron D, Mackay G, 2000. The World Potato Congress. Pesticide Outlook, 11:179-180.

Missouri Botanical Garden Plant Finder, 2014. Missouri Botanical Garden Plant Finder. St. Louis, MO, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden. http://www.missouribotanicalgarden.org/PlantFinder

Navarre R, Pavek MJ, 2014. The potato: botany, production and uses [ed. by Navarre, R.\Pavek, M. J.]. Wallingford, UK: CABI, xi + 370 pp. http://www.cabi.org/cabebooks/ebook/20143417132

NZPCN, 2014. New Zealand's Flora - Solanum tuberosum profile., New Zealand: New Zealand Plant Conservation Network (NZPCN). http://www.nzpcn.org.nz/flora_details.aspx?ID=2778

Panama Checklist, 2014. Flora of Panama Checklist, Tropicos website. St. Louis, Missouri and Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden and Harvard University Herbaria. http://tropicos.org/Project/PAC

PBI Solanum Project, 2014. Solanaceae Source website., USA: Planetary Biodiversity Inventories (PBI), National Science Foundation. http://www.solanaceaesource.org/

Peru Checklist, 2014. The Catalogue of the Flowering Plants and Gymnosperms of Peru. St. Louis, Missouri, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden. http://www.tropicos.org/Project/PEC

Quattrocchi U, 2012. CRC world dictionary of medicinal and poisonous plants: common names, scientific names, eponyms, synonyms, and etymology [ed. by Quattrocchi, U.]. London, UK: CRC Press Inc., 3960 pp.

Rahman A, 1980. Biology and control of volunteer potatoes - a review. New Zealand Journal of Experimental Agriculture, 8(3/4):313-319.

Raman KV, Grnnwald NJ, Fry WE, 2000. Promoting international collaboration for potato late blight disease management. Pesticide Outlook, 11(5):181-185; 24 ref.

Randall RP, 2012. A Global Compendium of Weeds. Perth, Australia: Department of Agriculture and Food Western Australia, 1124 pp. http://www.cabi.org/isc/FullTextPDF/2013/20133109119.pdf

Riggle B, Bearmore R, Mundt G, Jachetta J, Redding K, 1999. Fluroxypyr (Starane) for control of kochia and other broadleaf weeds in wheat and barley. Proceedings of the Western Society of Weed Science, 52:126.

Smith AW, 1971. A Gardener's Dictionary of Plant Names: A Handbook on the Origin and Meaning of Some Plant Names, revised and enlarged by William T. Stearn. London, UK: Cassell and Co., 391 pp.

Symon DE, 1986. Solanaceae in New Guinea. Solanaceae: biology and systematics [ed. by D'Arcy, W. G.]. New York, USA: Columbia University Press, 91-96.

Taiwan Plant Names, 2014. Taiwan Plant Names, eFloras website. St. Louis, MO and Cambridge, MA, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden and Harvard University Herbaria. http://www.efloras.org/florataxon.aspx?flora_id=101

Talavera M, Andreu M, Valor H, Tobar A, 1998. Plant parasitic nematodes in potato growing areas of Motril and Salobrena. Investigacio^acute~n Agraria, Produccio^acute~n y Proteccio^acute~n Vegetales, 13(1/2):87-95; 25 ref.

The Plant List, 2013. The Plant List: a working list of all plant species. Version 1.1. London, UK: Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. http://www.theplantlist.org

Twiss PTG, 1963. Quality as influenced by harvesting and storage. In: Ivins JD, Milthorpe FL, eds. The growth of potato. Proceedings of the 10th Easter School in Agricultural Science. London, UK: University of Nottingham, 281-291.

Urban I, 1898-1928. Symbolae Antillanae: Seu fundamenta florae Indiae Occidentalis. Berolini, Germany: Fratres Borntraeger.

USDA-ARS, 2014. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Online Database. Beltsville, Maryland, USA: National Germplasm Resources Laboratory. https://npgsweb.ars-grin.gov/gringlobal/taxon/taxonomysearch.aspx

USDA-NRCS, 2014. The PLANTS Database. Baton Rouge, USA: National Plant Data Center. http://plants.usda.gov/

van der Zaag DE, Horton D, 1983. Potato production and utilization in world perspective with special reference to the tropics and subtropics. Potato Research, 26: 323-362.

Vascular Plants of Antioquia, 2014. Catalogue of the Vascular Plants of the Department of Antioquia (Colombia), Tropicos website. St. Louis, Missouri and Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden and Harvard University Herbaria. http://tropicos.org/Project/CV

Vascular Plants of Ecuador, 2014. Catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Ecuador, Tropicos website. St. Louis, Missouri and Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden and Harvard University Herbaria. http://tropicos.org/Project/CE

Vasyutin AS, Yakovleva VA, 1998. Globodera in potatoes in Russia. Kartofel' i Ovoshchi, No. 6:29, 32.

Wagner WL, Herbst DR, Lorence DH, 2014. Flora of the Hawaiian Islands website. Washington DC, USA: Smithsonian Institution,. http://botany.si.edu/pacificislandbiodiversity/hawaiianflora/index.htm

Welbaum, G. E., 2015. Vegetable production and practices., Vegetable production and practices:ix + 476 pp.

Wiart C, 2006. Medicinal plants of Asia and the Pacific. Boca Raton, USA: CRC/Taylor & Francis, 336 pp.

Woolfe JA, 1987. The potato in the human diet. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.

Wyk BEvan, 2005. Food plants of the world: An illustrated guide. Portland, OR, USA: Timber Press, 480 pp.

Distribution References

Aatika S, Nasira K, Shahina F, 2017. Description of Filenchus maqbooli n. sp., and redescriptions of five new records of plant parasitic nematodes of maize crops from Punjab, Pakistan. Pakistan Journal of Nematology. 35 (1), 47-64. DOI:10.18681/pjn.v35.i01.p47-64

Abbas G, Arif M J, Muhammad Ashfaq, Muhammad Aslam, Shafqat Saeed, 2010. Host plants distribution and overwintering of cotton mealybug (Phenacoccus solenopsis; Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae). International Journal of Agriculture and Biology. 12 (3), 421-425. http://www.fspublishers.org/ijab/past-issues/IJABVOL_12_NO_3/20.pdf

Abdel-Salam A M M, Rezk A A, Dawoud R A, 2019. Biochemical, serological, molecular and natural host studies on Tomato Chlorosis Virus in Egypt. Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences. 22 (2), 83-94. https://scialert.net/fulltext/?doi=pjbs.2019.83.94&org=11

Acevedo-Rodríguez P, Strong M T, 2012. Catalogue of the Seed Plants of the West Indies. Washington, DC, USA: Smithsonian Institution. 1192 pp. http://botany.si.edu/Antilles/WestIndies/catalog.htm

Adler N E, Erselius L J, Chacón M G, Flier W G, Ordoñez M E, Kroon L P N M, Forbes G A, 2004. Genetic diversity of Phytophthora infestans sensu lato in Ecuador provides new insight into the origin of this important plant pathogen. Phytopathology. 94 (2), 154-162. DOI:10.1094/PHYTO.2004.94.2.154

Akgul H C, Bayram S, Erdogus F D, 2010. Two new records of Turkish nematode fauna: Ditylenchus equalis and Pratylenchus pseudopratensis. Pakistan Journal of Nematology. 28 (2), 285-293.

Aktaruzzaman M, Xu ShengJun, Kim JoonYoung, Woo JaeHyoun, Hahm YoungIl, Kim ByungSup, 2014. First report of potato stem-end rot caused by Fusarium oxysporum in Korea. Mycobiology. 42 (2), 206-209. DOI:10.5941/MYCO.2014.42.2.206

Alabi O J, Crosslin J M, Saidov N, Naidu R A, 2012. First report of Potato virus Y in potato in Tajikistan. Plant Disease. 96 (7), 1074-1075. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis DOI:10.1094/PDIS-03-12-0249-PDN

Alfaro-Fernández A, Bese G, Córdoba-Sellés C, Cebrián M C, Herrera-Vásquez J A, Forray A, Jordá C, 2009. First report of tomato torrado virus infecting tomato in Hungary. Plant Disease. 93 (5), 554. DOI:10.1094/PDIS-93-5-0554C

Ali H B, Agarwala B K, Kaddou I K, 2012. New records of aphids of the Subfamily Aphidinae (Homoptera: Aphididae) infested herbaceous plants and shrubs for Iraqi aphid fauna. Advances in Bio Research. 3 (4), 66-75. http://www.soeagra.com/abr/abrdec_2012/12.pdf

Ali S, Rivera V V, Secor G A, 2005. First report of Fusarium graminearum causing dry rot of potato in North Dakota. Plant Disease. 89 (1), 105. DOI:10.1094/PD-89-0105B

Almeida M M S, Orílio A F, Melo F L, Rodriguez R, Feliz A, Cayetano X, Martínez R T, Resende R O, 2014. The first report of Tomato chlorotic spot virus (TCSV) infecting long beans and chili peppers in the Dominican Republic. Plant Disease. 98 (9), 1285. DOI:10.1094/PDIS-04-14-0348-PDN

Altundağ Ș, Karahan A, Kılınç A O, Özakman M, 2009. First report of Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. sepedonicus causing bacterial ring rot of potato in Turkey. Plant Pathology. 58 (4), 794. http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/loi/ppa DOI:10.1111/j.1365-3059.2009.02034.x

Amini J, Sepehrnoosh S, Abdollahzadeh J, 2016. First report of Alternaria cantlous causing leaf spot on potato in Iran. Plant Disease. 100 (3), 653. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis DOI:10.1094/PDIS-08-15-0953-PDN

Andrés M F, Alonso R, Alemany A, 2006. First report of Globodera rostochiensis in Mallorca Island, Spain. Plant Disease. 90 (9), 1262. HTTP://www.apsnet.org DOI:10.1094/PD-90-1262C

Anfoka G, Ahmad F H, Altaleb M, Abadi M, Abubaker S, Levy D, Rosner A, Czosnek H, 2014. First report of recombinant Potato virus Y strains infecting potato in Jordan. Plant Disease. 98 (7), 1017-1018. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis

Anfoka G, Altaleb M, Abu-Obaida M, 2016. First report of Potato virus Y strain N-Wilga affecting potato in Jordan. Plant Disease. 100 (11), 2176. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis

Arizala D, Dobhal S, Paudel S, Gunarathne S, Boluk G, Arif M, 2020. First report of bacterial soft rot and blackleg on potato caused by Pectobacterium parmentieri in Hawaii. Plant Disease. 104 (3), 970-970. DOI:10.1094/PDIS-09-19-1894-PDN

Arora R K, 2009. Late blight: an increasing threat to seed potato production in the north-western plains of India. Acta Horticulturae. 201-204. http://www.actahort.org/books/834/834_22.htm

Avila A L, Vera M A, Ortego J, Willink E, Ploper L D, Conci V C, 2014. Aphid species (Hemiptera: Aphididae) reported for the first time in Tucumán, Argentina. Florida Entomologist. 97 (4), 1277-1283. DOI:10.1653/024.097.0402

Ayad D, Hamon B, Kedad A, Bouznad Z, Simoneau P, 2018. First report of early blight caused by Alternaria linariae on potato in Algeria. Plant Disease. 102 (12), 2651-2652. DOI:10.1094/PDIS-04-18-0703-PDN

Ayad D, Leclerc S, Hamon B, Kedad A, Bouznad Z, Simoneau P, 2017. First report of early blight caused by Alternaria protenta on potato in Algeria. Plant Disease. 101 (5), 836-837. DOI:10.1094/PDIS-10-16-1420-PDN

Azami-Sardooei Z, Shahreyarinejad S, Rouzkhosh M, Fekrat F, 2018. The first report on feeding of Oxycarenus hyalinipennis and Aphis fabae on dodder Cuscuta campestris in Iran. Journal of Crop Protection. 7 (1), 121-124. http://jcp.modares.ac.ir/article-3-23982-en.pdf

Babu A G C, Merz U, 2011. First confirmed report of powdery scab caused by Spongospora subterranea f. sp. subterranea on potato in Sri Lanka. Plant Disease. 95 (8), 1033. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis DOI:10.1094/PDIS-03-11-0162

Bačić J, Stare B G, Strajnar P, Širca S, Urek G, 2016. First report of a highly damaged potato crop from Serbia caused by Meloidogyne incognita. Plant Disease. 100 (5), 1021-1022. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis DOI:10.1094/PDIS-09-15-1072-PDN

Baeza-Montañez L, Gómez-Cabrera R, García-Pedrajas M D, 2010. First report of verticillium wilt caused by Verticillium dahliae on mango trees (Mangifera indica) in Southern Spain. Plant Disease. 94 (3), 380-381. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis DOI:10.1094/PDIS-94-3-0380C

Bagherabadi S, Zafari D, Soleimani M J, 2015. Genetic diversity of Alternaria alternata isolates causing potato brown leaf spot, using ISSR markers in Iran. Journal of Plant Pathology and Microbiology. 6 (7), 286. http://www.omicsonline.org/open-access/genetic-diversity-of-alternaria-alternata-isolates-causing-potato-brown-leaf-spot-using-issr-markers-in-iran-2157-7471-1000286.php?aid=58610

Baideng E L, Lengkong H J, Frans T M, Koneri R, Pontororing H, 2019. Types of insects associated with potato plants (Solanum tuberosum L.) and the incidence of the disease in Modoinding, North Sulawesi, Indonesia. Scientific Papers Series - Management, Economic Engineering in Agriculture and Rural Development. 19 (4), 25-28. http://managementjournal.usamv.ro/pdf/vol.19_4/Art3.pdf

Baldauf P M, Gray S M, Perry K L, 2006. Biological and serological properties of Potato virus Y isolates in northeastern United States potato. Plant Disease. 90 (5), 559-566. DOI:10.1094/PD-90-0559

Baniameri V, Cheraghian A, 2012. The first report and control strategies of Tuta absoluta in Iran. Bulletin OEPP/EPPO Bulletin. 42 (2), 322-324. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/journal/10.1111/(ISSN)1365-2338 DOI:10.1111/epp.2577

Basİm H, Basİm E, Gezgİn S, Babaoglu M, 2005. First report of the occurrence of potato wart disease caused by Synchytrium endobioticum in Turkey. Plant Disease. 89 (11), 1245. DOI:10.1094/PD-89-1245B

Basu M, Patro B, 2007. New records of host plants and natural enemies of Aphis gossypii Glover (Aphididae: Homoptera) from Orissa, India. Journal of Plant Protection and Environment. 4 (2), 74-80.

Bekele B, Abate E, Asefa A, Dickinson M, 2011. Incidence of potato viruses and bacterial wilt disease in the west Amhara sub-region of Ethiopia. Journal of Plant Pathology. 93 (1), 149-157. http://sipav.org/main/jpp/index.php/jpp/article/view/285/151

Bextine B, Arp A, Flores E, Aguilar E, Lastrea L, Gomez F S, Powell C, Rueda A, 2013. First report of zebra chip and 'Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum' on potatoes in Nicaragua. Plant Disease. 97 (8), 1109. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis DOI:10.1094/PDIS-09-12-0824-PDN

Blagojević J, Janjatović S, Ignjatov M, Trkulja N, Gašić K, Ivanović, 2020. First report of a leaf spot disease caused by Alternaria protenta on the Datura stramonium in Serbia. Plant Disease. 104 (3), 986-986. DOI:10.1094/PDIS-06-19-1335-PDN

Blixt E, Andersson B, 2010. Occurrence of Alternaria solani in Sweden and its sensitivity to strobilurins. In: Proceedings of the Twelfth EuroBlight Workshop, Arras, France, 3-6 May 2010 [Proceedings of the Twelfth EuroBlight Workshop, Arras, France, 3-6 May 2010.], [ed. by Schepers H T A M]. Lelystad, Netherlands: Praktijkonderzoek Plant & Omgeving, PPO. 161-164.

Bobev S G, Jonghe K de, Maes M, 2018. First report of Tobacco necrosis virus causing the ABC disease on potato tubers in Bulgaria. Plant Disease. 102 (4), 829-830. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis DOI:10.1094/PDIS-08-17-1188-PDN

Bobev S G, Vaerenbergh J van, Maes M, 2014. First report of Dickeya dianthicola causing blackleg on potato (Solanum tuberosum) in Bulgaria. Plant Disease. 98 (2), 275. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis DOI:10.1094/PDIS-02-13-0147-PDN

Boer S H de, 2001. Occurrence of potato wart caused by Synchytrium endobioticum on Prince Edward Island, Canada. Plant Disease. 85 (12), 1292. DOI:10.1094/PDIS.2001.85.12.1292A

Bouhachem S B, Khamassy N, Glais L, Kerlan C, 2008. Occurrence in Tunisia of potato tuber necrotic ringspot disease (PTNRD) caused by variant PVYNTN of Potato virus Y. Plant Pathology. 57 (2), 388. DOI:10.1111/j.1365-3059.2007.01660.x

Boukhris-Bouhachem S, Hullé M, Rouzé-Jouan J, Glais L, Kerlan C, 2007. Solanum elaeagnifolium, a potential source of Potato virus Y (PVY) propagation. Bulletin OEPP/EPPO Bulletin. 37 (1), 125-128. DOI:10.1111/j.1365-2338.2007.01095.x

CABI, Undated. Compendium record. Wallingford, UK: CABI

CABI, Undated a. CABI Compendium: Status inferred from regional distribution. Wallingford, UK: CABI

CABI, Undated b. CABI Compendium: Status as determined by CABI editor. Wallingford, UK: CABI

Caicedo J D, Simbaña L L, Calderón D A, Lalangui K P, Rivera-Vargas L I, 2020. First report of 'Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum' in Ecuador and in South America. Australasian Plant Disease Notes. 15 (6), (03 February 2020). DOI:10.1007/s13314-020-0375-0

Caicedo J, Crizón M, Pozo A, Cevallos A, Simbaña L, Rivera L, Arahana V, 2015. First report of 'Candidatus Phytoplasma aurantifolia' (16SrII) associated with potato purple top in San Gabriel-Carchi, Ecuador. New Disease Reports. 20. http://www.ndrs.org.uk/article.php?id=032020

Çakİr E, 2005. First report of potato wart disease in Turkey. Plant Pathology. 54 (4), 584. DOI:10.1111/j.1365-3059.2005.01233.x

Çakır E, Demİrcİ F, 2012. First report of Phytophthora cryptogea on potato tubers in Turkey. Plant Disease. 96 (8), 1224-1225. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis DOI:10.1094/PDIS-02-12-0193-PDN

Çakır E, Demİrcİ F, 2017. A new pathotype of Synchytrium endobioticum in Turkey: pathotype 2. Bitki Koruma Bülteni. 57 (4), 415-422. http://www.bitkikorumabulteni.gov.tr/index.php/bitki/article/view/1617/1508

Çakır E, Ertek T S, Katırcıoğlu Y Z, Maden S, 2020. Occurrence of potato pink rot caused by Phytophthora erythroseptica in Turkey, with special reference to Phytophthora cryptogea. Australasian Plant Disease Notes. 15 (14), (12 March 2020). DOI:10.1007/s13314-020-0379-9

Cardoza Y F, Duarte V, Lopes C A, 2017. First report of blackleg of potato caused by Dickeya solani in Brazil. Plant Disease. 101 (1), 243. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis DOI:10.1094/pdis-07-16-1045-pdn

Carnegie S F, Davey T, Saddler G S, 2012. Prevalence and distribution of Potato mop-top virus in Scotland. Plant Pathology. 61 (4), 623-631. DOI:10.1111/j.1365-3059.2011.02549.x

Casa-Coila V H, Lehner M S, Hora Júnior B T, Reis A, Nazareno N R X, Mizubuti E S G, Gomes C B, 2017. First report of Phytophthora infestans self-fertile genotypes in southern Brazil. Plant Disease. 101 (9), 1682. DOI:10.1094/PDIS-02-17-0215-PDN

Castillo Carrillo C, Fu Zhen, Burckhardt D, 2019. First record of the tomato potato psyllid Bactericera cockerelli from South America. Bulletin of Insectology. 72 (1), 85-91. http://www.bulletinofinsectology.org/pdfarticles/vol72-2019-085-091castillo-carrillo.pdf

Chatzivassiliou E K, Orestiada N, Peters D, Lolas P, 2007. Occurrence of Tomato spotted wilt virus in Stevia rebaudiana and Solanum tuberosum in northern Greece. Plant Disease. 91 (9), 1205. DOI:10.1094/PDIS-91-9-1205C

Chiunga E, Valkonen J P T, 2013. First report of five viruses infecting potatoes in Tanzania. Plant Disease. 97 (9), 1260-1261. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis DOI:10.1094/PDIS-02-13-0143-PDN

Choi S K, Choi G S, 2015. First report of Tomato spotted wilt virus in Solanum tuberosum in Korea. Plant Disease. 99 (11), 1657-1658. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis DOI:10.1094/PDIS-01-15-0065-PDN

Choiseul J W, Carnegie S F, 2000. First report of Botryotinia fuckeliana causing soft rots in potato in Scotland. Plant Disease. 84 (7), 806. DOI:10.1094/PDIS.2000.84.7.806B

Choueiri E, El-Zammar S, Jreijiri F, Mnayer D, Massaad R, Saad A T, Hanna L, Varveri C, 2004. Phytosanitary status of potato in the Bekaa valley in Lebanon. Bulletin OEPP. 34 (1), 117-121. DOI:10.1111/j.1365-2338.2004.00706.x

Clapp J P, Stoel C D van der, Putten W H van der, 2000. Rapid identification of cyst (Heterodera spp., Globodera spp.) and root-knot (Meloidogyne spp.) nematodes on the basis of ITS2 sequence variation detected by PCR-single-strand conformational polymorphism (PCR-SSCP) in cultures and field samples. Molecular Ecology. 9 (9), 1223-1232. DOI:10.1046/j.1365-294x.2000.00995.x

Cohen Y, 2002. Populations of Phytophthora infestans in Israel underwent three major genetic changes during 1983 to 2000. Phytopathology. 92 (3), 300-307. DOI:10.1094/PHYTO.2002.92.3.300

Cooke D E L, Randall E, Sullivan L, Lees A K, 2018. The origins and implications of a novel population of Phytophthora infestans on potato crops in Scotland. In: The Dundee Conference. Crop Production in Northern Britain 2018, Dundee, UK, 27-28 February 2018 [The Dundee Conference. Crop Production in Northern Britain 2018, Dundee, UK, 27-28 February 2018.], Dundee, UK: The Association for Crop Protection in Northern Britain. 203-208.

Cooke D E L, Young V, Birch P R J, Toth R, Gourlay F, Day J P, Carnegie S F, Duncan J M, 2003. Phenotypic and genotypic diversity of Phytophthora infestans populations in Scotland (1995-97). Plant Pathology. 52 (2), 181-192. DOI:10.1046/j.1365-3059.2003.00817.x

Coyne D, Claudius-Cole A, 2009. Scutellonema bradys, the yam nematode, newly reported affecting Irish potato (Solanum tuberosum) in Nigeria. Plant Pathology. 58 (4), 805. DOI:10.1111/j.1365-3059.2009.02068.x

Crosslin J M, 2011. First report of Potato mop-top virus on potatoes in Washington State. Plant Disease. 95 (11), 1483. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis DOI:10.1094/PDIS-06-11-0536

Crosslin J M, Hamlin L L, 2010. First report of Impatiens necrotic spot virus infecting greenhouse-grown potatoes in Washington State. Plant Disease. 94 (12), 1507. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis DOI:10.1094/PDIS-07-10-0542

Crosslin J M, Hamm P B, Eastwell K C, Thornton R E, Brown C R, Corsini D, Shiel P J, Berger P H, 2002. First report of the necrotic strain of potato virus Y (PVYN) on potatoes in the Northwestern United States. Plant Disease. 86 (10), 1177. DOI:10.1094/PDIS.2002.86.10.1177C

Crosslin J M, Mallik I, Gudmestad N C, 2009. First report of Tomato spotted wilt virus causing potato tuber necrosis in Texas. Plant Disease. 93 (8), 845. DOI:10.1094/PDIS-93-8-0845A

Crow W T, 2005. Diagnosis of Trichodorus obtusus and Paratrichodorus minor on turfgrasses in the Southeastern United States. Plant Health Progress. 1-7. http://www.plantmanagementnetwork.org/php/

Cruz L, Eloy M, Quirino F, Carrinho H, 2008. Ralstonia solanacearum biovar 1 associated with a new outbreak of potato brown rot in Portugal. Phytopathologia Mediterranea. 47 (2), 87-91. http://epress.unifi.it/riviste

Cruz Roblero E N, Castillo Vera A, Malo E A, 2011. First report of Tecia solanivora (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) attacking the potato Solanum tuberosum in Mexico. Florida Entomologist. 94 (4), 1055-1056. http://www.fcla.edu/FlaEnt/ DOI:10.1653/024.094.0445

Damayanti T A, Alabi O J, Hidayat S H, Crosslin J M, Naidu R A, 2014. First report of Potato virus Y in potato in West Java, Indonesia. Plant Disease. 98 (2), 287. DOI:10.1094/PDIS-07-13-0745-PDN

David N, Mallik I, Gudmestad N C, 2010. First report of Tobacco rattle virus associated with corky ringspot in potatoes grown in North Dakota. Plant Disease. 94 (1), 130. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis DOI:10.1094/PDIS-94-1-0130B

Deahl K L, Jones R W, Black L L, Wang T C, Cooke L R, 2008. First report of the A2 mating type of Phytophthora infestans on tomato crops in Taiwan, Republic of China. Plant Disease. 92 (6), 978. DOI:10.1094/PDIS-92-6-0978A

Dees M W, Sletten A, Hermansen A, 2013. Isolation and characterization of Streptomyces species from potato common scab lesions in Norway. Plant Pathology. 62 (1), 217-225. DOI:10.1111/j.1365-3059.2012.02619.x

Demİrcİ E, Gene T, 2009. Vegetative compatibility groups of Verticillium dahliae isolates from weeds in potato fields. Journal of Plant Pathology. 91 (3), 671-676. http://www.sipav.org/main/jpp/

Devran Z, Mutlu N, Özarslandan A, Elekcİoğlu İ H, 2009. Identification and genetic diversity of Meloidogyne chitwoodi in potato production areas of Turkey. Nematropica. 39 (1), 75-83. http://fulltext10.fcla.edu/DLData/SN/SN00995444/0039_001/75-84.pdf

Ðikić M, Muhamedbegović N, Gadzbreve˜o D, Karić N, Bašić F, Sarajlić N, 2017. Distribution of common ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia L.) in the municipality of Kalesija. Radovi Poljoprivrednog Fakulteta Univerziteta u Sarajevu\Works of the Faculty of Agriculture University of Sarajevo. 62 (67(2)), 683-690.

Djébali N, Scott J K, Jourdan M, Souissi T, 2009. Fungi pathogenic on wild radish (Raphanus raphanistrum L.) in northern Tunisia as potential biocontrol agents. Phytopathologia Mediterranea. 48 (2), 205-213. http://epress.unifi.it/riviste

Djebroune A, Mokabli A, Hammache M, Chakali G, 2020. Effects of potato cyst nematodes on three potato varieties in Algeria. Pakistan Journal of Zoology. 52 (4), 1341-1346. DOI:10.17582/journal.pjz/20180523150551

Douda O, Zouhar M, Urban J, Čermák V, Gaar V, 2012. Identification and characterization of pale potato cyst nematode (Globodera pallida) in Teplá, the Czech Republic. Plant Disease. 96 (9), 1386. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis DOI:10.1094/PDIS-03-12-0305-PDN

Dutta S, Ghosh P P, Kuiry S P, 2009. Stem rot, a new disease of potato in West Bengal, India. Australasian Plant Disease Notes. 4 (1), 80-81. http://www.publish.csiro.au/nid/208.htm

Elansky S, Smirnov A, Dyakov Y, Dolgova A, Filippov A, Kozlovsky B, Kozlovskaya I, Russo P, Smart C, Fry W, 2001. Genotypic analysis of Russian isolates of Phytophthora infestans from the Moscow region, Siberia and Far East. Journal of Phytopathology. 149 (10), 605-611. DOI:10.1046/j.1439-0434.2001.00642.x

Erdogus F D, Akgul H C, Bayram S, 2010. Four new record of species for Turkish nematode fauna: Filenchus cylindricus, F. sandneri, Lelenchus leptosoma and Geocenamus uralensis. Pakistan Journal of Nematology. 28 (2), 241-251.

Estrada R Jr, Gudmestad N C, Rivera V V, Secor G A, 2010. Fusarium graminearum as a dry rot pathogen of potato in the USA: prevalence, comparison of host isolate aggressiveness and factors affecting aetiology. Plant Pathology. 59 (6), 1114-1120. DOI:10.1111/j.1365-3059.2010.02343.x

Fernández-Pavía S P, Grünwald N J, Fry W E, 2002. Formation of Phytophthora infestans oospores in nature on tubers in Central Mexico. Plant Disease. 86 (1), 73. DOI:10.1094/PDIS.2002.86.1.73C

Fletcher J D, 2012. A virus survey of New Zealand fresh, process and seed potato crops during 2010-11. New Zealand Plant Protection. 197-203. http://www.nzpps.org/journal/65/nzpp_651970.pdf

Flora Mesoamericana, 2014. Flora Mesoamericana., St. Louis, Missouri, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden. http://www.tropicos.org/Project/FM

Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2014. Flora of China., St. Louis, Missouri and Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden and Harvard University Herbaria. http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2

Flora of Missouri, 2014. Flora of Missouri, eFloras website., St. Louis, MO and Cambridge, MA, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden and Harvard University Herbaria. http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=11

Flora of Pakistan, 2014. Flora of Pakistan/Pakistan Plant Database (PPD)., St. Louis, Missouri and Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden and Harvard University Herbaria. http://www.tropicos.org/Project/Pakistan

Fontem D A, Olanya O M, Njualem B F, 2004. Reaction of certain solanaceous and asteraceous plant species to inoculation with Phytophthora infestans in Cameroon. Journal of Phytopathology. 152 (6), 331-336. DOI:10.1111/j.1439-0434.2004.00850.x

Fujimoto T, Yasuoka S, Aono Y, Nakayama T, Ohki T, Sayama M, Maoka T, 2017. First report of potato blackleg caused by Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. brasiliense in Japan. Plant Disease. 101 (1), 241. DOI:10.1094/pdis-06-16-0928-pdn

Galagan T, Sigareva D, 2012. Distribution of Globodera rostochiensis and its control in Ukraine. In: Proceedings of the International Symposium on Current Trends in Plant Protection, Belgrade, Serbia, 25-28th September, 2012. [ed. by Marisavljević D]. Belgrade, Serbia: Institute for Plant Protection and Environment. 583-586.

Gao J, Zhang Y Y, Zhao X J, Wang K, Zhao J, 2016. First report of potato wilt caused by Plectosphaerella cucumerina in Inner Mongolia, China. Plant Disease. 100 (12), 2523-2524. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis DOI:10.1094/PDIS-01-16-0028-PDN

García-Núñez H, Martínez-Campos A R, López-Orona C A, Díaz-Mínguez J M, 2016. First report of Fusarium avenaceum causing stalk and root rot in commercial potato crops (Solanum tuberosum) in the Toluca Valley, Mexico. Plant Disease. 100 (11), 2170-2171. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis

Garibaldi A, Gilardi G, Gullino M L, 2006. First report of southern blight incited by Sclerotium rolfsii on potato (Solanum tuberosum) in Northern Italy. Plant Disease. 90 (8), 1114. DOI:10.1094/PD-90-1114C

Ge T L, Jiang H H, Hao J J, Johnson S B, 2018. First report of Pectobacterium parmentieri causing bacterial soft rot and blackleg on potato in Maine. Plant Disease. 102 (2), 437-438. DOI:10.1094/PDIS-05-17-0659-PDN

Gevens A J, Seidl A C, 2013. First report of late blight caused by Phytophthora infestans clonal lineage US-22 on tomato and potato in Wisconsin. Plant Disease. 97 (3), 423. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis DOI:10.1094/PDIS-08-12-0807-PDN

Gevens A J, Seidl A C, 2013a. First report of late blight caused by Phytophthora infestans clonal lineage US-23 on tomato and potato in Wisconsin, United States. Plant Disease. 97 (6), 839. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis DOI:10.1094/PDIS-09-12-0821-PDN

Gevens A J, Seidl A C, 2013b. First report of late blight caused by Phytophthora infestans clonal lineage US-24 on potato (Solanum tuberosum) in Wisconsin. Plant Disease. 97 (1), 152-153. DOI:10.1094/PDIS-09-12-0825-PDN

Gitty M, Maafi Z T, 2010. First report of a potato cyst nematode, Globodera rostochiensis, on potato, in Iran. Plant Pathology. 59 (2), 412. http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/loi/ppa DOI:10.1111/j.1365-3059.2009.02135.x

Glawe D A, Toit L J du, Pelter G Q, 2004. First report of powdery mildew on potato caused by Leveillula taurica in North America. Plant Health Progress. 1-3. http://www.plantmanagementnetwork.org/pub/php/brief/2004/potato/

Gobatto D, Oliveira L A de, Franco D A de S, Velásquez N, Daròs J A, Eiras M, 2019. Surveys in the chrysanthemum production areas of Brazil and Colombia reveal that weeds are potential reservoirs of chrysanthemum stunt viroid. Viruses. 11 (4), 355. DOI:10.3390/v11040355

Gong C, Yang M P, Yu D C, Du W F, Song S W, Wang R X, Zhang H J, Jiang S Y, 2017. First report of Streptomyces caviscabies causing common scab on potato in China. Plant Disease. 101 (7), 1316. DOI:10.1094/PDIS-11-16-1608-PDN

Gorgiladze L, Meparishvili G, Sikharulidze Z, Natsarishvili K, Meparishvili S, 2014. First report of Synchytrium endobioticum causing potato wart in Georgia. New Disease Reports. 4. http://www.ndrs.org.uk/article.php?id=030004 DOI:10.5197/j.2044-0588.2014.030.004

Gudmestad N C, Mallik I, Pasche J S, Crosslin J M, 2008. First report of Tobacco rattle virus causing corky rigspot in potatoes grown in Minnesota and Wisconsin. Plant Disease. 92 (8), 1254. DOI:10.1094/PDIS-92-8-1254C

Guo F L, Zhang H Y, Yu X M, Zhao W Q, Liu D Q, 2014. First report of Streptomyces galilaeus associated with common scab in China. Plant Disease. 98 (5), 683. DOI:10.1094/PDIS-07-13-0699-PDN

Guseva O G, Koval A G, 2019. Distribution of ground beetles of the genus Amara Bonelli, 1810 (Coleoptera, Carabidae) in the agrolandscape in Northwestern Russia. Acta Biologica Sibirica. 5 (1), 56-62. DOI:10.14258/abs.v5.i1.5192

Ha V T N, Voronina M V, Kabanova A P, Shneider M M, Korzhenkov A A, Toschakov S V, Miroshnikov K K, Miroshnikov K A, Ignatov A N, 2019. First report of Pectobacterium parmentieri causing stem rot disease of potato in Russia. Plant Disease. 103 (1), 144. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis DOI:10.1094/pdis-11-17-1829-pdn

Hafez S L, Sundararaj P, Handoo Z A, Skantar A M, Carta L K, Chitwood D J, 2007. First report of the pale cyst nematode, Globodera pallida, in the United States. Plant Disease. 91 (3), 325. HTTP://www.apsnet.org DOI:10.1094/PDIS-91-3-0325B

Hameed A, Tahir M N, Amin I, Mansoor S, 2017. First report of Tomato leaf curl New Delhi virus and a Tomato yellow leaf curl Thailand betasatellite causing severe leaf curl disease of potato in Pakistan. Plant Disease. 101 (6), 1065. DOI:10.1094/pdis-09-16-1335-pdn

Hill J, Lazarovits G, 2005. A mail survey of growers to estimate potato common scab prevalence and economic loss in Canada. Canadian Journal of Plant Pathology. 27 (1), 46-52. http://pubs.nrc-cnrc.gc.ca/tcjpp/plant.html

Hiltunen L H, Kelloniemi J, Valkonen J P T, 2014. First report of Streptomyces europaeiscabiei causing common scab on potato in Finland. Plant Disease. 98 (9), 1267-1268. DOI:10.1094/PDIS-03-14-0278-PDN

Holeva M C, Glynos P E, Karafla C D, Koutsioumari E M, Simoglou K B, Eleftheriadis E, 2014. First report of Candidatus phytoplasma solani associated with potato plants in Greece. Plant Disease. 98 (12), 1739. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis DOI:10.1094/PDIS-05-14-0488-PDN

Holm L, Pancho J V, Herberger J P, Plucknett D L, 1979. A geographical atlas of world weeds. New York, Chichester (), Brisbane, Toronto, UK: John Wiley and Sons. xlix + 391 pp.

Horváth D, Fazekas I, Keszthelyi S, 2017. Phthorimaea operculella (Zeller, 1873), first record of an invasive pest in Hungary (Lepidoptera, Gelechiidae). Acta Phytopathologica et Entomologica Hungarica. 52 (1), 117-122. https://akademiai.com/doi/abs/10.1556/038.52.2017.006

Huang C J, Liu Y, Yu H Q, Li B L, 2015. Occurrence of Tomato zonate spot virus on potato in China. Plant Disease. 99 (5), 733. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis DOI:10.1094/PDIS-08-14-0851-PDN

Hutton F, Kildea S, Griffin D, Spink J, Doherty G, Hunter A, 2013. First report of potato tuber necrotic ringspot disease associated with PVY recombinant strains in Ireland. New Disease Reports. 12. http://www.ndrs.org.uk/pdfs/028/NDR_028012.pdf DOI:10.5197/j.2044-0588.2013.028.012

Ibrahim I K A, Handoo Z A, Basyony A B A, 2017. The cyst nematodes Heterodera and Globodera species in Egypt. Pakistan Journal of Nematology. 35 (2), 151-154. DOI:10.18681/pjn.v35.i02.p151-154

Ibrahim I K A, Mokbel A A, Handoo Z A, 2010. Current status of phytoparasitic nematodes and their host plants in Egypt. Nematropica. 40 (2), 239-262. http://www.ontaweb.org/

Iftikhar S, Shahid A A, Nawaz K, Zahid A, Anwar W, Haider M S, 2018. First report of black pit of potato caused by Alternaria alternata in Pakistan. Plant Disease. 102 (2), 442. DOI:10.1094/PDIS-06-17-0895-PDN

Ignatov A N, Spechenkova N A, Taliansky M, Kornev K P, 2019. First report of Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis infecting potato in Russia. Plant Disease. 103 (1), 147. DOI:10.1094/PDIS-04-18-0691-PDN

Indarti S, Bambang R T P, Mulyadi, Triman B, 2004. First record of potato cyst nematode Globodera rostochiensis in Indonesia. Australasian Plant Pathology. 33 (2), 325-326. DOI:10.1071/AP04018

Ingham R E, Hamm P B, Riga E, Merrifield K J, 2005. First report of stunting and root rot of potato associated with Pratylenchus penetrans in the Columbia basin of Washington. Plant Disease. 89 (2), 207. DOI:10.1094/PD-89-0207B

Ireland K B, Weir B S, Cother E J, Phantavong S, Phitsanoukane P, Vongvichid K, Vongphachanh P P, Songvilay P, Chittarath K, Sayapatha S, Walsh J, Turner S, Park D, Tesoriero L A, Vilavong S, Duckitt G S, Burgess L W, 2016. First report of Ralstonia pseudosolanacearum in the Lao PDR. Australasian Plant Disease Notes. 11 (1), 36. DOI:10.1007/s13314-016-0224-3

Ivanauskas A, Urbonaite I, Jomantiene R, Valiunas D, Davis R E, 2016. First report of 'Candidatus phytoplasma asteris' subgroup 16SrI-A associated with a disease of potato (Solanum tuberosum) in Lithuania. Plant Disease. 100 (1), 207. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis DOI:10.1094/PDIS-05-15-0575-PDN

Ivanović M, Mijatović M, Zečević B, Niepold F, Ivanović M, 2007. Occurrence of new populations and mating types of Phytophthora infestans (Mont) de Bary in Serbia. Acta Horticulturae. 499-502. http://www.actahort.org

Izadiyan M, Taghavi S M, 2011. Diversity of Iranian isolates of Ralstonia solanacearum. Phytopathologia Mediterranea. 50 (2), 236-244. http://www.fupress.com/pm/

Jabnoun-Khiareddine H, Daami-Remadi M, El-Mahjoub M, 2013. Status of Verticillium dahliae race 2 in Tunisia [Conference poster]. In: 11th International Verticillium Symposium, Georg-August-Universität, Göttingen, Germany, 5-8 May 2013 [11th International Verticillium Symposium, Georg-August-Universität, Göttingen, Germany, 5-8 May 2013.], [ed. by Koopman B, Tiedemann A von]. Braunschweig, Germany: Deutsche Phytomedizinische Gesellschaft e.V. Verlag. 134.

Jaimasit P, Prakob W, 2010. Characterization of Phytophthora infestans population in potato crops from Chiang Mai and Tak Provinces. International Journal of Agricultural Technology. 6 (1), 117-125. http://ijat-rmutto.com/pdf/Jan_v6_n1_10/13-108-IJAT2009_88F.pdf

Jaime-Garcia R, Orum T V, Felix-Gastelum R, Trinidad-Correa R, VanEtten H D, Nelson M R, 2001. Spatial analysis of Phytophthora infestans genotypes and late blight severity on tomato and potato in the Del Fuerte Valley using geostatistics and geographic information systems. Phytopathology. 91 (12), 1156-1165. DOI:10.1094/PHYTO.2001.91.12.1156

Jeong YeonHwa, Kim JinWoo, Kang YongSung, Lee SeungDon, Hwang IngYu, 2007. Genetic diversity and distribution of Korean isolates of Ralstonia solanacearum. Plant Disease. 91 (10), 1277-1287. DOI:10.1094/PDIS-91-10-1277

Jones P, Arocha Y, Antesana O, Montellano E, Franco P, 2005. 'Brotes grandes' (big bud) of potato: a new disease associated with a 16SrI-B subgroup phytoplasma in Bolivia. Plant Pathology. 54 (2), 234. http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/servlet/useragent?func=showIssues&code=ppa DOI:10.1111/j.1365-3059.2005.01137.x

Kalischuk M, Lynn J, Kawchuk L, 2016. First report of Potato mop-top virus infecting potatoes in Alberta. Plant Disease. 100 (12), 2544. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis DOI:10.1094/PDIS-06-16-0902-PDN

Kanetis L, Papayiannis L C, Samouel S, Iacovides T, 2016. First report of potato powdery scab, caused by Spongospora subterranea f. sp. subterranea, in Cyprus. Plant Disease. 100 (5), 1010-1011. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis DOI:10.1094/PDIS-07-15-0778-PDN

Karavina C, Gubba A, 2017. Detection and characterization of Tomato spotted wilt virus infecting field and greenhouse-grown crops in Zimbabwe. European Journal of Plant Pathology. 149 (4), 933-944. http://rd.springer.com/journal/10658 DOI:10.1007/s10658-017-1243-4

Kawchuk L M, Howard R J, Peters R D, Al-Mughrabi K I, 2011. First report of Phytophthora infestans genotype US23 causing late blight in Canada. Plant Disease. 95 (7), 873. DOI:10.1094/PDIS-01-11-0054

Khassanov V T, Vologin S G, 2018. Occurrence of the ordinary and the andean strains of potato virus s infecting potatoes in the Eastern Region of Kazakhstan. Plant Disease. 102 (10), 2052-2053. DOI:10.1094/PDIS-12-17-2000-PDN

Khoodoo M H R, Ganoo E S, Saumtally S, 2007. First report of Ralstonia solanacearum race 3 biovar 2A infecting potato and weeds in Mauritius. Plant Disease. 91 (9), 1200. DOI:10.1094/PDIS-91-9-1200B

Kirk W W, Gieck S L, Crosslin J M, Hamm P B, 2008. First report of corky ringspot caused by Tobacco rattle virus on potatoes (Solanum tuberosum) in Michigan. Plant Disease. 92 (3), 485. DOI:10.1094/PDIS-92-3-0485B

Kolářová M, Tyšer L, Soukup J, 2013. Diversity of current weed vegetation on arable land in selected areas of the Czech Republic. Plant, Soil and Environment. 59 (5), 208-213. http://www.agriculturejournals.cz/web/pse.htm

Korayem A M, Youssef M M A, Mohamed M M M, Lashein A M S, 2015. Plant-parasitic nematodes associated with different plants grown in newly reclaimed area in North West Egypt. Egyptian Journal of Agronematology. 14 (1), 127-136. http://nemasociety.com/en/wp-content/uploads/Plant-parasitic-nematodes16.pdf

Krnjaić D, Lamberti F, Krnjaić S, Bačić J, Ćalić R, 2002. First record of the potato cyst nematode (Globodera rostochiensis) in Yugoslavia. Nematologia Mediterranea. 30 (1), 11-12.

Kuiry S P, Mondal A, Banerjee S, Dutta S, 2014. Morphological variability in Rhizoctonia solani isolates from different agro-ecological zones of West Bengal, India. Archives of Phytopathology and Plant Protection. 47 (6), 728-736. DOI:10.1080/03235408.2013.820388

Laarif A, Fattouch S, Essid W, Marzouki N, Salah H B, Hammouda M H B, 2003. Epidemiological survey of Phthorimaea operculella granulosis virus in Tunisia. Bulletin OEPP. 33 (2), 335-338. DOI:10.1046/j.1365-2338.2003.00656.x

Lambert D H, Levy L, Mavrodieva V A, Johnson S B, Babcock M J, Vayda M E, 2003. First report of potato mop-top virus on potato from the United States. Plant Disease. 87 (7), 872. DOI:10.1094/PDIS.2003.87.7.872A

Leite L N, Haan E G de, Krijger M, Kastelein P, Zouwen P S van der, Bovenkamp G W van den, Tebaldi N D, Wolf J M van der, 2014. First report of potato blackleg caused by Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. brasiliensis in the Netherlands. New Disease Reports. 24. DOI:10.5197/j.2044-0588.2014.029.024

Lemessa F, Zeller W, 2006. Biological control of potato bacterial wilt caused by Ralstonia solanacearum in Ethiopia: determination of biovars of Ralstonia solanacearum. In: Mitteilungen aus der Biologischen Bundesanstalt für Land- und Forstwirtschaft. [ed. by Zeller W, Ullrich C]. Berlin, Germany: Biologische Bundesanstalt für Land- und Forstwirtschaft. 119-120.

Li JinHua, Chai ZhaoXiang, Yang HeTong, Li GuoQuan, Wang Di, 2007. First report of Pseudomonas marginalis pv. marginalis as a cause of soft rot of potato in China. Australasian Plant Disease Notes. 2 (1), 71-73. http://www.publish.csiro.au/view/journals/dsp_journal_fulltext.cfm?nid=208&f=DN07029

Liefting L W, Veerakone S, Ward L I, Clover G R G, 2009. First report of 'Candidatus Phytoplasma australiense' in potato. Plant Disease. 93 (9), 969. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis DOI:10.1094/PDIS-93-9-0969A

Ligoxigakis E K, 2000. Hosts of Verticillium dahliae in Kriti (Greece). Bulletin OEPP. 30 (2), 235-238. DOI:10.1111/j.1365-2338.2000.tb00886.x

Lin C Y, Ni H F, Huang C W, 2018. First report of common scab on potato caused by Streptomyces europaeiscabiei in Taiwan. Plant Disease. 102 (4), 818. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis DOI:10.1094/pdis-05-17-0667-pdn

López Orona C A, Martínez A R, Arteaga T T, García H G, Palmero D, Ruiz C A, Peñuelas C G, 2013. First report of homothallic isolates of Phytophthora infestans in commercial potato crops (Solanum tuberosum) in the Toluca Valley, Mexico. Plant Disease. 97 (8), 1112. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis DOI:10.1094/PDIS-10-12-0962-PDN

Loreti S, Fiori M, Simone D de, Falchi G, Gallelli A, Schiaffino A, Ena S, 2008. Bacterial wilt, caused by Ralstonia solanacearum, on tomato in Italy. Plant Pathology. 57 (2), 368. http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/doi/full/10.1111/j.1365-3059.2007.01729.x DOI:10.1111/j.1365-3059.2007.01729.x

Maharani Y, Hidayat P, Rauf A, Maryana N, 2018. New records of aphid species subfamily Aphidinae (Hemiptera: Aphididae) in West Java, Indonesia. Biodiversitas: Journal of Biological Diversity. 19 (2), 510-515. DOI:10.13057/biodiv/d190219

Mahran A, Turner S, Martin T, Yu Q, Miller S, Sun F, 2010. The golden potato cyst nematode Globodera rostochiensis pathotype Ro1 in the Saint-Amable Regulated Area in Quebec, Canada. Plant Disease. 94 (12), 1510. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis DOI:10.1094/PDIS-08-10-0584

Mallik I, Gudmestad N C, 2015. First report of Potato mop top virus causing potato tuber necrosis in Colorado and New Mexico. Plant Disease. 99 (1), 164. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis DOI:10.1094/PDIS-08-14-0819-PDN

Marić I, Marčić D, Petanović R, Auger P, 2018. Biodiversity of spider mites (Acari: Tetranychidae) in Serbia: a review, new records and key to all known species. Acarologia. 58 (1), 3-14. http://www1.montpellier.inra.fr/CBGP/acarologia/article.php?id=4223

Marshall J W, Zijstra C, Knight K W L, 2001. First record of Meloidogyne fallax in New Zealand. Australasian Plant Pathology. 30 (3), 283-284. DOI:10.1071/AP01033

Mavrič I, Žnidarič M T, Marn M V, Dolničar P, Mehle N, Lesemann D E, Ravnikar M, 2006. First report of Eggplant mottled dwarf virus in potato and tomato in Slovenia. Plant Pathology. 55 (4), 566. DOI:10.1111/j.1365-3059.2006.01414.x

Mazáková J, Táborsky V, Zouhar M, Ryšánek P, Hausvater E, Doležal P, 2006. Occurrence and distribution of mating types A1 and A2 of Phytophthora infestans (Mont.) de Bary in the Czech Republic. Plant Protection Science. 42 (2), 41-48. http://www.cazv.cz

Mburu H, Cortada L, Mwangi G, Gitau K, Kiriga A, Kinyua Z, Ngundo G, Ronno W, Coyne D, Holgado R, Haukeland S, 2018. First report of potato cyst nematode Globodera pallida infecting potato (Solanum tuberosum) in Kenya. Plant Disease. 102 (8), 1671. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis DOI:10.1094/pdis-11-17-1777-pdn

McLeod A, Denman S, Sadie A, Denner F D N, 2001. Characterization of South African isolates of Phytophthora infestans. Plant Disease. 85 (3), 287-291. DOI:10.1094/PDIS.2001.85.3.287

McNally R R, Curland R D, Webster B T, Robinson A P, Ishimaru C A, 2017. First report of Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. brasiliensis causing blackleg and stem rot in commercial and seed potato fields in Minnesota and North Dakota. Plant Disease. 101 (9), 1672. DOI:10.1094/pdis-04-17-0605-pdn

McNally R R, Curland R D, Webster B T, Robinson A P, Ishimaru C A, 2017a. First report of blackleg and tuber soft rot of potato caused by Pectobacterium parmentieri in Minnesota and North Dakota. Plant Disease. 101 (12), 2144-2145. DOI:10.1094/PDIS-04-17-0608-PDN

McNally R R, Curland R D, Webster B T, Robinson A P, Ishimaru C A, 2018. First report of stem rot on potato caused by Dickeya chrysanthemi in Minnesota. Plant Disease. 102 (1), 238. DOI:10.1094/PDIS-07-17-0966-PDN

Medhanie E, Mussie G, Selamawit A, Rao G S, Danish N S, 2017. Occurrence and identification of rhizosphere mycoflora of selected vegetable crops grown in zoba Anseba, Eritrea. Trends in Biosciences. 10 (33), 7099-7104. http://trendsinbiosciencesjournal.com/upload/17-8942_(E__MEDHANIE).pdf

Merlington A, Hanson L E, Bayma R, Hildebrandt K, Steere L, Kirk W W, 2014. First report of Fusarium proliferatum causing dry rot in Michigan commercial potato (Solanum tuberosum) production. Plant Disease. 98 (6), 843-844. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis DOI:10.1094/PDIS-09-13-0919-PDN

Mezerket A, Hammache M, Cantalapiedra-Navarrete C, Castillo P, Palomares-Rius J E, 2018. Prevalence, identification, and molecular variability of potato cyst nematodes in Algeria. Journal of Agricultural Science and Technology. 20 (6), 1293-1305. http://jast.modares.ac.ir/article-23-20210-en.pdf

Miles T D, Fairchild K L, Merlington A, Kirk W W, Rosenzweig N, Wharton P S, 2013a. First report of boscalid and penthiopyrad-resistant isolates of Alternaria solani causing early blight of potato in Michigan. Plant Disease. 97 (12), 1655-1656. DOI:10.1094/PDIS-03-13-0279-PDN

Miles T D, Woodhall J W, Miles L A, Wharton P S, 2013. First report of a binucleate Rhizoctonia (AG-A) from potato stems infecting potatoes and sugarbeet in the Pacific Northwest. Plant Disease. 97 (12), 1657. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis DOI:10.1094/PDIS-03-13-0292-PDN

Milijašević-Marčić S, Todorović B, Potočnik I, Rekanović E, Stepanović M, Mitrović J, Duduk B, 2013. Ralstonia solanacearum - a new threat to potato production in Serbia. Pesticidi i Fitomedicina. 28 (4), 229-237. http://www.pesting.org.rs/ DOI:10.2298/PIF1304229M

Misawa T, Kurose D, 2018. First report of binucleate Rhizoctonia AG U causing black scurf on potato tubers in Japan. New Disease Reports. 24. DOI:10.5197/j.2044-0588.2018.038.024

Mohamed E S I, Mahmoud M E E, Elhaj M A M, Mohamed S A, Ekesi S, 2015. Host plants record for tomato leaf miner Tuta absoluta (Meyrick) in Sudan. Bulletin OEPP/EPPO Bulletin. 45 (1), 108-111. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/journal/10.1111/(ISSN)1365-2338 DOI:10.1111/epp.12178

Mohamed E S I, Mohamed M E, Gamiel S A, 2012. First record of the tomato leafminer, Tuta absoluta (Meyrick) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) in Sudan. Bulletin OEPP/EPPO Bulletin. 42 (2), 325-327. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/journal/10.1111/(ISSN)1365-2338 DOI:10.1111/epp.2578

Mohammad Munib, 2018. Severity of infestation by collar feeding insect pest (Agrotis ipsilon) on potato in northern districts of Kashmir. Journal of Eco-friendly Agriculture. 13 (1), 72-74. http://ecoagrijournal.com/wp-content/uploads/2019/10/Full-paper131.pdf

Montero-Astúa M, Vásquez V, Rivera C, 2002. Occurrence of potato powdery scab caused by Spongospora subterranea f. sp. subterranea in Costa Rica. Plant Disease. 86 (11), 1273. DOI:10.1094/PDIS.2002.86.11.1273B

Montero-Astúa M, Vasquéz V, Turechek W W, Merz U, Rivera C, 2008. Incidence, distribution, and association of Spongospora subterranea and Potato mop-top virus in Costa Rica. Plant Disease. 92 (8), 1171-1176. DOI:10.1094/PDIS-92-8-1171

Mousavi L, Mozafari J, Rakhshandehroo F, Amir Modarresi Chahardehi, Mousavi M, 2014. Distribution and prevalence Potato virus Y isolates obtained from potatoes grown in the Iran by RT-PCR. Journal of Biology, Agriculture and Healthcare. 4 (4), 45-53. http://www.iiste.org/Journals/index.php/JBAH/article/view/11217/11509

Muradov P Z, Shirinova G F, Asgerli L X, Allahverdiyev E, Gasimov C F, 2019. Species composition of fungi causing diseases in agricultural plants in agrarian sector of Azerbaijan. Journal of Applied and Natural Science. 11 (4), 785-790. DOI:10.31018/jans.v11i4.2168

Muzhinji N, Woodhall J W, Truter M, Waals J E van der, 2014. Elephant hide and growth cracking on potato tubers caused by Rhizoctonia solani AG3-PT in South Africa. Plant Disease. 98 (4), 570. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis DOI:10.1094/PDIS-08-13-0815-PDN

Muzhinji N, Woodhall J W, Truter M, Waals J E van der, 2014a. First report of Rhizoctonia solani AG 4HG-III causing potato stem canker in South Africa. Plant Disease. 98 (6), 853. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis DOI:10.1094/PDIS-11-13-1131-PDN

Mwangi J M, Kariuki G M, Waceke J W, Grundler F M, 2015. First report of Globodera rostochiensis infesting potatoes in Kenya. New Disease Reports. 18. http://www.ndrs.org.uk/article.php?id=031018 DOI:10.5197/j.2044-0588.2015.031.018

Naim Uddin, 2007. Survey of airspora in a potato field in West Bengal and their impact on the crop. Journal of Mycopathological Research. 45 (1), 15-22.

Nair P V R, Wiechel T J, Crump N S, Taylor P W J, 2015. First report of Verticillium tricorpus causing Verticillium wilt in potatoes in Australia. Plant Disease. 99 (5), 731. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis DOI:10.1094/PDIS-10-14-1014-PDN

Nambiar L, Quader M, Nobbs J M, Cobon J A, Campbell P R, Gulino L M, 2008. First record of Meloidogyne fallax in Victoria, Australia. Australasian Plant Disease Notes. 3 (1), 141-142. http://www.publish.csiro.au/view/journals/dsp_journal_fulltext.cfm?nid=208&f=DN08054

Narabu T, Ohki T, Onodera K, Fujimoto T, Itou K, Maoka T, 2016. First report of the pale potato cyst nematode, Globodera pallida, on potato in Japan. Plant Disease. 100 (8), 1794. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis DOI:10.1094/PDIS-12-15-1515-PDN

Nasruddin A, Mound L A, 2016. First record of Trialeurodes vaporariorum Westwood (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) severely damaging field grown potato crops in South Sulawesi, Indonesia. Journal of Plant Protection Research. 56 (2), 199-202. http://www.degruyter.com/view/j/jppr.2016.56.issue-2/jppr-2016-0023/jppr-2016-0023.xml?format=INT

Neergaard E de, Munk L, Nielsen S L, 2014. First report of Potato leafroll virus, Potato virus A, Potato virus X and Potato virus Y in potato in Greenland. New Disease Reports. 20. http://www.ndrs.org.uk/article.php?id=030020

Nie BiHua, Mathuresh Singh, Sullivan A, Singh R P, Xie CongHua, Nie XianZhou, 2011. Recognition and molecular discrimination of severe and mild PVYO variants of Potato virus Y in potato in New Brunswick, Canada. Plant Disease. 95 (2), 113-119. DOI:10.1094/PDIS-04-10-0257

Nie X, Koeyer D de, Liang Z, Dickison V, Singh M, Hawkins G, 2015. Identification and first report of a potato tuber necrosis-inducing isolate of Alfalfa mosaic virus in Canada. Plant Disease. 99 (11), 1658. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis DOI:10.1094/PDIS-04-15-0423-PDN

Niragire I, Couvreur M, Karssen G, Uwumukiza B, Bert W, 2020. First report of potato cyst nematode (Globodera rostochiensis) infecting potato (Solanum tuberosum) in Rwanda. Plant Disease. 104 (1), 293-293. DOI:10.1094/PDIS-04-19-0891-PDN

Nježić B, Stare B G, Širca S, Grujić N, 2014. First report of the pale potato cyst nematode Globodera pallida from Bosnia and Herzegovina. Plant Disease. 98 (4), 575. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis DOI:10.1094/PDIS-07-13-0739-PDN

Nobbs J M, Liu Q, Hartley D, Handoo Z, Williamson V M, Taylor S, Walker G, Curran J, 2001. First record of Meloidogyne fallax in Australia. Australasian Plant Pathology. 30 (4), 373. DOI:10.1071/AP01060

Nouri S, Bahar M, Fegan M, 2009. Diversity of Ralstonia solanacearum causing potato bacterial wilt in Iran and the first record of phylotype II/biovar 2T strains outside South America. Plant Pathology. 58 (2), 243-249. DOI:10.1111/j.1365-3059.2008.01944.x

NZPCN, 2014. New Zealand's Flora - Solanum tuberosum profile., New Zealand: New Zealand Plant Conservation Network (NZPCN). http://www.nzpcn.org.nz/flora_details.aspx?ID=2778

Ohshima K, Sako K, Hiraishi C, Nakagawa A, Matsuo K, Ogawa T, Shikata E, Sako N, 2000. Potato tuber necrotic ringspot disease occurring in Japan: its association with potato virus Y necrotic strain. Plant Disease. 84 (10), 1109-1115. DOI:10.1094/PDIS.2000.84.10.1109

Ojaghian M R, 2009. First report of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum on potato plants in Iran. Australasian Plant Disease Notes. 4 (1), 39-41. http://www.publish.csiro.au/nid/208.htm

Ojaghian M R, 2009a. First report of Coniothyrium minitans, a mycoparasite of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, in Iran. Australasian Plant Disease Notes. 4 (1), 75-77. http://www.publish.csiro.au/nid/208.htm

Olafsson S, Hermansen A, 2001. Outbreak of potato late blight and first report of mating type A2 and metalaxyl resistance of Phytophthora infestans in Iceland. Plant Disease. 85 (5), 559. DOI:10.1094/PDIS.2001.85.5.559B

Onkendi E M, Maluleke L N, Moleleki L N, 2014. First report of Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. brasiliense causing soft rot and blackleg of potatoes in Kenya. Plant Disease. 98 (5), 684-685. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis DOI:10.1094/PDIS-09-13-0988-PDN

Ostojić I, Grubišić D, Zovko M, Miličević T, Čuljak T G, 2011. First report of the golden potato cyst nematode, Globodera rostochiensis, in Bosnia and Herzegovina. Plant Disease. 95 (7), 883. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis DOI:10.1094/PDIS-02-11-0140

Ostrauskas H, 2003. Moths caught in pheromone traps for southern armyworm (Spodoptera eridania Cr.), fall armyworm (S. frugiperda Sm.), and Egyptian cotton leafworm (S. littoralis Bsd.) (Noctuidae, Lepidoptera) during 1999-2001 in Lithuania. Acta Zoologica Lituanica. 13 (4), 411-424. DOI:10.1080/13921657.2003.10512314

Ou S Q, Wang Y W, Peng D L, Qiu H, Bai Q R, Shi S S, 2017. Discovery of potato rot nematode, Ditylenchus destructor, infesting potato in Inner Mongolia, China. Plant Disease. 101 (8), 1554. DOI:10.1094/PDIS-04-17-0466-PDN

Oulghazi S, Khayi S, Lafkih N, Massaoudi Y, El-Karkouri A, El-Hassouni M, Faure D, Moumni M, 2017. First report of Dickeya dianthicola causing blackleg disease on potato in Morocco. Plant Disease. 101 (9), 1671-1672. DOI:10.1094/pdis-04-17-0548-pdn

Ozarslandan A, Devran Z, Mutlu N, Elekcİoglu I H, 2009. First report of Columbia root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne chitwoodi) in potato in Turkey. Plant Disease. 93 (3), 316. DOI:10.1094/PDIS-93-3-0316C

Ozturk M, Aksoy H M, 2016. First report of Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. brasiliense causing blackleg and soft rot of potato in Turkey. Journal of Plant Pathology. 98 (3), 692. http://www.sipav.org/main/jpp/index.php/jpp/article/view/3755/2396

Ozturk M, Aksoy H M, 2017. First report of Dickeya solani associated with potato blackleg and soft rot in Turkey. Journal of Plant Pathology. 99 (1), 298. http://www.sipav.org/main/jpp/index.php/jpp/article/view/3807/2449

Ozturk M, Aksoy H M, Ozturk S, Potrykus M, Lojkowska E, 2016. First report of potato blackleg and soft rot caused by Pectobacterium wasabiae in Turkey. New Disease Reports. 17. http://www.ndrs.org.uk/article.php?id=034017 DOI:10.5197/j.2044-0588.2016.034.017

Pace-Lupi T G, Porta-Puglia A, Ippolito A, Nigro F, 2006. First record of Verticillium dahliae on potato in Malta. Plant Disease. 90 (8), 1108. DOI:10.1094/PD-90-1108B

Palkovics Á, 2003. Occurrence of Globodera pallida in Hungary. Bulletin OEPP. 33 (2), 375-377. DOI:10.1046/j.1365-2338.2003.00649.x

Pastou D, Chéron J J, Cellier G, Guérin F, Poussier S, 2020. First report of Ralstonia pseudosolanacearum phylotype I causing bacterial wilt in New Caledonia. Plant Disease. 104 (1), 278-278. DOI:10.1094/PDIS-05-19-1068-PDN

Patel N, Baldwin A C, Patel R D, Kobayashi D Y, Wyenandt C A, 2019. First report of Dickeya dianthicola causing blackleg and soft rot on potato (Solanum tuberosum) in New Jersey, U.S.A. Plant Disease. 103 (1), 146. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis DOI:10.1094/PDIS-05-18-0775-PDN

Peerzada S H, Najar A G, Mushtaq Ahmad, Dar G H, Bhat K A, 2013. Studies on status of late blight disease (Phytophthora infestans (Mont) de Bary) of potato in Kashmir Valley. International Journal of Current Microbiology and Applied Sciences. 2 (10), 7-15. http://www.ijcmas.com/vol-2-10/S.H.%20Peerzada,%20et%20al.pdf

Peña E, Gutiérrez M, Montecinos A, Muñoz M, Vargas E, Acuña I, Gutiérrez R A, Rosales I M, 2016. First report of Potato mop-top virus in Chile. Plant Disease. 100 (6), 1250. DOI:10.1094/PDIS-07-15-0816-PDN

Perez A S, Mejia L, Fegan M, Allen C, 2008. Diversity and distribution of Ralstonia solanacearum strains in Guatemala and rare occurrence of tomato fruit infection. Plant Pathology. 57 (2), 320-331. http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/doi/full/10.1111/j.1365-3059.2007.01769.x DOI:10.1111/j.1365-3059.2007.01769.x

Peters J C, Lees A K, Cullen D W, Sullivan L, Stroud G P, Cunnington A C, 2008. Characterization of Fusarium spp. responsible for causing dry rot of potato in Great Britain. Plant Pathology. 57 (2), 262-271. DOI:10.1111/j.1365-3059.2007.01777.x

Peters R D, Clark R J, Coffin A D, Sturz A V, Lambert D H, Miller J S, 2005. Limited genetic diversity in North American isolates of Phytophthora erythroseptica pathogenic to potato based on RAPD analysis. Plant Disease. 89 (4), 380-384. DOI:10.1094/PD-89-0380

Peters R D, Sturz A V, 2001. A rapid technique for the evaluation of potato germ plasm for susceptibility to pink rot. Plant Disease. 85 (8), 833-837. DOI:10.1094/PDIS.2001.85.8.833

Petrov N, 2015. Distribution and economic impact of plant viruses in potatoes for seed production in Kyustendil region. Agraren Universitet Plovdiv - Nauchni Trudove / Scientific Works of the Agrarian University - Plovdiv. 59 (3), 93-100. http://nauchnitrudove.au-plovdiv.bg/journals.php?publication=209

Porta-Puglia A, Mifsud D, 2006. First record of powdery scab caused by Spongospora subterranea subsp. subterranea on potato in Malta. Journal of Plant Pathology. 88 (2), 227. http://www.agr.unipi.it/sipav/jpp/index.html

Pourrahim R, Farzadfar S, Golnaraghi A R, Ahoonmanesh A, 2007. Incidence and distribution of important viral pathogens in some Iranian potato fields. Plant Disease. 91 (5), 609-615. DOI:10.1094/PDIS-91-5-0609

Pourrahim R, Golnaraghi A R, Farzadfar S, 2012. Occurrence of Impatiens necrotic spot virus and Tomato spotted wilt virus on potatoes in Iran. Plant Disease. 96 (5), 771. DOI:10.1094/PDIS-01-12-0051-PDN

Przetakiewicz A, 2013. The first report of Globodera rostochiensis pathotypes Ro5 occurrence in Poland. Plant Disease. 97 (8), 1125. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis DOI:10.1094/PDIS-12-12-1156-PDN

Puketapu A J, Gardner-Gee R, Tooman L K, Beard S S, 2013. A survey of Maori potato (taewa) seed tubers for the presence of Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum. New Zealand Plant Protection. 356-364. http://www.nzpps.org/journal/66/nzpp_663560.pdf

Quintero-Ferrer A, Karasev A V, 2013. First report of recombinant Potato virus Y strains in potato in Jalisco, Mexico. Plant Disease. 97 (3), 430. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis DOI:10.1094/PDIS-10-12-0919-PDN

Raboudi F, Ben Moussa A, Makni H, Marrakchi M, Makni M, 2002. Serological detection of plant viruses in their aphid vectors and host plants in Tunisia. Bulletin OEPP. 32 (3), 495-498. DOI:10.1046/j.1365-2338.2002.00596.x

Radonjić S, Hrnčić S, Kosovac A, Krstić O, Mitrović M, Jović J, Toševski I, 2016. First report of 'Candidatus Phytoplasma solani' associated with potato stolbur disease in Montenegro. Plant Disease. 100 (8), 1775. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis DOI:10.1094/PDIS-02-16-0180-PDN

Ranbir Singh, Deepika Sharma, Dechan Choskit, Sachin Gupta, 2017. Serological detection of Potato leaf roll virus from subtropical zone of Jammu and Kashmir. Plant Disease Research. 32 (2), 211-215. http://insopp.org.in/

Randall RP, 2012. A Global Compendium of Weeds., Perth, Australia: Department of Agriculture and Food Western Australia. 1124 pp. http://www.cabi.org/isc/FullTextPDF/2013/20133109119.pdf

Rao Q, Luo C, Zhang H, Guo X, Devine G J, 2011. Distribution and dynamics of Bemisia tabaci invasive biotypes in central China. Bulletin of Entomological Research. 101 (1), 81-88. DOI:10.1017/S0007485310000428

Rashtra Vardhana, 2017. Plant's diseases of district Ghaziabad and adjacent areas. Plant Archives. 17 (1), 727-732. http://www.plantarchives.org/PDF%2017-1/727-732%20(3511).pdf

Razanakoto L M, Massart S, Clerck C de, Rabemanantsoa C, Raherimandimby M, El-Jaziri M, Rakotozandrindrainy R, Jijakli M H, 2015. First report on the occurrence of Enterobacter sp. causing leaf dieback and wilt of potato in Madagascar. New Disease Reports. 34. http://www.ndrs.org.uk/article.php?id=032034

Riga E, Neilson R, 2005. First report of the stubby-root nematode, Paratrichodorus teres, from potato in the Columbia Basin of Washington State. Plant Disease. 89 (12), 1361. DOI:10.1094/PD-89-1361B

Robles-Hernández L, González-Franco A C, Hernández-Huerta J, Meacham T M, Nikolaeva O V, Karasev A V, 2010. First identification of an unusual recombinant Potato virus Y strain in potato in Mexico. Plant Disease. 94 (10), 1262. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis DOI:10.1094/PDIS-06-10-0422

Roca L F, Raya M C, Luque F, Agustí-Brisach C, Romero J, Trapero A, 2016. First report of Sclerotium rolfsii causing soft rot of potato tubers in Spain. Plant Disease. 100 (12), 2535. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis DOI:10.1094/PDIS-12-15-1505-PDN

Romberg M K, Nuñez J J, Farrar J J, 2004. First report of powdery mildew on potato caused by Golovinomyces cichoracearum in California. Plant Disease. 88 (3), 309. DOI:10.1094/PDIS.2004.88.3.309C

Romo J P, Osorio J G M, Yepes M S, 2012. Identification of new hosts for Ralstonia solanacearum (Smith) race 2 from Colombia. Revista de Protección Vegetal. 27 (3), 151-161. http://scielo.sld.cu/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1010-27522012000300003&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en

Rosenzweig N, Steere L, Kirk W W, Mambetova S, Long C, Schafer R, Dangi S, Byrne J, 2016. First report of Dickeya dianthicola and Pectobacterium wasabiae causing aerial stem rot of potato in Michigan, USA. New Disease Reports. 10. http://www.ndrs.org.uk/pdfs/033/NDR_033010.pdf

Rott M, Lawrence T, Belton M, Sun FengCheng, Kyle D, 2010. Occurrence and detection of Globodera rostochiensis on Vancouver Island, British Columbia: an update. Plant Disease. 94 (11), 1367-1371. DOI:10.1094/PDIS-03-10-0213

Sagir H, Erum Y I, 2017. Description of new stunt nematode species, Merlinius nagerensis n. sp. and new records of plant parasitic nematodes from Gilgit-Baltistan, Pakistan. Pakistan Journal of Nematology. 35 (1), 13-35. DOI:10.18681/pjn.v35.i01.p13-35

Sakthivel P, Karuppuchamy P, Kalyanasundaram M, Srinivasan T, 2012. Host plants of invasive papaya mealybug, Paracoccus marginatus (Williams and Granara de Willink) in Tamil Nadu. Madras Agricultural Journal. 99 (7/9), 615-619. https://doc-00-7g-docsviewer.googleusercontent.com/viewer/securedownload/dsn1aovipa7l846lsfcf94nedj8q2p4u/qo3phtufamvk9q39umu888pbj4t4kkc6/1348647300000/c2l0ZXM=/AGZ5hq8BgbJY1gwaOYx83cPOdNw6/WkdWbVlYVnNkR1J2YldGcGJud3hNWFJvWlcxaFpISmhjMkZuY21samRXeDBkWEpoYkdwdmRYSnVZV3g4WjNnNk56WmpPREk1WXpBd01XWTNZelZrWkE=?a=gp&filename=99-7-9-615-619.pdf&chan=EQAAAOqeu1nfMdjbyOfMSElqQCfRbAOx1kCMBqnRUfeLUnjy&docid=0508176bd4abbdc3e7017b1a89751bc3%7C9c9df36583445f1fe402a841b5e1963b&sec=AHSqidZmGWqJKVKwfKsaqtFstCH

Salamon P, Burgyán J, 2004. Poster - new natural hosts of Potato virus Y (PVY) in Hungary and some interesting pathological properties of the tuber necrotic ringspot (NTN) strain. In: EAPR Virology 2004, Abstracts of the 12th European Association for Potato Research Virology Section Meeting, Rennes, France, 13-19 June 2004. [ed. by Giblot-Ducray D]. Wageningen, Netherlands: European Association for Potato Research. 53.

Sarfraz S, Riaz K, Oulghazi S, Cigna J, Alam M W, Dessaux Y, Faure D, 2018. First report of Dickeya dianthicola causing blackleg disease on potato plants in Pakistan. Plant Disease. 102 (10), 2027-2028. https://apsjournals.apsnet.org/doi/full/10.1094/PDIS-04-18-0551-PDN DOI:10.1094/PDIS-04-18-0551-PDN

Sartiami D, Mound L A, 2013. Identification of the terebrantian thrips (Insecta, Thysanoptera) associated with cultivated plants in Java, Indonesia. ZooKeys. 1-21. http://www.pensoft.net/journals/zookeys/article/5455/identification-of-the-terebrantian-thrips-insecta-thysanoptera-associated-with-cultivated-plants-in-java-indonesia

Sarwar A, Latif Z, Cabaleiro C, 2017a. First report of Streptomyces turgidiscabies causing potato common scab in Spain. Plant Disease. 101 (9), 1671. DOI:10.1094/pdis-03-17-0385-pdn

Sarwar A, Latif Z, Cabaleiro C, 2018. First report of Streptomyces bottropensis causing potato common scab in Galicia, Spain. Plant Disease. 102 (7), 1445-1446. DOI:10.1094/PDIS-11-17-1803-PDN

Sarwar A, Latif Z, Cabaleiro C, Osorio C R, 2016. First report of Streptomyces turgidiscabiei and S. stelliscabiei causing potato common scab in Lahore Punjab, Pakistan. Plant Disease. 100 (11), 2160. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis

Sarwar A, Latif Z, Osorio C R, Cabaleiro C, 2017. First report of Streptomyces scabies causing potato common scab in Punjab, Pakistan. Plant Disease. 101 (2), 378-379. DOI:10.1094/PDIS-09-16-1222-PDN

Secor G A, Lee I M, Bottner K D, Rivera-Varas V, Gudmestad N C, 2006. First report of a defect of processing potatoes in Texas and Nebraska associated with a new phytoplasma. Plant Disease. 90 (3), 377. DOI:10.1094/PD-90-0377B

Sedegui M, Carroll R B, Morehart A L, Evans T A, Kim S H, Lakhdar R, Arifi A, 2000. Genetic structure of the Phytophthora infestans population in Morocco. Plant Disease. 84 (2), 173-176. DOI:10.1094/PDIS.2000.84.2.173

Seleim M, Abo-Elyousr K, Mohamed A, Saead F, 2014. First report of potato bacterial ring rot caused by Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. sepedonicus in Africa. New Disease Reports. 15. http://www.ndrs.org.uk/article.php?id=030015

Shahid A A, Iftikhar S, Nawaz K, Anwar W, Ali M, 2017. First report of Alternaria alternata causing brown leaf spot of potato in Pakistan. Journal of Plant Pathology. 99 (1), 300. http://www.sipav.org/main/jpp/index.php/jpp/article/view/3822/2464

Shahid M, Rehman A U, Khan A U, Mahmood A, 2007. Geographical distribution and infestation of plant parasitic nematodes on vegetables and fruits in the Punjab province of Pakistan. Pakistan Journal of Nematology. 25 (1), 59-67.

Shahina F, Erum Y I, 2007. Distribution of cyst nematodes in Pakistan. Pakistan Journal of Nematology. 25 (1), 29-35.

Shakti Khajuria, Rai A K, Kanak Lata, 2013. Occurrence and distribution of insect pests attacking solanaceous vegetables in semi-arid region of central Gujarat. Insect Environment. 19 (4), 248-249. http://www.currentbiotica.com/Insect/Volume19-4/IE-V19(4)-11.pdf

Shamim Iftikhar, Iftikhar Ahmad, Abdul Hameed, 2003. Occurrence of Spongospora subterranea in soils of potato growing areas of Pakistan. Pakistan Journal of Botany. 35 (5), 1015-1025.

Shams-ur-Rehman, Muhammad Arif, Abdul Mateen, 2014. Study of important soil-borne viruses in major potato growing areas of Hazara and Malakand Divisions Khyber Pakhtoonkhaw-Pakistan. Journal of Biology, Agriculture and Healthcare. 4 (8), 58-65. http://www.iiste.org/Journals/index.php/JBAH/article/view/12287/12640

Shams-ur-Rehman, Muhammad Arif, Abdul Mateen, 2014a. Soil-borne viruses in major potato growing areas of Pakistan. The Journal of Plant Protection Sciences. 6 (1), 1-12. http://www.aappbckv.org/journal/archive/AAPP%20V6%20N1%20FP01.pdf

Sharma S, Kang S S, Sharma A, Kaur S, 2016. Mixed infection by Cucumber mosaic virus and Potato virus X in potato with yellow mosaic in India. Journal of Plant Pathology. 98 (3), 693. http://www.sipav.org/main/jpp/index.php/jpp/article/view/3757/2398

She X M, He Z F, Tang Y F, Du Z G, Lan G B, 2013. First report of potato blackleg disease caused by Pectobacterium atrosepticum in Guangdong China. Plant Disease. 97 (12), 1652-1653. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis DOI:10.1094/PDIS-03-13-0275-PDN

Shen RuiQing, Zhang Ping, Guo ChengJin, Zhang LiRong, Kang PingZhi, 2012. Study on fungi belonging to Fusarium Link in Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region. Plant Diseases and Pests. 3 (2), 6-8.

Shoaib A, Akhtar N, Akhtar S, Hafeez R, 2014. First report of Alternaria longipes causing leaf spot of potato cultivar sante in Pakistan. Plant Disease. 98 (12), 1742. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis DOI:10.1094/PDIS-05-14-0539-PDN

Širca S, Stare B G, Strajnar P, Urek G, Lautar I M, 2012. First report of the pale potato cyst nematode Globodera pallida from Slovenia. Plant Disease. 96 (5), 773. DOI:10.1094/PDIS-01-12-0066-PDN

Sławiak M, Łojkowska E, Wolf J M van der, 2009. First report of bacterial soft rot on potato caused by Dickeya sp. (syn. Erwinia chrysanthemi) in Poland. Plant Pathology. 58 (4), 794. http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/loi/ppa DOI:10.1111/j.1365-3059.2009.02028.x

Sridhar V, Chakravarthy A K, Asokan R, Vinesh L S, Rebijith K B, Vennila S, 2014. New record of the invasive South American tomato leaf miner, Tuta absoluta (Meyrick) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) in India. Pest Management in Horticultural Ecosystems. 20 (2), 148-154. http://aapmhe.in/index.php/pmhe/article/view/267/252

Suárez M B, Feria F J, Martín-Robles M J, Rey F J del, Palomo J L, 2017. Pectobacterium parmentieri causing soft rot on potato tubers in southern Europe. Plant Disease. 101 (6), 1029. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis

Sun F, Miller S, Wood S, Côté M J, 2007. Occurrence of potato cyst nematode, Globodera rostochiensis, on potato in the Saint-Amable region, Quebec, Canada. Plant Disease. 91 (7), 908. HTTP://www.apsnet.org DOI:10.1094/PDIS-91-7-0908A

Symon D E, 1986. Solanaceae in New Guinea. In: Solanaceae: biology and systematics, [ed. by D'Arcy W G]. New York, USA: Columbia University Press. 91-96.

Szalanski A L, Mullin P G, Harris T S, Powers T O, 2001. First report of Columbia root knot nematode (Meloidogyne chitwoodi) in potato in Texas. Plant Disease. 85 (4), 442. DOI:10.1094/PDIS.2001.85.4.442D

Tahir M I, Muhammad Inam-ul-Haq, Muhammad Ashfaq, Abbasi N A, 2014. Surveillance of Ralstonia solanacearum infecting potato crop in Punjab. Pakistan Journal of Phytopathology. 26 (1), 45-52. http://pjp.pakps.com/index.php/PJP/article/view/89/42

Taiwan Plant Names, 2014. Taiwan Plant Names, eFloras website., St. Louis, MO and Cambridge, MA, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden and Harvard University Herbaria. http://www.efloras.org/florataxon.aspx?flora_id=101

Takada H, 2002. Parasitoids (Hymenoptera: Braconidae, Aphidiinae; Aphelinidae) of four principal pest aphids (Homoptera: Aphididae) on greenhouse vegetable crops in Japan. Applied Entomology and Zoology. 37 (2), 237-249. DOI:10.1303/aez.2002.237

Taylor R J, Pasche J S, Shew H D, Lannon K R, Gudmestad N C, 2012. Tuber rot of potato caused by Phytophthora nicotianae: isolate aggressiveness and cultivar susceptibility. Plant Disease. 96 (5), 693-704. DOI:10.1094/PDIS-01-11-0037

Taylor R J, Salas B, Secor G A, Rivera V, Gudmestad N C, 2002. Sensitivity of North American isolates of Phytophthora erythroseptica and Pythium ultimum to mefenoxam (metalaxyl). Plant Disease. 86 (7), 797-802. DOI:10.1094/PDIS.2002.86.7.797

Thera A T, Jacobsen B J, Neher O T, 2010. Bacterial wilt of solanaceae caused by Ralstonia solanacearum race 1 biovar 3 in Mali. Plant Disease. 94 (3), 372. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis DOI:10.1094/PDIS-94-3-0372B

Thomas S H, Sanderson S A, Handoo Z A, 2001. First report of Columbia root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne chitwoodi) in potato in New Mexico. Plant Disease. 85 (8), 924. DOI:10.1094/PDIS.2001.85.8.924C

Tian S M, Chen Y C, Zou M Q, Xue Q, 2007. First report of Helminthosporium solani causing silver scurf of potato in Hebei Province, North China. Plant Disease. 91 (4), 460. HTTP://www.apsnet.org DOI:10.1094/PDIS-91-4-0460B

Tiwari A K, Khan M S, Iqbal A, Chun S C, Priya M, 2013. Molecular identification of 'Candidatus Phytoplasma asteris' (16SRI-B) associated with the little leaf disease of potato in India. Journal of Plant Pathology. 95 (3), 662. http://sipav.org/main/jpp/index.php/jpp/article/view/2973

Toda S, Murai T, 2007. Phylogenetic analysis based on mitochondrial COI gene sequences in Thrips tabaci Lindeman (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) in relation to reproductive forms and geographic distribution. Applied Entomology and Zoology. 42 (2), 309-316. DOI:10.1303/aez.2007.309

Unlu L, 2012. Potato: a new host plant of Tuta absoluta Povolny (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) in Turkey. Pakistan Journal of Zoology. 44 (4), 1183-1184. http://zsp.com.pk/pdf44/1171-1192%20_38_%20Short%20Communications.pdf

USDA-ARS, 2014. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Online Database. Beltsville, Maryland, USA: National Germplasm Resources Laboratory. https://npgsweb.ars-grin.gov/gringlobal/taxon/taxonomysimple.aspx

Ustun N, Ozakman M, Karahan A, 2008. Outbreak of Ralstonia solanacearum biovar 2 causing brown rot on potato in the Aegean Region of Turkey. Plant Disease. 92 (6), 973. DOI:10.1094/PDIS-92-6-0973B

Vajgand D, 2017. The occurrence of potentially harmful moths in Sombor and Celarevo (Serbia) in 2016 and forecast for 2017. Acta Entomologica Serbica. 27-40. http://aes.bio.bg.ac.rs/index.php/aes/article/view/174/pdf_40

Vakalounakis D J, Doulis A G, Lamprou K K, 2014. First report of powdery scab, caused by Spongospora subterranea f. sp. subterranea, on potatoes in Crete, Greece. Plant Disease. 98 (3), 425. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/doi/abs/10.1094/PDIS-07-13-0776-PDN DOI:10.1094/PDIS-07-13-0776-PDN

Vargas A M, Quesada Ocampo L M, Céspedes M C, Carreño N, González A, Rojas A, Paola Zuluaga A, Myers K, Fry W E, Jiménez P, Bernal A J, Restrepo S, 2009. Characterization of Phytophthora infestans populations in Colombia: first report of the A2 mating type. Phytopathology. 99 (1), 82-88. DOI:10.1094/PHYTO-99-1-0082

Vascular Plants of Antioquia, 2014. Catalogue of the Vascular Plants of the Department of Antioquia (Colombia), Tropicos website., St. Louis, Missouri and Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden and Harvard University Herbaria. http://tropicos.org/Project/CV

Vascular Plants of Ecuador, 2014. Catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Ecuador, Tropicos website., St. Louis, Missouri and Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden and Harvard University Herbaria. http://tropicos.org/Project/CE

Voronina M V, Kabanova A P, Shneider M M, Korzhenkov A A, Toschakov S V, Miroshnikov K K, Miroshnikov K A, Ignatov A N, 2019. First report of Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. brasiliense causing blackleg and stem rot disease of potato in Russia. Plant Disease. 103 (2), 364. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis DOI:10.1094/pdis-03-18-0456-pdn

Waeyenberge L, Moens M, 2001. Meloidogyne chitwoodi and M. fallax in Belgium. Nematologia Mediterranea. 29 (1), 91-97.

Wagner WL, Herbst DR, Lorence DH, 2014. Flora of the Hawaiian Islands website., Washington DC, USA: Smithsonian Institution. http://botany.si.edu/pacificislandbiodiversity/hawaiianflora/index.htm

Waleron M, Misztak A, Jońca J, Waleron K, 2019. First report of Pectobacterium polaris causing soft rot of potato in Poland. Plant Disease. 103 (1), 144. DOI:10.1094/PDIS-05-18-0861-PDN

Waleron M, Waleron K, Lojkowska E, 2015. First report of Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. brasiliense causing soft rot on potato and other vegetables in Poland. Plant Disease. 99 (9), 1271. DOI:10.1094/PDIS-02-15-0180-PDN

Waswa M, Kakuhenzire R, Ochwo-Ssemakula M, 2016. Effect of cultivar and thermotherapy combined with meristem-tip culture on eliminating prevalent viruses infecting potato in Uganda. In: Fifth African Higher Education Week and RUFORUM Biennial Conference 2016, "Linking agricultural universities with civil society, the private sector, governments and other stakeholders in support of agricultural development in Africa", Cape Town, South Africa, 17-21 October 2016 [Fifth African Higher Education Week and RUFORUM Biennial Conference 2016, "Linking agricultural universities with civil society, the private sector, governments and other stakeholders in support of agricultural development in Africa", Cape Town, South Afr], [ed. by Nampala M P, Egeru A, Tusiime G, Osiru M, Mensah S, Adipala E]. Kampala, Uganda: RUFORUM. 467-474. https://repository.ruforum.org/ag_dlios-by-conferences/36057/African%20Higher%20Education%20Week%20and%20RUFORUM%20Fifth%20Biennial%20Conference%202016%2C%20Cape%20Town%2C%20South%20Africa%2C%2017-21%20October%202016

Were H K, Narla R D, Nderitu J H, Weidemann H L, 2003. The status of potato leafroll virus in Kenya. Journal of Plant Pathology. 85 (3), 153-156.

Werra P de, Bussereau F, Keiser A, Ziegler D, 2015. First report of potato blackleg caused by Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. brasiliense in Switzerland. Plant Disease. 99 (4), 551-552. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis DOI:10.1094/PDIS-07-14-0742-PDN

Wharton P S, Nolte P, Kirk W W, Dangi S, Gevens A J, 2015. First report of late blight caused by Phytophthora infestans clonal lineage US-23 on potato in Idaho. Plant Disease. 99 (3), 417. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis DOI:10.1094/PDIS-02-14-0196-PDN

Wheeler T A, Madden L V, Rowe R C, Riedel R M, 2000. Effects of quadrat size and time of year for sampling of Verticillium dahliae and lesion nematodes in potato fields. Plant Disease. 84 (9), 961-966. DOI:10.1094/PDIS.2000.84.9.961

Whitworth J L, Crosslin J M, 2013. Detection of Potato mop top virus (Furovirus) on potato in southeast Idaho. Plant Disease. 97 (1), 149. DOI:10.1094/PDIS-08-12-0707-PDN

Widmark A K, Andersson B, Cassel-Lundhagen A, Sandström M, Yuen J E, 2007. Phytophthora infestans in a single field in southwest Sweden early in spring: symptoms, spatial distribution and genotypic variation. Plant Pathology. 56 (4), 573-579. DOI:10.1111/j.1365-3059.2007.01618.x

Wijekoon C P, Peters R D, Al-Mughrabi K I, Kawchuk L M, 2014. First report of late blight caused by Phytophthora infestans clonal lineage US-23 on tomato and potato in Atlantic Canada. Plant Disease. 98 (3), 426. DOI:10.1094/PDIS-08-13-0807-PDN

Winton L M, Leiner R H, Krohn A L, Deahl K L, 2007. Occurrence of late blight caused by Phytophthora infestans on potato and tomato in Alaska. Plant Disease. 91 (5), 634. DOI:10.1094/PDIS-91-5-0634A

Woodhall J W, Belcher A R, Peters J C, Kirk W W, Wharton P S, 2012. First report of Rhizoctonia solani AG2-2IIIB infecting potato stems and stolons in the United States. Plant Disease. 96 (3), 460. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis DOI:10.1094/PDIS-10-11-0899

Woodhall J W, Wharton P S, Peters J C, 2012a. First report of Rhizoctonia solani AG4 HG-II infecting potato stems in Idaho. Plant Disease. 96 (11), 1701. DOI:10.1094/PDIS-06-12-0568-PDN

Wright D, Bwye A, Banovic M, Baulch J, Wang C, Hair S, Hammond N, Coutts B, Kehoe M, 2018. First report of Dickeya dianthicola in potatoes in Australia. Plant Disease. 102 (10), 2029. DOI:10.1094/PDIS-01-18-0094-PDN

Wu X, Liu Q, Chai M, Liu J, Zhang L, Cheng X, 2018. First report of potato aucuba mosaic virus on potato in China. Plant Disease. 102 (12), 2671. DOI:10.1094/PDIS-05-18-0851-PDN

Xu H, DeHaan T L, Boer S H de, 2004. Detection and confirmation of Potato mop-top virus in potatoes produced in the United States and Canada. Plant Disease. 88 (4), 363-367. DOI:10.1094/PDIS.2004.88.4.363

Yan G P, Plaisance A, Huang D, Gudmestad N C, Handoo Z A, 2016. First report of the root-lesion nematode Pratylenchus scribneri infecting potato in North Dakota. Plant Disease. 100 (5), 1023. DOI:10.1094/PDIS-10-15-1227-PDN

Yan G P, Plaisance A, Huang D, Upadhaya A, Gudmestad N C, Handoo Z A, 2016a. First report of the stubby root nematode Paratrichodorus allius on potato in North Dakota. Plant Disease. 100 (6), 1247. DOI:10.1094/PDIS-11-15-1350-PDN

Yang C D, Chen X R, Jiang H X, Pu C J, 2012. First report of potato gangrene caused by Phoma foveata in China. Plant Disease. 96 (11), 1698. DOI:10.1094/PDIS-06-12-0528-PDN

Yang F Y, Yang D J, Zhao W Q, Liu D Q, Yu X M, 2017. First report of Streptomyces diastatochromogenes causing potato common scab in China. Plant Disease. 101 (1), 243. DOI:10.1094/pdis-07-16-0978-pdn

Yang H, Jiang J, Zhao T, Zhang H, Xu X, Li J, 2018. First report of Stemphylium lycopersici causing gray leaf spot on potato in China. Plant Disease. 102 (11), 2377. DOI:10.1094/PDIS-03-18-0539-PDN

Yang Y G, Wu X H, 2013. First report of potato stem canker caused by binucleate Rhizoctonia AG-A in Jilin Province, China. Plant Disease. 97 (9), 1246-1247. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis DOI:10.1094/PDIS-10-12-0912-PDN

Yang Y G, Wu X H, 2013a. First report of potato stem canker caused by Rhizoctonia solani AG4 HGII in Gansu Province, China. Plant Disease. 97 (6), 840. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis

Yang Y, Wu X, 2012. First report of potato stem canker caused by Rhizoctonia solani AG-5 in China. Plant Disease. 96 (10), 1579-1580. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis DOI:10.1094/PDIS-04-12-0388-PDN

Yazdani-Khameneh S, Hamedi A, Farahani A A, Hashemi S, Golnaraghi A R, Rakhshandehroo F, 2013. Tomato mosaic virus on cucumber and potato in Iran. Journal of Plant Pathology. 95 (3), 665. http://sipav.org/main/jpp/index.php/jpp/article/view/2979

Zasada I A, Gatt M, 2000. First report of Globodera pallida in Malta. Nematologia Mediterranea. 28 (1), 101-102.

Zhang J X, Lin B R, Shen H F, Pu X M, Chen Z N, Feng J J, 2012. First report of bacterial soft rot of potato caused by Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum in Guangdong Province of China. Plant Disease. 96 (12), 1819. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis DOI:10.1094/PDIS-07-12-0620-PDN

Zhang Z Y, Wang Y X, Liu Y L, 1986. Taxonomic studies on the family Albuginaceae of China, III. A new species of Albugo on Solanaceae and known species of Albugo on Amaranthaceae. Acta Mycologica Sinica. 5 (2), 65-69.

Zhao Y Q, Dou J, Geng G M, Tian Y L, Fan J Q, Li X, Hu B S, 2018. First report of Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. brasiliense causing blackleg and stem rot on potato in China. Plant Disease. 102 (8), 1653. DOI:10.1094/PDIS-11-17-1779-PDN

Zheng H H, Wu X H, 2013. First report of alternaria blight of potato caused by Alternaria tenuissima in China. Plant Disease. 97 (9), 1246. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis DOI:10.1094/PDIS-08-12-0763-PDN

Zhou Bo, Zhang M S, Ma X K, 2017. First report of Streptomyces bottropensis causing potato common scab in Hebei Province, China. Plant Disease. 101 (3), 502. DOI:10.1094/PDIS-05-16-0671-PDN

Zhu F, Zhou Y K, Qian K, Che Y P, Ma Y M, Liu Z, Cheng S C, 2017. First report of corky ringspot in potatoes caused by Tobacco rattle virus in Jiangsu Province, China. Plant Disease. 101 (11), 1958-1959. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis DOI:10.1094/PDIS-04-17-0574-PDN

Zouhar M, Rysanek P, Gaar V, 2003. First report of the potato cyst nematode (Globodera pallida) in the Czech Republic. Plant Disease. 87 (1), 98.

Contributors

Top of page

24/8/2014 Updated by:

Marianne Jennifer Datiles, Department of Botany-Smithsonian NMNH, Washington DC, USA

Pedro Acevedo-Rodríguez, Department of Botany-Smithsonian NMNH, Washington DC, USA

Distribution Maps

Top of page
You can pan and zoom the map
Save map
Select a dataset
Map Legends
  • CABI Summary Records
Map Filters
Extent
Invasive
Origin
Third party data sources: