Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Rattus rattus
(black rat)

Toolbox

Datasheet

Rattus rattus (black rat)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 11 October 2018
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Pest
  • Natural Enemy
  • Host Animal
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Rattus rattus
  • Preferred Common Name
  • black rat
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Metazoa
  •     Phylum: Chordata
  •       Subphylum: Vertebrata
  •         Class: Mammalia
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • A native of the Indian sub-continent, R. rattus has now spread throughout the world. It is widespread in forest and woodlands as well as being able to live in and around buildings. It will feed on and damage...

Don't need the entire report?

Generate a print friendly version containing only the sections you need.

Generate report

Pictures

Top of page
PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Rattus rattus (black rat); adult, perched on a rope, showing agility.
TitleAdult
CaptionRattus rattus (black rat); adult, perched on a rope, showing agility.
Copyright©Crown Copyright 2011/GBNNSS, with thanks to Wildwood Trust
Rattus rattus (black rat); adult, perched on a rope, showing agility.
AdultRattus rattus (black rat); adult, perched on a rope, showing agility.©Crown Copyright 2011/GBNNSS, with thanks to Wildwood Trust
Rattus rattus (black rat); adults, amongst foodstuffs.
TitleAdults
CaptionRattus rattus (black rat); adults, amongst foodstuffs.
Copyright©Crown Copyright 2011/GBNNSS, with thanks to Wildwood Trust
Rattus rattus (black rat); adults, amongst foodstuffs.
AdultsRattus rattus (black rat); adults, amongst foodstuffs.©Crown Copyright 2011/GBNNSS, with thanks to Wildwood Trust
Adult black rat (Rattus rattus). Mission Canyon, Santa Barbara, California, USA. July, 2004.
TitleAdult
CaptionAdult black rat (Rattus rattus). Mission Canyon, Santa Barbara, California, USA. July, 2004.
Copyright©Larry Jon Friesen-2004 - All Rights Reserved.
Adult black rat (Rattus rattus). Mission Canyon, Santa Barbara, California, USA. July, 2004.
AdultAdult black rat (Rattus rattus). Mission Canyon, Santa Barbara, California, USA. July, 2004.©Larry Jon Friesen-2004 - All Rights Reserved.
Rattus species comparison; (a) Rattus rattus (black rat). (b) Rattus norvegicus (brown rat). Museum mounted taxidermy specimens.
TitleSpecies comparison
CaptionRattus species comparison; (a) Rattus rattus (black rat). (b) Rattus norvegicus (brown rat). Museum mounted taxidermy specimens.
Copyright©Crown Copyright 2009/GBNNSS
Rattus species comparison; (a) Rattus rattus (black rat). (b) Rattus norvegicus (brown rat). Museum mounted taxidermy specimens.
Species comparisonRattus species comparison; (a) Rattus rattus (black rat). (b) Rattus norvegicus (brown rat). Museum mounted taxidermy specimens.©Crown Copyright 2009/GBNNSS
Phaethon lepturus (white-tailed tropicbird); a composite image, showing various flight attitudes of this very distinctive bird. This species is often predated on its nesting grounds by Rattus rattus (the black or ship rat).
TitleThreatened species
CaptionPhaethon lepturus (white-tailed tropicbird); a composite image, showing various flight attitudes of this very distinctive bird. This species is often predated on its nesting grounds by Rattus rattus (the black or ship rat).
Copyright©Richard Crossley (from The Crossley ID Guide Eastern Birds) via wikipedia - CC BY-SA 3.0
Phaethon lepturus (white-tailed tropicbird); a composite image, showing various flight attitudes of this very distinctive bird. This species is often predated on its nesting grounds by Rattus rattus (the black or ship rat).
Threatened speciesPhaethon lepturus (white-tailed tropicbird); a composite image, showing various flight attitudes of this very distinctive bird. This species is often predated on its nesting grounds by Rattus rattus (the black or ship rat).©Richard Crossley (from The Crossley ID Guide Eastern Birds) via wikipedia - CC BY-SA 3.0

Identity

Top of page

Preferred Scientific Name

  • Rattus rattus (Linnaeus, 1758)

Preferred Common Name

  • black rat

Other Scientific Names

  • Epimys rattus
  • Epimys rattus rattus
  • Mus alexandrinus Geoffroy, 1803
  • Mus novaezelandiae Buller, 1870
  • Mus rattus Linnaeus, 1758
  • Musculus frugivorus Rafinesque, 1814

International Common Names

  • English: blue rat; European house rat; gray rat; Old English rat; rat, black; rat, roof; rat, ship; roof rat; ship rat
  • Spanish: rata commun; rata de barcos; rata de techos; rata negra; rata negra (Arg)
  • French: rat des greniers; rat noir

Local Common Names

  • Denmark: husrotte; sort rotte
  • Finland: mustarotta
  • Germany: Hausratte; Ratte, Haus-
  • Israel: hachulda hashchora
  • Italy: Ratto; Ratto delle cantine e dei solai; Topo comune
  • Netherlands: Rat, zwarte
  • Norway: svart rotte
  • Sweden: svart ratta
  • Turkey: ev sicani

EPPO code

  • RATTRA (Rattus rattus)

Summary of Invasiveness

Top of page

A native of the Indian sub-continent, R. rattus has now spread throughout the world. It is widespread in forest and woodlands as well as being able to live in and around buildings. It will feed on and damage almost any edible thing. The black rat is most frequently identified with catastrophic declines of birds on islands. It can also be very damaging to crops and plants, particularly seeds. It is very agile and often frequents tree tops searching for food and nesting there in cavities, or less frequently in bunches of leaves and twigs.

Taxonomic Tree

Top of page
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Metazoa
  •         Phylum: Chordata
  •             Subphylum: Vertebrata
  •                 Class: Mammalia
  •                     Order: Rodentia
  •                         Family: Muridae
  •                             Subfamily: Murinae
  •                                 Genus: Rattus
  •                                     Species: Rattus rattus

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

Top of page

Phylogenetic restructuring of the ‘Rattus rattus complex’ (comprising the oceanic and Asian groups) is on-going. Based on molecular evidence, there are multiple species within what has historically been identified as Rattus rattus (Robins et al., 2007; Pagès et al., 2010). The Asian form of R. rattus may consist of several species, including R. tanezumi (syn. R. diardii) (Musser and Carleton, 2005). Without molecular analysis of individuals within the R. rattus complex it is very difficult to separate out the species.

Description

Top of page

A slender rat with large hairless ears, R. rattus may be grey-brown on the back with either a similarly-coloured or creamish-white belly, or it may be black all over. The uniformly-coloured tail is always longer than the head and body length combined. Its body weight is usually between 120 and 160 g but it can exceed 200 g.

Distribution

Top of page

Native Range

R. rattus is native to India but is now found worldwide. It reached Palestine around 3000 years before present (BP) (Tchernov, 1986; in Martin et al., 2000). Evidence of rats in the western Mediterranean dates to 2400 BP (Vigne and Valladas, 1996; in Martin et al., 2000).

Known Introduced Range

United Kingdom, France, Italy, Spain, Belgium, Denmark, Malta, Portugal, Indonesia, Tanzania, Tunisia, Madagascar, Mauritius, Seychelles, La Réunion, Caribbean, Canada, USA, Mexico, Chile, Galapagos Islands, Australia, New Zealand, Papua New Guinea, French Southern Territories, British Indian Ocean Territories, Heard and McDonald Islands, US Minor Outlying Islands, and at least 28 groups of Pacific Islands.

The work of Yosida (1980) and his co-workers has shown that there are two forms of R. rattus (differing in chromosome number). The more widespread oceanic form is found in Europe, the Mediterranean region, America, Australia and New Zealand. Present indications suggest it is the oceanic form that has reached islands in the South Pacific, but studies are needed to confirm this. The Asian form is found in Japan, Taiwan, the Philippines, New Guinea, Fiji and nearby islands (Robins et al., 2007).

Distribution Table

Top of page

The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasiveReferenceNotes

Asia

Chagos ArchipelagoRestricted distributionIntroducedpre-1840 Invasive ISSG, 2011
IndiaPresentNative Not invasive ISSG, 2011
-BiharPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
-Himachal PradeshPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
Indonesia
-KalimantanUnconfirmed recordIntroduced Invasive ISSG, 2011
MalaysiaUnconfirmed recordCAB Abstracts

Africa

Crozet IslandsPresentIntroduced1800nulls Invasive ISSG, 2011
EgyptPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
KenyaPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
MauritiusRestricted distributionIntroduced Invasive ISSG, 2011
MayottePresentIntroduced Invasive ISSG, 2011
NigeriaPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
RéunionPresentIntroduced1680 Invasive ISSG, 2011
Saint HelenaPresentIntroduced1513-1665 Invasive ISSG, 2011
-AscensionPresentIntroduced1656-1754, possibly 1701 Invasive ISSG, 2011
-Tristan Da CunhaPresentIntroduced1882 Invasive ISSG, 2011
SeychellesRestricted distributionIntroduced Invasive ISSG, 2011
TanzaniaRestricted distributionIntroduced Invasive ISSG, 2011

North America

BermudaPresentIntroduced1613; 1612 or before Invasive ISSG, 2011
CanadaPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-British ColumbiaPresentIntroduced Invasive ISSG, 2011
MexicoRestricted distributionIntroduced Invasive ISSG, 2011
USAPresentSamol, 1972
-AlaskaAbsent, intercepted onlyIntroduced Invasive ISSG, 2011
-ArizonaPresentIntroduced Invasive ISSG, 2011
-CaliforniaPresentIntroduced Invasive ISSG, 2011
-FloridaPresentWorth, 1950
-HawaiiPresentIntroducedc. 1870-1880, possibly earlier Invasive ISSG, 2011

Central America and Caribbean

AnguillaPresentIntroducedISSG, 2011
Antigua and BarbudaRestricted distributionIntroduced Invasive ISSG, 2011
BahamasPresentIntroduced Invasive ISSG, 2011
BarbadosPresentIntroduced Invasive ISSG, 2011
British Virgin IslandsPresentIntroduced Invasive ISSG, 2011
Cayman IslandsPresentIntroduced1503 Invasive ISSG, 2011
CubaPresentSchotman, 1989
CuraçaoPresentIntroduced Invasive ISSG, 2011
DominicaPresentIntroduced Invasive ISSG, 2011
Dominican RepublicPresentIntroduced Invasive ISSG, 2011
GuadeloupePresentIntroduced17th century Invasive Schotman, 1989; ISSG, 2011
HaitiPresentSchotman, 1989
JamaicaPresentIntroduced Invasive Schotman, 1989; ISSG, 2011
MartiniquePresentIntroduced17th century Invasive Schotman, 1989; ISSG, 2011
MontserratPresentIntroduced Invasive ISSG, 2011
Puerto RicoPresentIntroduced Invasive ISSG, 2011From urban areas in lowlands to >300 m elevation in rainforest
Saint LuciaWidespreadIntroduced Invasive Caribbean Conservation Association, 1991; ISSG, 2012
Saint Vincent and the GrenadinesPresentSchotman, 1989
Trinidad and TobagoPresentIntroduced Invasive ISSG, 2011
Turks and Caicos IslandsPresentIntroduced Invasive ISSG, 2011
United States Virgin IslandsPresentIntroduced Invasive ISSG, 2011

South America

BoliviaPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
BrazilPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
-Sao PauloPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
ColombiaPresentSchotman, 1989
EcuadorPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-Galapagos IslandsPresentIntroduced17th century Invasive ISSG, 2011
Falkland IslandsPresentIntroducedlate 18th century Invasive ISSG, 2011
French GuianaPresentSchotman, 1989
SurinamePresentSchotman, 1989
VenezuelaPresentSchotman, 1989

Europe

FrancePresentIntroduced Invasive ISSG, 2011
ItalyPresentIntroduced Invasive ISSG, 2011
MaltaRestricted distributionIntroduced Invasive ISSG, 2011
PortugalPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-AzoresPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
SpainUnconfirmed recordCAB Abstracts
-Spain (mainland)PresentIntroduced Invasive ISSG, 2011
UKRestricted distributionIntroduced Invasive ISSG, 2011

Oceania

American SamoaPresentIntroduced1865-1973 Invasive ISSG, 2011
AustraliaPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-Lord Howe Is.PresentIntroduced1918 Invasive ISSG, 2011
-Western AustraliaRestricted distributionIntroduced Invasive ISSG, 2011
Cook IslandsRestricted distributionIntroduced Invasive ISSG, 2011
FijiPresentIntroducedpre-1876 Invasive ISSG, 2011
French PolynesiaPresentIntroducedpre-1920 Invasive ISSG, 2011
-MarquesasPresentIntroduced Invasive ISSG, 2011
French Southern and Antarctic TerritoriesPresentIntroduced Invasive ISSG, 2011
GuamPresentIntroduced Invasive ISSG, 2011
KiribatiPresentIntroduced1940s Invasive ISSG, 2011
Line IslandsPresentIntroduced Invasive ISSG, 2011
Marshall IslandsPresentIntroducedpre-1932 Invasive ISSG, 2011
Micronesia, Federated states ofPresentIntroducedpre-1932 Invasive ISSG, 2011
Midway IslandsPresentIntroduced1940 Invasive ISSG, 2011
NauruPresentIntroducedpre-1979 Invasive ISSG, 2011
New CaledoniaRestricted distributionIntroduced Invasive ISSG, 2011
New ZealandRestricted distributionIntroduced Invasive ISSG, 2011
NiuePresentIntroduced1900-1925 Invasive ISSG, 2011
Northern Mariana IslandsPresentIntroducedpre-1931 Invasive ISSG, 2011
PalauPresentIntroduced Invasive ISSG, 2011; ISSG, 2013Reported on Babeldaob, Kayangel and Koror Islands
Papua New GuineaPresentIntroduced1943 Invasive ISSG, 2011
Phoenix IslandsPresentIntroduced1885 Invasive ISSG, 2011
SamoaPresentIntroduced1841-1923 Invasive ISSG, 2011; ISSG, 2013
Solomon IslandsPresentIntroduced Invasive ISSG, 2011
TongaPresentIntroduced Invasive ISSG, 2011
TuvaluPresentIntroduced1922 Invasive ISSG, 2011
VanuatuPresentIntroducedpre-1923 Invasive ISSG, 2011
Wake IslandPresentIntroduced1923-51 Invasive ISSG, 2011
Wallis and Futuna IslandsPresentIntroduced Invasive ISSG, 2011

History of Introduction and Spread

Top of page

R. rattus reached Palestine around 3000 years before present (BP) (Tchernov, 1986; in Martin et al., 2000). Evidence of rats in the western Mediterranean dates to 2400 BP (Vigne and Valladas, 1996; in Martin et al., 2000). It is thought to have reached Britain by the 3rd century CE (Innes, 2005). From Britain it was spread throughout the world along shipping routes and probably reached the Pacific by the late 17th century and certainly by the 1850s (see Atkinson 1985 for a review).

Risk of Introduction

Top of page

R. rattus is considered a pest worldwide, and therefore its importation (accidental or intentional) is unwanted. Aircraft and ships are vectors for repeated introductions of stowaway black rats (Shiels et al., 2014). However, contemporary movements/introductions of black rats probably have little effect on established populations in most situations beyond the potential for rats to spread diseases. Notable exceptions are areas that have never had rats or eradicated rats and maintain biosecurity measures to prevent reestablishment (Shiels et al., 2014). Formal regulations against black rat transport and establishment are generally lacking, although some countries require routine inspection of ships in their ports and also require biosecurity measures for ships docking to reduce the risk of importing rodents. Once established, nearby islands (within 300-750 m) may be colonized by black rats swimming (Innes, 2005).

Habitat

Top of page

R. rattus is able to utilise most terrestrial habitat types on continents and islands. They generally avoid swimming, although they are successful swimmers and can swim distances of 300-750 m to colonise islands (Innes, 2005). R. rattus can live on the ground, aboveground, and belowground. It does not require forest or substantial vertical structure, and can obtain high abundances in savannahs (Clark, 1981) and on atolls with low scrub vegetation (Fall et al., 1971).

R. rattus can spend an average of 30-90% of their night activity on the ground (Dowding and Murphy, 1994; Hooker and Innes, 1995; Lindsey et al., 1999; Shiels, 2010). In a New Zealand study (Hooker and Innes, 1995; in Innes, 2001) it was mostly arboreal, but was also frequently recorded on the ground. The mean range length for females was 103m, and 194m for males. Studies in both New Zealand and Hawaii reveal that black rat individuals generally use 1-11 dens within their home ranges (Dowding and Murphy, 1994; Hooker and Innes, 1995; Lindsey et al., 1999; Shiels, 2010). Another study (Dowding and Murphy, 1994; in Innes, 2001) reported that rats generally used 3-4 dens each throughout their range.

In the Mediterranean region R. rattus is most common in forests and shrublands up to 1080m in elevation (Martin et al., 2000); in Hawaii, they are common and often the dominant rodent from sea level to 3000 m altitude (Shiels, 2010). Common den sites for R. rattus include cavities in trees or rocks, beneath woodpiles or dense vegetation cover, fern and stick-lined arboreal nests, and in burrows belowground (Lindsey et al., 1999; Rutherford et al., 2009; Shiels, 2010).

Habitat List

Top of page
CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Littoral
Coastal areas Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Coastal dunes Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Intertidal zone Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Mangroves Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Mud flats Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Salt marshes Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Other
Host Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Soil Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Stored products Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Vector Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial-managed
Buildings Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Cultivated / agricultural land Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Disturbed areas Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Industrial / intensive livestock production systems Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Managed forests, plantations and orchards Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Managed grasslands (grazing systems) Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Protected agriculture (e.g. glasshouse production) Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Rail / roadsides Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Urban / peri-urban areas Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial-natural/semi-natural
Arid regions Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Cold lands / tundra Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Deserts Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Land caves Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Natural forests Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Natural grasslands Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Riverbanks Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Rocky areas / lava flows Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Scrub / shrublands Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Wetlands Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)

Growth Stages

Top of page Post-harvest

Biology and Ecology

Top of page

Genetics

There are two forms of R. rattus that differ in chromosome number (Yosida, 1980). The more widespread oceanic form has 38 chromosomes whereas the Asian form has 42 chromosomes (Robins et al., 2007).

Nutrition

R. rattus is an omnivorous generalist, yet can be a very selective feeder. They eat both plant and animal matter all year round (Shiels et al., 2013). A Japanese study showed that R. rattus is primarily herbivorous, but can change its food habits when it is thirsty, or when food is in short supply (Yabe, 1979). In a recent review Shiels et al. (2014) found that plant material was the dominant food in 17 out of 20 diet studies.

Reproduction

R. rattus is a placental mammal with dependent young. Litter size averages 3-6.5 individuals (Tobin et al., 1994), yet in laboratory trials the litter size ranges from three to 10, and averages 5-8 (Innes, 2005), with frequency of litters dependent on season and food supply. The interval between litters may be as little as 27 days.

Lifecycle Stages

Gestation lasts 20-22 days; weaning 21-29 days (Innes, 2005); sexual maturity is reached in 2-4 months (Watts and Aslin, 1981); maximum survival is about 2 years in the wild, but mean survival is usually 1 year or less (Shiels, 2010; Shiels et al., 2014).

Climate

Top of page
ClimateStatusDescriptionRemark
A - Tropical/Megathermal climate Preferred Average temp. of coolest month > 18°C, > 1500mm precipitation annually
Af - Tropical rainforest climate Preferred > 60mm precipitation per month
Am - Tropical monsoon climate Preferred Tropical monsoon climate ( < 60mm precipitation driest month but > (100 - [total annual precipitation(mm}/25]))
As - Tropical savanna climate with dry summer Tolerated < 60mm precipitation driest month (in summer) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
Aw - Tropical wet and dry savanna climate Tolerated < 60mm precipitation driest month (in winter) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
B - Dry (arid and semi-arid) Tolerated < 860mm precipitation annually
BS - Steppe climate Tolerated > 430mm and < 860mm annual precipitation
BW - Desert climate Tolerated < 430mm annual precipitation
C - Temperate/Mesothermal climate Preferred Average temp. of coldest month > 0°C and < 18°C, mean warmest month > 10°C
Cf - Warm temperate climate, wet all year Preferred Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, wet all year
Cs - Warm temperate climate with dry summer Preferred Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry summers
Cw - Warm temperate climate with dry winter Preferred Warm temperate climate with dry winter (Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry winters)

Latitude/Altitude Ranges

Top of page
Latitude North (°N)Latitude South (°S)Altitude Lower (m)Altitude Upper (m)
55 55

Air Temperature

Top of page
Parameter Lower limit Upper limit
Absolute minimum temperature (ºC) -9
Mean annual temperature (ºC) 1.5 35
Mean maximum temperature of hottest month (ºC) 40
Mean minimum temperature of coldest month (ºC) -4

Rainfall

Top of page
ParameterLower limitUpper limitDescription
Dry season duration812number of consecutive months with <40 mm rainfall

Rainfall Regime

Top of page Bimodal
Summer
Uniform
Winter

Natural enemies

Top of page
Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Bubo bubo Predator not specific
Felis catus Predator not specific Shiels, 2010; Shiels et al., 2014 Many islands, including Hawaii
Herpestes auropunctatus Predator not specific Hays and Conant, 2007; Shiels et al., 2014 Many islands in the Pacific and Caribbean
Mustela Predator not specific Shiels et al., 2014 New Zealand
Tyto alba Predator not specific Shiels et al., 2014 Malaysia

Notes on Natural Enemies

Top of page

Cats (Felis catus) and owls (particularly the barn owl Tyto alba) are among the most ubiquitous predators of R. rattus (Shiels et al., 2014), and these predators are generally nocturnal like R. rattus. Other raptors, primarily hawks and eagles, also consume R. rattus. Mongooses (Herpestes auropunctatus) consume black rats on several islands in the Pacific and Caribbean (Hayes and Conant, 2007). In New Zealand, Mustela spp. (stoats, weasels, and ferrets) are also predators of R. rattus (Shiels et al., 2014).

Means of Movement and Dispersal

Top of page

Introduction Pathways to New Locations

Natural dispersal: The recent reinvasions of R. rattus onto Motutapere Island (Chappell, 2004) and Tawhitinui (Ward, 2005) in New Zealand both involved crossings of approximately 500m in calm waters. Both invasions were presumably by swimming and they extended the distance which this species has been suspected of swimming (Russell and Clout, 2005).

Seafreight (container/bulk): R. rattus usually stows away in freight carried within the hull, holds and living spaces of ships.

Local Dispersal Methods

Natural dispersal (local): Subadult R. rattus are usually forced out of the natal home range but the distance they can travel is not known (ISSG, 2011).

Impact Summary

Top of page
CategoryImpact
Cultural/amenity Negative
Economic/livelihood Negative
Environment (generally) Negative
Human health Negative
Native fauna Negative

Economic Impact

Top of page

The primary economic impact of R. rattus relates to agricultural and horticultural damage. It is capable of destroying up to 30% of crops annually (Hood et al. 1971; Elmouttie and Wilson, 2005; Shiels et al., 2014). Of the 60 or more species in the genus Rattus, R. rattus is likely to be the most damaging to agricultural crops globally (Aplin et al., 2003; Shiels et al., 2014). In addition to consuming and spoiling foods, it can cause fires and electrical interruptions by gnawing wiring in buildings (Shiels et al., 2014).

Environmental Impact

Top of page

R. rattus has directly caused or contributed to the extinction of many species of wildlife including birds, small mammals, reptiles, invertebrates and plants, especially on islands (Towns et al., 2006; Shiels et al., 2014). R. rattus is omnivorous and capable of eating a wide range of plant and animal foods. These include native snails, beetles, spiders, moths, stick insects, cicadas and the fruit of many different plants (Innes 1990, 2005; Shiels et al., 2013; Shiels et al., 2014). They also prey on the eggs and young of forest birds (Innes et al., 1999; VanderWerf and Smith, 2002). In the recovery programme for the endangered Rarotonga flycatcher or kakerori (see Pomarea dimidiata in the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species), Robertson et al. (1994) identified R. rattus as the most important predator affecting the breeding success of this bird. Several cases are known where predation on seabirds can be reliably attributed to R. rattus (see review by Jones et al., 2008). These include sooty terns (see Sterna fuscata in IUCN Red List of Threatened Species) in the Seychelles Islands (Feare, 1979), Bonin petrels (see Pterodroma hypoleuca in IUCN Red List of Threatened Species) in Hawaii (Grant et al., 1981), Galapagos dark-rumped petrels (see Pterodroma phaeopygia in IUCN Red List of Threatened Species) in the Galapagos Islands (Harris, 1970), and white-tailed tropicbirds (see Phaethon lepturus in IUCN Red List of Threatened Species) in Bermuda (Gross, 1912).

R. rattus is most frequently identified with catastrophic declines of birds on islands. The best documented examples in the Pacific region are Midway Island in the Leeward Islands of Hawaii (Johnson, 1945; Fisher and Baldwin, 1946), Lord Howe Island (Hindwood, 1940; Recher and Clark, 1974) and Big South Cape Island, New Zealand (Atkinson and Bell, 1973). Atkinson (1977) brought together circumstantial evidence suggesting that R. rattus, rather than disease, was responsible for the decline of many species of Hawaiian native birds during the 19th century.

There are few indications of rat-induced declines in native birds on islands nearer the equator (latitude 15°N to 20°S), but this may be in part due to proportionally less studies in this zone (Jones et al., 2008). This zone coincides with the distribution of native land crabs, animals that also prey on birds and their eggs. The long co-existence between land crabs and some island birds may have resulted in the development of behaviours among the birds that gives them a degree of protection against rats. Atkinson (1985) suggested that this might be the reason why rat-induced catastrophes are less apparent within the equatorial zone, but this hypothesis has never been tested (SPREP, 2000).

Bird prey that are similar in size to R. rattus, or smaller, appear to be the most vulnerable to predation (Shiels et al., 2004). Impacts also appear to be more severe on smaller islands, where rat densities tend to be higher and fluctuate less than on larger islands or continents, or simply because the prey densities are more concentrated on many smaller islands (such as with seabirds). Constant predation pressure results in a reduction in seabird colony size on many islands (Martin et al., 2000).

Seeds appear to the most vulnerable plant life stage to predation by R. rattus, which removes and eats the fruit and seed on the ground and in the canopy (Auld et al., 2010; Shiels and Drake, 2011; Pender et al., 2013). The sizes of fruit and seed appear to have some relationship with harvest, and intermediate sized fruit and seed (especially those 5-18 mm) are typically consumed most by R. rattus (Grant-Hoffman and Barboza, 2010; Shiels and Drake, 2011). Native palms are readily consumed by R. rattus on Pacific islands (Pérez et al., 2008; Auld et al., 2010), and Pérez et al. (2008) found that 80-90% of native and endangered Pritchardia spp. palm seeds were destroyed by black rats when offered in captive-feeding conditions. Pender et al. (2013) showed that trapping R. rattus in a Hawaiian forest resulted in the reduction of fruit consumption and seed predation from 46% to just 4% for the endangered tree Cyanea superba.

R. rattus can also be an important disperser of native and non-native seeds (Williams et al., 2000; Shiels, 2011; Shiels and Drake, 2011).

Threatened Species

Top of page
Threatened SpeciesConservation StatusWhere ThreatenedMechanismReferencesNotes
Chasiempis sandwichensisVU (IUCN red list: Vulnerable) VU (IUCN red list: Vulnerable)HawaiiWerf and Smith, 2002
Cyanea superbaEW (IUCN red list: Extinct in the wild) EW (IUCN red list: Extinct in the wild)HawaiiPender et al., 2013
Phaethon lepturus (white-tailed tropicbird)LC (IUCN red list: Least concern) LC (IUCN red list: Least concern)BermudaPredation
Pomarea dimidiata (Rarotonga flycatcher)EN (IUCN red list: Endangered) EN (IUCN red list: Endangered)Predation
Pritchardia kaalae (Waianae Range pritchardia)CR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered) CR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered); USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiRootingUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 1998b; Pérez et al., 2008; US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2008b
Pterodroma hypoleuca (Bonin petrel)LC (IUCN red list: Least concern) LC (IUCN red list: Least concern)HawaiiPredation
Pterodroma phaeopygia (Galapagos dark-rumped petrel)CR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered) CR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered); USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesGalapagos IslandsPredationUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2010e
Sterna fuscata (sooty tern)LC (IUCN red list: Least concern) LC (IUCN red list: Least concern)SeychellesPredation
Amphispiza belli clementeae (San Clemente sage sparrow)USA ESA listing as threatened species USA ESA listing as threatened speciesCaliforniaPredationUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2009e
Bidens campylotheca subsp. pentamera (ko`oko`olau)CR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered) CR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered); USA ESA listing as threatened species USA ESA listing as threatened speciesHawaiiRootingUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2013b
Bidens campylotheca subsp. waihoiensis (ko`oko`olau)CR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered) CR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered); USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiRootingUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2013b
Bidens conjuncta (ko`oko`olau)VU (IUCN red list: Vulnerable) VU (IUCN red list: Vulnerable); USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiRootingUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2013b
Bidens micrantha subsp. ctenophylla (ko`oko`olau)CR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered) CR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered); USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiRootingUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2013a
Calidris canutus (red knot)NT (IUCN red list: Near threatened) NT (IUCN red list: Near threatened); USA ESA listing as threatened species USA ESA listing as threatened speciesUSAPredation,
Chasiempis sandwichensis ibidis (Oahu elepaio)USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiPredationUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2006b
Pleomele fernaldii (hala pepe)EN (IUCN red list: Endangered) EN (IUCN red list: Endangered); USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiPredationUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2013b
Cyanea calycinaCR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered) CR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered); USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiRootingUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2012a
Cyanea kunthiana (Kunth's cyanea)USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiRootingUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2013b
Cyanea lanceolata (lanceleaf cyanea)USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiRootingUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2012a
Cyanea obtusa (bluntlobe cyanea)National list(s) National list(s); USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiRootingUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2013b
Cyanea profuga (Mapulehu Valley cyanea)USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiRootingUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2013b
Cyanea purpurellifolia (Panaluu Mountain rollandia)USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiRootingUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2012a
Cyanea solanacea (popolo)USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiHerbivory/grazing/browsingUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2013b
Cyanea tritomantha (`aku)VU (IUCN red list: Vulnerable) VU (IUCN red list: Vulnerable); USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiHerbivory/grazing/browsingUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2013a
Cyrtandra gracilis (Palolo Valley cyrtandra)NatureServe NatureServe; USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiHerbivory/grazing/browsingUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2012a
Cyrtandra wagneriNatureServe NatureServe; USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiHerbivory/grazing/browsingUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2013a
Cyrtandra nanawaleensisUSA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiHerbivory/grazing/browsingUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2013a
Doryopteris takeuchii (Takeuch's lipfern)NatureServe NatureServe; USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiRootingUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2012a
Eleutherodactylus jasperi (golden coqui)CR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered) CR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered); USA ESA listing as threatened species USA ESA listing as threatened speciesPuerto RicoPredationUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2013d
Eua zebrina (Tutuila tree snail)EN (IUCN red list: Endangered) EN (IUCN red list: Endangered); USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesAmerican SamoaPredationUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2014b
Gallicolumba stairi (shy ground-dove)VU (IUCN red list: Vulnerable) VU (IUCN red list: Vulnerable); USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesAmerican SamoaPredationUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2014c
Isodendrion pyrifoliumCR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered) CR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered); USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiHerbivory/grazing/browsingNatureServe, 2010
Leiolopisma telfairii (Round Island skink)USA ESA listing as threatened species USA ESA listing as threatened speciesMauritiusPredationMadagascar Reptile and Amphibian Specialist Group, 1996
Lobelia monostachya (Waianae Range lobelia)CR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered) CR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered); USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiRootingUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 1998b
Loxioides bailleui (palila)CR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered) CR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered); USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiPredationUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2006b
Mucuna sloanei var. persericeaNatureServe NatureServe; USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiHerbivory/grazing/browsingUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2013b
Myrsine vaccinioides (Violet Lake colicwood)NatureServe NatureServe; USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiHerbivory/grazing/browsingUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2013b
Newcombia cumingi (Newcomb's tree snail)EN (IUCN red list: Endangered) EN (IUCN red list: Endangered); USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiPredationUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2013b
Ochrosia kilaueaensis (Hawai'i yellowwood)CR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered) CR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered); USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiRootingUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 1996
Oreomystis bairdi (akikiki)CR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered) CR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered); USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiPredationUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2006b
Oreomystis mana (Hawaii creeper)EN (IUCN red list: Endangered) EN (IUCN red list: Endangered); USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiPredationUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2006b
Orthalicus reses (Stock Island tree snail)USA ESA listing as threatened species USA ESA listing as threatened speciesFloridaPredationUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2009g
Oryzomys palustris natator (rice rat)USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesFloridaCompetition - monopolizing resourcesUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2007c
Palmeria dolei (crested honeycreeper)CR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered) CR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered); USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiPredationUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2011a
Paroreomyza flammea (Molokai creeper)EX (IUCN red list: Extinct) EX (IUCN red list: Extinct); USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiPredationUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2006b
Paroreomyza maculata (Oahu creeper)CR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered) CR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered); USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiPredationUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2006b
Partulina semicarinata (Lanai tree snail)EN (IUCN red list: Endangered) EN (IUCN red list: Endangered); USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiPredationUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2013b
Partulina variabilis (Lanai tree snail)EN (IUCN red list: Endangered) EN (IUCN red list: Endangered); USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiPredationUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2013b
Peperomia subpetiolata (Waikamoi peperomia)NatureServe NatureServe; USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiPredationUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2013b
Perognathus longimembris pacificus (Pacific pocket mouse)USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesCaliforniaPredationUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2010f
Peucedanum sandwicense (makou)NatureServe NatureServe; USA ESA listing as threatened species USA ESA listing as threatened speciesHawaiiRootingUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2011c
Diomedea albatrus (short-tailed albatross)VU (IUCN red list: Vulnerable) VU (IUCN red list: Vulnerable); USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesCanada; USAPredationUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2009f
Phyllostegia mannii (Mann's phyllostegia)NatureServe NatureServe; USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiHerbivory/grazing/browsingUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2011f
Pittosporum halophylumNatureServe NatureServe; USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiHerbivory/grazing/browsingUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2013b
Pittosporum hawaiiense (Hawai'i cheesewood)NatureServe NatureServe; USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiPredationUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2013a
Pittosporum napaliense (royal cheesewood)EN (IUCN red list: Endangered) EN (IUCN red list: Endangered); USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiPredationUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2010d
Plantago princepsNatureServe NatureServe; USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiHerbivory/grazing/browsingUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2010g
Platydesma rostrataCR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered) CR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered); USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiPredationUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2010e
Pritchardia lanigeraEN (IUCN red list: Endangered) EN (IUCN red list: Endangered); USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiHerbivory/grazing/browsingUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2013a
Pritchardia maideniana (Kona palm)CR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered) CR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered); USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiRootingUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 1996
Pritchardia napaliensisCR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered) CR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered); USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiRootingUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2010b
Pritchardia remota (Remota loula palm)EN (IUCN red list: Endangered) EN (IUCN red list: Endangered); USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiRootingUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2009d; US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2011b
Pritchardia viscosa (stickybud pritchardia)CR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered) CR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered); USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiRootingUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 1998a; US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2010h
Pseudonestor xanthophrys (Maui parrotbill)CR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered) CR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered); National list(s) National list(s); USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiPredationUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2006b; US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2011d
Psittirostra psittacea (Ou)CR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered) CR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered); USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiPredationUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2006b; US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2009h
Psychotria grandiflora (large-flowered balsamo)EN (IUCN red list: Endangered) EN (IUCN red list: Endangered); USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiRootingUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2010e
Psychotria hobdyi (Hobdy's wild-coffee)USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered species; USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiRootingUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2010e
Pteralyxia kauaiensis (Kauai pteralyxia)EN (IUCN red list: Endangered) EN (IUCN red list: Endangered); USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiRootingUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 1995b
Puffinus auricularis newelliUSA ESA listing as threatened species USA ESA listing as threatened species; EN (IUCN red list: Endangered) EN (IUCN red list: Endangered)Hawaii; American SamoaPredationUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2011e
Puffinus heinrothi (Heinroth's shearwater)VU (IUCN red list: Vulnerable) VU (IUCN red list: Vulnerable); USA ESA listing as threatened species USA ESA listing as threatened speciesPapua New Guinea; Solomon IslandsPredationUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2007a
Remya montgomeryi (Kalalau Valley remya)CR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered) CR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered); USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiEcosystem change / habitat alteration; Herbivory/grazing/browsingUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2010a
Sanicula purpurea (purpleflower blacksnakeroot)CR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered) CR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered); USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiHerbivory/grazing/browsingUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2011g
Santalum freycinetianum var. lanaienseNo DetailsHawaiiHerbivory/grazing/browsingUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2011h
Schiedea diffusa subsp. macraeiNatureServe NatureServe; USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiHerbivory/grazing/browsingUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2013a
Schiedea haleakalensis (Haleakala schiedea)CR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered) CR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered); USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiHerbivory/grazing/browsingUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2011i
Schiedea hawaiiensis (island schiedea)NatureServe NatureServe; USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiHerbivory/grazing/browsingUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2013a
Schiedea hookeri (sprawling schiedea)CR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered) CR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered); USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiHerbivory/grazing/browsingUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2011j
Schiedea lauiNatureServe NatureServe; USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiHerbivory/grazing/browsingUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2013b
Schiedea lydgatei (Kamalo Gulch schiedea)NatureServe NatureServe; USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiEcosystem change / habitat alteration; Herbivory/grazing/browsingUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2011k
Schiedea sarmentosaUSA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiHerbivory/grazing/browsingUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2011l
Stenogyne cranwelliae (Kohala Mountain stenogyne)USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiHerbivory/grazing/browsingUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2013a
Stenogyne kanehoana (Oahu stenogyne)CR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered) CR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered); USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiRootingUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 1998b
Sterna antillarum (least tern)LC (IUCN red list: Least concern) LC (IUCN red list: Least concern); USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesUSAPredationNatureServe, 2011
Sterna antillarum browni (California least tern)USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesCaliforniaPredationUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2006a
Sylvilagus bachmani riparius (riparian brush rabbit)USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesCaliforniaPredationUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2000
Telespiza cantans (Laysan finch)VU (IUCN red list: Vulnerable) VU (IUCN red list: Vulnerable); USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiPredationUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 1984; US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2008a
Tetramolopium remyi (Awalua Ridge tetramolopium)USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiRootingUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 1995a
Trematolobelia singularis (lavaslope false lobelia)CR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered) CR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered); USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiRootingUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2009a
Urera kaalaeCR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered) CR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered); USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiPredationUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2011m
Urocyon littoralis catalinae (Santa Catalina Island fox)USA ESA listing as threatened species USA ESA listing as threatened speciesCaliforniaPest and disease transmissionUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2004
Xantusia riversiana (island night lizard)LC (IUCN red list: Least concern) LC (IUCN red list: Least concern)CaliforniaPredationUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2014a
Xylosma crenataCR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered) CR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered); USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiHerbivory/grazing/browsingUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2009b
Zanthoxylum dipetalum var. tomentosumCR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered) CR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered); USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiHerbivory/grazing/browsingUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2010c
Zosterops conspicillatus conspicillatus (bridled white-eye)USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesGuamPredationUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2009c
Zosterops rotensis (rota bridled white-eye)CR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered) CR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered); USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesNorthern Mariana IslandsPredationUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2007b

Social Impact

Top of page

R. rattus nests in and around human dwellings and carries diseases such as the bubonic plague, which has killed millions of people (Shiels et al., 2014). Some of the human-threatening diseases caused by R. rattus include those resulting from bacteria (such as bubonic plague, leptospirosis) and nematodes (rat lung worm disease). These diseases are typically transferred to humans via urine and droppings, or through hosts that interact with both black rats and humans. Different types of intermediate hosts transmit both the bubonic plague (bacterium Yersinia pestis, transmitted via fleas) and rat lung worm disease (nematode Angiostrongylus cantonensis, typically transmitted via slugs and snails) to humans. Outbreaks of bubonic plague still occur today (such as in Madagascar; Boiser et al., 2002); antibiotics can help overcome the bacterium and a vaccine is available, but the plague can still spread quickly and is a potential killer. Currently, there is no vaccine for rat lung worm disease. Human impacts and associated costs in attempts to control or eradicate black rats have continued for centuries (Shiels et al., 2014).

Risk and Impact Factors

Top of page Invasiveness
  • Proved invasive outside its native range
  • Abundant in its native range
  • Highly adaptable to different environments
  • Is a habitat generalist
  • Pioneering in disturbed areas
  • Tolerant of shade
  • Capable of securing and ingesting a wide range of food
  • Highly mobile locally
  • Benefits from human association (i.e. it is a human commensal)
Impact outcomes
  • Altered trophic level
  • Damaged ecosystem services
  • Ecosystem change/ habitat alteration
  • Infrastructure damage
  • Modification of successional patterns
  • Negatively impacts agriculture
  • Negatively impacts cultural/traditional practices
  • Negatively impacts forestry
  • Negatively impacts human health
  • Negatively impacts animal health
  • Negatively impacts livelihoods
  • Negatively impacts aquaculture/fisheries
  • Reduced native biodiversity
  • Threat to/ loss of endangered species
  • Threat to/ loss of native species
  • Negatively impacts animal/plant collections
  • Damages animal/plant products
  • Negatively impacts trade/international relations
Impact mechanisms
  • Competition - monopolizing resources
  • Pest and disease transmission
  • Fouling
  • Herbivory/grazing/browsing
  • Interaction with other invasive species
  • Predation
  • Rapid growth
  • Rooting
Likelihood of entry/control
  • Highly likely to be transported internationally accidentally
  • Difficult to identify/detect as a commodity contaminant
  • Difficult/costly to control

Diagnosis

Top of page

Molecular biology has recently played an important role in distinguishing R. rattus from other species of Rattus. Morphological characteristics are unreliable in many cases; for example, it is almost impossible to tell apart R. rattus from R. tanezumi (Aplin et al., 2003). Molecular techniques are key to definitely determining species within the R. rattus complex (Musser and Carleton, 2005; Robins et al., 2007; Pagès et al., 2010).

Detection and Inspection

Top of page

Dogs (Canis lupus familiaris) can be used to detect rats on islands and to prevent rodent reinvasion to islands. In parts of New Zealand specially trained rat dogs find introduced Rattus spp. in conservation areas and on cargo transported between ports and islands (Towns, 2009; Gsell et al., 2010). Monitoring rat traps, tracking tunnels and rodenticide bait blocks are also used as indicators if rats are present in the area (Shiels et al., 2014).

Similarities to Other Species/Conditions

Top of page

R. rattus is lighter and has a shorter maximum head-body length (excluding tail) than R. norvegicus. Its tail is much longer than its head-body length and is uniformly coloured. The tail of R. norvegicus is clearly shorter than its head-body length, and it has a pale underside. The upper side of the hind foot of R. rattus is usually dark, whereas it is always completely pale in R. norvegicus. Droppings left by R. rattus are often almost half as long (6.8-13.8 mm) as those of R. norvegicus (13.4-19.1 mm). R. rattus is a very agile and frequent climber, rarely burrows, nests mainly in trees and shrubs and is an infrequent swimmer. R. norvegicus burrows extensively, nests underground and is a strong swimmer. It also climbs much less frequently than other rats and is very wary (see Cunningham and Moors, 1993).

Prevention and Control

Top of page

Preventative Measures

Research has shown that it can often be difficult to eradicate rats from islands in the early stages of an invasion, so it is better to prevent rodents arriving on islands in the first place. Eliminating a single invading rat can be disproportionately difficult because of atypical behaviour by the rat in the absence of conspecifics, and because bait can be less effective in the absence of competition for food (Russell et al., 2005). Weihong et al. (1999) provided useful information regarding the detection of rodent species using different trapping methods and bait.

Physical Control

Trapping and installation of predator-proof fencing are physical methods that can be used together remove R. rattus from confined areas within islands or continents (Shiels et al., 2014). The use of poison baits is the only proven way to remove rodents from large islands. Trapping generally fails to remove all individuals, as trap-shy animals can survive and repopulate the island (DOC, 2004). Predator-proof fencing has been used in New Zealand for over a decade to exclude problematic mammals including R. rattus (Scofield et al., 2011).

Chemical Control

R. rattus can be eradicated from small areas or seasonally controlled using proprietary rat poison products in an appropriate manner. The largest island to date from which R. rattus has been eradicated is Macquarie Island (128 860 ha, Southeastern Australia) (Springer, 2012).

Second-generation anticoagulant poisons have been used for R. rattus control, but possible consequences of any ongoing control should always be considered. These consequences include primary or secondary poisoning of non-target species, secondary poisoning of other vertebrate pests such as cats, and development of resistance to these poisons by R. rattus. It is not known whether its tree-climbing habits will make eradication more difficult (SPREP, 2000). The poisons diphacinone, coumatetralyl and brodifacoum can no longer be recommended and should not be used.

An investigation by Spurr et al. (2007) was carried out to assess the behavioural response of R. rattus to four different bait station types. Yellow plastic pipe, wooden box (‘rat motel’) and wooden tunnel bait stations were found all suitable for surveillance of R. rattus and the first two at least for R. norvegicus (all were readily entered and had a similar amount of bait eaten from them).

Biological Control

Contraceptive methods of control are currently experimental, but the potential for effective control using contraceptive methods is promising. National Wildlife Research Center (USA) scientists are working on several possible formulations that may make effective oral immunisation possible (Nash and Miller, 2004).

Integrated Management

Guidelines for the Eradication of Rats From Islands Within the Falklands Group offers guidelines for the eradication of rats from islands, based on the experiences in eradicating rats from the Falklands group. Ogden and Gilbert (2009) identified three reasons why gaining local support for rat eradications is typically challenging: 1) a lack of appreciation of the ecological damage resulting from rats, and therefore a low priority placed on their elimination, 2) suspicion by community members that see conservationists wanting access to private lands and island-wide biosecurity, and 3) numerous regulatory barriers that delay decisions and actions and ultimately result in disinterest in such projects.

Bibliography

Top of page

Angel, A. & Cooper, J. 2006. A Review of the Impacts of Introduced Rodents on the Islands of Tristan da Cunha and Gough. RSPB Research Report No. 17. Royal Society for the Protection of Birds, Sandy,United Kingdom.

ARCP Rat Eradication Programme - Protection of Cleared Islands: Report on Green Island Emergency and Recommendations for Future Action

Atkinson, I. A. E. 1977. A reassessment of factors, particularly Rattus rattus L., that influenced the decline of endemic forest birds in the Hawaiian Islands. Pacific Science 31: 109–133.

Atkinson, I. A. E. 1985. The spread of commensal species of Rattus to oceanic islands and their effects on island avifaunas. In Moors, P. J. (ed.) Conservation of Island Birds. ICBP Technical Publication No.3: 35-81.

Atkinson, I. A. E. and Atkinson, T. J. 2000. Land vertebrates as invasive species on islands served by the South Pacific Regional Environment Programme. In: Invasive Species in the Pacific: A Technical Review and Draft Regional Strategy. South Pacific Regional Environment Programme, Samoa: 19-84.

Atkinson, I. A. E. and Bell, B. D. 1973. Offshore and outlying islands. In Williams, G. R. (ed.) The Natural History of New Zealand. A.H. and A.W. Reed, Wellington: 372–392.

Baker-Gabb D. 2004. National Recovery Plan for the Norfolk Island Scarlet Robin Petroica multicolor multicolor and the Norfolk Island Golden Whistler Pachycephala pectoralis xanthroprocta. Commonwealth of Australia, Canberra.

Bell, 2002. The eradication of alien mammals from five offshore islands, Mauritius, Indian Ocean. In Turning the tide: the eradication of invasive species: 40-45. IUCN SSC Invasive Species Specialist Group. IUCN. Gland. Switzerland and Cambridge. UK.

Bertram D. F. & Nagorsen D. W. 1995. Introduced rats on Queen Charlotte Island: Implications for seabird conservation. Canadian Field-Naturalist 109: 6 - 10.

Bertram D. F. 1995. The role of introdued rats and commercial fishing in the decline of Ancient Murrelets on Langara Island, British Columbia. Conservation Biology 9: 865 - 872.

BirdLife International 2004. Puffinus yelkouan. In: IUCN 2006. 2006 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species http://www.iucnredlist.org/apps/redlist/details/144886/0

BirdLife International 2004. Sula dactylatra. In: IUCN 2006. 2006 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species http://www.iucnredlist.org/apps/redlist/details/144616/0

BirdLife International 2004. Sula leucogaster. In: IUCN 2006. 2006 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species http://www.iucnredlist.org/apps/redlist/details/144618/0

BirdLife International 2006. Pomarea dimidiata. In: IUCN 2007. 2007 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. http://www.iucnredlist.org/apps/redlist/details/146953/0

BirdLife International 2007. BirdLife's online World Bird Database: the site for bird conservation. Version 2.1. Cambridge, UK: BirdLife International. http://www.birdlife.org/datazone/sites/index.html?action=SitHTMDetails.asp&sid=47&m=0

BirdLife International January 17 2007. News: Islet inhabitants benefit from rat removal http://www.birdlife.org/news/news/2007/01/rat_removal.html

BirdLife International, 2008. Species factsheet: Pomarea dimidiata. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 2/9/2008 http://www.birdlife.org/datazone/species/index.html?action=SpcHTMDetails.asp&sid=6076&m=0

BirdLife Malta Undated. The Yelkouan Shearwater Project http://lifeshearwaterproject.org.mt/en/project/

Boisier, P., Rahalison, L., Rasolomaharo, M., Ratsitorahina, M., Mahafaly, M., Razafimahefa, M., Duplantier, J.M., Ratsifasoamanana, L. & Chanteau, S. 2002. Epidemiologic features of four successive annual outbreaks of bubonic plague in Mahajanga, Madagascar. Emerging Infectious Diseases 8, 311-316.

Bomford, M., 2003. Risk Assessment for the Import and Keeping of Exotic Vertebrates in Australia. Bureau of Rural Sciences, Canberra. http://www.feral.org.au/feral_documents/PC12803.pdf

Brown, D. 2006a. Preliminary Operational Plan For Rat and Mouse Eradication from Tristan da Cunha. Unpublished report to RSPB.

Brown, D. 2006b. A Feasibility Study for the Eradication of Rats and Mice from Tristan da Cunha. Unpublished report to RSPB.

Burbidge and Morris., 2002. Introduced mammal eradications for nature conservation on Western Australian islands: a review. In Turning the tide: the eradication of invasive species: 64-70. Veitch, C.R. and Clout, M.N.(eds). IUCN SSC Invasive Species Specialist Group. IUCN. Gland. Switzerland and Cambridge. UK. http://www.issg.org/database/species/reference_files/vulvul/Burbidge.pdf

Burbidge, A.A., 2004. Montebello Renewal: Western Shield review—February 2003. Conservation Science Western Australia 5(2), 194-201.

Burbidge, A.A., Blyth, J.D., Fuller, P.J., Kendrick, P.G., Stanley, F.J. and Smith, L.E., 2000. The terrestrial vertebrate fauna of the Montebello Islands, Western Australia. CALMScience 3(2), 95-107.

Carter and Bright., 2002. Habitat refuges as alternatives to predator control for the conservation of endangered Mauritian birds. In Turning the tide: the eradication of invasive species: 71-78. Veitch, C.R. and Clout, M.N.(eds). IUCN SSC Invasive Species Specialist Group. IUCN. Gland. Switzerland and Cambridge. UK.

Chagos Island Restoration Project 2006 (CERP). Fauna and Flora International.

Chapuis, J., Boussès, P., & Barnaud, G. 1994. Alien mammals, impact and management in the French Subantartic Islands. Biological Conservation, 67, 97-104.

Christie, J.E., D.J. Brown, I. Westbrooke and E.C. Murphy., 2009. Environmental predictors of stoat (Mustela erminea) and ship rat (Rattus rattus) capture success. DOC Research & Development Series 305. Published by Publishing Team Department of Conservation PO Box 10420, The Terrace Wellington 6143, New Zealand http://www.doc.govt.nz/upload/documents/science-and-technical/drds305entire.pdf

CONABIO. 2008. Sistema de información sobre especies invasoras en México. Especies invasoras - Mamíferos. Comisión Nacional para el Conocimiento y Uso de la Biodiversidad. Fecha de acceso. http://www.conabio.gob.mx/invasoras/index.php/Especies_invasoras_-_Mam%C3%ADferos

Cunningham, D.M. and Moors, P.J., 1993. Guide To The Identification And Collection Of New Zealand Rodents. Department of Conservation, NZ.

Dilks, P and Towns, D., 2002. Developing tools to detect and respond to rodent invasions of islands: workshop report and recommendations. DOC SCIENCE INTERNAL SERIES 59 http://www.doc.govt.nz/upload/documents/science-and-technical/DSIS59.pdf

Doty, R. E. 1945. Rat control on Hawaiian sugar cane plantations. Hawaiian Planters Record 49(2): 71–241.

Feare, C. J. 1979. Ecology of Bird Island, Seychelles. Atoll Research Bulletin 226: 1–29.

Fisher, H. I. and Baldwin, P. H. 1946. War and the birds on Midway Atoll. Condor 48: 3–15.

Gargominy, O. (Ed.). 2003. Biodiversité et conservation dans les collectivités françaises d'outre-mer. Comité français pour l'UICN, Paris. http://www.uicn.fr/Biodiversite-outre-mer-2003.html

Grant, S. G., Pettit, T. N., Whittow, G. C. 1981. Rat predation on Bonin petrel eggs on Midway Atoll. Journal of Field Ornithology 52: 336–8.

Gross, A. O. 1912. Observations on the yellow-billed tropicbird (Phaethon americanus Grant) at the Bermuda Islands. Auk 29: 49–71.

Harris, M. P. 1970. The biology of an endangered species, the dark-rumped petrel (Pterodroma phaeopygia), in the Galapagos Islands. Condor 72: 76–84.

Hindwood, K. A. 1940. The birds of Lord Howe Island. Emu 40: 1–86.

Innes, J. G. 1990. Ship Rat. The Handbook of New Zealand Mammals. King, C. M. (ed.) Oxford University Press: 206-225.

Innes, J., Hay, R., Flux, I., Bradfield, P., Speed, H. and Jansen, P. 1999. Successful recovery of North Island kokako Callaeas cinerea wilsoni populations, by adaptive management. Biological conservation 87: 201-214.

Invasive Species Specialist Group. 2003. Takitimu Conservation Area (Cook Islands) - Landowning clans in charge of the Kakerori Recovery Programmes. In: Aliens 17. Invasive Species Specialist Group of the IUCN Species Survival Commission http://www.issg.org/pdf/aliens_newsletters/A17.pdf

IUCN 2007. 2007 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species http://www.iucnredlist.org/

IUCN South-Eastern Europen e-Bulletin December 2006. Issue 11: Rats exterminated in important colony of Eleonora’s falcon

IUCN/SSC Invasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG)., 2010. A Compilation of Information Sources for Conservation Managers Involved in the Prevention, Eradication, Management and Control of the Spread of Invasive Alien Species that are a Threat to Native biodiversity and Natural Ecosystems.

James, R.E., and M.N. Clout, 1996. Nesting success of New Zealand pigeons (Hemiphaga novaeseelandiae) in response to a rat (Rattus rattus) poisoning programme at Wenderholm Regional Park. New Zealand Journal of Ecology 20(1): 45-51 ©New Zealand Ecological Society http://www.newzealandecology.org/nzje/free_issues/NZJEcol20_1_45.pdf

Johnson, D. H. 1962. Rodents and other Micronesian mammals collected. In Storer T. I. (ed.) Pacific Island rat ecology. Bernice P. Bishop Museum Bulletin 225: 21–38.

Johnson, M. S. 1945. Rodent control on Midway Islands. US Naval Medical Bulletin 45: 384–398.

Langford, D. and Burbidge, A.A., 2001. Translocation of mala from the Tanami Desert, Northern Territory to Trimouille Island, Western Australia. Australian Mammalogy 23, 37-46.

Lorvelec, O. & Pascal, M. 2006. Les vertébrés de Clipperton soumis à un siècle et demi de bouleversements écologiques. Revue d'Ecologie (La terre et la Vie), 61, 2

Lorvelec, O., Delloue, X., Pascal, M., & Mege, S. 2004. Impact des mammifères allochtones sur quelques espèces autochtones de l'îlet Fajou (Réserve Naturelle du Grand Cul-de-Sac-Marin, Guadeloupe), établis à l'issue d'une tentative d'éradication. Revue d'Ecologie (La Terre et la Vie), 59, 293-307.

Lorvelec, O., Delloue, X., Pascal, M., & mege, S. 2004. Impacts des mammiferes allochtones sur quelques especes autochtones de l'Isle Fajou (Reserve Naturelle du Grand Cul-de-sac Marin, Guadeloupe), etablis a l'issue d'une tentative d'eradication. Revue D'Ecologie - La Terre et La Vie 59(1-2): 293-307.

Lorvelec, O., Pascal, M., & Pavis, C. 2001. Inventaire et statut des Mammifères des Antilles françaises (hors Chiroptères et Cétacés). In Rapport n° 27 de l'Association pour l'Etude et la Protection des Vertébrés et Végétaux des Petites Antilles, Petit-Bourg, Guadeloupe. http://www.fnh.org/francais/fnh/uicn/pdf/biodiv_mammiferes_antilles.pdf

Lorvelec, O., Pascal, M., Delloue, X., Chapuis, J.L. 2007. Les mammifères terrestres non volants des Antilles françaises et l’introduction récente d’un écureil. Rev.Ecol. (Terre Vie), 62, 295-314

Louette M. 1999. La Faune terrestre de Mayotte - Musée Royal de l'Afrique Centrale, 247 p.

Lovegrove, T. G., C. H. Zeiler, B. S. Greene, B. W. Green, R. Gaastra, and A. D. MacArthur., 2002. Alien plant and animal control and aspects of ecological restoration in a small 'mainland island': Wenderholm Regional Park, New Zealand. In Turning the tide: the eradication of invasive species : 155-163. Veitch, C.R. and Clout, M.N.(eds). IUCN SSC Invasive Species Specialist Group. IUCN. Gland. Switzerland and Cambridge. UK.

MacKay, J. W. B.; Russell, J. C. 2005. Ship rat Rattus rattus eradication by trapping and poison-baiting on Goat Island, New Zealand. Conservation Evidence, 2, 142-144. http://www.conservationevidence.com/Attachments/PDF242.pdf

Marine Turtle Newsletter No. 106, 2004 http://www.seaturtle.org/mtn/archives/mtn106/

McClelland, P.J., 2002. Eradication of Pacific rats (Rattus exulans) from Whenua Hou Nature Reserve (Codfish Island), Putauhinu and Rarotoka Islands, New Zealand. In Turning the tide: the eradication of invasive species: 173-181. Veitch, C.R. and Clout, M.N.(eds). IUCN SSC Invasive Species Specialist Group. IUCN. Gland. Switzerland and Cambridge. UK.

Megapode Newsletter Vol. 18, nr. 1 October 2004. BirdLife/WPA/SSC Megapode Specialist Group

Meier, G., 2003. InGrip-Report No.1, prepared for Turtle Foundation by InGrip-Consulting & Animal Control. Hauptstr. 1 - 82541 Ammerland, Germany.

Meier, Guntram., 2004. New sightings of a small island specialist http://www.birdlife.org/news/news/2004/07/imperial-pigeon.html

Merton., D, G., Climo, V. Laboudallon, S. Robert, and C. Mander., 2002. Alien mammal eradication and quarantine on inhabited islands in the Seychelles. In Turning the tide: the eradication of invasive species: 182-198. Veitch, C.R. and Clout, M.N.(eds). IUCN SSC Invasive Species Specialist Group. IUCN. Gland. Switzerland and Cambridge. UK.

Micol and Jouventin, 2002. Eradication of rats and rabbits from Saint-Paul Island. In Turning the tide: the eradication of invasive species: 199-205. Veitch, C.R. and Clout, M.N.(eds). IUCN SSC Invasive Species Specialist Group. IUCN. Gland. Switzerland and Cambridge. UK.

Mineau, Pierre; Richard, F. Shore; Robert, C. Hosea and ward, B. Stone., 2004. Towards a Risk Assessment of Second Generation Rodenticides: Do We have Enough Information to Proceed? Wildlife Damage Management, Internet Center for USDA National Wildlife Research Center -Staff Publications. 2nd National Invasive Rodent Summit. http://digitalcommons.unl.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1730&context=icwdm_usdanwrc

Moors, P. J., Atkinson, I. A. E. and Sherley, G. H. 1992. Reducing the rat threat to island birds. Bird Conservation International 2: 93–114.

Morris, 2002. The eradication of the black rat (Rattus rattus) on Barrow and adjacent islands off the north-west coast of Western Australia. In Turning the tide: the eradication of invasive species : 219-225. Veitch, C.R. and Clout, M.N.(eds). IUCN SSC Invasive Species Specialist Group. IUCN. Gland. Switzerland and Cambridge. UK.

Muséum national d'Histoire naturelle [Ed]. 2003-2006 . Rattus rattus. Inventaire national du Patrimoine naturel http://inpn.mnhn.fr/isb/servlet/ISBServlet?action=Espece&typeAction=10&pageReturn=ficheEspeceDescription.jsp&numero_taxon=61587

O'Connor, Cheryl E. and Charles, T. Eason., 2000. Rodent baits and delivery systems for island protection. SCIENCE FOR CONSERVATION 150 http://www.doc.govt.nz/upload/documents/science-and-technical/sfc150.pdf

Pacific Invasives Initiative (PII), 2006. Eradicating invasive species from Kayangel Atoll, Palau http://www.issg.org/cii/PII/demo/kayangel.html

Pacific Invasives Initiative (PII), 2006. Mont Panié Mammal Control ‘Proof-of-Concept’ Project http://www.issg.org/cii/PII/demo/mtPanie.html

Page, A and Meier, G., 2006. Rat-free habitat doubled in the Chagos Archipelago. Conservation News. 2006 FFI, Oryx, 40(3), 255–256

Pascal, M., Barré, N., De Garine-Wichatitsky, Lorvelec, O., Frétey, T., Brescia, F., Jourdan, H. 2006. Les peuplements néo-calédoniens de vertébébrés : invasions, disparitions. Pp 111-162, in M.-L. Beauvais et al., : Les espèces envahissantes dans l’archipel néo-calédonien, Paris, IRD Éditions, 260 p.+ cédérom

Pascal, M., Brithmer, R., Lorvelec, O., & Venumière, N. 2004a. Conséquences sur l'avifaune nicheuse de la réserve naturelle des îlets de Sainte-Anne (Martinique) de la récente invasion du rat noir (Rattus rattus), établis à l'issue d'une tentative d'éradication. Revue d'Ecologie (La Terre et la Vie), 59, 309-318.

Pascal, M., Lorvelec, O., Borel, G., & Rosine, A. 2004. Structures spécifiques des peuplements de rongeurs d'agro-écosystèmes et d'écosystèmes "naturels" de la Guadeloupe et de la Martinique. Rev.Ecol. (Terre Vie), 59, 283-292.

Probst J.-M. 1997. Animaux de la Réunion. Azalées Editions. 168 pp.

Recher, H. F. and Clark, S. S. 1974. A biological survey of Lord Howe Island with recommendations for conservation of the island’s wildlife. Biological Conservation 6: 263–273.

Robertson, H. A. Hay, J. R., Saul, E. K and McCormack, G.V. 1994. Recovery of the Kakerori: An Endangered Forest Bird of the Cook Islands, Conservation Biology 8 (4): 1078-1086.

Robertson, H. A., Hay, J. R., Saul, E. K. and McCormack, G. V. 1994. Recovery of the kakerori: an endangered forest bird of the Cook Islands. Conservation Biology 8: 1078–1086.

Robertson, H.A., 2000. Conservation of kakerori (Pomarea dimidiata), Rarotonga. Conservation Advisory Science Notes No. 272, Department of Conservation, Wellington. http://www.doc.govt.nz/upload/documents/science-and-technical/casn272.pdf

Robertson, H.A.; Saul, E.K. 2004: Conservation of kakerori (Pomarea dimidiata) on the Cook Islands in 2002/03. DOC Science Internal Series 167. Department of Conservation, Wellington. 16 p. http://www.doc.govt.nz/upload/documents/science-and-technical/dsis167.pdf

Robertson, H.A.; Saul, E.K. 2005: Conservation of kakerori (Pomarea dimidiata) in the Cook Islands in 2003/04. DOC Research & Development Series 207. Department of Conservation, Wellington. 16 p. http://www.doc.govt.nz/upload/documents/science-and-technical/drds207.pdf

Robertson, H.A.; Saul, E.K. 2006: Conservation of kakerori (Pomarea dimidiata) in the Cook Islands in 2004/05. DOC Research & Development Series 246. Department of Conservation, Wellington. 18 p. http://www.doc.govt.nz/upload/documents/science-and-technical/drds246.pdf

Robertson, H.A.; Saul, E.K. 2007: Conservation of kakerori (Pomarea dimidiata) in the Cook Islands in 2005/06. DOC Research & Development Series 285. Department of Conservation, Wellington. 19 p. http://www.doc.govt.nz/upload/documents/science-and-technical/drds285.pdf

Robertson, H.A.; Saul, E.K. 2008: Conservation of kakerori (Pomarea dimidiata) in the Cook Islands in 2006/07. DOC Research & Development Series 296. Department of Conservation, Wellington. 19 p. http://www.doc.govt.nz/upload/documents/science-and-technical/drds296.pdf

Russell, James C., David R. Towns, Sandra H. Anderson and Mick N. Clout., 2005. Intercepting the first rat ashore. Brief communications Nature 437, 1107 (20 October 2005) http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v437/n7062/pdf/4371107a.pdf

Seto, Nanette W. H. and Sheila Conant., 1996. The Effects of Rat (Rattus rattus) Predation on the Reproductive Success of the Bonin Petrel (Pterodroma hypoleuca) on Midway Atoll. Colonial Waterbirds, Vol. 19, No. 2 (1996), pp. 171-185

Sommer, E. 2006. Trip report. Unpublished report to RSPB.

Sowls, A. L. and G. V. Byrd., 2002. Preventing rat introductions to the Pribilof Islands, Alaska, USA. In Turning the tide: the eradication of invasive species: 406 - 414 IUCN SSC Invasive Species Specialist Group. IUCN. Gland. Switzerland and Cambridge. UK.

Spurr, E.B., G.A. Morriss, J. Turner, C.E. O’Connor, P. Fisher., 2007. Bait station preferences of ship rats http://www.doc.govt.nz/upload/documents/science-and-technical/drds271.pdf

Tershy, B. R., C. J. Donlan, B. S. Keitt, D. A. Croll, J. A. Sanchez, B. Wood, M. A. Hermosillo, G. R. Howald, and N. Biavaschi., 2002. Island conservation in north-west Mexico: a conservation model integrating research, education and exotic mammal eradication. In Turning the tide: the eradication of invasive species: 293-300. Veitch, C.R. and Clout, M.N.(eds). IUCN SSC Invasive Species Specialist Group. IUCN. Gland. Switzerland and Cambridge. UK.

The Garry Oak Ecosystems Recovery Team (GOERT)., 2007. Exotic vertebrate species in Garry oak and associated ecosystems in British Columbia http://www.goert.ca/pubs_invasive.php#vertebrate_species

Varnham, K. 2006. Non-native species in UK Overseas Territories: a review. JNCC Report 372. Peterborough: United Kingdom. http://www.jncc.gov.uk/page-3660

Varnham, K. J. & Meier G. G. 2007. Rdum tal-Madonna rat control project, December 2006 – March 2007, Final report. Unpublished report to BirdLife Malta & RSPB, 28pp.

Weihong, Ji.; C.R. Dick Veitch and John, L. Craig., 1999. An evaluation of the efficiency of rodent trapping methods: the effect of trap arrangement, cover type and bait. New Zealand Journal of Ecology (1999) 23(1): 45-51 ©New Zealand Ecological Society http://www.newzealandecology.org/nzje/free_issues/NZJEcol23_1_45.pdf

Yosida, T. H. 1980. Cytogenetics of the Black Rat: karyotype evolution and species differentiation. University of Tokyo Press.

References

Top of page

Aplin KP, Chesser T, Have J, 2003. Evolutionary biology of the genus Rattus: profile of an archetypal rodent pest. In: Rats, mice and people: Rodent biology and management [ed. by Singleton, G. R. \Hinds, L. A. \Krebs, C. J. \Spratt, D. M.]. Canberra, Australia: Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research, 487-498

Auld TD, Hutton I, Ooi MKJ, Denham AJ, 2010. Disruption of recruitment in two endemic palms on Lord Howe Island by invasive rats. Biological Invasions, 12(9):3351-3361. http://www.springerlink.com/content/tj7052216t184282/

Caribbean Conservation Association, 1991. St. Lucia Country Environmental Profile. St. Lucia Country Environmental Profile. Castries, Saint Lucia 335 pp

Clark DA, 1981. Foraging patterns of black rats across a desert-montane forest gradient in the Galápagos Islands. Biotropica, 13:182-194

Dowding JE, Murphy EC, 1994. Ecology of ship rats (Rattus rattus) in a kauri (Agathis australis) forest of Northland, New Zealand. New Zealand Journal of Ecology, 18:19-27

Elmouttie D, Wilson J, 2005. The potential importance of nut removal by rodents from Australian macadamia orchards. Journal of Environmental Management, 77:79-83

Fall MW, Medina AB, Jackson WB, 1971. Feeding patterns of Rattus rattus and Rattus exulans on Eniwetok Atoll, Marshall Islands. Journal of Mammalogy, 52(1):69-76

Grant-Hoffman MN, Barboza PS, 2010. Herbivory in invasive rats: criteria for food selection. Biological Invasions, 12(4):805-825. http://www.springerlink.com/content/r1jgt52uk03m2051/?p=dab8851dbcca4ba49460f7bf0aa4d83f&pi=11

Gsell A, Innes J, Monchy Pde, Brunton D, 2010. The success of using trained dogs to locate sparse rodents in pest-free sanctuaries. Wildlife Research, 37(1):39-46. http://www.publish.csiro.au/nid/144.htm

Hays WST, Conant S, 2007. Biology and impacts of Pacific Island invasive species. 1. A worldwide review of effects of the small Indian mongoose, Herpestes javanicus (Carnivora: Herpestidae). Pacific Science, 61(1):3-16. http://www.uhpress.hawaii.edu/journals

Hood GA, Nass RD, Lindsey GD, Hirata DN, 1971. Distribution and accumulation of rat damage in Hawaiian sugarcane. Wildlife Manag. Journal of Wildlife Management, 35:613-618

Hooker S, Innes J, 1995. Ranging behaviour of forest-dwelling ship rats, Rattus rattus, and effects of poisoning with brodifacoum. New Zealand Journal of Zoology, 22(3):291-304

Innes JG, 2005. Ship rat. In: The handbook of New Zealand mammals, 2nd edition [ed. by King, C. A.]. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press, 187-203

ISSG, 2011. Global Invasive Species Database (GISD). Invasive Species Specialist Group of the IUCN Species Survival Commission. http://www.issg.org/database

ISSG, 2012. Invasive Species Specialist Group of the IUCN Species Survival Commission. Global Invasive Species Database (GISD). http://www.issg.org/database

ISSG, 2013. Global Invasive Species Database (GISD). Invasive Species Specialist Group of the IUCN Species Survival Commission. http://www.issg.org/database/welcome/

Jones HP, Tershy BR, Zavaleta ES, Croll DA, Keitt BS, Finkelstein ME, Howald GR, 2008. Severity of the effects of invasive rats on seabirds: a global review. Conservation Biology, 22(1):16-26. http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/loi/cbi

Lindsey GD, Mosher SM, Fancy SG, Smucker TD, 1999. Population structure and movement of introduced rats in an Hawaiian rainforest. Pacific Conservation Biology, 5:94-102

Madagascar Reptile and Amphibian Specialist Group, 1996. Leiolopisma telfairii. In: The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 1996: e.T11409A3276976 . http://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.1996.RLTS.T11409A3276976.en

Musser GG, Carleton MD, 2005. Family muridae. In: Mammal species of the world: A taxonomic and geographic reference [ed. by Wilson, D. E. \Reeder, D. M.]. Baltimore, USA: The John Hopkins University Press, 894-1531

NatureServe, 2010. NatureServe Explorer: An online encyclopedia of life [web application]. Version 7.1. Arlington, Virginia, USA: http://www.natureserve.org/explorer

NatureServe, 2011. NatureServe Explorer: An online encyclopedia of life [web application]. Version 7.1. Arlington, Virginia, USA: http://www.natureserve.org/explorer

Ogden J, Gilbert J, 2009. Prospects for the eradication of rats from a large inhabited island: community based ecosystem studies on Great Barrier Island, New Zealand. Biological Invasions, 11(7):1705-1717. http://www.springerlink.com/content/r1t48q0uu6070881/?p=e0b333ee415b47b9b7126cc15e741d24&pi=14

Pagès M, Chaval Y, Herbreteau V, Waengsothorn S, Cosson J-F, Hugot J-P, Morand S, Michaux J, 2010. Revisiting the taxonomy of the Rattini tribe: A phylogeny-based delimitation of species boundaries. BMC Evolutionary Biology, 10:184

Pender RJ, Shiels AB, Bialic-Murphy L, Mosher SM, 2013. Large-scale rodent control reduces pre- and post-dispersal seed predation of the endangered Hawaiian lobeliad, Cyanea superba subsp. superba (Campanulaceae). Biological Invasions, 15(1):213-223. http://rd.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10530-012-0280-3

Pérez HE, Shiels AB, Zaleski HM, Drake DR, 2008. Germination after simulated rat damage in seeds of two endemic Hawaiian palm species. Journal of Tropical Ecology, 24(5):555-558. http://journals.cambridge.org/action/displayFulltext?type=6&fid=2189524&jid=TRO&volumeId=24&issueId=05&aid=2189520&fulltextType=RC&fileId=S0266467408005257

Robins JH, Hingston M, Matisoo-Smith E, Ross HA, 2007. Identifying Rattus species using mitochondrial DNA. Molecular Ecology Notes, 7:717-729

Rutherford M, Harper G, Moller H, 2009. Denning behavior of ship rats (Rattus rattus) on Taukihepa, a seabird breeding island. New Zealand Journal of Zoology, 36:343-353

Samol HH, 1972. Rat damage and control in the Florida sugarcane industry. Proceedings of the International Society of Sugar Cane Technologists, 14th Congress 1971. Baton Rouge, USA: Franklin Press Inc., 503-506

Schotman CYL, 1989. Plant pests of quarantine importance to the Caribbean. RLAC-PROVEG, No. 21:80 pp

Scofield RP, Cullen R, Wang M, 2011. Are predator-proof fences the answer to New Zealand's terrestrial fauna biodiversity crisis? New Zealand Journal of Ecology, 35:312-317

Shiels AB, 2010. Ecology and impacts of introduced rodents in the Hawaiian Islands. Hawaii, USA: University of Hawaii at Manoa

Shiels AB, 2011. Fruigivory by introduced black rats (Rattus rattus) promotes dispersal of invasive plant seeds. Biological Invasions, 13:781-792

Shiels AB, Drake DR, 2011. Are introduced rats (Rattus rattus) both seed predators and dispersers in Hawaii? Biological Invasions, 13(4):883-894. http://www.springerlink.com/content/v4541523kk201033/

Shiels AB, Flores CA, Khamsing A, Krushelnycky PD, Mosher SM, Drake DR, 2013. Dietary niche differentiation among three species of invasive rodents (Rattus rattus, R. exulans, Mus musculus). Biological Invasions, 15(5):1037-1048. http://rd.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10530-012-0348-0

Shiels AB, Pitt WC, Sugihara RT, Witmer GW, 2014. Biology and impacts of Pacific island invasive species 11. The black rat, Rattus rattus (Rodentia, Muridae). Pacific Science, 68(2)

Springer K, 2011. Planning processes for eradication of multiple pest species on Macquarie Island - an Australian case study. In: Island invasives: eradication and management [ed. by Vietch, C. N. \Clout, M. N. \Towns, D. R.]. Gland, Switzerland: IUCN, 228-232

Tobin ME, Koehler AE, Sugihara RT, 1994. Seasonal patterns of fecundity and diet of roof rats in a Hawaiian macadamia orchard. Wildlife Research, 21:519-529

Towns DR, 2009. Rodents. In: Encyclopedia of islands [ed. by Gillespie, R. G. \Clague, D. A.]. Berkeley, California, USA: University of California Press, 792-796

Towns DR, Atkinson IAE, Daugherty CH, 2006. Have the harmful effects of introduced rats on islands been exaggerated? Biological Invasions, 8:863-891

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 1984. Recovery Plan for the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands Passerines. In: Recovery Plan for the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands Passerines : US Fish and Wildlife Service.66 pp.

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 1995. Lana'i Plant Cluster Recovery Plan. In: Lana'i Plant Cluster Recovery Plan : US Fish and Wildlife Service.138 pp.

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 1995. Recovery Plan for the Kauai Plant Cluster. In: Recovery Plan for the Kauai Plant Cluster : US Fish and Wildlife Service.270 pp.

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 1996. Big Island Plant Cluster Recovery Plan. In: Big Island Plant Cluster Recovery Plan : US Fish and Wildlife Service.202 pp.

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 1998. Kauai II: Addendum to the Recovery Plan for the Kauai Plant Cluster. In: Kauai II: Addendum to the Recovery Plan for the Kauai Plant Cluster : US Fish and Wildlife Service.84 pp.

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 1998. Recovery Plan for Oahu Plants. In: Recovery Plan for Oahu Plants : US Fish and Wildlife Service.207 pp. + appendices.

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2000. Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Final Rule to List the Riparian Brush Rabbit and the Riparian, or San Joaquin Valley, Woodrat as Endangered. In: Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Final Rule to List the Riparian Brush Rabbit and the Riparian, or San Joaquin Valley, Woodrat as Endangered : US Fish and Wildlife Service.10 pp.

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2004. Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Listing the San Miguel Island Fox, Santa Rosa Island Fox, Santa Cruz Island Fox, and Santa Catalina Island Fox as Endangered. In: Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Listing the San Miguel Island Fox, Santa Rosa Island Fox, Santa Cruz Island Fox, and Santa Catalina Island Fox as Endangered : US Fish and Wildlife Service.19 pp.

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2006. California least tern (Sternula antillarum browni). 5-year Review: Summary and Evaluation. In: California least tern (Sternula antillarum browni). 5-year Review: Summary and Evaluation : US Fish and Wildlife Service.32 pp.

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2006. Revised Recovery Plan for Hawaiian Forest Birds. In: Revised Recovery Plan for Hawaiian Forest Birds : US Fish and Wildlife Service.622 pp.

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2007. Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Proposed Rule To List Six Foreign Bird Species Under the Endangered Species Act. In: Federal Register , 72(241) : US Fish and Wildlife Service.71298-71315. https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2007-12-17/pdf/E7-24347.pdf

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2007. Recovery Plan for the Nosa Luta or Rota Bridled White-eye (Zosterops rotensis). In: Recovery Plan for the Nosa Luta or Rota Bridled White-eye (Zosterops rotensis) : US Fish and Wildlife Service.136 pp.

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2007. Rice rat (Oryzomys palustris natator). 5-Year Review: Summary and Evaluation. In: Rice rat (Oryzomys palustris natator). 5-Year Review: Summary and Evaluation : US Fish and Wildlife Service.26 pp.

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2008. Laysan finch (honeycreeper) (Telespiza cantans). 5-Year Review: Summary and Evaluation. In: Laysan finch (honeycreeper) (Telespiza cantans). 5-Year Review: Summary and Evaluation : US Fish and Wildlife Service.13 pp.

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2008. Pritchardia kaalae (Lo'ulu). 5-Year Review: Summary and Evaluation. In: Pritchardia kaalae (Lo'ulu). 5-Year Review: Summary and Evaluation : US Fish and Wildlife Service.11 pp.

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2009. `O`u (Psittirostra psittacea). 5-Year Review: Summary and Evaluation. In: `O`u (Psittirostra psittacea). 5-Year Review: Summary and Evaluation : US Fish and Wildlife Service.12 pp.

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2009. 5-Year Review, Short Form Summary: Trematolobelia singularis (no common name). In: 5-Year Review, Short Form Summary: Trematolobelia singularis (no common name) : US Fish and Wildlife Service.6 pp.

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2009. 5-Year Review, Short Form Summary: Xylosma crenatum (no common name). In: 5-Year Review, Short Form Summary: Xylosma crenatum (no common name) : US Fish and Wildlife Service.7 pp.

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2009. Guam Bridled White-eye (Zosterops conspicillatus conspicillatus). 5-Year Review: Summary and Evaluation. In: Guam Bridled White-eye (Zosterops conspicillatus conspicillatus). 5-Year Review: Summary and Evaluation : US Fish and Wildlife Service.12 pp.

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2009. Pritchardia remota (Lo`ulu). 5-Year Review: Summary and Evaluation. In: Pritchardia remota (Lo`ulu). 5-Year Review: Summary and Evaluation : US Fish and Wildlife Service.16 pp.

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2009. San Clemente sage sparrow (Amphispiza belli clementeae). 5-Year Review: Summary and Evaluation. In: San Clemente sage sparrow (Amphispiza belli clementeae). 5-Year Review: Summary and Evaluation : US Fish and Wildlife Service.29 pp. http://ecos.fws.gov/docs/five_year_review/doc2568.pdf

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2009. Short-tailed Albatross (Phoebastria albatrus). 5-Year Review: Summary and Evaluation. In: Short-tailed Albatross (Phoebastria albatrus). 5-Year Review: Summary and Evaluation : US Fish and Wildlife Service.77 pp.

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2009. Stock Island tree snail (Orthalicus reses (not including nesodryas)). 5-Year Review: Summary and Evaluation. In: Stock Island tree snail (Orthalicus reses (not including nesodryas)). 5-Year Review: Summary and Evaluation : US Fish and Wildlife Service.26 pp. http://ecos.fws.gov/docs/five_year_review/doc2582.pdf

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2010. 5-Year Review Short Form Summary: Remya montgomeryi (no common name). In: 5-Year Review Short Form Summary: Remya montgomeryi (no common name) : US Fish and Wildlife Service.7 pp. https://ecos.fws.gov/docs/five_year_review/doc3343.pdf

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2010. 5-Year Review, Short Form Summary: Species Reviewed: Pritchardia napaliensis (loulu palm). In: 5-Year Review, Short Form Summary: Species Reviewed: Pritchardia napaliensis (loulu palm) : US Fish and Wildlife Service.10 pp.

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2010. 5-year review, Short Form Summary: Zanthoxylum hawaiiense (a'e, manele). In: 5-year review, Short Form Summary: Zanthoxylum hawaiiense (a'e, manele) : US Fish and Wildlife Service.10 pp.

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2010. Determination of Endangered Status for 48 Species on Kauai and designation of Critical Habitat: Final Rule. In: Determination of Endangered Status for 48 Species on Kauai and designation of Critical Habitat: Final Rule : US Fish and Wildlife Service.i + 205 pp.

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2010. Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Final Rule To List the Galapagos Petrel and Heinroth's Shearwater as Threatened Throughout Their Ranges. In: Federal Register , 75(2) : US Fish and Wildlife Service.235-249. https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2010-01-05/pdf/E9-31308.pdf

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2010. Pacific Pocket Mouse (Perognathus longimembris pacificus). 5-Year review: summary and evaluation. In: Pacific Pocket Mouse (Perognathus longimembris pacificus). 5-Year review: summary and evaluation : US Fish and Wildlife Service.86 pp.

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2010. Plantago princeps (laukahi kuahiwi). 5-Year Review: Summary and Evaluation. In: Plantago princeps (laukahi kuahiwi). 5-Year Review: Summary and Evaluation : US Fish and Wildlife Service.19 pp.

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2010. Recovery Outline for the Kauai Ecosystem. In: Recovery Outline for the Kauai Ecosystem : US Fish and Wildlife Service.38 pp. + 3 maps.

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2011. 5-Year Review, Short Form Summary: Species Reviewed: Pritchardia aylmer-robinsonii (wahane). In: 5-Year Review, Short Form Summary: Species Reviewed: Pritchardia aylmer-robinsonii (wahane) : US Fish and Wildlife Service.9 pp.

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2011. 'Akohekohe (Crested Honeycreeper) (Palmeria dolei). 5-Year Review: Summary and Evaluation. In: 'Akohekohe (Crested Honeycreeper) (Palmeria dolei). 5-Year Review: Summary and Evaluation : US Fish and Wildlife Service.21 pp.

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2011. Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Listing 23 Species on Oahu as Endangered and Designating Critical Habitat for 124 Species. In: Federal Register , 76(148) : US Fish and Wildlife Service.46362-46593. http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2011-08-02/pdf/2011-17162.pdf

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2011. Kiwikiu (Maui Parrotbill) (Pseudonestor xanthophrys). 5-Year Review: Summary and Evaluation. In: Kiwikiu (Maui Parrotbill) (Pseudonestor xanthophrys). 5-Year Review: Summary and Evaluation : US Fish and Wildlife Service.20 pp.

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2011. Newell's shearwater (Puffinus auricularis newelli), 5-Year Review: Summary and Evaluation. In: Newell's shearwater (Puffinus auricularis newelli), 5-Year Review: Summary and Evaluation : US Fish and Wildlife Service.17 pp. http://ecos.fws.gov/docs/five_year_review/doc3867.pdf

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2011. Phyllostegia mannii (no common name). 5-Year Review: Summary and Evaluation. In: Phyllostegia mannii (no common name). 5-Year Review: Summary and Evaluation : US Fish and Wildlife Service.14 pp.

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2011. Sanicula purpurea (no common name). 5-Year Review: Summary and Evaluation. In: Sanicula purpurea (no common name). 5-Year Review: Summary and Evaluation : US Fish and Wildlife Service.16 pp.

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2011. Santalum freycinetianum var. lanaiense, Lanai sandalwood ('iliahi). 5-Year Review: Summary and Evaluation. In: Santalum freycinetianum var. lanaiense, Lanai sandalwood ('iliahi). 5-Year Review: Summary and Evaluation : US Fish and Wildlife Service.19 pp.

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2011. Schiedea haleakalensis (no common name). 5-Year Review: Summary and Evaluation. In: Schiedea haleakalensis (no common name). 5-Year Review: Summary and Evaluation : US Fish and Wildlife Service.17 pp.

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2011. Schiedea hookeri (no common name). 5-Year Review: Summary and Evaluation. In: Schiedea hookeri (no common name). 5-Year Review: Summary and Evaluation : US Fish and Wildlife Service.20 pp.

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2011. Schiedea lydgatei (no common name). 5-Year Review: Summary and Evaluation. In: Schiedea lydgatei (no common name). 5-Year Review: Summary and Evaluation : US Fish and Wildlife Service.17 pp.

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2011. Schiedea sarmentosa (no common name). 5-Year Review: Summary and Evaluation. In: Schiedea sarmentosa (no common name). 5-Year Review: Summary and Evaluation : US Fish and Wildlife Service.14 pp.

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2011. Urera kaalae (opuhe). 5-Year Review: Summary and Evaluation. In: Urera kaalae (opuhe). 5-Year Review: Summary and Evaluation : US Fish and Wildlife Service.19 pp.

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2012. Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Endangered Status for 23 Species on Oahu and Designation of Critical Habitat for 124 Species; Final Rule. In: Federal Register , 77(181) : US Fish and Wildlife Service.57648-57862. https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2012-09-18/pdf/2012-19561.pdf

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2013. Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Determination of Endangered Species Status for 15 Species on Hawaii Island; Final Rule. In: Federal Register , 78(209) : US Fish and Wildlife Service.64638-64690. https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2013-10-29/pdf/2013-24103.pdf

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2013. Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Determination of Endangered Status for 38 Species on Molokai, Lanai, and Maui; Final Rule. In: Federal Register , 78(102) : US Fish and Wildlife Service.32014-32065. https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2013-05-28/pdf/2013-12105.pdf

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2013. Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Proposed Threatened Status for the Rufa Red Knot (Calidris canutus rufa). In: Federal Register , 78(189) : US Fish and Wildlife Service.60024-60098. https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2013-09-30/pdf/2013-22700.pdf

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2013. Golden Coqui (Eleutherodactylus jasperi). 5-Year Review: Summary and Evaluation. In: Golden Coqui (Eleutherodactylus jasperi). 5-Year Review: Summary and Evaluation : US Fish and Wildlife Service.18 pp. http://ecos.fws.gov/docs/five_year_review/doc4276.pdf

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2014. Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Removing the Island Night Lizard From the Federal List of Endangered and Threatened Wildlife. In: Federal Register , 79(62) : US Fish and Wildlife Service.18190-18210. http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2014-04-01/pdf/2014-06576.pdf

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2014. Species assessment and listing priority assignment form: Eua zebrina. In: Species assessment and listing priority assignment form: Eua zebrina : US Fish and Wildlife Service.20 pp. http://ecos.fws.gov/docs/candidate/assessments/2014/r1/G0BJ_I01.pdf

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2014. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service species assessment and listing priority assignment form: Gallicolumba stairi. In: U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service species assessment and listing priority assignment form: Gallicolumba stairi : US Fish and Wildlife Service.11 pp. http://ecos.fws.gov/docs/candidate/assessments/2014/r1/B0AJ_V01.pdf

Watts CHS, Aslin HJ, 1981. The rodents of Australia. Sydney, Australia: Angus and Robertson

Werf EAVan der, Smith DG, 2002. Effects of alien rodent control on demography of the in Oahu elepaio, an endangered Hawaiian forest bird. Pacific Conservation Biology, 8:73-81

Williams PA, Karl BJ, Bannister P, Lee WG, 2000. Small mammals as potential seed dispersers in New Zealand. Austral Ecology, 25(5):523-532

Worth BC, 1950. Field and laboratory observations on roof rats Rattus rattus (Linnaeus), in Florida. Journal of Mammalogy, 31(1):293-304

Yabe T, 1979. The relation of food habits to the ecological distributions of the Norway rat (Rattus norvegicus) and the roof rat (R. rattus). Japanese Journal of Ecology, 29:235-244

Links to Websites

Top of page
WebsiteURLComment
Vertebrate Pest Control: Decision Support Systemhttp://pestdss.landcareresearch.co.nz/This site aims to help New Zealanders to select the most appropriate options for controlling vertebrate pests in a particular NZ locality. Pests are feral cat, ferret, possum, rat and stoat.

Contributors

Top of page

20/11/13  Updated by:

Aaron Shiels, USDA, Hawaii, USA

GISD datasheet reviewed by: Dick Veitch, Auckland, New Zealand

      Compiled by: IUCN SSC Invasive Species Specialist Group Updates with support from the Overseas Territories Environmental Programme (OTEP) project XOT603, a joint project with the Cayman Islands Government - Department of Environment

    Updated: Monday, October 04, 2010

     

    Distribution Maps

    Top of page
    You can pan and zoom the map
    Save map