Prunus campanulata (Taiwan cherry)
- Summary of Invasiveness
- Taxonomic Tree
- Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature
- Plant Type
- Distribution Table
- History of Introduction and Spread
- Risk of Introduction
- Habitat List
- Biology and Ecology
- Latitude/Altitude Ranges
- Air Temperature
- Soil Tolerances
- Natural enemies
- Notes on Natural Enemies
- Means of Movement and Dispersal
- Pathway Causes
- Pathway Vectors
- Economic Impact
- Environmental Impact
- Risk and Impact Factors
- Uses List
- Similarities to Other Species/Conditions
- Prevention and Control
- Gaps in Knowledge/Research Needs
- Principal Source
- Distribution Maps
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PicturesTop of page
IdentityTop of page
Preferred Scientific Name
- Prunus campanulata Maxim.
Preferred Common Name
- Taiwan cherry
Other Scientific Names
- Cerasus campanulata (Maxim.) A. Vassiliev
- Cerasus cerasoides (D. Don) S.Ya.
- Prunus cerasoides D. Don
- Prunus pendula Maxim.
International Common Names
- English: bellflower cherry; bell-flowered cherry; Formosan cherry
- French: cerisier de Formose
Local Common Names
- China: zhong hua ying tao
- Germany: Glocken-Kirsche; Kirschbaum, Taiwan-
- New Zealand: tui tree
- Taiwan: Taiwan-Kirsche
- PRNCM (Prunus campanulata)
Summary of InvasivenessTop of page
Prunus campanulata is a flowering cherry tree native to Taiwan, China and Vietnam that has been introduced as an ornamental to Australia, Japan, New Zealand, United Kingdom and the USA. In New Zealand, P. campanulata invades the understorey of relatively intact indigenous forests and is considered invasive in some areas, especially on the North Island, where it has spread and dominates native vegetation. There, in the region of Northland, it is prohibited to sell, propagate, breed, distribute or otherwise spread P. campanulata and in the Waikato region, the Regional Council requires residents to eradicate P. campanulata on personal property.
Taxonomic TreeTop of page
- Domain: Eukaryota
- Kingdom: Plantae
- Phylum: Spermatophyta
- Subphylum: Angiospermae
- Class: Dicotyledonae
- Order: Rosales
- Family: Rosaceae
- Genus: Prunus
- Species: Prunus campanulata
Notes on Taxonomy and NomenclatureTop of page
The genus Prunus is subdivided into five subgenera: Pranophora, Amygdalus, Padus, Cerasus and Laurocerasus (Gilani et al., 2010). P. campanulata is in the subgenus Cerasus (USDA-ARS, 2018).
P. campanulata was first described by Maximowicz in 1883, was reduced as the variety P. cerasoides var. campanulata in 1910, and has changed several times since (Wang and Xiang, 1998). Since 1985, the Flora of China lists it as Cerasus campanulata (Wang et al., 1998; Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2018). In 1998, Wang and Xiang suggested that P. campanulata should be reduced as a variety of Cerasus cerasoides, as the main difference is that flowers of P. campanulata appear before leaves, although this trait varies with elevation and climate (Wang and Xiang, 1998).
DescriptionTop of page
P. campanulata is a small, deciduous, flowering tree that grows up to 8 m high (Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2018; NZFlora, 2018). It has characteristic deep red, bell-shaped flowers of up to 2.2 cm diameter that hang in clusters in late winter to early spring (GISD, 2011). Clusters contain 1-5 flowers on very short shoots which elongate after anthesis (NZFlora, 2018). Flowers can appear on the branches before leaves emerge (GISD, 2011). Sepals are triangular, 3-6 mm, magenta to dark red, glabrous, shiny becoming spreading or reflexed. There are five petals, 5-12 mm in diameter, corolla appearing campanulate and eventually spreading, broadly elliptic-ovate, deep pink to rose-magenta (NZFlora, 2018). Flowers have 39-41 stamens, and the style is hairy and usually longer than the stamens (Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2018). Filaments are flushed magenta to crimson. Fruits are ovoid, 12 x 10 mm, glabrous, glossy scarlet, with a smooth stone (NZFlora, 2018). Leaves are serrated, which is typical of other cherry species, 4-7 cm long and 2-3.5 cm wide, bright green on emergence, changing to dark green in summer and bronze in autumn (GISD, 2011). Leaf petioles are 12-20 mm and hairy, and blades obovate to broadly elliptical (NZFlora, 2018). The bark is blackish brown, branchlets are brown to purplish brown and young branchlets are green and hairy (Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2018).
Plant TypeTop of page Seed propagated
DistributionTop of page
P. campanulata is native to Taiwan, China and Vietnam and has been introduced as an ornamental to Australia, Japan, New Zealand, United Kingdom and the USA (GISD, 2011).
Distribution TableTop of page
The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.
|Continent/Country/Region||Distribution||Last Reported||Origin||First Reported||Invasive||Reference||Notes|
|China||Present||Native||GISD, 2011; Kanazawa et al., 2016|
|-Fujian||Present||Native||Chen, 2008; Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2018; USDA-ARS, 2018|
|-Guangdong||Present||Native||Chen, 2008; Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2018; USDA-ARS, 2018|
|-Guangxi||Present||Native||Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2018; USDA-ARS, 2018|
|-Hainan||Present||Native||Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2018; USDA-ARS, 2018|
|-Hunan||Present||Native||Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2018; USDA-ARS, 2018|
|-Zhejiang||Present||Native||Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2018; USDA-ARS, 2018|
|Japan||Present||Introduced||GISD, 2011; Kanazawa et al., 2016; Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2018; USDA-ARS, 2018|
|Taiwan||Present||Native||Ou and Chen, 2002; Song et al., 2007; GISD, 2011; Huang et al., 2012; Kanazawa et al., 2016; Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2018|
|Vietnam||Present||Native||GISD, 2011; Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2018; USDA-ARS, 2018|
|New Zealand||Present||Introduced||Invasive||Webb et al., 1988; GISD, 2011; NZ-DOC, 2014; NZPCN, 2014; NRC, 2018|
History of Introduction and SpreadTop of page
In New Zealand, P. campanulata is thought to have escaped from gardens, where it was planted as an ornamental after import from Asia in the 1960s (Scoop Media, 2011). By 1988, the species was naturalized in parts of New Zealand (NZPCN, 2014).
IntroductionsTop of page
Risk of IntroductionTop of page
Where P. campanulata is still available as an ornamental, it may continue to spread from gardens and parks into natural areas.
HabitatTop of page
In Taiwan, P. campanulata is widely distributed in broadleaved forests at 500-2000 m of altitude (Ou and Chen, 2002). In China, it is found in forests in ravines, and in forest margins at 100-1300 m above sea level (Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2018).
In New Zealand, it is found in forests, riparian zones, urban areas, hillsides and in scrub (Webb et al., 1988; GISD, 2011). In Northland, New Zealand, P. campanulata prefers native forest, including urban fragments, regenerating secondary bush and relatively intact forest via canopy gaps, edges and riparian margins. It also occurs on roadsides and occasionally as an epiphyte. Urban forest fragments are the most invaded habitats (NRC, 2018).
Habitat ListTop of page
|Terrestrial – Managed||Urban / peri-urban areas||Present, no further details||Harmful (pest or invasive)|
|Urban / peri-urban areas||Present, no further details||Natural|
|Terrestrial ‑ Natural / Semi-natural||Natural forests||Present, no further details||Harmful (pest or invasive)|
|Natural forests||Present, no further details||Natural|
|Riverbanks||Present, no further details||Harmful (pest or invasive)|
|Riverbanks||Present, no further details||Natural|
Biology and EcologyTop of page
P. campanulata is diploid with 2n= 16 and karyotype A1 (Wang et al., 2018). AFLP analysis has shown that populations of P. campanulata in Japan, China and Taiwan are genetically different (Kanazawa et al., 2016).
Many flowering cherry cultivars have been shown to have originated from P. campanulata (Kanazawa et al., 2016). AFLP analysis has shown that Prunus × kanzakura cv. Atami-zakura is the F1 hybrid of P. jamasakura [Prunus serrulata f. spontanea] and P. campanulata. It has also shown that Prunus × kanzakura cv. Kawazu-zakura is the F1 hybrid of P. lannesiana var. speciosa [Prunus speciosa] and P. campanulata (Ogawa et al., 2012). Chloroplast DNA analysis suggests that natural crossing between hybrids of P. speciosa and P. campanulata often occur in Izu, Japan. It is hypothesized that these hybrid varieties developed near a human settlement where the two species were planted as a genetic resource for breeding desirable traits, such as the dark red petals of P. campanulata (Ohta et al., 2011).
In P. campanulata, 84 unigenes are associated with a response to cold stress, with upregulation of the DRP, MYB, HSP, GPX and GA20-ox genes, and downregulation of TIL and CDPK (Zhang et al., 2015a). Two P. campanulata MADS-box family genes involved in petal and stamen development were found to be very similar to the same genes in other members of the Rosaceae (Huang et al., 2017).
P. campanulata is insect-pollinated, and flowers and seeds within 1-2 years (GISD, 2011). Seeds are long-lived and widely dispersed (Weedbusters, 2018). P. campanulata can also spread vegetatively (GISD, 2011).
The seeds exhibit physiological and morphological dormancy, which requires both warm and cold conditions to break (Lee et al., 2006; Chen et al., 2007; GISD, 2011). Dormancy may be broken by 4 to 6 weeks of warm conditions, followed by 8 weeks of cold conditions, and is promoted by removal of the endocarp and seed coat. Dormancy break is accompanied by a decrease in abscisic acid content of the covering layers and germination is accompanied by an increase in embryonic gibberellic acid (Chen at al., 2007).
Physiology and Phenology
Different strains of P. campanulata have been shown to have different leaf functional characteristics, which can be used to select strains suitable as ornamental street tree species (Hong et al., 2015).
It is one of the earliest flowering cherries, starting in early spring or late winter (GISD, 2011). In China, it flowers from January to March and fruits from April to May (Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2018). In New Zealand, it flowers from July to September (Webb et al., 1988; NZFlora, 2018).
P. campanulata prefers part-shade or sun, is hardy to -12˚C and prefers fertile, light, well-drained soil (GIDS, 2011). The species is tolerant of warm and cold climates, and low to medium rainfall (Weedbusters, 2018).
In 11 natural populations of P. campanulata in China, flower colour and the number of flowers per plant were significantly correlated to longitude, latitude and annual rainfall, petal width was correlated to longitude and altitude, the number of flowers per plant, petal width and flowering habit were correlated to hours of sunshine, and petal width was correlated to annual mean temperature and frost-free period (Chen, 2008).
ClimateTop of page
|Cf - Warm temperate climate, wet all year||Preferred||Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, wet all year|
Latitude/Altitude RangesTop of page
|Latitude North (°N)||Latitude South (°S)||Altitude Lower (m)||Altitude Upper (m)|
Air TemperatureTop of page
|Parameter||Lower limit||Upper limit|
|Absolute minimum temperature (ºC)||-12|
Soil TolerancesTop of page
Natural enemiesTop of page
Notes on Natural EnemiesTop of page
In Taiwan, Phytophthora cambivora was found to cause stem blight and root rot to P. campanulata (Huang et al., 2012), Phellinus noxius was found to naturally infect the species (Ann et al., 1999) and the larvae of the butterfly Chrysozephyrus nishikaze was found to feed on P. campanulata (Savela, 2018).
In New Zealand, six sap transmissible viruses, including the Prunus necrotic ringspot virus, were identified in flowering cherries, including P. campanulata (Everett et al., 1993).
Means of Movement and DispersalTop of page
P. campanulata can spread vegetatively (GISD, 2011).
P. campanulata seeds can be dispersed by birds (GISD, 2011; Weedbusters, 2018).
P. campanulata has escaped from gardens, including via garden waste (GISD, 2011).
P. campanulata is a popular ornamental tree that has been intentionally planted in both private gardens and public areas (GISD, 2011; Hong et al., 2015).
Pathway CausesTop of page
|Breeding and propagation||Explants are produced and tissue culture propagated for the horticulture industry||Yes||Zhang et al., 2015b; Chen et al., 2016|
|Digestion and excretion||Can be dispersed by birds||Yes||GISD, 2011|
|Garden waste disposal||Yes||GISD, 2011|
|Internet sales||Yes||Yes||GISD, 2011|
|Ornamental purposes||Popular ornamental tree for both private gardens and public areas||Yes||Yes||Song, 2007; GISD, 2011|
Pathway VectorsTop of page
|Debris and waste associated with human activities||Has escaped from gardens via garden waste||Yes||GISD, 2011|
Economic ImpactTop of page
In New Zealand, where the species is considered invasive, the regulation, management, removal and continued monitoring of P. campanulata has an associated high cost.
Environmental ImpactTop of page
Impact on Habitats
In New Zealand, P. campanulata invades the understorey of relatively intact indigenous forests (GISD, 2011). More specifically, in Northland, P. campanulata invades all shrublands, light gaps in the forest, roadsides, gardens and reserves, negatively impacting entire natural ecosystems (NRC, 2018). In open or disturbed areas, it forms dense stands that are long-lived and prevent regeneration of other species (Weedbusters, 2018).
Impact on Biodiversity
In New Zealand, P. campanulata competes with regenerating native species in native forests (GISD, 2011). In Northland, the species has the potential to spread and dominate native vegetation, displacing it completely and negatively affecting natural ecosystems (NRC, 2018).
Risk and Impact FactorsTop of page Invasiveness
- Proved invasive outside its native range
- Has a broad native range
- Abundant in its native range
- Benefits from human association (i.e. it is a human commensal)
- Has propagules that can remain viable for more than one year
- Reproduces asexually
- Ecosystem change/ habitat alteration
- Reduced native biodiversity
- Threat to/ loss of native species
- Competition - monopolizing resources
- Competition - shading
- Highly likely to be transported internationally deliberately
- Difficult/costly to control
UsesTop of page
P. campanulata is a popular ornamental tree with economic value where sold (USDA-ARS, 2018).
There is a significant body of research being done into advancing the breeding of new cultivars and propagation techniques for the species (LüYueLiang et al., 2006) and the species is micropropagated for the horticulture industry (Zhang et al., 2015b; Chen at al., 2016).
P. campanulata is one of the cherry trees used to attract tourists to Kawazu City, Izu, Japan, every year for the Kawazu Cherry Blossom Festival (Ohta et al., 2011).
Although traditionally planted as an ornamental in Taiwan, with fruits of low edible value as a human food source, trials have been undertaken to improve fruit size and economic value of P. campanulata, with eight good selections identified as having potential (Song et al., 2007).
In the USA, the National Arboretum has a breeding program for ornamental cherry trees that, from 2012-2013, released two P. campanulata cultivars, ‘Abigail Adams’ and ‘Helen Taft’. ‘Abigail Adams’ has dark pink semi-double flowers and was selected for wider use in breeding programs, and ‘Helen Taft’ was selected for its vigorous growth, large pale pink flowers and ease of production (Pooler, 2013).
P. campanulata is a popular ornamental tree in both private gardens and public areas (GISD, 2011). It is one of the most commonly planted trees on school campuses in Lu-Gu and Shinyi Townships, Nantou County, Taiwan (Yang et al., 2012; 2016).
In Taiwan, part of its native range, P. campanulata is an important food source for Taiwan Yuhina birds (Yuhina brunneiceps) (Lee et al., 2005). Furthermore, three species of forest bird have been observed consuming the nectar of P. campanulata (Chen and Chou, 1999).
In New Zealand, P. campanulata attracts the endemic bird species tui (Prosthemadera novaeseelandiae) and bellbird (Anthornis melanura) (Tully, 2018).
Uses ListTop of page
- Botanical garden/zoo
- Sociocultural value
Human food and beverage
- garden plant
- Propagation material
Similarities to Other Species/ConditionsTop of page
In New Zealand, P. campanulata can be distinguished from other naturalized cherry trees, such as Japanese hill cherry (P. serrulata), cherry laurel (P. laurocerasus), Portugal laurel (P. lusitanica) and sweet cherry (P. avium) by its deep pink narrowly campanulate flowers that have a narrow hypanthium, with a tube-like lower corolla. Young trees may retain a Lombardy poplar upright habit for some years before spreading out (Webb et al., 1988; NZPCN, 2014; Weedbusters, 2018).
Prevention and ControlTop of page
In Northland, North Island, New Zealand, it is prohibited to sell, propagate, breed, distribute or otherwise spread P. campanulata (NRC, 2018) and the species is classified as a community pest (GISD, 2011; NRC, 2018). In the Auckland region, North Island, it is considered a species requiring further research to determine its effects on biodiversity, and is listed by the Waitakere City Council as an environmental weed posing a risk to conservation, for which eradication is recommended (GISD, 2011). In Waikato, North Island, it is included in the Regional Pest Management Strategy and classified as a ‘containment (occupier control) pest plant’. The Waikato Regional Council requires residents to eradicate P. campanulata on personal property (GISD, 2011).
In the regions of Bay of Plenty (North Island), Marlborough (South Island) and West Coast (South Island), P. campanulata is also considered a garden escapee and planting of alternative native species is recommended (GISD, 2011).
In Northland, New Zealand, P. campanulata is a sustained control plant, i.e. a widespread pest in suitable habitat that causes adverse effects to the environment. As a consequence, landowners are responsible for management of the plant and need to act to reduce its impact and spread (NRC, 2018).
P. campanulata trees should be removed by felling, and seedlings can be dug out (GISD, 2011). In Northland, New Zealand, it is recommended to pull out seedlings and small plants of P. campanulata and then to apply mulch, and to cut and stump treat more established plants all year round (NRC, 2018).
Once felled, stumps of P. campanulata should be treated with herbicide. Follow up treatments should be used to check for subsequent sprouting or seedlings (GISD, 2011). In Northland, New Zealand, it is recommended to cut P. campanulata trees and to stump treat them with metasulfuron-methyl or picloram all year round, followed by mulching the cut branches and leaves (NRC, 2018). Another recommended year-round method of chemical control is to cut, drill or ringbark, then inject the trunk at a downward angle with metasulfuron-methyl or picloram (NRC, 2018). Summer spraying with metasulfuron-methyl or picloram is also recommended for the control of P. campanulata.
After physical and chemical control of P. campanulata, sites should be monitored for potential growth and seed bank for two years. It is also recommended that a dense cover of native trees or shrubs is planted to produce shade (Weedbusters, 2018).
Gaps in Knowledge/Research NeedsTop of page
There is little information about specific species, including endangered species, which may be negatively affected by P. campanulata.
ReferencesTop of page
Chen BiHua, Li JianMin, Zhang Juan, Wu ZhuoXi, Fan HuiHua, Li QianZhen, 2016. Optimizing the rapid technique for propagation of Cerasus campanulata by tissue culture. Pakistan Journal of Botany, 48(1), 305-309. http://www.pakbs.org/pjbot/PDFs/48(1)/38.pdf
Chen ShunYing, Chien ChingTe, Chung JengDer, Yang YuhShyong, Kuo ShingRong, 2007. Dormancy-break and germination in seeds of Prunus campanulata (Rosaceae): role of covering layers and changes in concentration of abscisic acid and gibberellins. Seed Science Research, 17(1), 21-32. http://journals.cambridge.org/action/displayJournal?jid=SSR doi: 10.1017/S0960258507383190
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Gilani, S. A., Qureshi, R. A., Khan, A. M., Potter, D., 2010. A molecular phylogeny of selected species of genus Prunus L. (Rosaceae) from Pakistan using the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) spacer DNA. African Journal of Biotechnology, 9(31), 4867-4872. http://www.academicjournals.org/AJB/PDF/pdf2010/2Aug/Gilani%20et%20al.pdf
GISD, 2011. Global Invasive Species Database. http://www.iucngisd.org/gisd/
Hong ChenJie, Lin Han, Hong Wei, Wang Min, Hong Tao, 2015. Leaf functional characteristics in different strains of Prunus campanulata. Journal of Tropical and Subtropical Botany, 23(2), 191-196. http://jtsb.scib.ac.cn/jtsb_en/ch/index.aspx
Huang KuanFeng, Lee YiRu, Chu FangHua, 2017. Gene cloning and sequence analysis of type B flowering gene from Prunus campanulata. Journal of the Experimental Forest of National Taiwan University, 31(3), 163-172.
Huang, J. H., Ann, P. J., Chiu, Y. H., Tsai, J. N., 2012. First report of Phytophthora cambivora causing leaf and stem blight and root rot on Taiwan cherry (Prunus campanulata) in Taiwan. Plant Disease, 96(7), 1065-1066. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis doi: 10.1094/PDIS-01-12-0025-PDN
Kanazawa, Y., Kameyama, Y., Li JingXiu, Hamano, C., Suzuki, K., 2016. Genetic relationship between early-flowering cherry cultivars and regional populations of Prunus campanulata. Horticultural Research (Japan), 15(2), 129-138.
Lee ChungShu, Chien ChingTe, Lin ChaoHsiung, Chiu YiYing, Yang YuhShyong, 2006. Protein changes between dormant and dormancy-broken seeds of Prunus campanulata Maxim. Proteomics, 6(14), 4147-4154. http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/cgi-bin/abstract/112664121/ABSTRACT doi: 10.1002/pmic.200500118
Lee PeiFen, Shen ShengFeng, Ding TzungSu, Chiou ChyiRong, Yuan HsiaoWei, 2005. Habitat selection of the cooperative breeding Taiwan Yuhina (Yuhina brunneiceps) in a fragmented forest habitat. Zoological Studies, 44(4), 497-504.
LüYueLiang, Chen Zhang, Shi Jisen, 2006. Research advance, prospect and breeding strategy of Cerasus campanulata Maxim. Journal of Nanjing Forestry University (Natural Sciences Edition), 30(1), 115-118. http://njlydxxb.periodicals.net.cn/default.html
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NZ-DOC, 2014. Northland Conservation Management Strategy. Northland 2014-2024, Volume 1. Northland, New Zealand: New Zealand Department of Conservation. https://www.doc.govt.nz/Documents/about-doc/role/policies-and-plans/northland-cms/northland-cms-volume-one.pdf
NZFlora, 2018. New Zealand Flora. New Zealand: Landcare Research. http://www.nzflora.info/index.html
NZPCN, 2014. Prunus campanulata. New Zealand Plant Conservation Network. http://www.nzpcn.org.nz/flora_details.aspx?ID=2850
Ogawa, T., Kameyama, Y., Kanazawa, Y., Suzuki, K., Somego, M., 2012. Origins of early-flowering cherry cultivars, Prunus × kanzakura cv. Atami-zakura and Prunus × kanzakura cv. Kawazu-zakura, revealed by experimental crosses and AFLP analysis. Scientia Horticulturae, 140, 140-148. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/03044238 doi: 10.1016/j.scienta.2012.03.030
Ohta, S., Murakami, S., Katsuki, T., Ishii, C., Inaba, Z., Yamamoto, T., 2011. Analysis of flowering cherries (Prunus subgenus Cerasus) in Izu, Japan based on nuclear and chloroplast DNA polymorphisms. Horticultural Research (Japan), 10(2), 151-159. doi: 10.2503/hrj.10.151
Savela M, 2018. Chrysozephyrus, Shirôzu & Yamamoto, 1956. http://ftp.funet.fi/index/Tree_of_life/insecta/lepidoptera/ditrysia/papilionoidea/lycaenidae/theclinae/chrysozephyrus/
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Wang Yan, Du HanMei, Zhang Jing, Chen Tao, Chen Qing, Tang HaoRu, Wang XiaoRong, 2018. Ploidy level of Chinese cherry (Cerasus pseudocerasus Lindl.) and comparative study on karyotypes with four Cerasus species. Scientia Horticulturae, 232, 46-51. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/03044238 doi: 10.1016/j.scienta.2017.12.065
Weedbusters, 2018. Weed Information Sheet: Taiwan cherry. Hamilton, New Zealand: Weedbusters. http://www.weedbusters.org.nz/weed-information/prunus-campanulata/59/
Yang ChihKai, Hsu ChingChun, Liou WeiTing, Huang YiRu, Kuo FuLin, Wu TsaiYu, Chen YoungFa, 2016. Diversity investigation and analysis of woody plants in elementary schools and high schools of Shinyi Township, Nantou County. Journal of the Experimental Forest of National Taiwan University, 30(2), 85-98.
Yang ChihKai, Wang YaNan, Huang YiRu, Chiu YuehYing, Chen YoungFa, Liou WeiTing, 2012. Investigation and analysis on campus plants at Lu-Gu Township, Nantou County. Journal of the Experimental Forest of National Taiwan University, 26(1), 19-36.
Zhang YingHui, Rong JunDong, Chen LiGuang, Chen LingYan, He TianYou, Zheng YuShan, 2015. Construction of cDNA library from Prunus campanulata leaves and preliminary expressed sequence tag (EST) analysis during cold stress. Biologia (Bratislava), 70(8), 1070-1077. http://www.degruyter.com/view/j/biolog.2015.70.issue-8/biolog-2015-0118/biolog-2015-0118.xml?format=INT
Zhang, Y. H., Rong, J. D., Fu, Y., Chen, L. G., Chen, L. Y., Zheng, Y. S., 2015. Tissue culture and plant regeneration of Prunus campanulata Maxim. JAPS, Journal of Animal and Plant Sciences, 25(Suppl. 1), 146-151. http://www.thejaps.org.pk/docs/v-25-03-special/22.pdf
Principal SourceTop of page
Draft datasheet under review
ContributorsTop of page
03/06/18 Original text by:
Vicki Cottrell, Consultant, UK
Distribution MapsTop of page
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