Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Amorpha fruticosa
(false indigo-bush)

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Datasheet

Amorpha fruticosa (false indigo-bush)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 05 December 2018
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Host Plant
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Amorpha fruticosa
  • Preferred Common Name
  • false indigo-bush
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Plantae
  •     Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •       Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •         Class: Dicotyledonae
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • Amorpha fruticosa is a fast-growing, deciduous shrub that grows in wetlands and disturbed habitats. It is native to North America but has spread across Asia and Europe, likely through its use as an ornamental p...

  • Principal Source
  • Draft datasheet under review

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Amorpha fruticosa (false indigo-bush); flowering habit. Bupyung, Korea. July 2008.
TitleHabit
CaptionAmorpha fruticosa (false indigo-bush); flowering habit. Bupyung, Korea. July 2008.
Copyright©Dalgial/via wikipedia - CC BY-SA 3.0
Amorpha fruticosa (false indigo-bush); flowering habit. Bupyung, Korea. July 2008.
HabitAmorpha fruticosa (false indigo-bush); flowering habit. Bupyung, Korea. July 2008.©Dalgial/via wikipedia - CC BY-SA 3.0
Amorpha fruticosa (false indigo-bush); habit. Bupyung, Korea. July 2008.
TitleHabit
CaptionAmorpha fruticosa (false indigo-bush); habit. Bupyung, Korea. July 2008.
Copyright©Dalgial/via wikipedia - CC BY-SA 3.0
Amorpha fruticosa (false indigo-bush); habit. Bupyung, Korea. July 2008.
HabitAmorpha fruticosa (false indigo-bush); habit. Bupyung, Korea. July 2008.©Dalgial/via wikipedia - CC BY-SA 3.0
Amorpha fruticosa (false indigo-bush); habit, showing foliage. Bupyung, Korea. July 2008.
TitleHabit
CaptionAmorpha fruticosa (false indigo-bush); habit, showing foliage. Bupyung, Korea. July 2008.
Copyright©Dalgial/via wikipedia - CC BY-SA 3.0
Amorpha fruticosa (false indigo-bush); habit, showing foliage. Bupyung, Korea. July 2008.
HabitAmorpha fruticosa (false indigo-bush); habit, showing foliage. Bupyung, Korea. July 2008.©Dalgial/via wikipedia - CC BY-SA 3.0
Amorpha fruticosa (false indigo-bush); foliage and eveloping seedhead. Bupyung, Korea. July 2008.
TitleSeedhead
CaptionAmorpha fruticosa (false indigo-bush); foliage and eveloping seedhead. Bupyung, Korea. July 2008.
Copyright©Dalgial/via wikipedia - CC BY-SA 3.0
Amorpha fruticosa (false indigo-bush); foliage and eveloping seedhead. Bupyung, Korea. July 2008.
SeedheadAmorpha fruticosa (false indigo-bush); foliage and eveloping seedhead. Bupyung, Korea. July 2008.©Dalgial/via wikipedia - CC BY-SA 3.0
Amorpha fruticosa (false indigo-bush); stem. Bupyung, Korea. July 2008.
TitleStem
CaptionAmorpha fruticosa (false indigo-bush); stem. Bupyung, Korea. July 2008.
Copyright©Dalgial/via wikipedia - CC BY-SA 3.0
Amorpha fruticosa (false indigo-bush); stem. Bupyung, Korea. July 2008.
StemAmorpha fruticosa (false indigo-bush); stem. Bupyung, Korea. July 2008.©Dalgial/via wikipedia - CC BY-SA 3.0

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Amorpha fruticosa L.

Preferred Common Name

  • false indigo-bush

Other Scientific Names

  • Amorpha angustifolia F.E.Boynton
  • Amorpha arizonica Rydb.
  • Amorpha bushii Rydb.
  • Amorpha croceolanata Watson
  • Amorpha curtissii Rydb.
  • Amorpha dewinkeleri Small
  • Amorpha emarginata Eastw.
  • Amorpha fragrans Sweet
  • Amorpha humilis Tausch
  • Amorpha occidentalis Abrams
  • Amorpha pendula Carriere
  • Amorpha tennesseensis Kuntze
  • Amorpha virgata Small

International Common Names

  • English: bastard indigo; desert false indigo
  • French: amorphe arbustif; faux indigo; indigo batard
  • Russian: amorfa kustarnikovaya
  • German: gemeiner bastardindigo; gemeiner Bleibusch

Local Common Names

  • Czech Republic: netvarec kroviti
  • Italy: falso indaco
  • Netherlands: indigobloem
  • Poland: amorfa krzewiasta
  • Turkey: çivit ağacı

EPPO code

  • AMHFR (Amorpha fruticosa)

Summary of Invasiveness

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Amorpha fruticosa is a fast-growing, deciduous shrub that grows in wetlands and disturbed habitats. It is native to North America but has spread across Asia and Europe, likely through its use as an ornamental plant. It is now generally accepted to be among the most invasive alien species in Europe. It has a high reproductive capacity, forms dense thickets and outcompetes native flora, changing successional patterns and reducing biodiversity. Repeated cutting and mowing can help to control populations of this species and in disturbed habitats, some herbicides have been successful in controlling its spread.

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Plantae
  •         Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •             Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •                 Class: Dicotyledonae
  •                     Order: Fabales
  •                         Family: Fabaceae
  •                             Subfamily: Faboideae
  •                                 Genus: Amorpha
  •                                     Species: Amorpha fruticosa

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

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There are approximately 15 accepted species in the genus Amorpha (Cullen, 1995; Roskov et al., 2018). A. fruticosa was first described by Linnaeus in 1753. As the only member of the genus at the time, it was designated as the type species (Wilbur, 1975). The lectotype, designated by Stearn (1957), is a specimen preserved at the British Natural History Museum (Herb. Clifford: 353, Amorpha 1). A. fruticosa is highly morphologically variable, and many varieties and forms were described in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, based on both vegetative and sexual characteristics (IPNI, 2005; Missouri Botanical Garden, 2018).

Description

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The following description is from the Flora of China (Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2010):

Deciduous shrubs, 1-4(-6) m tall. Stems pubescent, glabres­cent. Leaves 10-15-(30) cm; stipules bristlelike; petiole 1-2 cm; leaflets 11-25, ovate to elliptic, 1-4 x 0.6-2 cm, abaxially white puberulent, adaxially glabrous or sparsely pubescent, black glandular-dotted, base broadly cuneate or rounded, apex acute, obtuse, or retuse, with a shortly curved spinose tip. Racemes 1 to many, terminal or subterminal, 7-15 cm, densely pubescent; bracts 3-4 mm. Calyx 2.5-3.0 mm long; teeth triangular, unequal, shorter than tube. Standard purple, obcordate, ca 6 mm; wings and keel absent. Style puberulent. Legume dark brown, oblong, curved, 6-10 x 2-3 mm, apex beaked, strongly glandular-dotted, 1-seeded. Seed lustrous, reniform, ca 5 mm, curved upward.

Plant Type

Top of page Perennial
Seed propagated
Shrub

Distribution

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A. fruticosa is native to North America and introduced across much of Asia and Europe (Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2010; USDA-ARS, 2018). It is also reported to be invasive in a number of European countries (DAISIE, 2015; EPPO, 2018).

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasivePlantedReferenceNotes

Asia

ArmeniaPresentIntroducedEuro+Med PlantBase, 2011
AzerbaijanPresentIntroducedEuro+Med PlantBase, 2011; USDA-ARS, 2018Naturalized
ChinaPresentIntroducedFlora of China Editorial Committee, 2010
-AnhuiPresentIntroducedFlora of China Editorial Committee, 2010
-FujianPresentIntroducedFlora of China Editorial Committee, 2010
-GansuPresentIntroducedFlora of China Editorial Committee, 2010
-GuangxiPresentIntroducedFlora of China Editorial Committee, 2010
-HebeiPresentIntroducedFlora of China Editorial Committee, 2010
-HeilongjiangPresentIntroducedFlora of China Editorial Committee, 2010
-HenanPresentIntroducedFlora of China Editorial Committee, 2010
-HubeiPresentIntroducedFlora of China Editorial Committee, 2010
-JiangsuPresentIntroducedFlora of China Editorial Committee, 2010
-JiangxiPresentIntroducedFlora of China Editorial Committee, 2010
-JilinPresentIntroducedFlora of China Editorial Committee, 2010
-LiaoningPresentIntroducedFlora of China Editorial Committee, 2010
-Nei MengguPresentIntroducedFlora of China Editorial Committee, 2010
-NingxiaPresentIntroducedFlora of China Editorial Committee, 2010
-QinghaiPresentIntroducedFlora of China Editorial Committee, 2010
-ShaanxiPresentIntroducedFlora of China Editorial Committee, 2010
-ShandongPresentIntroducedFlora of China Editorial Committee, 2010
-ShanxiPresentIntroducedFlora of China Editorial Committee, 2010
-SichuanPresentIntroducedFlora of China Editorial Committee, 2010
-XinjiangPresentIntroducedFlora of China Editorial Committee, 2010
-ZhejiangPresentIntroducedFlora of China Editorial Committee, 2010
Georgia (Republic of)PresentIntroducedEuro+Med PlantBase, 2011; EPPO, 2018
IndiaPresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS, 2018Naturalized
IraqPresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS, 2018Naturalized
KazakhstanPresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS, 2018Naturalized
Korea, DPRPresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS, 2018Naturalized
Korea, Republic ofPresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS, 2018Naturalized
KyrgyzstanPresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS, 2018Naturalized
PakistanPresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS, 2018Naturalized
TajikistanPresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS, 2018Naturalized
TurkeyPresentIntroducedEuro+Med PlantBase, 2011
TurkmenistanPresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS, 2018Naturalized
UzbekistanPresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS, 2018Naturalized

Africa

MauritiusPresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS, 2018Naturalized

North America

CanadaPresentPresent based on regional distribution
-ManitobaPresentNativeBrouillet et al., 2010
-OntarioPresentIntroducedBrouillet et al., 2010
-QuebecPresentIntroducedBrouillet et al., 2010
MexicoPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2018
USAPresentPresent based on regional distribution
-AlabamaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2018
-ArizonaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2018
-ArkansasPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2018
-CaliforniaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2018
-ColoradoPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2018
-ConnecticutPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2018
-FloridaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2018
-GeorgiaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2018
-IdahoPresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS, 2018Naturalized
-IllinoisPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2018
-IndianaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2018
-IowaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2018
-KansasPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2018
-KentuckyPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2018
-LouisianaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2018
-MainePresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2018
-MarylandPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2018
-MassachusettsPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2018
-MichiganPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2018
-MinnesotaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2018
-MississippiPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2018
-MissouriPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2018
-NebraskaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2018
-New HampshirePresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2018
-New MexicoPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2018
-New YorkPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2018
-North CarolinaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2018
-North DakotaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2018
-OhioPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2018
-OklahomaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2018
-OregonUnconfirmed recordCAB Abstracts
-PennsylvaniaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2018
-South CarolinaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2018
-South DakotaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2018
-TennesseePresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2018
-TexasPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2018
-VermontPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2018
-VirginiaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2018
-WashingtonUnconfirmed recordCAB Abstracts
-West VirginiaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2018
-WisconsinPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2018
-WyomingPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2018

South America

ArgentinaPresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS, 2018Naturalized

Europe

AlbaniaPresentIntroducedEuro+Med PlantBase, 2011
AustriaPresentIntroducedEuro+Med PlantBase, 2011
BelarusPresentIntroducedEuro+Med PlantBase, 2011
BelgiumPresentIntroduced Not invasive DAISIE, 2015Casual
Bosnia-HercegovinaPresentIntroducedEuro+Med PlantBase, 2011
BulgariaPresentIntroducedEuro+Med PlantBase, 2011
CroatiaPresentIntroducedEuro+Med PlantBase, 2011
Czech RepublicPresentIntroduced Invasive Euro+Med PlantBase, 2011Naturalized
EstoniaPresentIntroducedEuro+Med PlantBase, 2011
FrancePresentIntroduced Invasive Euro+Med PlantBase, 2011; DAISIE, 2015; EPPO, 2018
-CorsicaAbsent, no pest recordEPPO, 2014
GermanyPresentIntroduced Invasive DAISIE, 2015Naturalized
GreecePresentIntroduced Invasive DAISIE, 2015Naturalized
HungaryPresentIntroduced Invasive DAISIE, 2015; EPPO, 2018
ItalyPresentIntroduced Invasive Euro+Med PlantBase, 2011; DAISIE, 2015Naturalized
LithuaniaPresentIntroduced Invasive Euro+Med PlantBase, 2011; Gudžinskas and Žalneravičius, 2015
MacedoniaPresentIntroducedEuro+Med PlantBase, 2011
MoldovaPresentIntroducedEuro+Med PlantBase, 2011
MontenegroPresentIntroducedEuro+Med PlantBase, 2011
PolandPresentIntroduced Invasive DAISIE, 2015Naturalized
RomaniaPresentIntroduced Invasive Euro+Med PlantBase, 2011; Dumitrascu et al., 2013; DAISIE, 2015
Russian FederationPresentIntroducedEuro+Med PlantBase, 2011
-Central RussiaPresentIntroducedEuro+Med PlantBase, 2011
-Northern RussiaPresentIntroducedEuro+Med PlantBase, 2011
-Russian Far EastPresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS, 2018Naturalized
-Southern RussiaPresentIntroducedEuro+Med PlantBase, 2011
-Western SiberiaPresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS, 2018Naturalized
SerbiaPresentIntroducedEuro+Med PlantBase, 2011; EPPO, 2018
SlovakiaPresentIntroducedEuro+Med PlantBase, 2011
SloveniaPresentIntroduced Invasive Euro+Med PlantBase, 2011; EPPO, 2018
SpainPresentIntroduced Invasive EPPO, 2014; DAISIE, 2015Naturalized
SwitzerlandPresentIntroduced Not invasive Euro+Med PlantBase, 2011; EPPO, 2018
UKPresentIntroducedEuro+Med PlantBase, 2011
UkrainePresentIntroducedEuro+Med PlantBase, 2011

History of Introduction and Spread

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A. fruticosa was introduced to Europe in 1724 as an ornamental plant (Karmyzova, 2014). It was first recorded in Lithuania in 2013, where it is now naturalized and invasive (Gudžinskas and Žalneravičius, 2015).

Risk of Introduction

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Its use as an ornamental, means that there is a risk of further spread of A. fruticosa to other countries in Europe and Asia and also potentially to other continents, such as Africa and Central America.

Habitat

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A. fruticosa grows in a wide range of habitats, including riparian and alluvial habitats, sandy banks of ravines, coastal areas, dunes and disturbed land, such as plantations, orchards, meadows and urban areas (Szigetvári, 2002; Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2010; Karmyzova, 2014).

Habitat List

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CategorySub-CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Terrestrial-managed/Cultivated / agricultural land Secondary/tolerated habitat Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial-managed/Disturbed areas Secondary/tolerated habitat Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial-managed/Urban / peri-urban areas Secondary/tolerated habitat Harmful (pest or invasive)

Biology and Ecology

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Genetics

A. fruticosa has a chromosome number of 2n = 40 (Bo et al., 2006). Hybrids are known to occur among species in the genus Amorpha, including between A. fruticosa and A. nitens (Taft, 2013).

Reproductive Biology

A. fruticosa is a fast growing shrub, that produces a high number of viable seeds. Pollination is performed by insects (mainly bees, belonging to the genus Andrena). Pollen is small (10-25 µm), isopolar, oblate, with three colporous apertures (PalDat, 2000). A. fruticosa also spreads vegetatively by sprouting, and stems can root at the nodes (Szigetvári, 2002).

Physiology and Phenology

A. fruticosa uses the C3 pathway of photosynthesis. It flowers from April to June in its native range, and up to July in some areas where it has been introduced (e.g. Europe). In China, this species flowers in May and June and fruits from July to September (Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2010).

Associations

A. fruticosa is associated with species that form coastal or riparian communities. These include: Ammophila arenaria, Artemisia campestris, Bromus sterilis, Carduus pycnocephalus, Crucianella maritima, Helichrysum stoechas, Juniperus spp., Portulaca oleracea, Sonchus spp. and Tamarix spp. A. fruticosa is also a host plant for Acanalonia conica (EPPO, 2018).

Environmental Requirements

It grows in medium to wet, well-drained soils and is tolerant of partial shade and occasional flooding. Although it prefers to grow along river banks, it can tolerate dry soils. Its well-developed root system means it is relatively wind tolerant (Kozuharova et al., 2017).

Climate

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ClimateStatusDescriptionRemark
Cs - Warm temperate climate with dry summer Preferred Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry summers
Cw - Warm temperate climate with dry winter Preferred Warm temperate climate with dry winter (Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry winters)
Cf - Warm temperate climate, wet all year Preferred Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, wet all year
Ds - Continental climate with dry summer Preferred Continental climate with dry summer (Warm average temp. > 10°C, coldest month < 0°C, dry summers)
Df - Continental climate, wet all year Preferred Continental climate, wet all year (Warm average temp. > 10°C, coldest month < 0°C, wet all year)

Latitude/Altitude Ranges

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Latitude North (°N)Latitude South (°S)Altitude Lower (m)Altitude Upper (m)
50-55 20-25

Rainfall Regime

Top of page Bimodal

Soil Tolerances

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Soil reaction

  • acid
  • alkaline
  • neutral

Soil texture

  • light
  • medium

Natural enemies

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Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Acanthoscelides pallidipennis Parasite Seeds not specific Gagic et al., 2008 Serbia
Zerene cesonia Herbivore Whole plant not specific

Means of Movement and Dispersal

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Natural Dispersal

The seed pods of A. fruticosa are buoyant and are spread by water (Szigetvári, 2002; Blagojević et al., 2015).

Vector Transmission (biotic)

Birds and small mammals may disperse the seeds of A. fruticosa (Szigetvári, 2002).

Intentional Introduction

A. fruticosa has been intentionally introduced to countries across Europe and Asia as an ornamental species (USDA-ARS, 2018), and later for degraded land reclamation (Kozuharova et al., 2017).

Pathway Causes

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CauseNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Escape from confinement or garden escape Yes Karmyzova, 2014
Habitat restoration and improvement Yes Yes Kozuharova et al., 2017
Ornamental purposes Yes Yes USDA-ARS, 2018

Pathway Vectors

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VectorNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Water Yes Yes Blagojević et al., 2015

Environmental Impact

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Impact on Habitats

Szigetvári (2002) describes A. fruticosa as a transformer species that colonizes disturbed areas, particularly floodplain pastures and meadows. Through rapid growth, it forms dense thickets and outcompetes native flora, changing successional patterns and reducing biodiversity (Szigetvári, 2002). It is known to be particularly invasive in riparian and alluvial habitats and is generally accepted to be among the most invasive alien species in Europe (Protopopova et al., 2006; Kozuharova et al., 2017). Allelopathic effects of A. fruticosa have also been reported (Csiszár, 2009).

Impact on Biodiversity

Brigić et al. (2014) demonstrated that changes to the vegetation structure and microclimate of habitats, caused by the invasion of A. fruticosa, have a significant effect on the composition of soil invertebrates.

Risk and Impact Factors

Top of page Invasiveness
  • Proved invasive outside its native range
  • Has a broad native range
  • Abundant in its native range
  • Highly adaptable to different environments
  • Is a habitat generalist
  • Tolerates, or benefits from, cultivation, browsing pressure, mutilation, fire etc
  • Pioneering in disturbed areas
  • Tolerant of shade
  • Highly mobile locally
  • Long lived
  • Has high reproductive potential
  • Has propagules that can remain viable for more than one year
  • Reproduces asexually
  • Has high genetic variability
Impact outcomes
  • Ecosystem change/ habitat alteration
  • Increases vulnerability to invasions
  • Modification of successional patterns
  • Monoculture formation
  • Reduced native biodiversity
  • Threat to/ loss of native species
Impact mechanisms
  • Allelopathic
  • Competition - shading
  • Competition - smothering
  • Rapid growth
Likelihood of entry/control
  • Highly likely to be transported internationally deliberately
  • Difficult to identify/detect in the field
  • Difficult/costly to control

Uses

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Economic Value

A. fruticosa has been a popular ornamental plant since the 1700s (Kozuharova et al., 2017). In 2016, Cuivăț et al. reviewed its value in terms of its potential medicinal, food and industrial uses.

Social Benefit

Recent research has demonstrated the potential health benefits of A. fruticosa, particularly in treating diabetes and metabolic disease (Kozuharova et al., 2017)

Environmental Services

A. fruticosa is a honey plant and an important food source for bees across its native and introduced range (Kozuharova et al., 2017). Its well-developed root system means that it has also been planted to stabilize soil and prevent erosion, e.g. on railway embankments (Kozuharova et al., 2017).

Uses List

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Environmental

  • Erosion control or dune stabilization
  • Land reclamation

Human food and beverage

  • Honey/honey flora

Medicinal, pharmaceutical

  • Source of medicine/pharmaceutical

Ornamental

  • garden plant
  • Potted plant

Similarities to Other Species/Conditions

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A. fruticosa is similar to a number of species in the genus Amorpha, including A. laevigata, A. ouachitensis and A. roemeriana. A. fruticosa can be recognized by its usually eglandular petioles, and leaflets with an acute or obtuse apex (never emarginate) (Wilbur, 1975).

Prevention and Control

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Control

Biological Control

Research carried out in Serbia in 2006 demonstrated the potential of Acanthoscelides pallidipennis as a biological control agent of A. fruticosa (Gagic et al., 2008).

Chemical Control

Glyphosate and triclopyr trimethylamine have been used to control A. fruticosa in disturbed habitats in Serbia (Blagojević et al., 2015).

Mechanical Control

Szigetvári (2002) demonstrated that, in floodplain meadows, A. fruticosa can be controlled by systematic and repeated cutting and mowing or through continuous grazing.

A review by Ciuvăț et al. (2016) in Romania identified a range of potential uses of A. fruticosa, suggesting that placing a value on the species may help to sustainably control its spread. Mechanical control is the primary means of control for populations in protected areas, where use of chemicals is prohibited (Ciuvăț et al., 2016).

References

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Blagojevic, M., Konstantinovic, B., Samardžic, N., Kurjakov, A., Orlovic, S., 2015. Seed bank of Amorpha fruticosa L. on some ruderal sites in Serbia. Journal of Agricultural Science and Technology B, 5(2), 122-128. http://www.davidpublisher.org/Public/uploads/Contribute/55f22f7ab3e2c.pdf

Bo L, Chengbin C, Xiulan L, Liwang Q, Suying H, 2006. Karyotype analysis and physical mapping of 45S rDNA in eight species of Sophora, Robinia, and Amorpha. Frontiers of Biology in China, 1(3), 290-294.

Brigic, A., Vujcic-Karlo, S., Kepcija, R. M., Stancic, Z., Alegro, A., Ternjej, I., 2014. Taxon specific response of carabids (Coleoptera, Carabidae) and other soil invertebrate taxa on invasive plant Amorpha fruticosa in wetlands. Biological Invasions, 16(7), 1497-1514. http://rd.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10530-013-0587-8 doi: 10.1007/s10530-013-0587-8

Brouillet L, Coursol F, Meades SJ, Favreau M, Anions M, Bélisle P, Desmet P, 2010. VASCAN, the Database of Vascular Plants of Canada. http://data.canadensys.net/vascan/

Ciuvat, A. L., Vasile, D., Dinu, C., Apostol, E., Apostol, B., Petritan, A. M., 2016. Valorisation possibilities of invasive indigobush (Amorpha fruticosa L.) in Romania. (Posibilitati de valorificare a speciei invazive Amorpha fruticosa L. in Romania). Revista de Silvicultura si Cinegetica, 21(39), 96-99. http://progresulsilvic.ro/wp-content/uploads/RSC_39_2016.pdf

Csiszár, Á., 2009. Allelopathic effects of invasive woody plant species in Hungary. Acta Silvatica & Lignaria Hungarica, 5, 9-17. http://aslh.nyme.hu

Cullen J, 1995. Amorpha L. In: The European Garden Flora. Volume 4, [ed. by Cullen J, Alexander JCM, Brady A, Brickell CD, et al.]. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.

DAISIE, 2015. Delivering Alien Invasive Species Inventories for Europe. European Invasive Alien Species Gateway. http://www.europe-aliens.org/

Dumitrascu, M., Doroftei, M., Grigorescu, I., Kucsicsa, G., Dragota, S., 2013. Key biological indicators to assess Amorpha fruticosa Invasive Terrestrial Plant Species in Romanian protected areas. In: Proceedings of the 9th International Conference on Energy, Environment, Ecosystems and Sustainable Development (EEESD '13), Lemesos, Cyprus, 21-23 March, 2013 [Proceedings of the 9th International Conference on Energy, Environment, Ecosystems and Sustainable Development (EEESD '13), Lemesos, Cyprus, 21-23 March, 2013], Wisconsin, USA: World Scientific and Engineering Academy and Society Press (WSEAS Press). 144-149. http://www.wseas.org/main/books/2013/Lemesos/ENVIR.pdf

EPPO, 2014. PQR database. Paris, France: European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization. http://www.eppo.int/DATABASES/pqr/pqr.htm

EPPO, 2018. EPPO Global database (available online). Paris, France: EPPO.https://gd.eppo.int/

Euro+Med PlantBase, 2011. Euro+Med PlantBase – the information resource for Euro-Mediterranean plant diversity. http://www.emplantbase.org/home.html

Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2010. Flora of China. St. Louis, Missouri and Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden Press and Harvard University Herbaria.http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2

Gagic R, Mihajlovic R, Glavendekic M, 2008. Acanthoscelides pallidipennis (Coleoptera: Bruchidae), a spermatophagous insect of indigo bush (Amorpha fruticosa L.) and its natural enemies in Serbia. Acta Herbologica, 17(2), 195-201.

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01/09/16 Original text by:

Duilio Iamonico, Department of Planning, Design and Technology of Architecture, Sapienza University of Rome, Rome, Italy

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