Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Ricinus communis
(castor bean)

Toolbox

Datasheet

Ricinus communis (castor bean)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 24 November 2019
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Host Plant
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Ricinus communis
  • Preferred Common Name
  • castor bean
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Plantae
  •     Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •       Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •         Class: Dicotyledonae
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • R. communis is a fast-growing shrub or small tree which is a highly prolific and precocious producer of toxic seeds, very adaptable to different environments and has been widely distributed by man. It is reported invasive or weedy in many...

Don't need the entire report?

Generate a print friendly version containing only the sections you need.

Generate report

Pictures

Top of page
PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
TitleFoliage
Caption
Copyright©K.M. Siddiqui
Foliage©K.M. Siddiqui
Flowering shoot of R. communis. Panicles are erect, terminal, later somewhat lateral by overtopping, up to 40 cm long, usually glaucous, with unisexual flowers, male flowers towards the base, female ones towards the top.
TitleFlowering
CaptionFlowering shoot of R. communis. Panicles are erect, terminal, later somewhat lateral by overtopping, up to 40 cm long, usually glaucous, with unisexual flowers, male flowers towards the base, female ones towards the top.
Copyright©Chris Parker/Bristol, UK
Flowering shoot of R. communis. Panicles are erect, terminal, later somewhat lateral by overtopping, up to 40 cm long, usually glaucous, with unisexual flowers, male flowers towards the base, female ones towards the top.
FloweringFlowering shoot of R. communis. Panicles are erect, terminal, later somewhat lateral by overtopping, up to 40 cm long, usually glaucous, with unisexual flowers, male flowers towards the base, female ones towards the top.©Chris Parker/Bristol, UK
Fruiting shoot of R. communis. Fruits are ellipsoid to subglobose, 15-25 mm long, brown, spiny or smooth.
TitleFruits
CaptionFruiting shoot of R. communis. Fruits are ellipsoid to subglobose, 15-25 mm long, brown, spiny or smooth.
Copyright©Chris Parker/Bristol, UK
Fruiting shoot of R. communis. Fruits are ellipsoid to subglobose, 15-25 mm long, brown, spiny or smooth.
FruitsFruiting shoot of R. communis. Fruits are ellipsoid to subglobose, 15-25 mm long, brown, spiny or smooth.©Chris Parker/Bristol, UK
Castor bean crop in South Africa.
TitleCrop
CaptionCastor bean crop in South Africa.
Copyright©Chris Parker/Bristol, UK
Castor bean crop in South Africa.
CropCastor bean crop in South Africa.©Chris Parker/Bristol, UK
R. communis: 1, branch with leaves;  2, inflorescence;  3, infructescence; 4, seed.

Reproduced from the series 'Plant Resources of South-East Asia', Vols. 1-20 (1989-2000), by kind permission of the PROSEA Foundation, Bogor, Indonesia.
TitleLine drawing detailing plant parts
CaptionR. communis: 1, branch with leaves; 2, inflorescence; 3, infructescence; 4, seed. Reproduced from the series 'Plant Resources of South-East Asia', Vols. 1-20 (1989-2000), by kind permission of the PROSEA Foundation, Bogor, Indonesia.
CopyrightPROSEA Foundation
R. communis: 1, branch with leaves;  2, inflorescence;  3, infructescence; 4, seed.

Reproduced from the series 'Plant Resources of South-East Asia', Vols. 1-20 (1989-2000), by kind permission of the PROSEA Foundation, Bogor, Indonesia.
Line drawing detailing plant partsR. communis: 1, branch with leaves; 2, inflorescence; 3, infructescence; 4, seed. Reproduced from the series 'Plant Resources of South-East Asia', Vols. 1-20 (1989-2000), by kind permission of the PROSEA Foundation, Bogor, Indonesia.PROSEA Foundation

Identity

Top of page

Preferred Scientific Name

  • Ricinus communis L.

Preferred Common Name

  • castor bean

International Common Names

  • English: castor; castor oil; castoroil plant; castor-oil plant; palma christi
  • Spanish: hierba mora; higuera del diablo; ricino; ricino comun; tartago
  • French: grande epurge; ricin; ricin commun
  • Chinese: bima; hongbima; hongdamazi; tianmaziguo
  • Portuguese: mamoeiro

Local Common Names

  • : aceite de castor; aceite de ricino; planta de castor
  • Australia: African coffee tree; castor bean; castor oil bush; castor oil tree; castorbean tree; maple weed; Palma Christi; wonder tree
  • Brazil: carrapateiro; carrapato; catapucia-maior; caturra; mamona; mamoneira; palma-de-cristo; rícino; tortago
  • Cambodia: lohong khnhe; lohong khvâang
  • Cuba: carrapa; higuereta; palma christi; ricino verde
  • Denmark: wooderboom
  • Dominican Republic: higuera; higuereta; huile mascrista
  • Germany: Rizinus; Rizinus-pflanze; wanderbaum
  • Haiti: huile montecristi; huile ricin; mascarite; mascristi; palma cristi
  • India: haralu
  • Indonesia: jarak
  • Italy: palma christi; ricino commune
  • Jamaica: oil nut
  • Japan: hima
  • Laos: castor bean; castor-oil-plant; hungx saa; huong
  • Lesser Antilles: carapate; gwen makwisti; pyé gwenn
  • Malaysia: jarak
  • Mexico: higuerilla; palmacristi
  • Netherlands: wonderboom
  • Philippines: tangan-tangan
  • Sri Lanka: amanaku maram
  • Thailand: lahung; mahung
  • Vietnam: daudan; thâu dâù

EPPO code

  • RIICO (Ricinus communis)

Summary of Invasiveness

Top of page

R. communis is a fast-growing shrub or small tree which is a highly prolific and precocious producer of toxic seeds, very adaptable to different environments and has been widely distributed by man. It is reported invasive or weedy in many countries particularly in the tropics and since dense thickets shade out native flora it is able to have negative impacts on biodiversity. Weed risk assessments in the USA and Caribbean have rejected its use as a bioenergy crop due to its high invasive potential (Gordon et al., 2011; Bridgemohan and Bridgemohan, 2014).

Taxonomic Tree

Top of page
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Plantae
  •         Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •             Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •                 Class: Dicotyledonae
  •                     Order: Euphorbiales
  •                         Family: Euphorbiaceae
  •                             Genus: Ricinus
  •                                 Species: Ricinus communis

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

Top of page

The Family Euphorbiacea includes 218 genera and 6745 species distributed worldwide. The genus Ricinus L. is considered to be monotypic (R. communis) and is included in the subfamily Acalyphoideae which included about 99 genera and 1865 species. Previously described species within the genus Ricinus have been transferred to other genera or grouped within R. communis. Some are large perennials, others behave as short-lived dwarf annuals and every gradation between them can be found. Colour differences in leaves, stems and inflorescences have resulted in selection of these variants as horticultural plants. However, attempts to classify such selections as subspecies are botanically inaccurate. In most countries 'red' and 'white' types are distinguished based on the colour of young shoots. Within these, forms or cultivars are recognized based on seed characteristics. 

Description

Top of page
An evergreen glabrous, soft-woody shrub or small tree, often grown as annual, 1-5 m tall, with a strong tap-root and prominent lateral roots. Shoots usually glaucous, variously green or red. Occasional glands at nodes, petioles and main axes of inflorescences. Stem and branches with conspicuous nodes and ringlike scars of the bracts. Leaves spirally arranged, dark green when old; stipules 1-3 cm long, united to a sheathing bud, deciduous; petiole round, 3.5-50 cm long; blade peltate, 10-70 cm across, membranous, palmate with 5-11 acuminate, serrate lobes.

Panicles erect, terminal, later somewhat lateral by overtopping, up to 40 cm long, usually glaucous, with unisexual flowers, male flowers towards the base, female ones towards the top. Flowers shortly pedicelled in lateral cymes, 1-1.5 cm diameter, with 3-5 acute calyx lobes; corolla absent; male flowers with many stamens in branched bundles; female flowers with early caducous sepals; ovary superior with three 1-ovuled cells, usually soft spiny; styles 3, red or green, 2-cleft. Fruits ellipsoid to subglobose, 15-25 mm long, brown, spiny or smooth. Seeds ellipsoid, 9-17 mm long, compressed, with a brittle, mottled, shining seedcoat and with a caruncle at the base; endosperm copious, white; cotyledons thin.

Seedling epigeal; cotyledons petioled, broadly oblong, up to 7 cm long, flat, with entire margin; first leaves opposite.

Plant Type

Top of page
Broadleaved
Perennial
Seed propagated
Shrub
Tree
Woody

Distribution

Top of page

R. communis is probably a native to North-Eastern Africa (i.e. Somalia and possibly Ethiopia). Currently, naturalized populations of R. communis can be found across the African continent, from the Atlantic coast to the Red Sea, from Tunisia to South Africa and on islands in the Indian Ocean. It is widely cultivated and naturalized in tropical and subtropical regions of America and Asia and in many temperate areas of Europe. It naturalizes easily and grows in many areas as a common ruderal plant (DAISIE, 2014; Govaerts, 2014; PROTA, 2014).   

Distribution Table

Top of page

The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 25 Feb 2021
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Planted Reference Notes

Africa

AlgeriaPresentIntroducedNaturalizedCultivated and naturalized
AngolaPresentIntroducedNaturalizedCultivated and naturalized
BeninPresentIntroducedNaturalizedCultivated and naturalized
BotswanaPresentIntroducedInvasive
Burkina FasoPresentIntroducedNaturalizedCultivated and naturalized
BurundiPresentIntroducedInvasiveCultivated and naturalized
Cabo VerdePresentIntroducedNaturalizedCultivated and naturalized
Central African RepublicPresentIntroducedNaturalizedCultivated and naturalized
ChadPresentIntroducedNaturalizedCultivated and naturalized
Congo, Democratic Republic of thePresentIntroducedNaturalizedCultivated and naturalized
DjiboutiPresentProbably native
EgyptPresentIntroducedNaturalizedCultivated and naturalized
EthiopiaPresentNative and IntroducedRecorded as native and introduced/invasive
GabonPresentIntroducedNaturalizedCultivated and naturalized
GambiaPresentIntroducedNaturalizedCultivated and naturalized
GhanaPresentIntroduced
GuineaPresentIntroducedNaturalizedCultivated and naturalized
Guinea-BissauPresentIntroducedNaturalizedCultivated and naturalized
KenyaPresentIntroducedInvasiveCultivated and naturalized
LibyaPresentIntroducedNaturalizedCultivated and naturalized
MalawiPresentIntroducedInvasive
MaliPresentIntroducedNaturalizedCultivated and naturalized
MauritaniaPresentIntroducedNaturalizedCultivated and naturalized
MayottePresentIntroducedInvasive
MoroccoPresentIntroducedNaturalizedCultivated and naturalized
MozambiquePresent
NamibiaPresent, WidespreadIntroducedInvasive
RéunionPresentIntroducedInvasive
RwandaPresentIntroducedInvasive
Saint HelenaPresentIntroducedNaturalizedCultivated and naturalized
SenegalPresentIntroducedNaturalizedCultivated and naturalized
SeychellesPresentIntroducedInvasive
SomaliaPresentNative
South AfricaPresentIntroducedInvasiveCultivated and naturalized
TanzaniaPresentIntroducedInvasiveCultivated and naturalized
TogoPresentIntroducedNaturalizedCultivated and naturalized
TunisiaPresentIntroducedNaturalizedCultivated and naturalized
UgandaPresentIntroducedInvasive
Western SaharaPresentIntroducedNaturalizedCultivated and naturalized
ZambiaPresentIntroducedInvasive
ZimbabwePresentIntroducedInvasive

Asia

AfghanistanPresentIntroducedInvasivePlanted
BahrainPresentIntroduced
British Indian Ocean Territory
-Chagos ArchipelagoPresentIntroducedInvasive
CambodiaPresentIntroduced
ChinaPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-AnhuiPresentIntroducedInvasiveCultivated and naturalized
-FujianPresentIntroducedInvasiveCultivated and naturalized
-GuangdongPresentIntroducedInvasiveCultivated and naturalized
-GuangxiPresentIntroducedInvasiveCultivated and naturalized
-GuizhouPresentIntroducedInvasiveCultivated and naturalized
-HainanPresentIntroducedInvasiveCultivated and naturalized
-HebeiPresentIntroducedInvasive
-HeilongjiangPresentIntroducedInvasive
-HenanPresentIntroducedInvasiveCultivated and naturalized
-HubeiPresentIntroducedInvasiveCultivated and naturalized
-HunanPresentIntroducedInvasiveCultivated and naturalized
-Inner MongoliaPresentIntroducedInvasiveCultivated and naturalized
-JiangsuPresentIntroducedInvasiveCultivated and naturalized
-JiangxiPresentIntroducedInvasiveCultivated and naturalized
-JilinPresentIntroducedInvasiveCultivated and naturalized
-LiaoningPresentIntroducedInvasiveCultivated and naturalized
-ShaanxiPresentIntroducedInvasiveCultivated and naturalized
-ShandongPresentIntroducedInvasiveCultivated and naturalized
-ShanxiPresentIntroducedInvasiveCultivated and naturalized
-SichuanPresentIntroducedInvasiveCultivated and naturalized
-YunnanPresentIntroducedInvasiveCultivated and naturalized
-ZhejiangPresentIntroducedInvasiveCultivated and naturalized
Cocos IslandsPresentIntroducedInvasive
Hong KongPresentIntroducedInvasiveCultivated and naturalized
IndiaPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-Andhra PradeshPresentIntroducedNaturalizedCultivated and naturalized
-Arunachal PradeshPresentIntroducedNaturalizedCultivated and naturalized
-AssamPresentIntroducedNaturalizedCultivated and naturalized
-BiharPresentIntroducedNaturalizedCultivated and naturalized
-ChandigarhPresentIntroducedNaturalizedCultivated and naturalized
-Dadra and Nagar HaveliPresentIntroducedNaturalizedCultivated and naturalized
-Daman and DiuPresentIntroducedNaturalizedCultivated and naturalized
-DelhiPresentIntroducedNaturalizedCultivated and naturalized
-GoaPresentIntroducedNaturalizedCultivated and naturalized
-GujaratPresentIntroducedNaturalizedCultivated and naturalized
-HaryanaPresentIntroducedNaturalizedCultivated and naturalized
-Himachal PradeshPresentIntroducedNaturalizedCultivated and naturalized
-KarnatakaPresentIntroducedNaturalizedCultivated and naturalized
-KeralaPresentIntroducedNaturalizedCultivated and naturalized
-LakshadweepPresentIntroducedNaturalizedCultivated and naturalized
-Madhya PradeshPresentIntroducedNaturalizedCultivated and naturalized
-MaharashtraPresent
-ManipurPresentIntroducedNaturalizedCultivated and naturalized
-MeghalayaPresentIntroducedNaturalizedCultivated and naturalized
-MizoramPresentIntroducedNaturalizedCultivated and naturalized
-NagalandPresentIntroducedNaturalizedCultivated and naturalized
-OdishaPresentIntroducedNaturalizedCultivated and naturalized
-PunjabPresentIntroducedNaturalizedCultivated and naturalized
-RajasthanPresentIntroducedNaturalizedCultivated and naturalized
-SikkimPresentIntroducedNaturalizedCultivated and naturalized
-Tamil NaduPresentIntroducedNaturalizedCultivated and naturalized
-TripuraPresentIntroducedNaturalizedCultivated and naturalized
-Uttar PradeshPresentIntroducedNaturalizedCultivated and naturalized
-West BengalPresentIntroducedNaturalizedCultivated and naturalized
IndonesiaPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-Irian JayaPresentPlanted
-JavaPresentPlanted
-Maluku IslandsPresentPlanted
-SulawesiPresentIntroducedNaturalizedCultivated and naturalized
-SumatraPresentPlanted
IranPresentIntroducedPlanted
IsraelPresentIntroducedInvasivePlanted
JapanPresentIntroducedPlanted
JordanPresentIntroducedPlanted
MalaysiaPresent, WidespreadIntroducedPlanted
-Peninsular MalaysiaPresentPlanted
-SabahPresentPlanted
-SarawakPresentPlanted
MaldivesPresentIntroduced
NepalPresentIntroducedPlanted
North KoreaPresentIntroducedPlanted
PakistanPresentIntroduced
PhilippinesPresentIntroducedInvasive
QatarPresentIntroducedPlanted
Saudi ArabiaPresentIntroducedPlanted
SingaporePresentIntroducedInvasive
South KoreaPresent
Sri LankaPresentIntroduced
TaiwanPresentIntroducedInvasive
ThailandPresentIntroduced
TurkeyPresentIntroducedInvasiveCultivated and naturalized

Europe

AustriaPresentPlanted
BelgiumPresentIntroduced
BulgariaPresentIntroduced
CroatiaPresentIntroduced
CyprusPresentIntroducedNaturalizedNaturalized
CzechiaPresentIntroduced
DenmarkPresentIntroduced
EstoniaPresentIntroduced
FrancePresentIntroducedPlanted
-CorsicaPresentIntroducedInvasive
GreecePresentIntroducedInvasive
HungaryPresentIntroduced
ItalyPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-SardiniaPresentIntroducedInvasive
-SicilyPresentIntroducedInvasive
LithuaniaPresentIntroducedInvasive
MaltaPresentIntroducedNaturalizedNaturalized
PolandPresentIntroducedPlanted
PortugalPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-AzoresPresentIntroducedInvasive
-MadeiraPresentIntroducedInvasive
RomaniaPresentIntroduced
Serbia and MontenegroPresentIntroducedPlanted
SpainPresentIntroducedInvasivePlantedOriginal citation: Institute Hórus de Desenvolvimento and Ambient Con (2003)
-Balearic IslandsPresentIntroducedNaturalizedNaturalized
-Canary IslandsPresentIntroducedInvasive
SwedenPresentIntroducedNaturalizedNaturalized
United KingdomPresentIntroduced
-Channel IslandsPresentIntroducedNaturalizedNaturalized
-ScotlandPresentIntroduced

North America

Antigua and BarbudaPresentIntroducedInvasivePlanted
ArubaPresentIntroduced
BahamasPresentIntroduced
BarbadosPresentIntroduced
BelizePresentIntroduced
BermudaPresentIntroduced
Bonaire, Saint Eustatius and Saba
-BonairePresentIntroduced
British Virgin IslandsPresentIntroducedInvasiveGuana, Tortola, Virgin Gorda
CanadaPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-ManitobaPresentIntroducedPlanted
Cayman IslandsPresentIntroduced
Costa RicaPresentIntroducedInvasive
CubaPresentIntroducedInvasive
CuraçaoPresentIntroduced
DominicaPresentIntroduced
El SalvadorPresentIntroduced
GuadeloupePresentIntroduced
HaitiPresentIntroduced
HondurasPresentIntroducedPlanted
JamaicaPresentIntroducedInvasivePlanted
MartiniquePresentIntroduced
MexicoPresentIntroducedInvasive
MontserratPresentIntroduced
NicaraguaPresentIntroduced
PanamaPresentIntroduced
Puerto RicoPresentIntroducedInvasive
Saint LuciaPresentIntroduced
Saint Vincent and the GrenadinesPresentIntroduced
U.S. Virgin IslandsPresentIntroducedInvasiveCultivated and naturalized. St Thomas, St Croix, St John
United StatesPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-AlabamaPresentIntroduced
-ArizonaPresentIntroduced
-CaliforniaPresentIntroducedInvasivePlanted
-ConnecticutPresentIntroduced
-DelawarePresentIntroduced
-FloridaPresentIntroducedInvasive
-GeorgiaPresentIntroduced
-HawaiiPresentIntroducedInvasive
-IllinoisPresentIntroduced
-KentuckyPresentIntroduced
-LouisianaPresentIntroduced
-MassachusettsPresentIntroduced
-MississippiPresentIntroduced
-MissouriPresentIntroduced
-New HampshirePresentIntroduced
-New JerseyPresentIntroduced
-New YorkPresentIntroducedPlanted
-North CarolinaPresentIntroduced
-OhioPresentIntroduced
-PennsylvaniaPresentIntroduced
-South CarolinaPresentIntroduced
-TennesseePresentIntroduced
-TexasPresentIntroduced
-UtahPresentIntroduced
-VirginiaPresentIntroduced

Oceania

American SamoaPresentIntroducedInvasivePlanted
AustraliaPresent, WidespreadIntroducedInvasive
-New South WalesPresentIntroducedInvasivePlantedOriginal citation: NWSEC, 1998
-Northern TerritoryPresentIntroducedInvasivePlantedOriginal citation: NWSEC, 1998
-QueenslandPresentIntroducedInvasivePlanted
-South AustraliaPresentIntroducedInvasive
-VictoriaPresentIntroducedInvasive
Christmas IslandPresentIntroducedInvasive
Cook IslandsPresentIntroducedInvasive
Federated States of MicronesiaPresentIntroducedPlanted
FijiPresentIntroducedInvasive
French PolynesiaPresent, WidespreadIntroducedInvasivePlanted
GuamPresentIntroducedInvasivePlanted
KiribatiPresentIntroducedInvasive
Marshall IslandsPresentIntroducedPlanted
NauruPresentIntroducedInvasive
New CaledoniaPresentIntroducedInvasive
New ZealandPresentIntroducedInvasivePlanted
NiuePresentIntroducedPlantedOriginal citation: Space and Flynn (2000)
Norfolk IslandPresentIntroducedInvasive
Northern Mariana IslandsPresentIntroducedInvasive
PalauPresentIntroducedInvasive
Papua New GuineaPresentIntroducedPlanted
PitcairnPresentIntroducedInvasive
SamoaPresentIntroducedPlanted
Solomon IslandsPresentIntroducedInvasive
TongaPresentIntroducedInvasive
U.S. Minor Outlying IslandsPresentIntroducedCultivated
VanuatuPresentIntroducedPlanted
Wallis and FutunaPresentIntroducedInvasive

South America

ArgentinaPresentIntroducedInvasive
BrazilPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-AcrePresentIntroducedPlanted
-AmapaPresentIntroducedPlanted
-AmazonasPresentIntroducedPlanted
-BahiaPresentIntroducedInvasive
-CearaPresentIntroducedInvasive
-Espirito SantoPresentIntroducedInvasive
-GoiasPresentIntroducedPlanted
-MaranhaoPresentIntroducedPlanted
-Mato GrossoPresentIntroducedInvasive
-Mato Grosso do SulPresentIntroducedInvasivePlanted
-Minas GeraisPresentIntroducedInvasivePlanted
-ParaPresentIntroducedPlanted
-ParaibaPresentIntroducedInvasivePlanted
-ParanaPresentIntroducedInvasivePlanted
-PernambucoPresentIntroducedInvasivePlanted
-PiauiPresentIntroducedInvasive
-Rio de JaneiroPresentIntroducedInvasivePlanted
-Rio Grande do SulPresentIntroducedInvasivePlanted
-RondoniaPresentIntroducedPlanted
-RoraimaPresentIntroduced
-Sao PauloPresentIntroducedInvasivePlanted
-SergipePresentIntroducedInvasivePlanted
ChilePresentIntroducedInvasivePlantedInvasive also on J. Fernandez Island
-Easter IslandPresentIntroducedInvasive
ColombiaPresentIntroducedInvasivePlanted
EcuadorPresentIntroducedInvasive
-Galapagos IslandsPresentIntroducedInvasivePlanted
ParaguayPresentIntroducedInvasive
UruguayPresentIntroducedInvasive
VenezuelaPresentIntroducedPlanted

History of Introduction and Spread

Top of page

R. communis naturalizes easily and is found in the drier areas of many tropical and subtropical countries. It was cultivated for its oil in Egypt as long as 6000 years ago and from here it spread through the Mediterranean, the Middle East, Asia, the Far East and India at an early date. Deacon (1986) summarizes the evidence for the very early introduction of this species into South Africa, with a number of archaeological records dating as far back as the Stone Age. In the USA, this species was first documented in Florida in the 1760s (Langeland et al., 2008) and by 1819 it is listed as naturalized in Hawaii (Motooka et al., 2003). In the West Indies, R. communis was first recorded in 1822 in Martinique and in 1883 on US Virgin Islands (St Thomas; US National Herbarium). Buurt (1999) noted that it was introduced to Curaçao and Bermuda from the Old World, but he did not provide dates of introduction for those islands.  

Risk of Introduction

Top of page

R. communis has a very widespread distribution as a weed of greater or lesser importance and the long history of cultivation across the world would suggest that it is already present in the majority of countries where it is likely to grow. In these cases there should be vigilance to look for the earliest signs of invasive behaviour in the wild. Plants produce large numbers of seeds which are explosively released when the fruit are mature, thereby aiding their spread. Humans also spread the seeds both intentionally for cultivation or unintentionally in dumped garden waste, mud, soil and on vehicles and machinery. The plant shows phenotypic plasticity, and adapts to different habitat types (Neha Goyal et al., 2014). Therefore, the risk of introduction and colonization of this species into new habitats remains high.

Due to its noted invasiveness, R. communis is a regulated weed in several countries. In South Africa, R. communis is a declared category 2 invader under the Conservation of Agricultural Resources Act, 1983 (Henderson, 2001). It is one of a number of species showing a degree of invasive behaviour in Botswana (Buss, 2002). In Australia it is a category W2 weed (which must be destroyed) in parts of New South Wales and is a category B/C weed in Northern Territory (National Weeds Strategy Executive Committee (NWSEC), 1998). In the USA, it is a category 2 invasive plant (i.e. not yet thought to have altered the native assemblage) in Florida (Miller et al., 2002) and a B list invasive (plant of lesser invasiveness) in California (California Exotic Pest Plant Council, 1999). Weed risk assessments carried out to assess its potential as a bioenergy species in the Caribbean (Bridgemohan and Bridgemohan, 2014) and Florida (Gordon et al., 2011) have advised against using for bioenergy in these locations due to high risks of becoming invasive.

Habitat

Top of page

In its exotic range R. communis invades grasslands, heathlands, riparian communities, disturbed land and farmland (Weber, 2003). In South Africa, Henderson (2001) also reports it from road margins and wasteland. A degree of disturbance appears particularly important in the establishment of this species (Weber, 2003) and the disturbance factor is mentioned in association with its colonization of vegetation in South Africa and Hawaii (Cronk and Fuller, 2003). In Brazil it invades farmland and adjacent areas, rubbish tips and disturbed soil and is one of the first species to colonize burned land, and in Spain it can invade sand dunes, Mediterranean shrublands, and arid and semiarid vegetation (Institute Hórus de Desenvolvimento and Ambient Conservaçao, 2003).

Habitat List

Top of page
CategorySub-CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Terrestrial ManagedCultivated / agricultural land Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial ManagedDisturbed areas Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial ManagedRail / roadsides Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial ManagedUrban / peri-urban areas Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalNatural grasslands Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalRiverbanks Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalWetlands Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalScrub / shrublands Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalArid regions Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
LittoralCoastal areas Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)

Hosts/Species Affected

Top of page

Although R. communis may occasionally invade agricultural land, it is principally an environmental weed.

Host Animals

Top of page

List of Symptoms/Signs

Top of page
SignLife StagesType
Cardiovascular Signs / Gallop rhythm Sign
Cardiovascular Signs / Tachycardia, rapid pulse, high heart rate Sign
Digestive Signs / Diarrhoea Sign
Digestive Signs / Grinding teeth, bruxism, odontoprisis Sign
Digestive Signs / Rumen hypomotility or atony, decreased rate, motility, strength Sign
Digestive Signs / Vomiting or regurgitation, emesis Sign
General Signs / Ataxia, incoordination, staggering, falling Sign
General Signs / Dysmetria, hypermetria, hypometria Sign
General Signs / Fever, pyrexia, hyperthermia Sign
General Signs / Generalized weakness, paresis, paralysis Sign
General Signs / Sweating excessively, hyperhidrosis Sign
General Signs / Trembling, shivering, fasciculations, chilling Sign
Musculoskeletal Signs / Head, face, neck spasms, myoclonus Sign
Nervous Signs / Dullness, depression, lethargy, depressed, lethargic, listless Sign
Nervous Signs / Seizures or syncope, convulsions, fits, collapse Sign
Pain / Discomfort Signs / Colic, abdominal pain Sign

Biology and Ecology

Top of page

Genetics

The chromosome number reported for R. communis is 2 n = 20. All natural forms of R. communis are diploid, crossing freely and are fully fertile. The frequency of natural out-crossing is commonly between 5-50%, but in some dwarf cultivars it may be as high as 90-100%. A large number of varieties and cultivars have been produced and commercialized around the world. The use of male-sterile and female-sterile lines is of great value in breeding. Selection of strains with only male or female flowers allowed commercial production of specific hybrids. Traditional long-term selection has mostly tended to focus on problems associated with mechanical production such as annual, dwarf plant architecture, indehiscent, thin-hulled and sparsely spiny fruits, maturing synchronously. The main aims of modern castor breeding are for high seed yield, high oil content and high ricinoleic acid content, easy harvesting and resistance to pests.


Reproductive Biology

The flowers of R. communis are monoecious (Institute of Pacific Islands Forestry, 2002). Pollen is mainly shed in the morning and flowers are wind-pollinated and capable of self- and cross-pollination. Each plant produces large quantities of seed with germination rates ranging from 83% to 90%. It may reproduce at any time of year (Cronk and Fuller 1995) and seed production may be highly precocious, for example, flowering within 6 months of germination is possible (Institute Hórus de Desenvolvimento and Ambient Conservaçao, 2003). Average seed yields are between 400 and 1000 kg/ha seeds with maximum yields of approximately 3000 kg/ha.

Physiology and Phenology

Seedlings emerge 10-20 days after sowing. The first flowers open 40-70 days after sowing. The successive formation of branches and inflorescences continues through the plant's life. One plant thus bears flowers in different stages of development. The period from emergence to maturation varies from 140 to 170 days. Ripening of fruits along the raceme is uneven, the lower maturing before the upper, and in wild types the period between first and last mature fruits may be several weeks. It is a relatively short-lived plant, living for two or three years (Institute Hórus de Desenvolvimento and Ambient Conservaçao, 2003).

Environmental Requirements

R. communis is a long-day plant but is adaptable to a fairly wide day-length range. It grows throughout the warm-temperate and tropical regions. It has been commercially cultivated from 40°S to 52°N, from sea level to 2000 m at the equator, with an optimum between 300-1500 m, the limiting factor being frost. Suitable soil temperatures for germination are between 10-18°C, and average day temperatures of 20-26°C with a minimum of 15°C and a maximum of 38°C, with low humidity. Established plants prefer sunny areas and tolerate high temperatures. This species does not tolerate frost and in temperate areas populations are often short lived and grow as annuals. It also tolerates dry-arid conditions and grows in semi-arid and arid soils with poor water retention ability. R. communis grows on sandy loam and clay with low nutrient soils, acidic to alkaline conditions and pH ranging from 4.5 to 8 (Langeland et al., 2008), but does best on deep sandy loams with pH 5-6.5. Soils should also be well drained, and not saline.

Latitude/Altitude Ranges

Top of page
Latitude North (°N)Latitude South (°S)Altitude Lower (m)Altitude Upper (m)
30 -10 0 2000

Air Temperature

Top of page
Parameter Lower limit Upper limit
Absolute minimum temperature (ºC) -15 -10
Mean annual temperature (ºC) 5 25
Mean maximum temperature of hottest month (ºC) 17 30
Mean minimum temperature of coldest month (ºC) -1 17

Rainfall

Top of page
ParameterLower limitUpper limitDescription
Dry season duration05number of consecutive months with <40 mm rainfall
Mean annual rainfall7002300mm; lower/upper limits

Rainfall Regime

Top of page
Summer
Uniform
Winter

Soil Tolerances

Top of page

Soil drainage

  • free

Soil reaction

  • acid
  • alkaline
  • neutral

Soil texture

  • heavy
  • light
  • medium

Special soil tolerances

  • infertile
  • shallow

Notes on Natural Enemies

Top of page

Few diseases are of economic importance. Normally, serious attacks only occur in R. communis crops growing poorly and under humid conditions. The most damaging pathogens attacking seedlings are various rots ('damping off' caused by Fusarium, Rhizoctonia, Sclerotium, Phytophthora). The most common foliar disease is a rust caused by Melampsora ricini which now probably occurs worldwide. Cercospora ricinella, a leaf-spot disease, can become locally damaging in Indonesia. Of the capsule diseases, Alternaria spp. and Botrytis spp. are the most serious. Probably the most damaging pests are those attacking the inflorescence, such as mirids (Helopeltis spp.). Peach moth (Conogethes punctiferalis) is a most important pest in India and throughout South-East Asia.

Means of Movement and Dispersal

Top of page
Gravity disperses seeds from the pods when the ripe pods explode open (Institute of Pacific Islands Forestry, 2002). Birds, rodents, other mammals and humans spread the seeds (Cronk and Fuller, 1995; Institute of Pacific Islands Forestry, 2002; Weber, 2003), and the Institute of Pacific Islands Forestry (2002) regard man as the main dispersal agent. The species is very widely distributed internationally as a result of intentional introduction, and has been widely planted for the production of castor oil; it has been able to escape into the wild from such plantings.

Impact Summary

Top of page
CategoryImpact
Animal/plant collections None
Animal/plant products None
Biodiversity (generally) Negative
Crop production None
Environment (generally) Negative
Fisheries / aquaculture None
Forestry production None
Human health None
Livestock production None
Native fauna None
Native flora Negative
Rare/protected species None
Tourism None
Trade/international relations None
Transport/travel None

Economic Impact

Top of page

There is no precise information on economic impacts of invasion available; however, any control operation incurs a financial cost. This will need to be weighed against the positive impacts from production of the commercial crop. It is also important to consider that R. communis is extremely poisonous to animals and humans and pollen causes respiratory allergies in humans.  

Environmental Impact

Top of page

The environmental impact results from the dense thickets formed by this species which shade out native vegetation (Weber, 2003). R. communis is a highly invasive species in South Africa, where it is included in the “top ten” list of invasive plants. In South Africa this species represents a serious problem on savannas, riparian and wetland habitats (Henderson, 2007). It is also showing a degree of invasive behaviour in Botswana (Buss, 2002). In Australia it is a category W2 weed (which must be destroyed) in parts of New South Wales and is a category B/C weed in Northern Territory (National Weeds Strategy Executive Committee (NWSEC), 1998) and in both areas it invades floodplains and coastal dunes. In the USA, it is a category 2 invasive plant (i.e. not yet thought to have altered the native assemblage) in Florida (Miller et al., 2002) and a B list invasive (plant of lesser invasiveness) in California (California Exotic Pest Plant Council, 1999). In Hawaii, this species is invading native dryland forests and altering successional process along riparian areas. It is also listed as invasive in Mexico, Costa Rica, Brazil, and Cuba where it is invading principally dry forests and native shrublands. Once established, R communis rapidly colonizes disturbed sites, and quickly forms large populations that outcompete native vegetation (Langeland et al., 2008). 

Threatened Species

Top of page
Threatened SpeciesConservation StatusWhere ThreatenedMechanismReferencesNotes
Phyllostegia parviflora (smallflower phyllostegia)NatureServe; USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiCompetition (unspecified); Ecosystem change / habitat alterationUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2008
Platydesma rostrataCR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered); USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiCompetition - monopolizing resources; Competition - shadingUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2010a
Silene lanceolata (Kauai catchfly)USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiCompetition - monopolizing resourcesUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2010b

Social Impact

Top of page
It is highly poisonous and the seeds are particularly dangerous (Henderson, 2001) and are likely to constitute a hazard for children and animals.

Risk and Impact Factors

Top of page
Invasiveness
  • Invasive in its native range
  • Proved invasive outside its native range
  • Highly adaptable to different environments
  • Tolerates, or benefits from, cultivation, browsing pressure, mutilation, fire etc
  • Pioneering in disturbed areas
  • Highly mobile locally
  • Benefits from human association (i.e. it is a human commensal)
  • Fast growing
  • Has high reproductive potential
  • Has propagules that can remain viable for more than one year
Impact outcomes
  • Damaged ecosystem services
  • Ecosystem change/ habitat alteration
  • Modification of nutrient regime
  • Modification of successional patterns
  • Monoculture formation
  • Negatively impacts agriculture
  • Negatively impacts human health
  • Negatively impacts animal health
  • Reduced native biodiversity
Impact mechanisms
  • Allelopathic
  • Causes allergic responses
  • Competition - monopolizing resources
  • Competition - shading
  • Pest and disease transmission
  • Induces hypersensitivity
  • Poisoning
Likelihood of entry/control
  • Highly likely to be transported internationally deliberately

Uses

Top of page

The seed oil is the most important product of castor. All over the world, the traditional use is for illumination and medicine, the first being obsolete since the introduction of kerosene and electricity. The medicinal use of the oil and of other parts of the plant is still common, especially as a purge (internally) and for various sores (externally). At present, the oil is produced mainly as basic material for industry, particularly as a lubricant. The presscake is poisonous and cannot be fed to animals. It is used as fertilizer or as fuel. The castor oil also has commercial value for making soap, margarine, lubricants, paints, inks, plastics, and linoleum. The crop is also regarded as a useful feedstock for biodiesel production (Okechukwu et al., 2015; Razzazi et al., 2015).

Uses List

Top of page

Animal feed, fodder, forage

  • Invertebrate food for silkworms

Environmental

  • Agroforestry

Fuels

  • Miscellaneous fuels

General

  • Ornamental

Human food and beverage

  • Oil/fat
  • Spices and culinary herbs

Materials

  • Dye/tanning
  • Essential oils
  • Lipids
  • Pesticide
  • Poisonous to mammals

Medicinal, pharmaceutical

  • Source of medicine/pharmaceutical
  • Traditional/folklore

Prevention and Control

Top of page

Due to the variable regulations around (de)registration of pesticides, your national list of registered pesticides or relevant authority should be consulted to determine which products are legally allowed for use in your country when considering chemical control. Pesticides should always be used in a lawful manner, consistent with the product's label.

Fire has been used to control areas where the plant has formed large thickets (Weber, 2003). However, it is sometimes reported to be a good colonist of newly burned areas being one of the first seeds to germinate in this situation (Institute Hórus de Desenvolvimento and Ambient Conservaçao, 2003). Seedlings and young plants may be removed by hand whereas larger plants that need felling also require stump-treatment with an herbicide (Weber, 2003). Herbicides such as glyphosate or picloram + 2,4-D are effective if applied before the plant has set fruit (Weber, 2003). In Australia, individual plants or small infestations are removed by cultivation or hand-pulling and large infestations are spraying with the herbicides 2,4-D amine, and triclopyr. There is no information available on any biological control programmes.

Bibliography

Top of page
Koens AJ, 1950. Ricinus. In: van Hall CJJ, van de Koppel C, eds. De landbouw in de Indische Archipel. III. Van Hoeve, Is-Gravenhage, 609-620.

Moshkin VA, 1986. Castor. Russian Translation Series Vol. 43. Balkema, Rotterdam.

Seegeler CJP, 1983. Oil plants in Ethiopia. Agricultural Research Reports 921. Wageningen, the Netherlands: Pudoc, 204-238.

Soerjono M Sahid, Rachman Sk. A, 1978. Beberapa varietas harapan tanaman jarak. Pemberitaan Lembaga Penelitian Tanaman Industri (Bogor), 28:15-21.

Weiss EA, 1983. Oilseed crops. London, UK & New York, USA: Longman, 31-99.

References

Top of page

Acevedo-Rodríguez P, Strong MT, 2012. Catalogue of the Seed Plants of the West Indies. Smithsonian Contributions to Botany, 98:1192 pp. Washington DC, USA: Smithsonian Institution. http://botany.si.edu/Antilles/WestIndies/catalog.htm

Acheya KT, Craig BM, Youngs CG, 1964. The component fatty acid and glycerides of caster oil. JAOCS, 41(12):783-784

Alam MM, 1991. Control of plant-parasitic nematodes with oilseed cakes on some vegetables in field. Pakistan Journal of Nematology, 9(1):21-30; 28 ref

Benhamou N, Chamberland H, Ouellette GB, Pauze FJ, 1988. Detection of galactose in two fungi causing wilt diseases and in their plant host tissues by means of gold complexed Ricinus communis agglutinin I. Physiological and Molecular Plant Pathology, 32(2):249-266; 47 ref

Bethune S, Griffin M, Joubert DF, 2004. National Review of Invasive Alien Species, Namibia. Windhoek, : Ministry of Environment and Tourism

BioNET-EAFRINET, 2014. East African Network for Taxonomy. Online Key and Fact Sheets for Invasive plants. http://keys.lucidcentral.org/keys/v3/eafrinet/weeds/key/weeds/Media/Html/index.htm

Bridgemohan P, Bridgemohan RSH, 2014. Invasive weed risk assessment of three potential bioenergy fuel species. International Journal of Biodiversity and Conservation, 6(11):790-796. http://academicjournals.org/article/article1416497061_Bridgemohan%20and%20Bridgemohan.pdf

Broome R, Sabir K, Carrington S, 2007. Plants of the Eastern Caribbean. Online database. Barbados: University of the West Indies. http://ecflora.cavehill.uwi.edu/index.html

Buss CM, 2002. The potential threat of invasive tree species in Botswana. Department of Crop Production and Forestry, Ministry of Agriculture, Government of Botswana, 40 pp

Buurt GV, 1999. Vijfhonderd jaar natuur op Curacao, verleden, heden en toekomst. In: Veranderd Curacao. Bloemendaal, Netherlands: Stichting Libri Antilliani, 87-121

California Exotic Pest Plant Council, 1999. Exotic pest plant list. http://www.caleppc.org/info/plantlist.html

Chacón E, Saborío G, 2012. Red Interamericana de Información de Especies Invasoras, Costa Rica ([English title not available]). San José, Costa Rica: Asociación para la Conservación y el Estudio de la Biodiversidad. http://invasoras.acebio.org

Chen YW, 1991. Silviculture of Crops in China. Beijing, China: Science Popularisation Press

Chong KY, Tan HTW, Corlett RT, 2009. A checklist of the total vascular plant flora of Singapore: native, naturalised and cultivated species. Singapore: Raffles Museum of Biodiversity Research, National University of Singapore, 273 pp. http://lkcnhm.nus.edu.sg/nus/pdf/PUBLICATION/LKCNH%20Museum%20Books/LKCNHM%20Books/flora_of_singapore_tc.pdf

Cordeiro I, 2014. Ricinus in Lista de Espécies da Flora do Brasil (Ricinus in the list of species of the flora of Brazil). Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: Jardim Botânico do Rio de Janeiro

Cronk QCB, Fuller JL, 1995. Plant invaders: the threat to natural ecosystems. London, UK; Chapman & Hall Ltd, xiv + 241 pp

DAISIE, 2014. Delivering Alien Invasive Species Inventories for Europe. European Invasive Alien Species Gateway. www.europe-aliens.org/default.do

De Silva H, 2003. Bermuda Zoological Society

Deacon J, 1986. Human settlement in South Africa and archaelogical evidence for alien plants and animals. In: Macdonald IAW, Kruger FJ, Ferrar AA, eds. The Ecology and Management of Biological Invasions in Southern Africa. Cape Town, South Africa: Oxford University Press, 3-19

Diao CQ, 1994. Silviculture of Crops (South Version). Beijing, China: China Agriculture Press

Eckey EW, Miller LP, 1954. Vegetable fats and oils. Reinhold Publishing Corporation, New York. pp. ix + 836. Price $16.50

Fu FL, 1982. Silviculture for Ricinus communis. Beijing, China: Agricultural Press

Fu FL, 1990. Oil sources with special purpose: Ricinus communis. Beijing, China: China Environment Science Press

Gao SH, 1988. Climate in Hainan. Beijing, China: Meteorology Press

Gordon DR, Tancig KJ, Onderdonk DA, Gantz CA, 2011. Assessing the invasive potential of biofuel species proposed for Florida and the United States using the Australian Weed Risk Assessment. Biomass and Bioenergy, 35(1):74-79. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/09619534

Govaerts R, 2014. Family Euphorbiaceae - World Checklist of Euphorbiaceae. London, UK: Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/

Gupta IN, Rathore SS, 1993. Intercropping in castor (Ricinus communis) under dryland condition in Rajasthan. Indian Journal of Agronomy, 38(2):182-186; 1 ref

Gupta IN, Rathore SS, 1993. Intercropping in castor (Ricinus communis) under dryland condition in Rajasthan. Indian Journal of Agronomy, 38(2):182-186; 1 ref

Han YF, 1992. Natural environment and its exploitation in South China. Beijing, China: Higher Education Press

Henderson L, 2001. Alien Weeds and Invasive Plants. Plant Protection Research Institute Handbook No. 12. Cape Town, South Africa: Paarl Printers

Henderson L, 2007. Invasive, naturalized and casual alien plants in southern Africa: a summary based on the Southern African Plant Invaders Atlas (SAPIA). Bothalia, 37(2):215-248

Henschel JR, Parr T, 2010. Population changes of alien invasive plants in the Lower Kuiseb River. Dinteria, 31:5-17. http://www.nbri.org.na/fileadmin/user_upload/documents/Dinteria%2031_1%20Joh%20R.%20Henschel%20%26%20Thomas%20Parr%20pop%20change.pdf

Hilditch TP, Williams PN, 1964. The chemical constitution of natural fats. Fourth edition. London, UK: Chapman and Hall

Holm LG, Pancho JV, Herbenger JP, Plucknett DL, 1979. A Geographical Atlas of World Weeds. New York, USA: John Wiley & Sons

I3N-Argentina, 2014. Invasive alien species database, I3N Argentina. Bahía Blanca, Argentina: I3N Argentina - Universidad Nacional del Sur. www.inbiar.org.ar

I3N-Brasil, 2014. Base de dados nacional de espécies exóticas invasora (National database of exotic invasive species). Florianópolis - SC, Brazil: I3N Brasil, Instituto Hórus de Desenvolvimento e Conservação Ambiental. http://i3n.institutohorus.org.br

IABIN, 2014. Inter-American Biodiversity Information Network (IABIN). Red de Informacion sobre especies invasoras ([English title not available]). http://www.oas.org/en/sedi/dsd/iabin/

Institute Hórus de Desenvolvimento and Ambient Conservaçao, 2003. Mamona. Ricinus communis L. Institute Hórus de Desenvolvimento and Ambient Conservaçao, Brazail. http://www.institutohorus.org.br/download/fichas/Ri_communis.htm

ISSG, 2013. Global Invasive Species Database (GISD). Invasive Species Specialist Group of the IUCN Species Survival Commission. http://www.issg.org/database/welcome/

Jia LZ, Zhou J, 1987. Fatty and Oil Plants in China. Beijing, China: Science Press

Koens AJ, 1950. Ricinus. In: van Hall CJJ, van de Koppel C, eds. De landbouw in de Indische Archipel. III. Van Hoeve, Is-Gravenhage, 609-620

Langeland KA, Cherry HM, McCormick CM, Craddock Burks KA, 2008. Identification and Biology of Non-native Plants in Florida's Natural Areas. Gainesville, Florida, USA: University of Florida IFAS Extension

Li HL, 1963. Woody flora of Taiwan. 1963. pp. X + 974. 123 refs. Livingston Publishing Company, Narberth, Pa

Mabberley DJ, 1997. The Plant Book: A Portable Dictionary of the Vascular Plants. 2nd edition. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press

Mabberley DJ, 1997. The plant-book: a portable dictionary of the vascular plants. Ed. 2: xvi + 858 pp. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press

Miller JH, Chambliss EB, Bargeron CT, 2002. Invasive Plants of the Thirteen Southern States. http://www.invasive.org/seweeds.cfm

Montenegro G, Teillier S, Arce P, Poblete V, 1991. Introduction of plants into the mediterranean-type climate of Chile. Biogeography of mediterranean invasions [edited by Groves, R. H.; Castri, F. di] Cambridge, UK; Cambridge University Press, 103-114

Moshkin VA, 1986. Castor. Russian Translation Series Vol. 43. Balkema, Rotterdam

Motooka P, Castro L, Nelson D, Nagai G, Ching L, 2003. Weeds of Hawaii's Pastures and Natural Areas; an identification and management guide. Manoa, Hawaii, USA: College of Tropical Agriculture and Human Resources, University of Hawaii

National Weeds Strategy Executive Committee (NWSEC), 1998. Noxious Weeds List for Australia

Neha Goyal, Pardha-Saradhi P, Sharma GP, 2014. Can adaptive modulation of traits to urban environments facilitate Ricinus communis L. invasiveness? Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 186(11):7941-7948. http://rd.springer.com/journal/10661

Okechukwu RI, Iwuchukwu AC, Anuforo HU, 2015. Production and characterization of biodiesel from Ricinus communis seeds. Research Journal of Chemical Sciences, 5(2):1-3. http://www.isca.in/rjcs/Archives/v5/i2/1.ISCA-RJCS-2014-201.pdf

Oviedo Prieto R, Herrera Oliver P, Caluff MG, et al. , 2012. National list of invasive and potentially invasive plants in the Republic of Cuba - 2011. (Lista nacional de especies de plantas invasoras y potencialmente invasoras en la República de Cuba - 2011). Bissea: Boletín sobre Conservación de Plantas del Jardín Botánico Nacional de Cuba, 6(Special Issue 1):22-96

Pawlik A, Drozdzik M, Wojcicki J, Samochowiec L, 1994. Evaluation of effectiveness of castor oil from castor plant (Ricinus communis L.) as compared with senna extract from alexandria senna (Cassia senna L.) in patients with simple chronic constipation. [Ocena skutecznosci oleju rycynowego otrzymanego z racznika pospolitego (Ricinus communis L.) oraz wyciagu z senesu ostrolistnego (Cassia senna L.) u pacjentow z prostym przewelklym zaparciem.] Herba Polonica, 40(1-2):64-67; 5 ref

Pawlik A, Drozdzik M, Wójcicki J, Samochowiec L, 1994. Evaluation of effectiveness of castor oil from castor plant (Ricinus communis L.) as compared with senna extract from alexandria senna (Cassia senna L.) in patients with simple chronic constipation. Herba Polonica, 40(1-2):64-67; 5 ref

PIER, 2014. Pacific Islands Ecosystems at Risk. Honolulu, USA: HEAR, University of Hawaii. http://www.hear.org/pier/index.html

PROTA, 2014. PROTA4U web database. Grubben GJH, Denton OA, eds. Wageningen, Netherlands: Plant Resources of Tropical Africa. http://www.prota4u.org/search.asp

Razzazi A, Aghaalikhani M, Ghibadian B, Zand B, Ardabili SMS, 2015. Investigation of energy balance in castor bean cultivation in Varamin county for biodiesel production. Journal of Crops Improvement, 17(1):Pe43-Pe52

Rodrfguez-Kßbana R, 1992. Cropping systems for the management of phytonematodes. Nematology from molecule to ecosystem: Proceedings Second International Nematology Congress, 11-17 August 1990, Veldhoven, the Netherlands., 219-233; 40 ref

Seegeler CJP, 1983. Oil plants in Ethiopia. Agricultural Research Reports 921. Wageningen, the Netherlands: Pudoc, 204-238

Shaltout KH, Mady MA, 1993. Current situation of the raudha's woody plant populations in central Saudi Arabia. Feddes Repertorium, 104(7-8):503-509

Shaltout KH, Mady MA, 1993. Current situation of the raudha's woody plant populations in the central Saudi Arabia. Feddes Repertorium, 104(7-8):503-509; 15 ref

Soerjono M, Sahid, Rachman Sk. A, 1978. Beberapa varietas harapan tanaman jarak. Pemberitaan Lembaga Penelitian Tanaman Industri (Bogor), 28:15-21

Space JC, Falanruw M, 1999. Observations on invasive plant species in Micronesia. Honolulu, Hawaii: USDA Forest Service, 32 pp

Space JC, Flynn T, 2000. Observations on invasive plant species in American Samoa. USDA Forest Service, Honolulu, 51

Space JC, Flynn T, 2000. Report to the Government of Niue on invasive plant species of environmental concern. USDA Forest Service, Honolulu, 34

Space JC, Waterhouse B, Denslow JS, Nelson D, Mazawa TR, 2000. Invasive plant species in Chuuk, Federated States of Micronesia. USDA Forest Service, Institute of Pacific Islands Forestry, Honolulu, Hawai'i, USA

Tongoona P, Muchena SC, Mariga IK, 1989. Response of castor (Ricinus communis L.) cultivars to different plant spacings in contrasting agro-ecological zones in Zimbabwe. Zimbabwe Journal of Agricultural Research publ. 1991, 27(1):1-9; 7 ref

Tongoona P, Muchena SC, Mariga IK, 1989. Response of castor (Ricinus communis L.) cultivars to different plant spacings in contrasting agro-ecological zones in Zimbabwe. Zimbabwe Journal of Agricultural Research, 27(1):1-9; 7 ref

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2008. Phyllostegia parviflora (no common name). 5-Year Review: Summary and Evaluation. In: Phyllostegia parviflora (no common name). 5-Year Review: Summary and Evaluation : US Fish and Wildlife Service.12 pp.

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2010. Determination of Endangered Status for 48 Species on Kauai and designation of Critical Habitat: Final Rule. In: Determination of Endangered Status for 48 Species on Kauai and designation of Critical Habitat: Final Rule : US Fish and Wildlife Service.i + 205 pp.

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2010. Silene lanceolata (no common name). 5-Year Review: Summary and Evaluation. In: Silene lanceolata (no common name). 5-Year Review: Summary and Evaluation : US Fish and Wildlife Service.15 pp.

USDA-NRCS, 2002. The PLANTS Database, Version 3.5. National Plant Data Center, Baton Rouge, USA. http://plants.usda.gov

USDA-NRCS, 2014. The PLANTS Database. Baton Rouge, USA: National Plant Data Center. http://plants.usda.gov/

Villaseñor JL, Espinosa-Garcia FJ, 2004. The alien flowering plants of Mexico. Diversity and Distributions, 10(2):113-123

Wang ZS, 1996. A Plant List with Latin, English and Chinese Names. Beijing, China: Aviation Industry Press

Weber E, Sun ShiGuo, Li Bo, 2008. Invasive alien plants in China: diversity and ecological insights. Biological Invasions, 10(8):1411-1429. http://www.springerlink.com/content/c25570xj6u44645h/?p=3d093fec46ab4097b45b287d6033e986&pi=21

Weiss EA, 1983. Oilseed crops. Oilseed crops. Longman Group Ltd. London UK, x + 660 pp

Witt, A., Luke, Q., 2017. Guide to the naturalized and invasive plants of Eastern Africa, [ed. by Witt, A., Luke, Q.]. Wallingford, UK: CABI.vi + 601 pp. http://www.cabi.org/cabebooks/ebook/20173158959 doi:10.1079/9781786392145.0000

Wu SH, Hsieh ChangFu, Rejmánek M, 2004. Catalogue of the naturalized flora of Taiwan. Taiwania, 49(1):16-31

Wu ZY, 1984. Index Florae Yunnanensis. Yunnan, China: People's Publishing House

Zeng QB et al., 1994. A list of bio-species in Jianfengling of China. Beijing, China: China Forestry Publishing House.

Zhao XW, Zhang JW, 1983. Vegetation of China. Beijing, China: Science Press

Zheng WJ (Cheng WC), 1983. Sylva Sinica. Vol. 1. Zhongguo shumu zhi. Diyi juan., 984 pp

Zheng WJ, 1978. China flora. Beijing, China: Science Press

Zheng WJ, 1983. Sylva Sinica. Vol. 1. [Zhongguo shumu zhi. Diyi juan.]. Beijing, China: Chinese Forestry Publishing House (Centralized Book No. 16046.1069)

Zheng WW, 1981. Pests & diseases in oil crops. In: Collections of Pests & Diseases in China Crops. Vol. 5 (2). Beijing, China: China Agriculture Press

Zheng WW, 1981. Pests and diseases in oil crops. In: Collections of Pests and Diseases in China Crops. Vol. 5 (2). Beijing, China: China Agriculture Press

Distribution References

Abdel-Salam A M M, Rezk A A, Dawoud R A, 2019. Biochemical, serological, molecular and natural host studies on Tomato Chlorosis Virus in Egypt. Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences. 22 (2), 83-94. https://scialert.net/fulltext/?doi=pjbs.2019.83.94&org=11

Acevedo-Rodríguez P, Strong M T, 2012. Catalogue of the Seed Plants of the West Indies. Washington, DC, USA: Smithsonian Institution. 1192 pp. http://botany.si.edu/Antilles/WestIndies/catalog.htm

Ávila-Alistac N, Ramírez-Rojas S, Lozoya-Saldaña H, Rebollar-Alviter Á, Guzmán-Plazola R A, 2017. Alternate hosts of Iris yellow spot virus and trips on onion crops in Morelos and Michoacan, Mexico. Revista Mexicana de Fitopatología. 35 (2), 242-262. http://www.rmf.smf.org.mx/Vol3522017/RMF_Vol_35_2_2017.pdf

Basseto M A, Chagas H A, Rosa D D, Zanotto M D, Furtado E L, 2008. First report of Rhizoctonia solani AG 4 HG-II attacking castor bean plants (Ricinus communis) in Brazil and evaluation of two castor bean cultivars for resistance to damping-off. Australasian Plant Disease Notes. 3 (1), 121-123. http://www.publish.csiro.au/view/journals/dsp_journal_fulltext.cfm?nid=208&f=DN08048

Bethune S, Griffin M, Joubert D F, 2004. National Review of Invasive Alien Species, Namibia. Windhoek, Namibia: Ministry of Environment and Tourism.

BioNET-EAFRINET, 2014. East African Network for Taxonomy. In: Online Key and Fact Sheets for Invasive plants, http://keys.lucidcentral.org/keys/v3/eafrinet/weeds/key/weeds/Media/Html/index.htm

Broome R, Sabir K, Carrington S, 2007. Plants of the Eastern Caribbean. Online database., Barbados: University of the West Indies. http://ecflora.cavehill.uwi.edu/index.htm

Buss CM, 2002. The potential threat of invasive tree species in Botswana., Department of Crop Production and Forestry, Ministry of Agriculture, Government of Botswana. 40 pp.

CABI, Undated. Compendium record. Wallingford, UK: CABI

CABI, Undated a. CABI Compendium: Status inferred from regional distribution. Wallingford, UK: CABI

CABI, Undated b. CABI Compendium: Status as determined by CABI editor. Wallingford, UK: CABI

Chacón E, Saborío G, 2012. [English title not available]. (Red Interamericana de Información de Especies Invasoras, Costa Rica)., San José, Costa Rica: Asociación para la Conservación y el Estudio de la Biodiversidad. http://invasoras.acebio.org

Chong K Y, Tan H T W, Corlett R T, 2009. A checklist of the total vascular plant flora of Singapore: native, naturalised and cultivated species. Singapore: Raffles Museum of Biodiversity Research, National University of Singapore. 273 pp. https://lkcnhm.nus.edu.sg/app/uploads/2017/04/flora_of_singapore_tc.pdf

Cordeiro I, 2014. Ricinus in the list of species of the flora of Brazil. (Ricinus in Lista de Espécies da Flora do Brasil)., Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: Jardim Botânico do Rio de Janeiro.

Cronk Q C B, Fuller J L, 1995. Plant invaders: the threat to natural ecosystems. London, UK: Chapman & Hall Ltd. xiv + 241 pp.

DAISIE, 2014. Delivering Alien Invasive Species Inventories for Europe. http://www.europe-aliens.org/

Devi M R, Madhavan S, Baskaran A, Thangaratham T, 2015. Ethno medicinal aspects of weeds from paddy field in Thiruvarur district, Tamil Nadu, India. World Journal of Pharmaceutical Research. 4 (11), 1909-1920. http://www.wjpr.net/dashboard/abstract_id/4153

Egonyu J P, Mukasa Y, Ekwaru R, Ogari I, Ahumuza G, 2017. Occurrence of Euwallacea sp. (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) and its ambrosia fungus Cunninghamella echinulata on Ricinus communis in Coffea canephora gardens in Uganda. International Journal of Tropical Insect Science. 37 (3), 198-207. DOI:10.1017/s1742758417000121

Esquivel J F, 2016. Nezara viridula (L.) in Central Texas: I. New host plant associations and reproductive status of adults encountered within. Southwestern Entomologist. 41 (4), 895-904. http://www.bioone.org/loi/swen

Fareed M I, Tahir M, Briddon R W, 2012. First report of Cotton leaf curl Burewala virus infecting Ricinus communis. Journal of Plant Pathology. 94 (4, Supplement), S4.102. http://www.sipav.org/main/jpp/

Gabuin T G, Abdul S D, Sawa F B, 2014. Preliminary observations on weeds of maize (Zea mays L.) and rice (Oryza sativa L.) fields in Bauchi. Journal of Agricultural and Biological Science. 9 (11), 385-388. http://www.arpnjournals.com/jabs/research_papers/rp_2014/jabs_1114_690.pdf

Govaerts R, 2014. Family Euphorbiaceae - World Checklist of Euphorbiaceae., London, UK: Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/

Grice A C, Lawes R A, Abbott B N, Nicholas D M, Whiteman L V, 2004. How abundant and widespread are riparian weeds in the dry tropics of north-east Queensland? In: Weed management: balancing people, planet, profit. 14th Australian Weeds Conference, Wagga Wagga, New South Wales, Australia, 6-9 September 2004: papers and proceedings. [ed. by Sindel B M, Johnson S B]. Sydney, Australia: Weed Society of New South Wales. 173-175.

Henderson L, 2007. Invasive, naturalized and casual alien plants in southern Africa: a summary based on the Southern African Plant Invaders Atlas (SAPIA). Bothalia. 37 (2), 215-248.

Henschel JR, Parr T, 2010. Population changes of alien invasive plants in the Lower Kuiseb River. In: Dinteria, 31 5-17. http://www.nbri.org.na/fileadmin/user_upload/documents/Dinteria%2031_1%20Joh%20R.%20Henschel%20%26%20Thomas%20Parr%20pop%20change.pdf

Holm LG, Pancho JV, Herbenger JP, Plucknett DL, 1979. A Geographical Atlas of World Weeds., New York, USA: John Wiley & Sons.

I3N-Argentina, 2014. Invasive alien species database, I3N Argentina., Bahía Blanca, Argentina: I3N Argentina - Universidad Nacional del Sur. http://www.inbiar.org.ar

I3N-Brasil, 2014. National database of exotic invasive species. (Base de dados nacional de espécies exóticas invasora)., Florianópolis - SC, Brazil: I3N Brasil, Instituto Hórus de Desenvolvimento e Conservação Ambiental. http://i3n.institutohorus.org.br

IABIN, 2014. [English title not available]. (Red de Informacion sobre especies invasoras)., Inter-American Biodiversity Information Network (IABIN). http://www.oas.org/en/sedi/dsd/iabin/

ISSG, 2013. Global Invasive Species Database (GISD). In: Invasive Species Specialist Group of the IUCN Species Survival Commission, http://www.issg.org/database/welcome/

Kadam R M, Sumia Fatima, Mumtaz Baig, Kadam V B, 2012. A survey report of leaf spot diseases of certain medicinal plants of Maharashtra, India. International Journal of Plant Protection. 5 (1), 185-186. http://www.hindagrihorticulturalsociety.co.in/ijpp.html

Kaomud Tyagi, Vikas Kumar, 2014. New records of thrips (Thysanoptera, Terebrantia, Thripidae) from Himachal Pradesh, India. Records of the Zoological Survey of India. 114 (4), 591-598.

Khan R U, Wazir S M, Muhammad Subhan, Saad Ullah, Hidayat Ullah, Aysha Farooq, Farheen Jaffar, Shazia, Shah I A, Mustafa Kamal, 2012. Weed flora of sugarcane in district Bannu, Khyber Pakhtunkhawa, Pakistan. Pakistan Journal of Weed Science Research. 18 (4), 541-552. http://www.wssp.org.pk/article.htm

Kondaiah R H, Sreeramulu A, 2014. Survey on fungal diseased crops in Cuddapah District of Andhra Pradesh. Indian Journal of Fundamental and Applied Life Sciences. 4 (1), 244-251. http://www.cibtech.org/J%20LIFE%20SCIENCES/PUBLICATIONS/2014/Vol-4-No-1/JLS-040-078-SREERAMULU-SURVEY-PRADESH.pdf

Liu Y L, Yin X G, Lu J N, Li Y, Zhou Y H, 2019. First report of castor leaf spot caused by Cladosporium tenuissimum in Zhanjiang, China. Plant Disease. 103 (2), 375-376. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis DOI:10.1094/PDIS-08-18-1382-PDN

Miller JH, Chambliss EB, Bargeron CT, 2002. Invasive Plants of the Thirteen Southern States., http://www.invasive.org/seweeds.cfm

Mirhosseini H A, Nasrollah-Nejad S, Babaeizad V, Rahimian H, 2017. First report of Cucumber mosaic virus infecting Ricinus communis in Iran. Plant Disease. 101 (12), 2154. DOI:10.1094/PDIS-02-17-0255-PDN

Mirzaee M R, Khodaparast S A, Mohseni M, Ramazani S H R, Soltani-Najafabadi M, 2011. First record of powdery mildew of castor-oil plant (Ricinus communis) caused by the anamorphic stage of Leveillula taurica in Iran. Australasian Plant Disease Notes. 6 (1), 36-38. http://www.springerlink.com/content/u723 m46401772870/fulltext.html DOI:10.1007/s13314-011-0013-y

Mware B, Olubayo F, Narla R, Songa J, Amata R, Kyamanywa S, Ateka E M, 2010. First record of spiraling whitefly in coastal Kenya: emergence, host range, distribution and association with cassava brown streak virus disease. International Journal of Agriculture and Biology. 12 (3), 411-415. http://www.fspublishers.org/ijab/past-issues/IJABVOL_12_NO_3/18.pdf

Ogbe F O, Dixon A G O, Hughes J d'A, Alabi O J, Okechukwu R, 2006. Status of cassava begomoviruses and their new natural hosts in Nigeria. Plant Disease. 90 (5), 548-553. DOI:10.1094/PD-90-0548

Oviedo Prieto R, Herrera Oliver P, Caluff M G, et al, 2012. National list of invasive and potentially invasive plants in the Republic of Cuba - 2011. (Lista nacional de especies de plantas invasoras y potencialmente invasoras en la República de Cuba - 2011). Bissea: Boletín sobre Conservación de Plantas del Jardín Botánico Nacional de Cuba. 6 (Special Issue No. 1), 22-96.

PIER, 2014. Pacific Islands Ecosystems at Risk., Honolulu, USA: HEAR, University of Hawaii. http://www.hear.org/pier/index.html

Rashtra Vardhana, 2017. Plant's diseases of district Ghaziabad and adjacent areas. Plant Archives. 17 (1), 727-732. http://www.plantarchives.org/PDF%2017-1/727-732%20(3511).pdf

Rasthra Vardhana, 2007. Plant's havoc by Cuscuta spp. in district Meerut U.P. India. Plant Archives. 7 (2), 917-918.

Rasthra Vardhana, 2007a. Plant's havoc by Cuscuta spp. in district Ghaziabad U.P. India. Plant Archives. 7 (2), 921-922.

Šimala M, Milek T M, Korić B, 2009. Whitefly species (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) recorded on imported ornamental plants in Croatia from 2005-2008. In: Zbornik predavanj in referatov 9. Slovenskega Posvetovanja o Varstvu Rastlin, Nova Gorica, Slovenije, 4-5 marec 2009 [Zbornik predavanj in referatov 9. Slovenskega Posvetovanja o Varstvu Rastlin, Nova Gorica, Slovenije, 4-5 marec 2009.], [ed. by Maček J]. Ljubljana, Slovenia: Društvo za Varstvo Rastlin Slovenije. 389-396.

Space JC, Falanruw M, 1999. Observations on invasive plant species in Micronesia., Honolulu, Hawaii, USDA Forest Service. 32 pp.

Suganthy M, 2007. Survey and monitoring the incidence of pests of castor. Madras Agricultural Journal. 94 (1/6), 133-135. http://5150276320642793027-a-1802744773732722657-s-sites.googlegroups.com/site/majmasu/94-1-6-1/94-1-6-133-135.pdf?attachauth=ANoY7coTES_A106GBr1VbwynTu6dPDKr0BHr5lUmjTClpMh6VawtqJYWubco1ukudmJrDtSybpGe_GPGnY4vc0SAgqiC_vqHyi8ZB-pFmfY6UUcQ-oWrHYnmNBi7ZLNY0jTFgwLG4mWh31eSrqpmOaTPpb9MO35GDjXn9DqO9FwEnnVyFEpgnO4wfAxOzCdEpTwWLi9no65yNgwjiM13Z9wX8X9QipwzBA%3D%3D&attredirects=0

Tariq M, Firoza K, Shahina F, 2007. Medicinal plants as new hosts of root-knot and other nematodes from Hamdard University, Karachi, Pakistan. Pakistan Journal of Nematology. 25 (1), 165-172.

USDA-NRCS, 2002. The PLANTS Database. Greensboro, North Carolina, USA: National Plant Data Team. https://plants.sc.egov.usda.gov

USDA-NRCS, 2014. The PLANTS Database. Greensboro, North Carolina, USA: National Plant Data Team. https://plants.sc.egov.usda.gov

Villaseñor J L, Espinosa-Garcia F J, 2004. The alien flowering plants of Mexico. Diversity and Distributions. 10 (2), 113-123. DOI:10.1111/j.1366-9516.2004.00059.x

Vyas N, Kadela P, Nama P, Deepika Y, 2008. Community analysis of plant-parasitic nematodes in and around IGNP region of Jaisalmer, Rajasthan. Journal of Experimental Zoology, India. 11 (2), 415-417.

Weber E, Sun ShiGuo, Li Bo, 2008. Invasive alien plants in China: diversity and ecological insights. Biological Invasions. 10 (8), 1411-1429. http://www.springerlink.com/content/c25570xj6u44645h/?p=3d093fec46ab4097b45b287d6033e986&pi=21 DOI:10.1007/s10530-008-9216-3

Witt A, Beale T, Wilgen B W van, 2018. An assessment of the distribution and potential ecological impacts of invasive alien plant species in eastern Africa. Transactions of the Royal Society of South Africa. 73 (3), 217-236. DOI:10.1080/0035919X.2018.1529003

Witt A, Luke Q, 2017. Guide to the naturalized and invasive plants of Eastern Africa. [ed. by Witt A, Luke Q]. Wallingford, UK: CABI. vi + 601 pp. http://www.cabi.org/cabebooks/ebook/20173158959 DOI:10.1079/9781786392145.0000

Wu S H, Hsieh ChangFu, Rejmánek M, 2004. Catalogue of the naturalized flora of Taiwan. Taiwania. 49 (1), 16-31.

Zhao T T, Cho S E, Choi I Y, Choi M K, Shin H D, 2018. First report of powdery mildew caused by Podosphaera xanthii on Ricinus communis in Korea. Plant Disease. 102 (6), 1179. DOI:10.1094/PDIS-11-17-1765-PDN

Links to Websites

Top of page
WebsiteURLComment
GISD/IASPMR: Invasive Alien Species Pathway Management Resource and DAISIE European Invasive Alien Species Gatewayhttps://doi.org/10.5061/dryad.m93f6Data source for updated system data added to species habitat list.
Global register of Introduced and Invasive species (GRIIS)http://griis.org/Data source for updated system data added to species habitat list.

Contributors

Top of page

01/07/14 Updated by:

Julissa Rojas-Sandoval, Department of Botany-Smithsonian NMNH, Washington DC, USA

Pedro Acevedo-Rodríguez, Department of Botany-Smithsonian NMNH, Washington DC, USA

Distribution Maps

Top of page
You can pan and zoom the map
Save map
Select a dataset
Map Legends
  • CABI Summary Records
Map Filters
Extent
Invasive
Origin
Third party data sources: