Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Parthenocissus quinquefolia
(Virginia creeper)

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Datasheet

Parthenocissus quinquefolia (Virginia creeper)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 30 November 2018
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Host Plant
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Parthenocissus quinquefolia
  • Preferred Common Name
  • Virginia creeper
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Plantae
  •     Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •       Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •         Class: Dicotyledonae
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • P. quinquefolia is a woody, deciduous vine widely cultivated as an ornamental that has escaped from gardens to become naturalized and invasive in natural habitats. It is a fast-growing plant that climbs to a he...

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Parthenocissus quinquefolia (Virginia creeper); habit. Shoreham-by-Sea, West Sussex, England. July 2017.
TitleHabit
CaptionParthenocissus quinquefolia (Virginia creeper); habit. Shoreham-by-Sea, West Sussex, England. July 2017.
Copyright©Acabashi-2017/via wikipedia - CC BY-SA 4.0
Parthenocissus quinquefolia (Virginia creeper); habit. Shoreham-by-Sea, West Sussex, England. July 2017.
HabitParthenocissus quinquefolia (Virginia creeper); habit. Shoreham-by-Sea, West Sussex, England. July 2017.©Acabashi-2017/via wikipedia - CC BY-SA 4.0
Parthenocissus quinquefolia (Virginia creeper); habit. nr. Odder, Denmark. August 2010.
TitleHabit
CaptionParthenocissus quinquefolia (Virginia creeper); habit. nr. Odder, Denmark. August 2010.
Copyright©Sten Porse/via wikipedia - CC BY 2.0
Parthenocissus quinquefolia (Virginia creeper); habit. nr. Odder, Denmark. August 2010.
HabitParthenocissus quinquefolia (Virginia creeper); habit. nr. Odder, Denmark. August 2010.©Sten Porse/via wikipedia - CC BY 2.0
Parthenocissus quinquefolia (Virginia creeper); habit, and foliage. Haarlem, Netherlands. August 2005.
TitleHabit
CaptionParthenocissus quinquefolia (Virginia creeper); habit, and foliage. Haarlem, Netherlands. August 2005.
CopyrightPublic Domain - Released by Tasja/via wikipedia - CC0
Parthenocissus quinquefolia (Virginia creeper); habit, and foliage. Haarlem, Netherlands. August 2005.
HabitParthenocissus quinquefolia (Virginia creeper); habit, and foliage. Haarlem, Netherlands. August 2005.Public Domain - Released by Tasja/via wikipedia - CC0
Parthenocissus quinquefolia (Virginia creeper); late-summer foliage. Czech Republic. Augiust 2005.
TitleFoliage
CaptionParthenocissus quinquefolia (Virginia creeper); late-summer foliage. Czech Republic. Augiust 2005.
CopyrightPublic Domain - Released by Tasja/via wikipedia - CC0
Parthenocissus quinquefolia (Virginia creeper); late-summer foliage. Czech Republic. Augiust 2005.
FoliageParthenocissus quinquefolia (Virginia creeper); late-summer foliage. Czech Republic. Augiust 2005.Public Domain - Released by Tasja/via wikipedia - CC0
Parthenocissus quinquefolia (Virginia creeper); habit, and autumnal foliage. November 2006.
TitleHabit
CaptionParthenocissus quinquefolia (Virginia creeper); habit, and autumnal foliage. November 2006.
Copyright©Nino Barbieri/via wikipedia - CC BY-SA 3.0
Parthenocissus quinquefolia (Virginia creeper); habit, and autumnal foliage. November 2006.
HabitParthenocissus quinquefolia (Virginia creeper); habit, and autumnal foliage. November 2006.©Nino Barbieri/via wikipedia - CC BY-SA 3.0
Parthenocissus quinquefolia (Virginia creeper); flowers. C & O Canal National Historical Park, Montgomery county Maryland, USA. June 2012.
TitleFlowers
CaptionParthenocissus quinquefolia (Virginia creeper); flowers. C & O Canal National Historical Park, Montgomery county Maryland, USA. June 2012.
Copyright©Fritzflohrreynolds (Fritz Flohr Reynolds)/via wikipedia - CC BY-SA 3.0
Parthenocissus quinquefolia (Virginia creeper); flowers. C & O Canal National Historical Park, Montgomery county Maryland, USA. June 2012.
FlowersParthenocissus quinquefolia (Virginia creeper); flowers. C & O Canal National Historical Park, Montgomery county Maryland, USA. June 2012.©Fritzflohrreynolds (Fritz Flohr Reynolds)/via wikipedia - CC BY-SA 3.0
Parthenocissus quinquefolia (Virginia creeper); leaves, with some unripe fruits. Walsingham Nature Reserve, Hamilton Parish, Bermuda. July 2009.
TitleLeaves
CaptionParthenocissus quinquefolia (Virginia creeper); leaves, with some unripe fruits. Walsingham Nature Reserve, Hamilton Parish, Bermuda. July 2009.
Copyright©Sam Fraser-Smith/via flickr - CC BY 2.0
Parthenocissus quinquefolia (Virginia creeper); leaves, with some unripe fruits. Walsingham Nature Reserve, Hamilton Parish, Bermuda. July 2009.
LeavesParthenocissus quinquefolia (Virginia creeper); leaves, with some unripe fruits. Walsingham Nature Reserve, Hamilton Parish, Bermuda. July 2009.©Sam Fraser-Smith/via flickr - CC BY 2.0
Parthenocissus quinquefolia (Virginia creeper); mature fruits. Paris, France. September 2007.
TitleFruits
CaptionParthenocissus quinquefolia (Virginia creeper); mature fruits. Paris, France. September 2007.
Copyright©Pancrat/via wikipedia - CC BY-SA 3.0
Parthenocissus quinquefolia (Virginia creeper); mature fruits. Paris, France. September 2007.
FruitsParthenocissus quinquefolia (Virginia creeper); mature fruits. Paris, France. September 2007.©Pancrat/via wikipedia - CC BY-SA 3.0
Parthenocissus quinquefolia (Virginia creeper); late fruits. West Hartford, Connecticut, USA. November 2008.
TitleFruits
CaptionParthenocissus quinquefolia (Virginia creeper); late fruits. West Hartford, Connecticut, USA. November 2008.
Copyright©Ragesoss/via wikipedia - CC BY-SA 3.0
Parthenocissus quinquefolia (Virginia creeper); late fruits. West Hartford, Connecticut, USA. November 2008.
FruitsParthenocissus quinquefolia (Virginia creeper); late fruits. West Hartford, Connecticut, USA. November 2008.©Ragesoss/via wikipedia - CC BY-SA 3.0

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Parthenocissus quinquefolia (L.) Planch.

Preferred Common Name

  • Virginia creeper

Other Scientific Names

  • Ampelocissus cirrhata Voss
  • Ampelocissus major Voss
  • Ampelopsis hederacea (EHRH.) DC.
  • Ampelopsis heptaphylla Buckley
  • Ampelopsis himalayana Dippel
  • Ampelopsis hirsuta (Pursh) Donn ex Schult.
  • Ampelopsis latifolia Tausch
  • Ampelopsis quinquefolia MICHX.
  • Ampelopsis roylei Dippel
  • Ampelopsis saint-paulii (Rehder) Rehder
  • Ampelopsis virginiana Dippel
  • Cissus hederacea Pers.
  • Cissus hirsuta Steud.
  • Cissus quinquefolia (L.) Borkh.
  • Hedera carnosa W.Bartram
  • Hedera quinquefolia L.
  • Parthenocissus dumetorum (Focke) Rehder
  • Parthenocissus engelmannii Koehne & Graebn.
  • Parthenocissus heptaphylla (Buckley) Britton ex Small
  • Psedera heptaphylla (Buckley) Rehder
  • Psedera quinquefolia (L.) Greene
  • Quinaria quinquefolia (L.) Koehne
  • Vitis hederacea Ehrh.
  • Vitis quinquefolia (L.) Lam.

International Common Names

  • English: American ivy; five leaved ivy; five-leaf ivy; Japanese ivy; woodbine
  • Spanish: Vina virgen
  • French: vigne vierge vraie; Vigne-vierge a cinq feuilles
  • Chinese: wu ye di jin

Local Common Names

  • Cuba: bejuco ubí; parrita cimarrona; parrita cimarrona; ubí colorado
  • Germany: Fuenfblaettrige Jungfernrebe; gewöhnliche Jungfernrebe; Selbstkletternde Jungfernrebe; wilder Wein
  • Italy: vite del Canada comune
  • Japan: amerika-zuta
  • Netherlands: Haagwijnrank
  • Sweden: klättervildvin

EPPO code

  • PRTQU (Parthenocissus quinquefolia)

Summary of Invasiveness

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P. quinquefolia is a woody, deciduous vine widely cultivated as an ornamental that has escaped from gardens to become naturalized and invasive in natural habitats. It is a fast-growing plant that climbs to a height of 15-20 m on trees, poles or other structures. The tendrils of this vine end in small adhesive pads which stick firmly to stone or bark. This vigorous vine grows forming dense blankets of foliage that shading-out herbs, shrubs, and trees in the canopy and understory. Currently it is regarded as an environmental weed in Australia and it is listed as invasive in several countries in Europe, China and in Cuba (Oviedo and Gonzalez-Oliva, 2015; DAISIE, 2017; Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2017; GRIIS, 2017; Weeds of Australia, 2017). Within the UK it is listed as an invasive non-native species on Schedule 9 in the UK Wildlife and Countryside Act.

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Plantae
  •         Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •             Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •                 Class: Dicotyledonae
  •                     Order: Rhamnales
  •                         Family: Vitaceae
  •                             Genus: Parthenocissus
  •                                 Species: Parthenocissus quinquefolia

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

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The family Vitaceae comprises 14 genera and about 900 species of vines and lianas distributed across Pantropical and (warm) temperate regions of the world (Soejima and Wen 2006; Stevens, 2012). Parthenocissus has a long and complex taxonomic history (Lu et al., 2011). This genus consists of about 13 species with a disjoint distribution between Asia and North America. There are approximately 10 species in the Old World distributed primarily in eastern Asia, with one species in the Western Ghats of India and Sri Lanka, one in Java to northern Thailand and three species in North America (Lu et al., 2011).

Species within Parthenocissus can be easily distinguished by their highly branched tendrils, adhesive discs at tendril apices, inconspicuous floral discs and two long ventral in-folds extending from the apex to the base of the seed (Lu et al., 2011; Latiff, 2012). The genus name derives from the Greek parthenos, "virgin", and kissos (Latinized as "cissus"), "ivy". For P. quinquefolia the species epithet means “five-leaved”, referring to the leaflets on each compound leaf. 

Description

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Branchlets terete, glabrous; tendrils 5-9-branched, young apex curving, later developing into suckers. Leaves palmately 5-foliolate; petiole 5-14.5 cm, petiolule short or nearly absent, glabrous; leaflets obovoid, obovate-elliptic, or elliptic, 5.5-15 × 3-9 cm, glabrous or veins abaxially sparsely pilose, lateral veins 5-7 pairs, veinlets inconspicuously raised, base cuneate or broadly cuneate, margin with rough teeth, apex cuspidate. Paniculate polychasium pseudoterminal, with conspicuous rachis, 8-20 cm; peduncles 3-5 mm. Pedicel 1.5-2.5 mm, glabrous. Buds elliptic, 2-3 mm, apex rounded. Calyx entire. Petals elliptic, 1.7-2.7 mm, glabrous. Filaments 0.6-0.8 mm; anthers elliptic, 1.2-1.8 mm. Disk inconspicuous. Ovary coniform; stigma not expanded. Berry 1-1.2 cm in diameter, 1-4-seeded. Seeds obovoid, base with short, acute rostrum, apex rounded (Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2017).

Specimens with 7-foliolate leaves have been collected from sandy areas in Dare County, North Carolina (Flora of North America, 2015).

Plant Type

Top of page Broadleaved
Perennial
Seed propagated
Vine / climber
Woody

Distribution

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P. quinquefolia is native to North America (Canada, the USA and Mexico) and Central America. It has been widely introduced as an ornamental creeper and can be found naturalized in Europe, tropical and temperate Asia, southern Africa, and Australia (GRIIS, 2017; India Biodiversity Portal, 2017; Weeds of Australia, 2017; USDA-NRCS, 2017; USDA-ARS, 2017).

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasiveReferenceNotes

Asia

ArmeniaPresentIntroducedGRIIS, 2017
ChinaPresentIntroduced Invasive Axmacher and Sang, 2013
-JiangsuPresentIntroduced Invasive Zhang et al., 2013
-ZhejiangPresentIntroduced Invasive Zhang et al., 2013
IndiaPresentIntroducedIndia Biodiversity Portal, 2017
-Jammu and KashmirPresentIntroducedIndia Biodiversity Portal, 2017Cultivated
JapanPresentIntroducedGRIIS, 2017
Korea, Republic ofPresentIntroducedGRIIS, 2017
PakistanPresentIntroducedMissouri Botanical Garden, 2017Cultivated in gardens
TaiwanPresentIntroducedGRIIS, 2017

Africa

AlgeriaPresentIntroducedGRIIS, 2017
South AfricaPresentIntroducedGRIIS, 2017
ZimbabwePresentIntroducedFlora of Zimbabwe, 2017Cultivated and escaped

North America

CanadaPresentNativeUSDA-NRCS, 2017
-ManitobaPresentNativeUSDA-NRCS, 2017
-New BrunswickPresentNativeUSDA-NRCS, 2017
-Nova ScotiaPresentNativeUSDA-NRCS, 2017
-OntarioPresentNativeUSDA-NRCS, 2017
-Prince Edward IslandPresentNativeFlora of North America, 2015
-QuebecPresentNativeUSDA-NRCS, 2017
-SaskatchewanPresentNativeUSDA-NRCS, 2017
MexicoPresentNativeUSDA-NRCS, 2017
USAPresentNativeUSDA-NRCS, 2017
-AlabamaPresentNativeUSDA-NRCS, 2017
-ArkansasPresentNativeUSDA-NRCS, 2017
-ColoradoPresentNativeUSDA-NRCS, 2017
-ConnecticutPresentNativeUSDA-NRCS, 2017
-DelawarePresentNativeUSDA-NRCS, 2017
-District of ColumbiaPresentNativeUSDA-NRCS, 2017
-FloridaPresentNativeUSDA-NRCS, 2017
-GeorgiaPresentNativeUSDA-NRCS, 2017
-IllinoisPresentNativeUSDA-NRCS, 2017
-IndianaPresentNativeUSDA-NRCS, 2017
-IowaPresentNativeUSDA-NRCS, 2017
-KansasPresentNativeUSDA-NRCS, 2017
-KentuckyPresentNativeUSDA-NRCS, 2017
-MainePresentNativeUSDA-NRCS, 2017
-MarylandPresentNativeUSDA-NRCS, 2017
-MassachusettsPresentNativeUSDA-NRCS, 2017
-MichiganPresentNativeUSDA-NRCS, 2017
-MinnesotaPresentNativeUSDA-NRCS, 2017
-MississippiPresentNativeUSDA-NRCS, 2017
-MissouriPresentNativeUSDA-NRCS, 2017
-NebraskaPresentNativeUSDA-NRCS, 2017
-New HampshirePresentNativeUSDA-NRCS, 2017
-New JerseyPresentNativeUSDA-NRCS, 2017
-New YorkPresentNativeUSDA-NRCS, 2017
-OhioPresentNativeUSDA-NRCS, 2017
-OklahomaPresentNativeUSDA-NRCS, 2017
-PennsylvaniaPresentNativeUSDA-NRCS, 2017
-Rhode IslandPresentNativeUSDA-NRCS, 2017
-South CarolinaPresentNativeUSDA-NRCS, 2017
-South DakotaPresentNativeUSDA-NRCS, 2017
-TennesseePresentNativeUSDA-NRCS, 2017
-TexasPresentNativeUSDA-NRCS, 2017
-UtahPresentNativeUSDA-NRCS, 2017
-VermontPresentNativeUSDA-NRCS, 2017
-VirginiaPresentNativeUSDA-NRCS, 2017
-WisconsinPresentNativeUSDA-NRCS, 2017

Central America and Caribbean

BarbadosPresentNativeAcevedo-Rodríguez and Strong, 2012
CubaPresentIntroduced Invasive Oviedo Prieto et al., 2012; Oviedo and Gonzalez-Oliva, 2015
El SalvadorPresentMissouri Botanical Garden, 2017
GuatemalaPresentNativeUSDA-NRCS, 2017

South America

BoliviaPresentIntroducedMissouri Botanical Garden, 2017Cultivated
PeruPresentIntroducedMissouri Botanical Garden, 2017Cultivated

Europe

AlbaniaPresentIntroducedGRIIS, 2017
AustriaPresentIntroducedGRIIS, 2017
BelarusPresentIntroducedGRIIS, 2017
BelgiumPresentIntroducedGRIIS, 2017
Bosnia-HercegovinaPresentIntroduced Invasive Maslo, 2014
BulgariaPresentIntroduced Invasive GRIIS, 2017
CroatiaPresentIntroduced Invasive Boršić et al., 2008
Czech RepublicPresentIntroduced Invasive GRIIS, 2017
DenmarkPresentIntroducedGRIIS, 2017
EstoniaPresentIntroducedGRIIS, 2017
FrancePresentIntroducedGRIIS, 2017
GermanyPresentIntroducedGRIIS, 2017
GreecePresentIntroducedGRIIS, 2017
HungaryPresentIntroduced Invasive GRIIS, 2017
IrelandPresentIntroducedGRIIS, 2017
ItalyPresentIntroduced Invasive Celesti-Grapow et al., 2009
LatviaPresentIntroducedGRIIS, 2017
LiechtensteinPresentIntroducedGRIIS, 2017
LithuaniaPresentIntroducedGRIIS, 2017
LuxembourgPresentIntroducedGRIIS, 2017
NetherlandsPresentIntroducedGRIIS, 2017
NorwayPresentIntroducedGRIIS, 2017
PolandPresentIntroducedGRIIS, 2017
PortugalPresentIntroducedGRIIS, 2017
RomaniaPresentIntroduced Invasive Oprea and Sírbu, 2006
Russian FederationPresentIntroduced Invasive Vladimirov and Grigoryevskaya, 2015
-Central RussiaPresentIntroduced Invasive Vladimirov and Grigoryevskaya, 2015
SerbiaPresentIntroduced Invasive Petrovic et al., 2013; GRIIS, 2017
SlovakiaPresentIntroducedGRIIS, 2017
SloveniaPresentIntroducedGRIIS, 2017
SwedenPresentIntroducedGRIIS, 2017
SwitzerlandPresentIntroduced Invasive Wittenberg, 2005
UKPresentIntroduced Invasive GRIIS, 2017
UkrainePresentIntroducedGRIIS, 2017

Oceania

AustraliaPresentIntroduced Invasive Weeds of Australia, 2017
-New South WalesPresentIntroduced Invasive Weeds of Australia, 2017
-QueenslandPresentIntroduced Invasive Weeds of Australia, 2017

History of Introduction and Spread

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P. quinquefolia has been extensively introduced across temperate and subtropical regions of the world where it is often cultivated as an ornamental. In Europe it was introduced to cultivation by 1679 and can now be found naturalized in many countries including Belgium, France, Spain, UK, Italy, Slovakia, Czech Republic, Estonia, Lithuania and Switzerland among others. In Great Britain it was introduced to cultivation by 1629 (Pilkington, 2011), first recorded in the wild by 1927 (DAISIE, 2017; GRIIS, 2017), and is now well-established in the wild and appears to be spreading (Pilkington, 2011).

In Australia, P. quinquefolia was apparently introduced in the 1800’s and it is now regarded as an environmental weed primarily in New South Wales and Sydney. It is probably most commonly naturalized in the Sydney area (Weeds of Australia, 2017).

In Zimbabwe it was recorded as an escape in the 1970’s in the riverine forest below the dam at Greystone Park Nature Reserve (Flora of Zimbabwe, 2017).

Habitat

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In its native range, P. quinquefolia can be found growing in new and old forests, open woods, prairie ravines, moist thickets, waste places, and along riverbanks, roadsides, forest edges fence rows and on the borders of clearings at elevations ranging from sea level to 1500 m (Flora of North America, 2015; USDA-NRCS, 2017). Where naturalized in the UK it is typically found in man-made habitats such as urban railway embankments, old walls and buildings, and road verges, but it also invades scrub and hedgerows (Pilkington, 2011). In Australia it has been recorded in urban bushland (Weeds of Australia, 2017).

Habitat List

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CategorySub-CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Terrestrial
 
Terrestrial – ManagedDisturbed areas Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Disturbed areas Present, no further details Natural
Disturbed areas Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Rail / roadsides Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Rail / roadsides Present, no further details Natural
Rail / roadsides Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Urban / peri-urban areas Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Urban / peri-urban areas Present, no further details Natural
Urban / peri-urban areas Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Terrestrial ‑ Natural / Semi-naturalNatural forests Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Natural forests Present, no further details Natural
Natural forests Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Riverbanks Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Riverbanks Present, no further details Natural
Riverbanks Present, no further details Natural
Littoral
Coastal areas Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Coastal areas Present, no further details Natural
Coastal areas Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Coastal dunes Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Coastal dunes Present, no further details Natural
Coastal dunes Present, no further details Productive/non-natural

Biology and Ecology

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Genetics

The chromosome number reported for P. quinquefolia is 2n = 40 (Flora of North America, 2015).

Reproductive Biology

Plants are monoecious and bear small open clusters of inconspicuous flowers. Flowers are pollinated by bees and wasps (PFAF, 2017).

Physiology and Phenology

In North America, P. quinquefolia flowers from June to August, matures fruits from August to October and drops fruits from September to February. The seeds usually germinate the first or second spring after dispersal (USDA-NRCS, 2017). In China, it has been recorded flowering in June and July and fruiting from August to October (Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2017). In the UK it flowers in June or July (Pilkington, 2011).

Germination rates vary between 20% and 50% and the seeds usually germinate the first or second spring after dispersal (USDA-NRCS, 2017). Seeds require a sustained cold period to break down dormancy, and high temperature exposure after stratification can induce secondary dormancy. Végh et al. (2015) found in a comparison of invasive Parthenocissus spp. in the Buda Arboretum of Hungary that seed viability was highest (100%) in P. quinquefolia, with high germination capacity if the seeds were removed from the soft part of fruits.

Associations

In North America, mice, skunks, chipmunks, squirrels, cattle and deer often feed on the leaves and stems of P. quinquefolia (USDA-NRCS, 2017).

Environmental Requirements

P. quinquefolia prefers to grow on moist, well-drained soils with pH ranging from acid to neutral. However, this species is adapted to drier soils and conditions including coastal dunes and alkaline soils. It tolerates a wide range of soil types: from sandy soils to loamy soils. It is fairly shade tolerant, but it is often found growing along more open clearing borders and fencerows. It is also salt tolerant (PFAF, 2017; USDA-NRCS, 2017).

Climate

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ClimateStatusDescriptionRemark
As - Tropical savanna climate with dry summer Tolerated < 60mm precipitation driest month (in summer) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
Aw - Tropical wet and dry savanna climate Tolerated < 60mm precipitation driest month (in winter) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
Cs - Warm temperate climate with dry summer Preferred Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry summers
Cw - Warm temperate climate with dry winter Preferred Warm temperate climate with dry winter (Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry winters)
Cf - Warm temperate climate, wet all year Tolerated Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, wet all year
Ds - Continental climate with dry summer Tolerated Continental climate with dry summer (Warm average temp. > 10°C, coldest month < 0°C, dry summers)

Latitude/Altitude Ranges

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Latitude North (°N)Latitude South (°S)Altitude Lower (m)Altitude Upper (m)
55 35

Air Temperature

Top of page
Parameter Lower limit Upper limit
Absolute minimum temperature (ºC) -15
Mean annual temperature (ºC) 5 14

Rainfall

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ParameterLower limitUpper limitDescription
Mean annual rainfall250930mm; lower/upper limits

Rainfall Regime

Top of page Bimodal
Uniform

Soil Tolerances

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Soil drainage

  • free

Soil reaction

  • acid
  • alkaline
  • neutral

Soil texture

  • light
  • medium

Special soil tolerances

  • saline

Notes on Natural Enemies

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No pests or diseases are of major concern, but mildews, leaf spots, canker and wilt are occasional problems. Beetles, scale, leafhoppers, and caterpillars also bother P. quinquefolia plants in cultivation. These pests cause the leaves to be ragged and tattered (Gilman, 1999; USDA-NRCS, 2017).

Means of Movement and Dispersal

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Vector Transmission (Biotic)

P. quinquefolia spreads by seed. Seeds are primarily dispersed by birds. In North America, songbirds are the principle consumers of the fruit: however, deer, game-birds and small mammals will also feed on them (USDA-NRCS, 2017). In the UK, birds and small mammals are known to eat the berries and disperse seeds, although it is not clear how viable seeds are in the British climate (Pilkington, 2011).

Intentional Introduction

P. quinquefolia has been intentionally introduced worldwide as an ornamental creeper. In cultivation it is propagated from hardwood cuttings or layering (GRIIS, 2017; USDA-NRCS, 2017). After introduction, it can regenerate from root fragments discarded in garden waste.

Pathway Causes

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CauseNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
DisturbanceNaturalized along roadsides and open waste areas Yes Yes USDA-NRCS, 2017
Escape from confinement or garden escapeEscaped from cultivation/gardens Yes Yes USDA-NRCS, 2017
Garden waste disposalSeeds, stem fragments Yes Yes
Habitat restoration and improvementOften planted for erosion control in slopes and shaded sites Yes Yes USDA-NRCS, 2017
Internet salesSeeds and plants sold online Yes Yes
Ornamental purposesWidely cultivated as ornamental creeper Yes Yes USDA-ARS, 2017

Pathway Vectors

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VectorNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
MailSeeds and plants sold online Yes Yes

Economic Impact

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P. quinquefolia can cause damage to valuable trees and shrubs in parks and orchards. Once established on walls, fences and buildings, it is difficult to remove without damage due to close adherence to the surfaces. When established on road verges and railway embankments, regular control is needed to prevent a health and safety hazard, and this can be expensive (Pilkington, 2011).

Environmental Impact

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P. quinquefolia is an aggressive vine that spreads both vertically and horizontal forming dense blankets that outcompete native vegetation. It climbs into forest canopies blocking light and restricting the growth of native plants. The weight of the climber foliage can contribute to branch breakage and canopy collapse (DAISIE, 2017; GRIIS, 2017; USDA_NRCS, 2017; Weeds of Australia, 2017). After girdling trees, the climber can slowly strangle them over an extended period (Pilkington, 2011).

Social Impact

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Berries contain oxalic acid and are reported to be highly toxic to humans if ingested. The oxalate crystals in the sap can cause skin irritation and rashes in some people (USDA-NRCS, 2017). The tissues of the plant contain microscopic, irritating needle-like crystals called raphides (PFAF, 2017).

Risk and Impact Factors

Top of page Invasiveness
  • Proved invasive outside its native range
  • Has a broad native range
  • Abundant in its native range
  • Highly adaptable to different environments
  • Is a habitat generalist
  • Tolerates, or benefits from, cultivation, browsing pressure, mutilation, fire etc
  • Pioneering in disturbed areas
  • Tolerant of shade
  • Highly mobile locally
  • Benefits from human association (i.e. it is a human commensal)
  • Long lived
  • Fast growing
  • Gregarious
  • Has propagules that can remain viable for more than one year
  • Reproduces asexually
Impact outcomes
  • Ecosystem change/ habitat alteration
  • Host damage
  • Modification of successional patterns
  • Monoculture formation
  • Reduced amenity values
  • Reduced native biodiversity
  • Threat to/ loss of native species
Impact mechanisms
  • Competition - monopolizing resources
  • Competition - shading
  • Competition - smothering
  • Poisoning
  • Rapid growth
  • Rooting
Likelihood of entry/control
  • Highly likely to be transported internationally deliberately
  • Difficult/costly to control

Uses

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P. quinquefolia is often cultivated as an ornamental because of its attractive foliage. It is an excellent covering for walls, fences, trellises and arbors. It keeps buildings cooler by shading wall surfaces during the summer.

The bark has been used in domestic medicines as a tonic, expectorant and remedy for dropsy (USDA-NRCS, 2017). The plant is also used for ground cover, soil conservation and to control erosion in shaded sites and slopes (USDA-NRCS, 2017).

Uses List

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Environmental

  • Amenity
  • Erosion control or dune stabilization
  • Revegetation
  • Soil conservation

Materials

  • Poisonous to mammals

Medicinal, pharmaceutical

  • Traditional/folklore

Ornamental

  • garden plant
  • Propagation material
  • Seed trade

Similarities to Other Species/Conditions

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P. quinquefolia is often confused with the Eastern poison ivy Toxicodendron radicans, however a clear distinction between these two species is that T. radicans has three leaflets and P. quinquefolia has five leaflets (USDA-NRCS, 2017).

Prevention and Control

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P. quinquefolia is costly and difficult to eradicate. Where it is established on walls or buildings it is very difficult to remove owing to its close adherence to the surface with tendrils and adhesive pads. Removing it can damage the mortar of the structure it is growing on and it is nearly impossible to remove it without damaging wooden fences (Pilkington, 2011).

Physical/Mechanical Control

Small infestations of P. quinquefolia may be controlled by cutting all the foliage and stems and digging-out the roots to prevent re-sprouts (Dickens, 2015). Ground cover can be reduced by burning in early spring, or cutting at the base of stems (Wu et al., 2004). In the USA, Coladoanto (1991) reported that fire can be an effective agent in controlling this plant, with normal underburning regimes in commercial pine stands eliminating seedlings and sprouts.

Chemical Control

The herbicides imazapyr and triclopyr have been successfully used to control infestations of P. quinquefolia (Dickens, 2015). In a peach orchard in West Virginia, a single application of triclopyr did not give control beyond one year, but satisfactory control was obtained from two applications of the herbicide (Tworkoski and Young, 1990). Glyphosate strongly inhibits growth of the plant (Wu et al., 2004). Kelbel (2012) suggests in Slovakia that best control comes from mechanical removal at the end of the year, followed by chemical application in the first half of the next growing season.

References

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Celesti-Grapow, L., Alessandrini, A., Arrigoni, P. V., Banfi, E., Bernardo, L., Bovio, M., Brundu, G., Cagiotti, M. R., Camarda, I., Carli, E., Conti, F., Fascetti, S., Galasso, G., Gubellini, L., Valva, V. la, Lucchese, F., Marchiori, S., Mazzola, P., Peccenini, S., Poldini, L., Pretto, F., Prosser, F., Siniscalco, C., Villani, M. C., Viegi, L., Wilhalm, T. (et al), 2009. Inventory of the non-native flora of Italy. Plant Biosystems, 143(2), 386-430. doi: 10.1080/11263500902722824

Coladoanto M, 1991. Parthenocissus quinquefolia. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/plants/vine/parqui/all.html

DAISIE, 2017. Delivering Alien Invasive Species Inventories for Europe. European Invasive Alien Species Gateway. www.europe-aliens.org/default.do

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Gilman EF, 1999. Parthenocissus quinquefolia. Document FPS454. Environmental Horticulture Department, UF/IFAS Extension, Gainesville, FL. http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu

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Idžojtic, M., Zebec, M., 2006. Distribution of the tree of heaven (Ailanthus altissima/Mill./Swingle) and spreading of invasive woody alien species in Croatia. (Rasprostranjenost pajasena (Ailanthus altissima/Mill./Swingle) i širenje invazivnih drvenastih neofita u Hrvatskoj). In: Glasnik za Šumske Pokuse,(No.Posebno izdanje 5) . Zagreb, Croatia: Sveucilišta u Zagrebu, Šumarski Fakultet (Faculty of Forestry, University of Zagreb). 315-323.

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Kelbel, P., 2012. Comparison of invasive woody plant species presence in the Botanical garden of P.J. Šafárik University in Košice from the viewpoint of time and management of sanitation measures. Thaiszia - Journal of Botany, 22(2), 163-180. http://www.upjs.sk/public/media/7803/163-180-kelbel-upr.pdf

Latiff, A., 2012. Seed morphology of Parthenocissus Planch. and Ampelopsis Michx. (Vitaceae) and its taxonomic significance. Sains Malaysiana, 41(12), 1503-1508. http://www.ukm.my/jsm/pdf_files/SM-PDF-41-12-2012/02%20A.%20Latiff.pdf

Lu LiMin, Wen Jun, Chen ZhiDuan, 2012. A combined morphological and molecular phylogenetic analysis of Parthenocissus (Vitaceae) and taxonomic implications. Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society, 168(1), 43-63. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/journal/10.1111/(ISSN)1095-8339 doi: 10.1111/j.1095-8339.2011.01186.x

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Links to Websites

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WebsiteURLComment
GISD/IASPMR: Invasive Alien Species Pathway Management Resource and DAISIE European Invasive Alien Species Gatewayhttps://doi.org/10.5061/dryad.m93f6Data source for updated system data added to species habitat list.
Global register of Introduced and Invasive species (GRIIS)http://griis.org/Data source for updated system data added to species habitat list.

Contributors

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17/12/17 Original text by:

Julissa Rojas-Sandoval, Department of Botany-Smithsonian NMNH, Washington DC, USA

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