Pratylenchus coffeae (banana root nematode)
- Taxonomic Tree
- Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature
- Distribution Table
- Risk of Introduction
- Hosts/Species Affected
- Host Plants and Other Plants Affected
- Growth Stages
- List of Symptoms/Signs
- Biology and Ecology
- Notes on Natural Enemies
- Pathway Vectors
- Plant Trade
- Detection and Inspection
- Similarities to Other Species/Conditions
- Prevention and Control
- Distribution Maps
Don't need the entire report?
Generate a print friendly version containing only the sections you need.Generate report
PicturesTop of page
IdentityTop of page
Preferred Scientific Name
- Pratylenchus coffeae (Zimmermann 1898) Filipjev & Schuurmans Steckhoven 1941
Preferred Common Name
- banana root nematode
Other Scientific Names
- Anguillulina mahogani (Cobb, 1920) Goodey, 1932
- Pratylenchus mahogani (Cobb, 1920) Filipjev, 1936
- Pratylenchus musicola
- Tylenchus coffeae Zimmermann, 1898
- Tylenchus mahogani Cobb, 1920
- Tylenchus musicola Cobb, 1919
International Common Names
- English: nematode, Root lesion
- Spanish: nematodo de la raiz del platano; nemátodo de la raíz del plátano; nemátodo de las lesiones; nematodo lesionador del cafeto (Mexico)
- French: nematose des racines
Local Common Names
- Japan: Negusare-sentyubyo
- PRATCO (Pratylenchus coffeae)
Taxonomic TreeTop of page
- Domain: Eukaryota
- Kingdom: Metazoa
- Phylum: Nematoda
- Family: Pratylenchidae
- Genus: Pratylenchus
- Species: Pratylenchus coffeae
Notes on Taxonomy and NomenclatureTop of page
DescriptionTop of page
Males: L = 0.45-0.70 mm; a = 26-40; b = 6-7; c = 17-24; T = 45-52; spear = 15-17 µm. (After Loof, 1960): 69 females: L = 0.37-0.70 (0.53) mm; a = 17.7-30.5 (23.7); b = 5.0-7.8 (6.8); c = 13.7-23.9 (19.0); V = 63-2675.8-84.2 (80.1); spear = 14-17 µm.
10 males: L = 0.41-0.56 (0.48) mm; a = 23.8-31.4 (27.4); b = 5.9-7.7 (6.5); c = 17.6-23.3 (19.1); T = 37-58 (48); spear = 14-15 µm.
Description (after Siddiqi, 1972):
Body rather slender in young and fatter in older specimens, distinctly annulated. Lateral fields normally with four, sometimes five or six incisures. Lip region slightly set off, with two distinct annules; occasional specimens have three annules on one side of the lip region.
Basal knobs of spear round to oblong. Post-uterine branch 1.0 to 1.5 times body-width long, but may be up to 90 µm long, with a terminal rudimentary ovary which sometimes has distinct oocytes. Spermathecae large, broadly oval to nearly rounded, often with sperms. Intra-uterine eggs may contain embryos.
Tail 2.0-2.5 times anal body width in young females, 1.5-2.0 times anal body width in old specimens; terminus indented, sometimes appearing smoothly rounded, truncate or irregularly crenate.
Abundant. Spicules slender with well marked manubria and ventrally arcuate shaft, 16-20 µm long; gubernaculum 4-7 µm in length; hypoptygma prominent; bursal margins faintly crenate.
DistributionTop of page
The record for Chile in CABI/EPPO (2000) and previous editions of this Compendium was based on incorrect information. CABI was notified in November 2005 that this species is not present in Chile (I Moreno, Servicio Agrícola y Ganadero (SAG), Chile, personal communication, 2005).
Distribution TableTop of page
The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.Last updated: 15 Jan 2021
|Continent/Country/Region||Distribution||Last Reported||Origin||First Reported||Invasive||Reference||Notes|
|Congo, Democratic Republic of the||Present, Widespread|
|Côte d'Ivoire||Present, Localized|
|South Africa||Present, Widespread|
|-Himachal Pradesh||Present, Widespread|
|-Ryukyu Islands||Present, Widespread|
|Turkey||Present||Original citation: Akgül and Ökten (2001)|
|-Canary Islands||Present, Widespread|
|Costa Rica||Present, Widespread|
|Dominican Republic||Present, Widespread|
|El Salvador||Present, Widespread|
|Trinidad and Tobago||Present, Widespread|
|United States||Present, Widespread|
|-New South Wales||Present|
|Papua New Guinea||Present|
|-Rio de Janeiro||Present|
|-Rio Grande do Norte||Present|
|Chile||Absent, Invalid presence record(s)|
Risk of IntroductionTop of page
HabitatTop of page
Hosts/Species AffectedTop of page
Host Plants and Other Plants AffectedTop of page
|Anacardium occidentale (cashew nut)||Anacardiaceae||Habitat/association|
|Areca catechu (betelnut palm)||Arecaceae||Habitat/association|
|Cocos nucifera (coconut)||Arecaceae||Habitat/association|
|Colocasia esculenta (taro)||Araceae||Main|
|Curcuma longa (turmeric)||Zingiberaceae||Main|
|Dioscorea batatas (Chinese yam)||Dioscoreaceae||Other|
|Elettaria cardamomum (cardamom)||Zingiberaceae||Main|
|Euonymus alatus (winged spindle)||Celastraceae||Other|
|Ficus carica (common fig)||Moraceae||Main|
|Musa textilis (manila hemp)||Musaceae||Main|
|Musa x paradisiaca (plantain)||Musaceae||Main|
|Piper nigrum (black pepper)||Piperaceae||Main|
|Sesamum indicum (sesame)||Pedaliaceae||Other|
|Solanum tuberosum (potato)||Solanaceae||Main|
|Theobroma cacao (cocoa)||Malvaceae||Main|
|Zea mays (maize)||Poaceae||Main|
|Zingiber officinale (ginger)||Zingiberaceae||Main|
Growth StagesTop of page
SymptomsTop of page
Bananas, Plantains and Musa textilis
P. coffeae causes damage symptoms similar to those observed with other root lesion nematodes such as Radopholus similis: stunting; lengthening of the vegetative cycle; reduction in the size and number of leaves, and in bunch weight; reduction of the productive life of the plantation; toppling. Roots heavily infested by P. coffeae have extensive black or purple necrosis of epidermal and cortical tissue, often accompanied by secondary rotting and root breakage. Similar necrosis can be observed on the outer parts of the corm.
P. coffeae causes dry rot symptoms in yam tubers. Brown, irregular dry rot extends 1-2 cm into the outer tissues of D. rotundata tubers, but can occur as deep as 5 cm in tubers of D. alata. The dry rot can be more pronounced in the oldest apical portions of the tubers, adjacent to the vines or may even be restricted to these portions in newly harvested tubers.
External symptoms on tubers of D. alata, D. cayenensis and D. rotundata are deep cracks, a corky appearance, exposed dark-brown rotted areas and diseased tubers, which are spongy to the touch. Necrosis or rotting, caused by P. coffeae, has also been observed in tubers of D. esculenta and D. trifida. Above-ground symptoms of damage are not as obvious. Vines from tubers which are severely infected with P. coffeae are unthrifty and shorter than normal plants.
Using planting material with a high proportion of dry rot can result in tubers not sprouting and poor stands in yam fields (Acosta, 1974; Acosta and Ayala, 1975; Bridge and Page, 1984; Coates-Beckford and Brathwaite, 1977; Thompson et al., 1973).
Coffee roots infected by P. coffeae turn yellow, then brown and most of the lateral roots are rotten. Infected plants appear stunted and have few small, chlorotic leaves. The earliest symptoms of infection in newly transplanted trees are yellowing of the leaves, loss of young primary branches and stunting of the shoot. A gradual wilt sets in, followed by death of the whole tree. Severely infected plants may die prematurely.
In the field, symptoms may occur in patches with yields reducing according to disease severity. Lesions occur on roots and, as a consequence, the whole root system is destroyed (Campos et al., 1990; Monteiro and Lordello, 1974; Whitehead, 1969).
Ginger and Turmeric
P. coffeae causes rhizome rot and leaf yellowing of ginger, and is associated with discoloration and rotting of the rhizomes of turmeric. At the advanced stages of infection, the rhizomes of turmeric become deep-red to brown in colour, less turgid, and wrinkled with rot symptoms. Internally, affected rhizomes have dark-brown, necrotic lesions (Sarma et al., 1974; Koshy and Bridge, 1990).
List of Symptoms/SignsTop of page
|Leaves / abnormal colours|
|Roots / cortex with lesions|
|Roots / necrotic streaks or lesions|
|Roots / reduced root system|
|Stems / stunting or rosetting|
|Vegetative organs / internal rotting or discoloration|
|Vegetative organs / surface cracking|
|Vegetative organs / surface lesions or discoloration|
|Whole plant / dwarfing|
|Whole plant / uprooted or toppled|
Biology and EcologyTop of page
The developmental stages of P. coffeae infesting coffee in Java are as follows: the first moult takes place within the egg, three moults occur outside, and the eggs hatch in 6-8 days at 28-30°C.
In Japan, adult P. coffeae appeared about 2 weeks after hatching in potato tubers; the average lifespan was about 27 days at 25-30°C (Siddiqi, 1972).
P. coffeae has a life cycle of 21-28 days in yam roots and tubers. It can survive in moist soil for up to 8 months in the absence of host plants (Colbran, 1954).
The optimum temperature for reproduction in citrus roots is 29.5°C (Radewald et al., 1971). P. coffeae reproduces and multiplies in stored yams and is disseminated in seed tubers. It can also be introduced into yam fields in the roots and tissues of other crops. The nematodes can survive in field soil between yam crops on other hosts.
Notes on Natural EnemiesTop of page
Pathway VectorsTop of page
Plant TradeTop of page
|Plant parts liable to carry the pest in trade/transport||Pest stages||Borne internally||Borne externally||Visibility of pest or symptoms|
|Bark||adults; eggs; juveniles||Yes||Pest or symptoms not visible to the naked eye but usually visible under light microscope|
|Bulbs/Tubers/Corms/Rhizomes||adults; eggs; juveniles||Yes||Pest or symptoms not visible to the naked eye but usually visible under light microscope|
|Growing medium accompanying plants||adults; eggs; juveniles||Yes||Pest or symptoms not visible to the naked eye but usually visible under light microscope|
|Roots||adults; eggs; juveniles||Yes||Pest or symptoms not visible to the naked eye but usually visible under light microscope|
|Seedlings/Micropropagated plants||adults; eggs; juveniles||Yes||Pest or symptoms not visible to the naked eye but usually visible under light microscope|
|Stems (above ground)/Shoots/Trunks/Branches||adults; eggs; juveniles||Yes||Pest or symptoms not visible to the naked eye but usually visible under light microscope|
|Plant parts not known to carry the pest in trade/transport|
|Fruits (inc. pods)|
|True seeds (inc. grain)|
ImpactTop of page
P. coffeae is a major pest of bananas, plantains and abaca, yams, coffee, ginger, citrus and other crops.
P. coffeae is of particular importance on bananas in the Pacific island countries (Bridge, 1988) and parts of Africa (Sarah 1989), and on bananas, plantains and abaca (Musa textilis) in Cuba, Central and South America (Gowen and Quénéhervé, 1990). P. coffeae rarely occurs as the only nematode pest on the roots of Musa species. Although localized in South Africa, where it is found as the main nematode pest, the estimated crop losses can be as high as 80% (Sarah, 1989). In Cuba, high population densities cause toppling of the plants and limit production of the crop; economic threshold densities of the nematode have been estimated at 5000-10,000 nematodes per 100 g roots in good soils but as low as 1000-5000 nematodes per 100 g roots in soils with low fertility (Fernández and Ortega, 1998).
Yams (Dioscorea spp.)
P. coffeae has been recorded as a parasite of yams in Barbados, Jamaica and Puerto Rico, and in the Pacific islands of Papua New Guinea, Fiji, Niue, Tonga, Vanuatu and Solomon Islands. P. coffeae is the cause of tuber dry rot disease of yams, known locally in Jamaica as burn. (Ayala and Acosta, 1971; Brathwaite, 1977; Coates-Beckford and Brathwaite, 1977; Bridge, 1988).
P. coffeae is important as a parasite of the tubers reducing their edible portions, marketable value and, particularly, their storage qualities. In the regions of the world where the nematode occurs it can be very widespread. In Jamaica, 67 to 100% of D. rotundata and D. cayenensis tubers were found to be infected with P. coffeae (Thompson et al., 1973), and over 50% of D. alata tubers examined in Papua New Guinea had obvious signs of dry rot and were infested with P. coffeae sometimes in numbers in excess of 60,000 nematodes per 50 g tissues (Bridge and Page, 1984). Where there are obvious signs of dry rot in the tubers the likelihood of complete rot of tubers during storage is high. Dry rot of yams alone causes a marked reduction in the quality, marketable value and edible portions of tubers, and these reductions are more severe in stored yams.
Soil populations of 600 P. coffeae per vine of D. rotundata can produce significant tuber damage, and 1000 nematodes/plant can cause complete deterioration and severe reduction in tuber quality (Acosta and Ayala, 1975). However, neither of these populations causes reduction in total weight of harvested tubers. If seed tubers are badly affected by dry rot but survive storage, they can be so weakened that sprouting does not occur (Acosta and Ayala, 1976; Coates-Beckford and Brathwaite, 1977). Control of P. coffeae in seed pieces by chemical treatment can increase the yield of high quality tubers from 0.03 to 6.09 tonnes per hectare (Roman et al., 1984). Similarly, disinfesting tuber planting material with hot water treatment to control P. coffeae can increase tuber yields by 23% (Hutton et al., 1982).
P. coffeae is found as pest of coffee in Dominican Republic, El Salvador, Guatemala, Puerto Rico, Costa Rica, Cuba and Brazil. P. coffeae also occurs on coffee in India, Southeast Asia, Barbados, Martinique, and Tanzania, Madagascar and in Indochina. In Java and India it is a very damaging and major pest of coffee (Campos et al., 1990). P. coffeae is the most destructive nematode of Coffea arabica in South India (Palanichamy, 1973). The use of nematicides to control P. coffeae can increase coffee yields by 28% (Figueroa, 1978).
P. coffeae is widely distributed on ginger and turmeric in Kerala and Himachal Pradesh in India (Koshy and Bridge, 1990) where it is the cause of 'ginger yellows' and infects both roots and rhizomes (Kaur and Sharma, 1990). It has also been found in Sikkim associated with rotting of ginger rhizomes (J Bridge, CABI Bioscience, Egham, UK, personal communication).
P. coffeae is not universally found on citrus but, where it occurs, field damage can be severe depending on the rootstock. Growth reduction in young trees can be 49-80% in the United States and fruit yields on rough lemon and sour orange rootstocks can be 143% and 231% higher, respectively, than trees infected with P. coffeae in the first bearing year, and 220% and 271% more in the second year (O'Bannon and Tomerlin, 1973).
Ramie (Boehmeria nivea)
P. coffeae has been shown to cause a serious root rot of this fibre crop in China resulting in significant yield decrease. Use of nematicides can give yield increases ranging from 11 to 60% (China, 1990).
DiagnosisTop of page
In yams, the incidence and extent of dry rot disease, caused by P. coffeae, in tubers, can be assessed by direct observation. In tubers without obvious external symptoms of damage, the surface layers must be removed, or the tubers sectioned, to determine the presence of dry rot. Nematodes are found in yam soil and roots which can be sampled, particularly at the end of the growing season. However, most nematodes are found in tuber tissues and sampling these tissues is the most appropriate means of assessing populations.
Peelings of known thickness (1 or 2 cm) are cut from tubers. These are chopped finely, teased apart or, preferably, macerated before placing on a support tissue or sieve in water. Between 30 and 50% of nematodes emerge from tissues in the first 3 days but they continue migrating from the tissues for over 20 days.
Detection and InspectionTop of page
Similarities to Other Species/ConditionsTop of page
The nematodes, and the symptoms produced, are similar to those of other lesion nematodes of the genus Pratylenchus, and also those of the burrowing nematode, R. similis. Symptoms of dry rot disease in yam tubers are identical to those caused by the nematode Scutellonema bradys.
Prevention and ControlTop of page
Due to the variable regulations around (de)registration of pesticides, your national list of registered pesticides or relevant authority should be consulted to determine which products are legally allowed for use in your country when considering chemical control. Pesticides should always be used in a lawful manner, consistent with the product's label.Cultural Control
In yams, the use of plant material which is free of nematodes and dry rot disease is an effective means of controlling or reducing the damage caused by P. coffeae. Central or distal tuber pieces, which generally contain lowest number of P. coffeae, are recommended as propagative material. Seed tubers showing symptoms of dry rot (cracking and flaking) should not be used for planting.
Any foliar material used for propagation should be completely free of P. coffeae. Yams, such as Dioscorea bulbifera and some forms of D. alata, can be readily propagated from bulbils or aerial tubers. A number of yams, such as D. alata, D. rotundata and D. dumetorum, can be produced from vine cuttings. Even true seed can be used for propagating D. rotundata.
Although these methods of propagation are not a practical means of producing ware tubers, they can be used to produce nematode-free seed tubers. Producing large numbers of seed tubers from relatively few yams by growing 'microsetts' or 'minisetts' cut from mature tubers (IITA, 1984) effectively produces nematode-free propagation material if clean, healthy 'mother seed yams' are selected (Jatala and Bridge, 1990).
In bananas, planting nematode disease-free suckers is recommended. Some growers or organizations maintain 'disease-free' nurseries from which new planting material, usually sword suckers, is collected. More commonly, planting material is taken from existing banana fields and these are more likely to be infested with nematodes. If the external tissue of the corm has purple or reddish-brown lesions, these, together with root stumps and adhering soil should be removed with a machete (pared) until only white corm tissue is exposed.
Paring suckers should take place away from the field, and corms with severe lesions should be discarded. Although useful, the paring technique may never be totally effective in removing all nematode infection; this treatment is often complemented by dipping suckers in a nematicidal solution or, more effectively, by coating them with a nematicidal mud.
In Côte d'Ivoire, it is recommended practice to store large corms in the sun for 2 weeks prior to planting; populations of Radopholus similis in the corm tissue can decline by as much as 80%. The most reliable means of avoiding the introduction of the nematode is to use completely nematode-free banana plantlets grown from meristem cultures (Quénéhervé and Cadet, 1985; Gowen and Quénéhervé, 1990).
The immersion of banana suckers in water held at a constant 55°C for periods of 15-25 minutes has been a commercial practice in Australia and Central and South America (Stover, 1972). However, the technique is difficult to manage because of the critical balance that is required to achieve a temperature that is lethal to nematodes in the corm tissue but does not cause permanent damage to the plant. This factor can also be important if suckers are not of uniform size.
In yam tubers, theoretical, but not always practical, control of P. coffeae can be achieved by hot water treatment. The immersion of tubers in hot water can reduce tuber populations of P. coffeae considerably, but rarely eliminates them without damage to the tuber.
Hot water at 46-52°C for 15-30 minutes is recommended for control of P. coffeae in D. rotundata tubers. The use of seed tubers with extreme dry rot should be avoided as treatment of these tubers is less effective. Treatments in water at 51°C for 15-45 minutes also effectively suppresses populations of P. coffeae and dry rot in D. rotundata tubers, and also increases vine growth. However, hot water treatment can cause severe physiological damage (Acosta and Ayala, 1976; Coates-Beckford and Brathwaite, 1977; Thompson et al., 1973).
Nematicides are widely used by commercial banana growers producing fruit for the international export trade. Less specialized production, serving local markets, may not justify the high cost of chemical treatment. A number of organophosphate, oxime carbamate and carbamate nematicides are used on bananas either as granular or emulsifiable concentrate formulations.
Nematicides have been successfully used to control P. coffeae in coffee nurseries in Central America. Effective control of P. coffeae can be achieved with organocarbamate and organophosphate nematicides under field conditions.
Increasing work is being done on assessing varietal resistance to P. coffeae. Price et al. (1996) reviewed techniques for field screening of Musa germplasm. Binks and Gowen (1996) also did field evaluation of Musa germplasm against P. coffeae and Radopholus similis. Banana cultivars were screened by Collingborn and Gowen (1997), the varieties Kunnan and Paka being considered highly resistant whereas Pisang Sipulu, Pisang Tongat and Pisang Mas were not considered to be resistant to the nematode. Collingborne et al. (1998) screened Indian cultivars of Musa for resistance or tolerance to P. coffeae and found that Yamgambi km5, Kunnan and Paka were most resistant. Stoffelen et al. (1999) investigated the host plant response of 13 Musa genotypes from Malaysia and Vietnam. Although differences in susceptibility between cultivars were observed, no resistance was detected. Stoffelen et al. (1999) also screened 32 Papua New Guinea banana varieties against P. coffeae, but none showed resistance to P. coffeae. Wiryadiputra (1996) tested 22 genotypes of Robusta coffee for resistance and found that BP961 was the most resistant with BP959, BP973, BP991 and BP993 also showing resistance. BP42, BP358 and BP409 were considered susceptible.
ReferencesTop of page
Ayala A, Acosta N, 1971. Observations on yam (Dioscorea alata) nematodes. Nematropica, 1:39-40
Blair BL, Stirling GR, Pattemore JA, Whittle PJL, 1999. Occurrence of pest nematodes in Burdekin and central Queensland sugarcane fields. Proceedings of the 1999 Conference of the Australian Society of Sugar Cane Technologists, Townsville, Queensland, Australia, 27-30 April 1999., 227-233; 25 ref
Braithwaite CWD, 1977. Outbreaks and new records. Barbados. FAO Plant Protection Bulletin, 25(4):210
Bridge J, 1988. Plant-parasitic nematode problems in the Pacific Islands. Journal of Nematology, 20(2):173-183
Cadet P, Berg E van den, Nema L, Van den Berg E, 1993. Parasitic nematodes of flower crops in Martinique. PHM Revue Horticole, No. 341, 53-58
Campos VP, Sivapalan P, Gnanapragasam NC, 1990. Nematode parasites of coffee, cocoa and tea. In: Luc M, Sikora RA, Bridge J, eds. Plant Parasitic Nematodes in Subtropical and Tropical Agriculture. Wallingford, UK: CAB International, 387-430
Castro JMC, Campos VP, Pozza EA, Naves RL, Andrade Júnior WC, Dutra MR, Coimbra JL, Maximiniano C, Silva JRC, 2008. Survey of phytonematodes associated with coffee plants in the South of Minas Gerais State, Brazil. (Levantamento de fitonematóides em cafezais do Sul de Minas Gerais.) Nematologia Brasileira, 32(1):56-64
Chau NN, Thanh NV, Waele D De, Geraert E De, Waele D, 1997. Plant-parasitic nematodes associated with banana in Vietnam. International Journal of Nematology, 7:122-126
Coates-Beckford PL, Braithwaite CWD, 1977. Comparison of various treatments for the control of nematodes in the initial growth of yam. Nematropica, 7:20-26
Colbran RC, 1954. Problems in tree replacement. II. The effect of certain methods of management on the nematode fauna of an orchard soil. Journal of Australian Institute of Agricultural Science, 20:234-237
Colbran RC, 1964. Studies of plant and soil nematodes. 7. Queensland records of the Order Tylenchida and genera Trichodorus and Xiphinema. Queensland Journal of Agricultural Science, 21:77-123
Collingborn FMB, Gowen SR, Galan-Sauco V, 1998. Screening Indian cultivars of Musa for resistance or tolerance to Radopholus similis and Pratylenchus coffeae. Proceedings of the first international symposium on banana in the subtropics, Puerto de la Cruz, Tenerife, Spain, 10-14 November, 1997, Acta Horticulturae, No. 490:369-372
CSIRO, 1973. CSIRO Division of Horticultural Research, Report 1971-73. Adelaide, Australia, 46-47, 48-55
Das S, Das SN, 1986. Host range of Pratylenchus coffeae. Indian Journal of Nematology, 16:180-184
Duncan LW, Inserra RN, Thomas WK, Dunn D, Mustika I, Frisse LM, Mendes ML, Morris K, Kaplan DT, 1999. Molecular and morphological analysis of isolates of Pratylenchus coffeae and closely related species. Nematropica, 29(1):61-80; 37 ref
EPPO, 2014. PQR database. Paris, France: European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization. http://www.eppo.int/DATABASES/pqr/pqr.htm
Fargette M, Quénéhervé P, 1988. Populations of nematodes in soils under banana cv. Poyo, in the Ivory Coast. 1. The nematofauna occurring in the banana producing areas. Revue de Nematologie, 11(2):239-244
Fauna Europaea, 2014. Fauna Europaea version 2. Web Service available online at http://www.faunaeur.org
Figueroa A, 1978. Effects of furadan 5G on productivity of Caturra coffee. Nematropica, 8:10
Geraert E, 1962. De nematoden-fauna in en om de wortels van Musa paradisiaca normalis. In: Bijdragen tot de kennis der platenparasitaire en der vrijlevende nematoden van Kongo I-V. Ghent, Netherlands: Instituut voor Dierkunde, Rijksuniversiteit, 1-73
Gowen SR, Quénéhervé, P, 1990. Nematode parasites of bananas, plantains and abaca. In: Luc M, Sikora RA, Bridge J, eds. Plant Parasitic Nematodes in Subtropical and Tropical Agriculture. Wallingford, UK: CAB International, 431-460
Grandison GS, 1990. Report on a survey of plant parasitic nematodes in the Cook Islands. Suva, Fiji: South Pacific Commission Plant Protection Service, 9 pp
Grandison GS, 1996. Plant-parasitic nematodes of American Samoa. Technical Paper, South Pacific Commission, No. 205, 11pp
Harding RB, Wicks TJ, 2007. Verticillium dahliae and Pratylenchus spp: populations in potato soils and plants in Australia. Australasian Plant Pathology, 36(1):62-67. http://www.publish.csiro.au/nid/39.htm
IITA, 1984. A system to increase seed yam production. Research Highlights for 1983. Ibadan, Nigeria: International Institute of Tropical Agriculture, 103-107
Inagaki H, 1984. Nematodes harmful to crop production in Japan. Soilborne crop diseases in Asia. Taipei, Taiwan, Republic of China: Food and Fertilizer Technology Center for the Asian and Pacific Region, 18-30
Jatala P, Bridge J, 1990. Nematode parasites of root and tuber crops. In: Luc M, Sikora RA, Bridge J, eds. Plant Parasitic Nematodes in Subtropical and Tropical Agriculture. Wallingford, UK: CAB International, 137-180
Keetch DP, Buckley NH, 1984. Check list of Plant parasitic nematodes of southern Africa. Technical Communication No 195, Dept of Agriculture, South Africa
Kermarrec A, Degras L, Anais A, 1988. A severe parasitic disease of Grosse-Caille yams (Dioscorea cayennensis rotundata) caused by the root lesion nematode (Pratylenchus coffeae). Bulletin Agronomique Antilles-Guyane, No. 7:36-38; 6 ref
Khan SA, Khan HA, Saeed M, Shakir MA, 1989. Nematodes associated with nurseries in Karachi. Part II Croton (Codiaeum variegatum L.) A.H.L. Juss. Pakistan Journal of Scientific and Industrial Research, 32(9):603-607; 13 ref
Knobloch NA, Laughlin CW, 1973. A collection of plant parasitic nematodes (Nematoda) from Mexico with description sof three new species. Nematologica, 19(2):205-217
Koshy PK, Bridge J, 1990. Nematode parasites of spices. In: Luc M, Sikora RA, Bridge J, eds. Plant Parasitic Nematodes in Subtropical and Tropical Agriculture. Wallingford, UK: CAB International, 557-582
L=pez R, Salazar L, 1990. Morphology of some Pratylenchus spp. (Nemata: Pratylenchidae) found in Costa Rica, as seen with the scanning electron microscope. Agronomi^acute~a Costarricense, 14(2):189-195; 17 ref
Li HM, Xu JH, Shen PY, Cheng HR, 1999. Distribution and seasonal dynamic changes of nematode parasites in fig main growing areas in Jiangsu Province. Journal of Nanjing Agricultural University, 22:38-41
Li WeiFen, Yang YanLi, Li ShiKai, Hu XianQi, 2006. Preliminary investigation on parasitic nematode species of flowers and plants in Rosaceae. Southwest China Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 19(5):906-911
Li Yu, Xia YanHui, Liu YanKun, Hao PengHui, Sun BingJian, Li HongLian, Wang Ke, 2020. Discovery of root-lesion nematode, Pratylenchus coffeae, infesting sesame in China. Plant Disease, 104(6), 1873-1874. doi: 10.1094/PDIS-01-20-0194-PDN
Liu GK, Zhang SS, 1999. Identification of parasitic nematodes on longan in Fujian, China. Journal of Fujian Agricultural University, 1: 59-65
Loof PAA, 1960. Tijdschr. Pl. Ziekt, 66:29-90
Luqman-Khan M, Makhnotra AK, Khan ML, 1998. Occurrence and distribution of plant nematodes in ginger in Himachel Pradesh. Indian Journal of Nematology, 28:87-89
Maqbool MA, 1992. Distribution and host associations of nematodes in Pakistan. Karachi, Pakistan: National Nematological Research Centre, University of Karachi, 214 pp
Moura RM, Guimarães LMP, Maranhão SRVL, Pedrosa EMR, 2004. Atypical Pratylenchus coffeae disease observed in the state of Rio Grande do Norte. (Pratilencose atípica assinalada no estado do Rio Grande do Norte.) Fitopatologia Brasileira, 29(6):692. http://www.scielo.br/pdf/fb/v29n6/a21v29n6.pdf
Moura RMde, Albuquerque PH, Oliveira ISde, Torres GRde C, 2005. Effects of carbofuran application on commercial yam and seed tuber productions and on important plant parasitic nematode population densities associated to the crop. (Efeitos da aplicação de carbofuran sobre a produção de túberas comerciais e sementes de inhame da costa e sobre as densidades populacionais de importantes fitonematóides associados à cultura.) Nematologia Brasileira, 29(2):257-260
Oashi K, 1984. On the damage and ecological control of Pratylenchus coffeae infesting taro in south Kyushu. Japanese Journal of Nematology, 14:61-62
Pinochet J, Duarte O, 1986. Additional list of ornamental foliage plants host of the lesion nematode Pratylenchus coffeae. Nematropica, 16(1):11-19
Pinochet J, Sanchez L, Lafitte R, 1978. Plant parasitic nematodes associated with citrus in Honduras. FAO Plant Protection Bulletin, 26(2):58-62
Pourjam E, Kheiri A, Geraert E, 1997. The genus Pratylenchus Filip'jev, 1936 (Tylenchida: Pratylenchidae) from North of Iran. Mededelingen - Faculteit Landbouwkundige en Toegepaste Biologische Wetenschappen, Universiteit Gent, 62(3a):741-756; 25 ref
Price NS, McLaren CG, Frison EA, Horry JP, de Waele D, 1996. Techniques for field screening of Musa germplasm. New frontiers in resistance breeding for nematode, Fusarium and Sigatoka. Proceedings of the workshop held in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, 2-5 October, 1995, pp. 87-107
Quénéhervé, P, Cadet P, 1985. Etude de la dynamique de l'infestion en nématodes transmis par les rhizomes du bananier cv Poyo en Côte d'Ivoire. Revue de Nématologie, 8:257-263
RADEWALD JD, O'BANNON JH, TOMERLIN AT, 1971. Temperature effects on reproduction and pathogenicity of Pratylenchus coffeae and P. brachyurus and survival of P. coffeae in roots of Citrus jambhiri. Journal of Nematology, 3(4):390-394
Riggs RD, Slack DA, Fulton JP, 1956. Meadow nematode and its relation to decline of strawberry plants in Arkansas. Phytopathology, 46:24
Roman J, Oramas D, Green J, 1984. Use of oxamyl for the control of the nematodes in yam (Dioscorea rotundata Poir). Journal of Agriculture of University of Puerto Rico, 68(4):383-386
Ryss AY, Fam Tkhan' Bin', 1989. Plant-parasitic nematodes of the genus Pratylenchus from Vietnam. Trudy Zoologicheskogo Instituta, Akademiya Nauk SSSR, 194:60-64; [^italic~Tylenkhidy i Rabditidy Rastenii^breve~ i Nasekomykh (edited by A. Yu. Ryss^roman~)]; 2 ref
Sarah JL, 1989. Banana nematodes and their control in Africa. Nematropica, 19:199-215
Siddiqi, 1964. Studies of nematode root-rot of citrus in Uttar Pradesh, India. Proceedings of the Zoological Society, Calcutta, 17:67-75
Stoffelen R, Vu Thi Thanh Tam, Swennen RL, Waele Dde, 1999. Host plant response of banana (Musa spp.) cultivars from Southeast Asia to nematodes. International Journal of Nematology, 9(2):130-136; 29 ref
Stoyanov D, 1967. Nematodes parasitic on banana in Cuba and possibilities for their control. Revista Agricultura, Cuba, 1:9-47
Thompson AK, Been BO, Perkins C, 1973. Nematodes in stored yams. Experimental Agriculture, 9:281-286
Wehunt EJ, Edwards DJ, 1968. Radopholus similis and other nematode species on banana. In: Smart GC, Perry VG, eds. Tropical Nematology. Gainesville, USA: University of Florida Press
Whitehead AG, 1968. Nematodea. In: Le Pelley RH, ed. Pests of coffee. Longmans, Green and Co
Zinno Y, Igarashi Y, 1972. Distribution of plant parasitic nematodes associated with coniferous seedlings in Shikoku, Japan. Bulletin of the Government Forestry Experimental Station, Tokyo, No. 246:11-20
Anon, 1990. nnual Report 1989, Bvumbwe Agricultural Research Station - Plant Pathology., Bvumbwe, Malawi: Ministry of Agriculture, 6575.
Blair B L, Stirling G R, Pattemore J A, Whittle P J L, 1999. Occurrence of pest nematodes in Burdekin and central Queensland sugarcane fields. In: Proceedings of the 1999 Conference of the Australian Society of Sugar Cane Technologists, Townsville, Queensland, Australia, 27-30 April 1999. [Proceedings of the 1999 Conference of the Australian Society of Sugar Cane Technologists, Townsville, Queensland, Australia, 27-30 April 1999.], [ed. by Hogarth D M]. Brisbane, Australia: PK Editorial Services. 227-233.
Braithwaite CWD, 1977. Outbreaks and new records. Barbados. In: FAO Plant Protection Bulletin, 25 (4) 210.
CABI, Undated. Compendium record. Wallingford, UK: CABI
CABI, Undated a. CABI Compendium: Status as determined by CABI editor. Wallingford, UK: CABI
Castro J M C, Campos V P, Pozza E A, Naves R L, Andrade Júnior W C, Dutra M R, Coimbra J L, Maximiniano C, Silva J R C, 2008. Survey of phytonematodes associated with coffee plants in the South of Minas Gerais State, Brazil. (Levantamento de fitonematóides em cafezais do Sul de Minas Gerais.). Nematologia Brasileira. 32 (1), 56-64.
Colbran RC, 1964. Studies of plant and soil nematodes. 7. Queensland records of the Order Tylenchida and genera Trichodorus and Xiphinema. In: Queensland Journal of Agricultural Science, 21 77-123.
CSIRO, 1973. CSIRO Division of Horticultural Research, Report 1971-73., 46-47, 48-55 Adelaide, Australia:
Fargette M, Quénéhervé P, 1988. Populations of nematodes in soils under banana cv. Poyo, in the Ivory Coast. 1. The nematofauna occurring in the banana producing areas. Revue de Nématologie. 11 (2), 239-244.
Fauna Europaea, 2014. Fauna Europaea version 2., http://www.faunaeur.org
Geraert E, 1962. (De nematoden-fauna in en om de wortels van Musa paradisiaca normalis). In: Bijdragen tot de kennis der platenparasitaire en der vrijlevende nematoden van Kongo I-V, Ghent, Netherlands: Instituut voor Dierkunde, Rijksuniversiteit. 1-73.
Grandison GS, 1990. Report on a survey of plant parasitic nematodes in the Cook Islands., Suva, Fiji: South Pacific Commission Plant Protection Service. 9 pp.
Harding R B, Wicks T J, 2007. Verticillium dahliae and Pratylenchus spp: populations in potato soils and plants in Australia. Australasian Plant Pathology. 36 (1), 62-67. http://www.publish.csiro.au/nid/39.htm DOI:10.1071/AP06082
Inagaki H, 1984. Nematodes harmful to crop production in Japan. In: Soilborne crop diseases in Asia, Taipei, Taiwan, China: Food and Fertilizer Technology Center for the Asian and Pacific Region. 18-30.
Keetch DP, Buckley NH, 1984. Check list of Plant parasitic nematodes of southern Africa. In: Technical Communication No 195, South Africa: Dept of Agriculture.
Kermarrec A, Degras L, Anais A, 1988. A severe parasitic disease of Grosse-Caille yams (Dioscorea cayennensis rotundata) caused by the root lesion nematode (Pratylenchus coffeae). (Une grave maladie parasitaire de d'igname Grosse-Caille (Dioscorea cayennensis rotundata) due au nématode des lésions racinaires (Pratylenchus coffeae).). Bulletin Agronomique Antilles-Guyane. 36-38.
Khan S A, Khan H A, Saeed M, Shakir M A, 1989. Nematodes associated with nurseries in Karachi. Part II Croton (Codiaeum variegatum L.) A.H.L. Juss. Pakistan Journal of Scientific and Industrial Research. 32 (9), 603-607.
Li WeiFen, Yang YanLi, Li ShiKai, Hu XianQi, 2006. Preliminary investigation on parasitic nematode species of flowers and plants in Rosaceae. Southwest China Journal of Agricultural Sciences. 19 (5), 906-911.
Li Yu, Xia YanHui, Liu YanKun, Hao PengHui, Sun BingJian, Li HongLian, Wang Ke, 2020. Discovery of root-lesion nematode, Pratylenchus coffeae, infesting sesame in China. Plant Disease. 104 (6), 1873-1874. DOI:10.1094/PDIS-01-20-0194-PDN
Monteiro A R, Lordello L G E, 1974. Pratylenchus coffeae found attacking coffee in Sao Paulo. (Encontro do nematoide Pratylenchus coffeae atacando cafeeiro em S. Paulo.). Revista de Agricultura, Piracicaba, Brazil. 49 (4), 164.
Moura R M de, Albuquerque P H, Oliveira I S de, Torres G R de C, 2005. Effects of carbofuran application on commercial yam and seed tuber productions and on important plant parasitic nematode population densities associated to the crop. (Efeitos da aplicação de carbofuran sobre a produção de túberas comerciais e sementes de inhame da costa e sobre as densidades populacionais de importantes fitonematóides associados à cultura.). Nematologia Brasileira. 29 (2), 257-260.
Moura R M, Guimarães L M P, Maranhão S R V L, Pedrosa E M R, 2004. Atypical Pratylenchus coffeae disease observed in the state of Rio Grande do Norte. (Pratilencose atípica assinalada no estado do Rio Grande do Norte.). Fitopatologia Brasileira. 29 (6), 692. http://www.scielo.br/pdf/fb/v29n6/a21v29n6.pdf DOI:10.1590/S0100-41582004000600021
Pourjam E, Kheiri A, Geraert E, 1997. The genus Pratylenchus Filip'jev, 1936 (Tylenchida: Pratylenchidae) from North of Iran. In: Mededelingen - Faculteit Landbouwkundige en Toegepaste Biologische Wetenschappen, Universiteit Gent [Proceedings of the 49th international symposium on crop protection, Gent, Belgium, 6 May 1997, Part III.], 62 (3a) 741-756.
Riggs RD, Slack DA, Fulton JP, 1956. Meadow nematode and its relation to decline of strawberry plants in Arkansas. In: Phytopathology, 46 24.
Rossi C E, Zorzenon F J, Inomoto M M, 1995. Occurrence of Pratylenchus coffeae on palm-cabbage in Ribeira Valley, SP. (Ocorrência do nematóide das lesões radiculares, Pratylenchus coffeae em palmiteiros no Vale do Ribeira, SP.). Ecossistema. 209-211.
Siddiqi, 1964. Studies of nematode root-rot of citrus in Uttar Pradesh, India. [Proceedings of the Zoological Society, Calcutta], 17 67-75.
Wehunt EJ, Edwards DJ, 1968. Radopholus similis and other nematode species on banana. In: Tropical Nematology, [ed. by Smart GC, Perry VG]. Gainesville, USA: University of Florida Press.
Distribution MapsTop of page
Select a dataset
CABI Summary Records
Unsupported Web Browser:
One or more of the features that are needed to show you the maps functionality are not available in the web browser that you are using.
Please consider upgrading your browser to the latest version or installing a new browser.
More information about modern web browsers can be found at http://browsehappy.com/