Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Pratylenchus coffeae
(banana root nematode)

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Datasheet

Pratylenchus coffeae (banana root nematode)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 15 January 2021
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Pest
  • Natural Enemy
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Pratylenchus coffeae
  • Preferred Common Name
  • banana root nematode
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Metazoa
  •     Phylum: Nematoda
  •       Family: Pratylenchidae
  •         Genus: Pratylenchus

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Detail of female nematode isolated from yam tuber in Papua New Guinea.
TitleFemale nematode
CaptionDetail of female nematode isolated from yam tuber in Papua New Guinea.
CopyrightJohn Bridge/CABI BioScience
Detail of female nematode isolated from yam tuber in Papua New Guinea.
Female nematodeDetail of female nematode isolated from yam tuber in Papua New Guinea.John Bridge/CABI BioScience

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Pratylenchus coffeae (Zimmermann 1898) Filipjev & Schuurmans Steckhoven 1941

Preferred Common Name

  • banana root nematode

Other Scientific Names

  • Anguillulina mahogani (Cobb, 1920) Goodey, 1932
  • Pratylenchus mahogani (Cobb, 1920) Filipjev, 1936
  • Pratylenchus musicola
  • Tylenchus coffeae Zimmermann, 1898
  • Tylenchus mahogani Cobb, 1920
  • Tylenchus musicola Cobb, 1919

International Common Names

  • English: nematode, Root lesion
  • Spanish: nematodo de la raiz del platano; nemátodo de la raíz del plátano; nemátodo de las lesiones; nematodo lesionador del cafeto (Mexico)
  • French: nematose des racines

Local Common Names

  • Japan: Negusare-sentyubyo

EPPO code

  • PRATCO (Pratylenchus coffeae)

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Metazoa
  •         Phylum: Nematoda
  •             Family: Pratylenchidae
  •                 Genus: Pratylenchus
  •                     Species: Pratylenchus coffeae

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

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Pratylenchus coffeae is a widespread and variable species which may represent a species complex. Recent molecular and morphological studies on isolates of P. coffeae and closely related species have demonstrated the difficulties involved in identification (Duncan et al., 1999). The complex has yet to be satisfactorily resolved.

Description

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Measurements (after Sher and Allen, 1953): Females: L = 0.45-0.7 mm; a = 25-35; b = 5-7; c = 17-22; V = 54-2676-833.2-8; spear = 15-18 µm. Neotype female: L = 0.59 mm; a = 34; b = 6.3; c = 21; V = 3281.94; spear = 18 µm.

Males: L = 0.45-0.70 mm; a = 26-40; b = 6-7; c = 17-24; T = 45-52; spear = 15-17 µm. (After Loof, 1960): 69 females: L = 0.37-0.70 (0.53) mm; a = 17.7-30.5 (23.7); b = 5.0-7.8 (6.8); c = 13.7-23.9 (19.0); V = 63-2675.8-84.2 (80.1); spear = 14-17 µm.

10 males: L = 0.41-0.56 (0.48) mm; a = 23.8-31.4 (27.4); b = 5.9-7.7 (6.5); c = 17.6-23.3 (19.1); T = 37-58 (48); spear = 14-15 µm.


Description (after Siddiqi, 1972):

Female

Body rather slender in young and fatter in older specimens, distinctly annulated. Lateral fields normally with four, sometimes five or six incisures. Lip region slightly set off, with two distinct annules; occasional specimens have three annules on one side of the lip region.

Basal knobs of spear round to oblong. Post-uterine branch 1.0 to 1.5 times body-width long, but may be up to 90 µm long, with a terminal rudimentary ovary which sometimes has distinct oocytes. Spermathecae large, broadly oval to nearly rounded, often with sperms. Intra-uterine eggs may contain embryos.

Tail 2.0-2.5 times anal body width in young females, 1.5-2.0 times anal body width in old specimens; terminus indented, sometimes appearing smoothly rounded, truncate or irregularly crenate.

Male

Abundant. Spicules slender with well marked manubria and ventrally arcuate shaft, 16-20 µm long; gubernaculum 4-7 µm in length; hypoptygma prominent; bursal margins faintly crenate.


Distribution

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P. coffeae is very widespread in almost all tropical and subtropical countries. The distribution map includes records based on specimens of P. coffeae identified at CABI Bioscience (Egham, UK); dates of identification are noted in the Table (CABI Bioscience, various dates).

The record for Chile in CABI/EPPO (2000) and previous editions of this Compendium was based on incorrect information. CABI was notified in November 2005 that this species is not present in Chile (I Moreno, Servicio Agrícola y Ganadero (SAG), Chile, personal communication, 2005).

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 15 Jan 2021
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

CameroonPresent, Localized
Congo, Democratic Republic of thePresent, Widespread
Côte d'IvoirePresent, Localized
EswatiniPresent
GhanaPresent
KenyaPresent
MadagascarPresent, Widespread
MalawiPresent, Widespread
MauritiusPresent
MoroccoPresent
MozambiquePresent
NigeriaPresent
SeychellesPresent, Widespread
South AfricaPresent, Widespread
TanzaniaPresent, Widespread
UgandaPresent
ZambiaPresent, Widespread
ZimbabwePresent, Widespread

Asia

AfghanistanPresent
BangladeshPresent
BhutanPresent
BruneiPresent, Widespread
ChinaPresent, Localized
-FujianPresent
-GuangdongPresent
-HenanPresent
-HunanPresent
-JiangsuPresent
-YunnanPresent
GeorgiaPresent
IndiaPresent, Localized
-Andhra PradeshPresent
-BiharPresent
-DelhiPresent, Localized
-Himachal PradeshPresent, Widespread
-KarnatakaPresent
-KeralaPresent
-Madhya PradeshPresent
-ManipurPresent, Widespread
-OdishaPresent
-PunjabPresent, Localized
-RajasthanPresent, Widespread
-SikkimPresent
-Tamil NaduPresent
-TripuraPresent
-Uttar PradeshPresent
-West BengalPresent
IndonesiaPresent, Widespread
-JavaPresent, Widespread
-SumatraPresent
IranPresent
JapanPresent, Localized
-KyushuPresent
-Ryukyu IslandsPresent, Widespread
-ShikokuPresent, Localized
MalaysiaPresent, Widespread
North KoreaPresent
OmanPresent
PakistanPresent, Widespread
PhilippinesPresent, Widespread
South KoreaPresent
Sri LankaPresent
TaiwanPresent, Localized
ThailandPresent, Widespread
TurkeyPresentOriginal citation: Akgül and Ökten (2001)
VietnamPresent, Widespread

Europe

AustriaPresent
BulgariaPresent, Widespread
ItalyPresent
SloveniaPresent
SpainPresent, Widespread
-Canary IslandsPresent, Widespread

North America

BarbadosPresent, Widespread
BelizePresent
Costa RicaPresent, Widespread
CubaPresent
DominicaPresent
Dominican RepublicPresent, Widespread
El SalvadorPresent, Widespread
GrenadaPresent
GuadeloupePresent
GuatemalaPresent, Widespread
HondurasPresent, Widespread
JamaicaPresent, Widespread
MartiniquePresent, Widespread
MexicoPresent, Localized
NicaraguaPresent, Widespread
PanamaPresent, Widespread
Puerto RicoPresent
Trinidad and TobagoPresent, Widespread
United StatesPresent, Widespread
-ArkansasPresent
-CaliforniaPresent
-FloridaPresent
-HawaiiPresent, Widespread
-South CarolinaPresent

Oceania

AustraliaPresent, Widespread
-New South WalesPresent
-QueenslandPresent
Cook IslandsPresent
FijiPresent
KiribatiPresent
NiuePresent
PalauPresent
Papua New GuineaPresent
SamoaPresent
Solomon IslandsPresent
TongaPresent
VanuatuPresent

South America

BrazilPresent, Widespread
-Minas GeraisPresent
-PernambucoPresent
-Rio de JaneiroPresent
-Rio Grande do NortePresent
-Sao PauloPresent
ChileAbsent, Invalid presence record(s)
ColombiaPresent, Widespread
EcuadorPresent, Widespread
French GuianaPresent
SurinamePresent
VenezuelaPresent, Widespread

Risk of Introduction

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P. coffeae is a phytosanitary risk in all tropical and subtropical countries.

Habitat

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This nematode is a migratory root endoparasite found in soil and the roots of plants growing in subtropical and tropical uplands.

Hosts/Species Affected

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P. coffeae is a polyphagous species with a large host range of over 250 plant species covering almost all plant families. No attempt, therefore, has been made to list all host species; the listing has been limited to the most important crops which are amongst its hosts. Hosts of the nematode include Citrus spp., vegetables, ornamental foliar plants and weeds (Edwards and Wehunt, 1973; O'Bannon and Esser, 1975; Das and Das, 1986).

Host Plants and Other Plants Affected

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Plant nameFamilyContextReferences
Aesculus chinensisHippocastanaceaeOther
    Anacardium occidentale (cashew nut)AnacardiaceaeHabitat/association
      AraceaeAraceaeMain
        Areca catechu (betelnut palm)ArecaceaeHabitat/association
          CitrusRutaceaeMain
            Cocos nucifera (coconut)ArecaceaeHabitat/association
              Coffea (coffee)RubiaceaeMain
                Colocasia esculenta (taro)AraceaeMain
                  Cucurbitaceae (cucurbits)CucurbitaceaeMain
                    Curcuma longa (turmeric)ZingiberaceaeMain
                      Dioscorea (yam)DioscoreaceaeMain
                        Dioscorea batatas (Chinese yam)DioscoreaceaeOther
                          Elettaria cardamomum (cardamom)ZingiberaceaeMain
                            Euonymus alatus (winged spindle)CelastraceaeOther
                              Ficus carica (common fig)MoraceaeMain
                                Musa (banana)MusaceaeMain
                                  Musa textilis (manila hemp)MusaceaeMain
                                    Musa x paradisiaca (plantain)MusaceaeMain
                                      Piper nigrum (black pepper)PiperaceaeMain
                                        Sesamum indicum (sesame)PedaliaceaeOther
                                          Solanum tuberosum (potato)SolanaceaeMain
                                            Theobroma cacao (cocoa)MalvaceaeMain
                                              Zea mays (maize)PoaceaeMain
                                                Zingiber officinale (ginger)ZingiberaceaeMain

                                                  Growth Stages

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                                                  Flowering stage, Fruiting stage, Seedling stage, Vegetative growing stage

                                                  Symptoms

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                                                  P. coffeae only infects the roots, tubers, corms and rhizomes of host plants but referred symptoms are produced on other parts of the plant.

                                                  Bananas, Plantains and Musa textilis

                                                  P. coffeae causes damage symptoms similar to those observed with other root lesion nematodes such as Radopholus similis: stunting; lengthening of the vegetative cycle; reduction in the size and number of leaves, and in bunch weight; reduction of the productive life of the plantation; toppling. Roots heavily infested by P. coffeae have extensive black or purple necrosis of epidermal and cortical tissue, often accompanied by secondary rotting and root breakage. Similar necrosis can be observed on the outer parts of the corm.

                                                  Yams

                                                  P. coffeae causes dry rot symptoms in yam tubers. Brown, irregular dry rot extends 1-2 cm into the outer tissues of D. rotundata tubers, but can occur as deep as 5 cm in tubers of D. alata. The dry rot can be more pronounced in the oldest apical portions of the tubers, adjacent to the vines or may even be restricted to these portions in newly harvested tubers.

                                                  External symptoms on tubers of D. alata, D. cayenensis and D. rotundata are deep cracks, a corky appearance, exposed dark-brown rotted areas and diseased tubers, which are spongy to the touch. Necrosis or rotting, caused by P. coffeae, has also been observed in tubers of D. esculenta and D. trifida. Above-ground symptoms of damage are not as obvious. Vines from tubers which are severely infected with P. coffeae are unthrifty and shorter than normal plants.

                                                  Using planting material with a high proportion of dry rot can result in tubers not sprouting and poor stands in yam fields (Acosta, 1974; Acosta and Ayala, 1975; Bridge and Page, 1984; Coates-Beckford and Brathwaite, 1977; Thompson et al., 1973).

                                                  Coffee

                                                  Coffee roots infected by P. coffeae turn yellow, then brown and most of the lateral roots are rotten. Infected plants appear stunted and have few small, chlorotic leaves. The earliest symptoms of infection in newly transplanted trees are yellowing of the leaves, loss of young primary branches and stunting of the shoot. A gradual wilt sets in, followed by death of the whole tree. Severely infected plants may die prematurely.

                                                  In the field, symptoms may occur in patches with yields reducing according to disease severity. Lesions occur on roots and, as a consequence, the whole root system is destroyed (Campos et al., 1990; Monteiro and Lordello, 1974; Whitehead, 1969).

                                                  Ginger and Turmeric

                                                  P. coffeae causes rhizome rot and leaf yellowing of ginger, and is associated with discoloration and rotting of the rhizomes of turmeric. At the advanced stages of infection, the rhizomes of turmeric become deep-red to brown in colour, less turgid, and wrinkled with rot symptoms. Internally, affected rhizomes have dark-brown, necrotic lesions (Sarma et al., 1974; Koshy and Bridge, 1990).

                                                  List of Symptoms/Signs

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                                                  SignLife StagesType
                                                  Leaves / abnormal colours
                                                  Roots / cortex with lesions
                                                  Roots / necrotic streaks or lesions
                                                  Roots / reduced root system
                                                  Stems / stunting or rosetting
                                                  Vegetative organs / internal rotting or discoloration
                                                  Vegetative organs / surface cracking
                                                  Vegetative organs / surface lesions or discoloration
                                                  Whole plant / dwarfing
                                                  Whole plant / uprooted or toppled

                                                  Biology and Ecology

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                                                  P. coffeae is a migratory endoparasite of the root cortex; also of the corms of banana, plantain and Musa textilis; tubers of yam and caladium; and rhizomes of ginger, cardamom and turmeric, where it feeds and multiplies. It causes lesions and is often associated with primary and secondary rot in the root cortex, corms, tubers and rhizomes.

                                                  The developmental stages of P. coffeae infesting coffee in Java are as follows: the first moult takes place within the egg, three moults occur outside, and the eggs hatch in 6-8 days at 28-30°C.

                                                  In Japan, adult P. coffeae appeared about 2 weeks after hatching in potato tubers; the average lifespan was about 27 days at 25-30°C (Siddiqi, 1972).

                                                  P. coffeae has a life cycle of 21-28 days in yam roots and tubers. It can survive in moist soil for up to 8 months in the absence of host plants (Colbran, 1954).

                                                  The optimum temperature for reproduction in citrus roots is 29.5°C (Radewald et al., 1971). P. coffeae reproduces and multiplies in stored yams and is disseminated in seed tubers. It can also be introduced into yam fields in the roots and tissues of other crops. The nematodes can survive in field soil between yam crops on other hosts.

                                                  Notes on Natural Enemies

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                                                  None known.

                                                  Pathway Vectors

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                                                  VectorNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
                                                  Clothing, footwear and possessionsWith host plants Yes
                                                  Containers and packaging - woodOf host plants Yes
                                                  Land vehicles Yes
                                                  Mail Yes
                                                  Soil, sand and gravel Yes

                                                  Plant Trade

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                                                  Plant parts liable to carry the pest in trade/transportPest stagesBorne internallyBorne externallyVisibility of pest or symptoms
                                                  Bark adults; eggs; juveniles Yes Pest or symptoms not visible to the naked eye but usually visible under light microscope
                                                  Bulbs/Tubers/Corms/Rhizomes adults; eggs; juveniles Yes Pest or symptoms not visible to the naked eye but usually visible under light microscope
                                                  Growing medium accompanying plants adults; eggs; juveniles Yes Pest or symptoms not visible to the naked eye but usually visible under light microscope
                                                  Roots adults; eggs; juveniles Yes Pest or symptoms not visible to the naked eye but usually visible under light microscope
                                                  Seedlings/Micropropagated plants adults; eggs; juveniles Yes Pest or symptoms not visible to the naked eye but usually visible under light microscope
                                                  Stems (above ground)/Shoots/Trunks/Branches adults; eggs; juveniles Yes Pest or symptoms not visible to the naked eye but usually visible under light microscope
                                                  Plant parts not known to carry the pest in trade/transport
                                                  Flowers/Inflorescences/Cones/Calyx
                                                  Fruits (inc. pods)
                                                  Leaves
                                                  True seeds (inc. grain)
                                                  Wood

                                                  Impact

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                                                  Introduction

                                                  P. coffeae is a major pest of bananas, plantains and abaca, yams, coffee, ginger, citrus and other crops.

                                                  Bananas

                                                  P. coffeae is of particular importance on bananas in the Pacific island countries (Bridge, 1988) and parts of Africa (Sarah 1989), and on bananas, plantains and abaca (Musa textilis) in Cuba, Central and South America (Gowen and Quénéhervé, 1990). P. coffeae rarely occurs as the only nematode pest on the roots of Musa species. Although localized in South Africa, where it is found as the main nematode pest, the estimated crop losses can be as high as 80% (Sarah, 1989). In Cuba, high population densities cause toppling of the plants and limit production of the crop; economic threshold densities of the nematode have been estimated at 5000-10,000 nematodes per 100 g roots in good soils but as low as 1000-5000 nematodes per 100 g roots in soils with low fertility (Fernández and Ortega, 1998).

                                                  Yams (Dioscorea spp.)

                                                  P. coffeae has been recorded as a parasite of yams in Barbados, Jamaica and Puerto Rico, and in the Pacific islands of Papua New Guinea, Fiji, Niue, Tonga, Vanuatu and Solomon Islands. P. coffeae is the cause of tuber dry rot disease of yams, known locally in Jamaica as burn. (Ayala and Acosta, 1971; Brathwaite, 1977; Coates-Beckford and Brathwaite, 1977; Bridge, 1988).

                                                  P. coffeae is important as a parasite of the tubers reducing their edible portions, marketable value and, particularly, their storage qualities. In the regions of the world where the nematode occurs it can be very widespread. In Jamaica, 67 to 100% of D. rotundata and D. cayenensis tubers were found to be infected with P. coffeae (Thompson et al., 1973), and over 50% of D. alata tubers examined in Papua New Guinea had obvious signs of dry rot and were infested with P. coffeae sometimes in numbers in excess of 60,000 nematodes per 50 g tissues (Bridge and Page, 1984). Where there are obvious signs of dry rot in the tubers the likelihood of complete rot of tubers during storage is high. Dry rot of yams alone causes a marked reduction in the quality, marketable value and edible portions of tubers, and these reductions are more severe in stored yams.

                                                  Soil populations of 600 P. coffeae per vine of D. rotundata can produce significant tuber damage, and 1000 nematodes/plant can cause complete deterioration and severe reduction in tuber quality (Acosta and Ayala, 1975). However, neither of these populations causes reduction in total weight of harvested tubers. If seed tubers are badly affected by dry rot but survive storage, they can be so weakened that sprouting does not occur (Acosta and Ayala, 1976; Coates-Beckford and Brathwaite, 1977). Control of P. coffeae in seed pieces by chemical treatment can increase the yield of high quality tubers from 0.03 to 6.09 tonnes per hectare (Roman et al., 1984). Similarly, disinfesting tuber planting material with hot water treatment to control P. coffeae can increase tuber yields by 23% (Hutton et al., 1982).

                                                  Coffee

                                                  P. coffeae is found as pest of coffee in Dominican Republic, El Salvador, Guatemala, Puerto Rico, Costa Rica, Cuba and Brazil. P. coffeae also occurs on coffee in India, Southeast Asia, Barbados, Martinique, and Tanzania, Madagascar and in Indochina. In Java and India it is a very damaging and major pest of coffee (Campos et al., 1990). P. coffeae is the most destructive nematode of Coffea arabica in South India (Palanichamy, 1973). The use of nematicides to control P. coffeae can increase coffee yields by 28% (Figueroa, 1978).

                                                  Ginger, Turmeric

                                                  P. coffeae is widely distributed on ginger and turmeric in Kerala and Himachal Pradesh in India (Koshy and Bridge, 1990) where it is the cause of 'ginger yellows' and infects both roots and rhizomes (Kaur and Sharma, 1990). It has also been found in Sikkim associated with rotting of ginger rhizomes (J Bridge, CABI Bioscience, Egham, UK, personal communication).

                                                  Citrus

                                                  P. coffeae is not universally found on citrus but, where it occurs, field damage can be severe depending on the rootstock. Growth reduction in young trees can be 49-80% in the United States and fruit yields on rough lemon and sour orange rootstocks can be 143% and 231% higher, respectively, than trees infected with P. coffeae in the first bearing year, and 220% and 271% more in the second year (O'Bannon and Tomerlin, 1973).

                                                  Ramie (Boehmeria nivea)

                                                  P. coffeae has been shown to cause a serious root rot of this fibre crop in China resulting in significant yield decrease. Use of nematicides can give yield increases ranging from 11 to 60% (China, 1990).

                                                  Diagnosis

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                                                  Nematodes are extracted from plant tissues and soils using standard nematological extraction techniques. In bananas and related crops, nematode damage is sometimes assessed by recording the incidence of uprooting per hectare per month. This may also be correlated with assessments of necrosis on primary roots and corms. These techniques can be used by those who are familiar with nematode symptoms but care should be taken not to confuse lesions caused by plant parasitic nematodes with those resulting from other root-infesting pests and pathogens.

                                                  In yams, the incidence and extent of dry rot disease, caused by P. coffeae, in tubers, can be assessed by direct observation. In tubers without obvious external symptoms of damage, the surface layers must be removed, or the tubers sectioned, to determine the presence of dry rot. Nematodes are found in yam soil and roots which can be sampled, particularly at the end of the growing season. However, most nematodes are found in tuber tissues and sampling these tissues is the most appropriate means of assessing populations.

                                                  Peelings of known thickness (1 or 2 cm) are cut from tubers. These are chopped finely, teased apart or, preferably, macerated before placing on a support tissue or sieve in water. Between 30 and 50% of nematodes emerge from tissues in the first 3 days but they continue migrating from the tissues for over 20 days.

                                                  Detection and Inspection

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                                                  P. coffeae can be detected by extraction from root, corm, tuber and rhizome tissues of plants showing damage symptoms. It can also be found in soil extracts.

                                                  Similarities to Other Species/Conditions

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                                                  P. coffeae is similar to several other species of Pratylenchus and may be confused with Radopholus similis by a non-expert. Recent approaches to the taxonomy of the genus involve molecular methodologies in an attempt to more accurately characterize the many described species (Duncan et al., 1999; Orui and Mizukubo, 1999; Uehara et al., 1999).

                                                  The nematodes, and the symptoms produced, are similar to those of other lesion nematodes of the genus Pratylenchus, and also those of the burrowing nematode, R. similis. Symptoms of dry rot disease in yam tubers are identical to those caused by the nematode Scutellonema bradys.

                                                  Prevention and Control

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                                                  Due to the variable regulations around (de)registration of pesticides, your national list of registered pesticides or relevant authority should be consulted to determine which products are legally allowed for use in your country when considering chemical control. Pesticides should always be used in a lawful manner, consistent with the product's label.

                                                  Cultural Control

                                                  In yams, the use of plant material which is free of nematodes and dry rot disease is an effective means of controlling or reducing the damage caused by P. coffeae. Central or distal tuber pieces, which generally contain lowest number of P. coffeae, are recommended as propagative material. Seed tubers showing symptoms of dry rot (cracking and flaking) should not be used for planting.

                                                  Any foliar material used for propagation should be completely free of P. coffeae. Yams, such as Dioscorea bulbifera and some forms of D. alata, can be readily propagated from bulbils or aerial tubers. A number of yams, such as D. alata, D. rotundata and D. dumetorum, can be produced from vine cuttings. Even true seed can be used for propagating D. rotundata.

                                                  Although these methods of propagation are not a practical means of producing ware tubers, they can be used to produce nematode-free seed tubers. Producing large numbers of seed tubers from relatively few yams by growing 'microsetts' or 'minisetts' cut from mature tubers (IITA, 1984) effectively produces nematode-free propagation material if clean, healthy 'mother seed yams' are selected (Jatala and Bridge, 1990).

                                                  In bananas, planting nematode disease-free suckers is recommended. Some growers or organizations maintain 'disease-free' nurseries from which new planting material, usually sword suckers, is collected. More commonly, planting material is taken from existing banana fields and these are more likely to be infested with nematodes. If the external tissue of the corm has purple or reddish-brown lesions, these, together with root stumps and adhering soil should be removed with a machete (pared) until only white corm tissue is exposed.

                                                  Paring suckers should take place away from the field, and corms with severe lesions should be discarded. Although useful, the paring technique may never be totally effective in removing all nematode infection; this treatment is often complemented by dipping suckers in a nematicidal solution or, more effectively, by coating them with a nematicidal mud.

                                                  In Côte d'Ivoire, it is recommended practice to store large corms in the sun for 2 weeks prior to planting; populations of Radopholus similis in the corm tissue can decline by as much as 80%. The most reliable means of avoiding the introduction of the nematode is to use completely nematode-free banana plantlets grown from meristem cultures (Quénéhervé and Cadet, 1985; Gowen and Quénéhervé, 1990).

                                                  Hot-Water Treatment

                                                  Bananas

                                                  The immersion of banana suckers in water held at a constant 55°C for periods of 15-25 minutes has been a commercial practice in Australia and Central and South America (Stover, 1972). However, the technique is difficult to manage because of the critical balance that is required to achieve a temperature that is lethal to nematodes in the corm tissue but does not cause permanent damage to the plant. This factor can also be important if suckers are not of uniform size.

                                                  Yams

                                                  In yam tubers, theoretical, but not always practical, control of P. coffeae can be achieved by hot water treatment. The immersion of tubers in hot water can reduce tuber populations of P. coffeae considerably, but rarely eliminates them without damage to the tuber.

                                                  Hot water at 46-52°C for 15-30 minutes is recommended for control of P. coffeae in D. rotundata tubers. The use of seed tubers with extreme dry rot should be avoided as treatment of these tubers is less effective. Treatments in water at 51°C for 15-45 minutes also effectively suppresses populations of P. coffeae and dry rot in D. rotundata tubers, and also increases vine growth. However, hot water treatment can cause severe physiological damage (Acosta and Ayala, 1976; Coates-Beckford and Brathwaite, 1977; Thompson et al., 1973).

                                                  Chemical Control

                                                  Nematicides are widely used by commercial banana growers producing fruit for the international export trade. Less specialized production, serving local markets, may not justify the high cost of chemical treatment. A number of organophosphate, oxime carbamate and carbamate nematicides are used on bananas either as granular or emulsifiable concentrate formulations.

                                                  Nematicides have been successfully used to control P. coffeae in coffee nurseries in Central America. Effective control of P. coffeae can be achieved with organocarbamate and organophosphate nematicides under field conditions.

                                                  Resistant Varieties

                                                  Increasing work is being done on assessing varietal resistance to P. coffeae. Price et al. (1996) reviewed techniques for field screening of Musa germplasm. Binks and Gowen (1996) also did field evaluation of Musa germplasm against P. coffeae and Radopholus similis. Banana cultivars were screened by Collingborn and Gowen (1997), the varieties Kunnan and Paka being considered highly resistant whereas Pisang Sipulu, Pisang Tongat and Pisang Mas were not considered to be resistant to the nematode. Collingborne et al. (1998) screened Indian cultivars of Musa for resistance or tolerance to P. coffeae and found that Yamgambi km5, Kunnan and Paka were most resistant. Stoffelen et al. (1999) investigated the host plant response of 13 Musa genotypes from Malaysia and Vietnam. Although differences in susceptibility between cultivars were observed, no resistance was detected. Stoffelen et al. (1999) also screened 32 Papua New Guinea banana varieties against P. coffeae, but none showed resistance to P. coffeae. Wiryadiputra (1996) tested 22 genotypes of Robusta coffee for resistance and found that BP961 was the most resistant with BP959, BP973, BP991 and BP993 also showing resistance. BP42, BP358 and BP409 were considered susceptible.

                                                  References

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