Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Potato virus Y
(potato mottle)

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Datasheet

Potato virus Y (potato mottle)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 21 November 2019
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Pest
  • Natural Enemy
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Potato virus Y
  • Preferred Common Name
  • potato mottle
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Virus
  •   Group: "Positive sense ssRNA viruses"
  •     Group: "RNA viruses"
  •       Family: Potyviridae
  •         Genus: Potyvirus

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Symptoms on PVY-infected potato leaves; note leaf deformation.
TitleSymptoms on leaves
CaptionSymptoms on PVY-infected potato leaves; note leaf deformation.
Copyright©Nicola Spence/Horticulture Research International
Symptoms on PVY-infected potato leaves; note leaf deformation.
Symptoms on leavesSymptoms on PVY-infected potato leaves; note leaf deformation.©Nicola Spence/Horticulture Research International

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Potato virus Y

Preferred Common Name

  • potato mottle

Other Scientific Names

  • brinjal mosaic virus
  • datura 437 virus
  • Marmor upsilon
  • potato acropetal necrosis virus
  • potato severe mosaic virus
  • potato virus 20
  • potato Y potyvirus
  • Solanum virus 2
  • Tabakrippenbraune Virus
  • tobacco vein banding mosaic virus
  • tobacco veinal necrosis virus
  • tobacco vein-banding virus

International Common Names

  • English: potato leaf-drop streak; potato stipple streak; tobacco veinal necrosis; veinal necrosis of pepper
  • French: virus Y de la pomme de terre

Local Common Names

  • Germany: Kartoffelvirus Y; Paprikaadernnekrose

English acronym

  • PVY

EPPO code

  • PVY000 (Potato Y potyvirus)
  • PVYNTN (Potato Y potyvirus tuber necrosis strain)

Subspecies

  • potato C virus
  • potato virus YC group (stipple streak strain)
  • potato virus YN group (tobacco veinal necrosis strain)
  • potato virus Yo group (common strain)

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Virus
  •     Group: "Positive sense ssRNA viruses"
  •         Group: "RNA viruses"
  •             Family: Potyviridae
  •                 Genus: Potyvirus
  •                     Species: Potato virus Y

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 24 Mar 2020
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

AlgeriaPresentCABI and EPPO (2005)
BeninPresentAfouda et al. (2013)
EgyptPresentCABI and EPPO (2005)
EthiopiaPresentCABI and EPPO (2005)
LibyaPresentCABI and EPPO (2005)
MauritiusPresentCABI and EPPO (2005)
MoroccoPresentCABI and EPPO (2005)
NigeriaPresentCABI and EPPO (2005)
South AfricaPresentCABI and EPPO (2005)
SudanPresentBaldo et al. (2010)
TanzaniaPresentCABI and EPPO (2005)
TunisiaPresentCABI and EPPO (2005); Bouhachem et al. (2008); Larbi et al. (2012)
ZambiaPresentCABI and EPPO (2005)
ZimbabwePresentCABI and EPPO (2005)

Asia

AfghanistanPresentCABI and EPPO (2005)
BangladeshPresentCABI and EPPO (2005)
BhutanPresentCABI and EPPO (2005)
ChinaPresentCABI and EPPO (2005)
-AnhuiPresentCABI and EPPO (2005)
-BeijingPresentLi et al. (2006)
-FujianPresentCABI and EPPO (2005)
-HebeiPresentWu ZhiMing et al. (2005)
-HeilongjiangPresentGao XiuYan et al. (2009)
-HenanPresentCABI and EPPO (2005)
-HubeiPresentCABI and EPPO (2005)
-HunanPresentCABI and EPPO (2005)
-JilinPresentCABI and EPPO (2005)
-LiaoningPresentCABI and EPPO (2005); Wang et al. (2012)
-ShaanxiPresentCABI and EPPO (2005)
-ShandongPresentCABI and EPPO (2005)
-SichuanPresentLiu et al. (2014)
-YunnanPresentLiu Yong et al. (2006)
IndiaPresentCABI and EPPO (2005)
-Andhra PradeshPresentCABI and EPPO (2005)
-HaryanaPresentCABI and EPPO (2005)
-Himachal PradeshPresentCABI and EPPO (2005)
-Jammu and KashmirPresentCABI and EPPO (2005)
-KarnatakaPresentCABI and EPPO (2005)
-KeralaPresentSurendran et al. (2000)
-MaharashtraPresentNarute et al. (2008)
-RajasthanPresentCABI and EPPO (2005)
-Tamil NaduPresentCABI and EPPO (2005)
-West BengalPresentCABI and EPPO (2005)
IndonesiaPresentCABI and EPPO (2005)
-JavaPresentCABI and EPPO (2005)
-SulawesiPresentChikh-Ali et al. (2016)PVYNTN on potato cultivar 'Granola'
IranPresentCABI and EPPO (2005); Mousavi et al. (2014)
IraqPresentJarjees (2000)
IsraelPresentCABI and EPPO (2005)
JapanPresentCABI and EPPO (2005)
-HokkaidoPresentCABI and EPPO (2005)
-HonshuPresentCABI and EPPO (2005)
JordanPresentCABI and EPPO (2005); Anfoka et al. (2014); Anfoka et al. (2016)
KazakhstanPresentCABI and EPPO (2005)
LebanonPresentCABI and EPPO (2005)
NepalPresentCABI and EPPO (2005)
PakistanPresentCABI and EPPO (2005)
PhilippinesPresentCABI and EPPO (2005)
Saudi ArabiaPresentCABI and EPPO (2005)
South KoreaPresentCABI and EPPO (2005)
SyriaPresentAli et al. (2006)
TaiwanPresentCABI and EPPO (2005); Chao et al. (2014)
TajikistanPresentAlabi et al. (2012)
TurkeyPresentCABI and EPPO (2005)
VietnamPresentHa et al. (2008)
YemenPresentCABI and EPPO (2005)

Europe

AustriaPresentCABI and EPPO (2005)
BelarusPresentCABI and EPPO (2005)
BelgiumPresentCABI and EPPO (2005)
Bosnia and HerzegovinaPresentCABI and EPPO (2005)
BulgariaPresentCABI and EPPO (2005)
CyprusPresentCABI and EPPO (2005)
CzechiaPresentCABI and EPPO (2005)
DenmarkPresentCABI and EPPO (2005)
FinlandPresentCABI and EPPO (2005)
FrancePresentCABI and EPPO (2005)
GermanyPresentCABI and EPPO (2005); EPPO (2014)
GreecePresentCABI and EPPO (2005)
HungaryPresentCABI and EPPO (2005)
IrelandPresentHutton et al. (2013)
ItalyPresentCABI and EPPO (2005)
LatviaPresentCABI and EPPO (2005)
LithuaniaPresentCABI and EPPO (2005)
MontenegroPresentZindović et al. (2007)
NetherlandsPresentCABI and EPPO (2005); EPPO (2014)
PolandPresentCABI and EPPO (2005)
PortugalPresentCABI and EPPO (2005)
RomaniaPresentCABI and EPPO (2005)
RussiaPresentCABI and EPPO (2005)
-Central RussiaPresentCABI and EPPO (2005)
-Russian Far EastPresentCABI and EPPO (2005)
-Western SiberiaPresentCABI and EPPO (2005)
SerbiaPresentCABI (Undated)Original citation: Ðekic et al. (2007)
Serbia and MontenegroPresentCABI and EPPO (2005)
SloveniaPresentCABI and EPPO (2005)
SpainPresentCABI and EPPO (2005);
-Canary IslandsPresentCABI and EPPO (2005)
SwedenPresentCABI and EPPO (2005)
SwitzerlandPresentCABI and EPPO (2005)
UkrainePresentMishchenko et al. (2013)
United KingdomPresentCABI and EPPO (2005); EPPO (2014)

North America

CanadaPresentCABI and EPPO (2005)
-AlbertaPresentCABI and EPPO (2005)
-British ColumbiaPresentCABI and EPPO (2005)
-ManitobaPresentCABI and EPPO (2005)
-New BrunswickPresentCABI and EPPO (2005)
-Nova ScotiaPresentCABI and EPPO (2005)
-OntarioPresentCABI and EPPO (2005)
-Prince Edward IslandPresentCABI and EPPO (2005)
-QuebecPresentCABI and EPPO (2005)
Costa RicaPresentCABI and EPPO (2005)
CubaPresentCABI and EPPO (2005)
Dominican RepublicPresentCABI and EPPO (2005)
El SalvadorPresentCABI and EPPO (2005)
GreenlandPresentNeergaard et al. (2014)
GuadeloupePresentCABI and EPPO (2005)
JamaicaPresentCABI and EPPO (2005)
MexicoPresentCABI and EPPO (2005); Quintero-Ferrer and Karasev (2013)
MontserratPresentCABI and EPPO (2005)
Puerto RicoPresentCABI and EPPO (2005)
United StatesPresentCABI and EPPO (2005)
-AlabamaPresentCABI and EPPO (2005)
-CaliforniaPresentCABI and EPPO (2005)
-FloridaPresentCABI and EPPO (2005)
-GeorgiaPresentCABI and EPPO (2005)
-HawaiiPresentCABI and EPPO (2005)
-IdahoPresentCABI and EPPO (2005)
-IllinoisPresentCABI and EPPO (2005)
-KansasPresentCABI and EPPO (2005)
-KentuckyPresentCABI and EPPO (2005)
-LouisianaPresentCABI and EPPO (2005)
-MainePresentCABI and EPPO (2005)
-MichiganPresentCABI and EPPO (2005)
-MinnesotaPresentCABI and EPPO (2005)
-MissouriPresentCABI and EPPO (2005)
-MontanaPresentCABI and EPPO (2005)
-NevadaPresentCABI and EPPO (2005)
-New HampshirePresentCABI and EPPO (2005)
-New JerseyPresentCABI and EPPO (2005)
-New YorkPresentCABI and EPPO (2005)
-North CarolinaPresentCABI and EPPO (2005)
-North DakotaPresentCABI and EPPO (2005)
-OhioPresentCABI and EPPO (2005)
-OklahomaPresentCABI and EPPO (2005)
-OregonPresentCABI and EPPO (2005)
-PennsylvaniaPresentCABI and EPPO (2005)
-TennesseePresentCABI and EPPO (2005)
-TexasPresentCABI and EPPO (2005)
-UtahPresentCABI and EPPO (2005)
-VermontPresentCABI and EPPO (2005)
-VirginiaPresentCABI and EPPO (2005)
-WashingtonPresentCABI and EPPO (2005)
-WisconsinPresentCABI and EPPO (2005)

Oceania

AustraliaPresentCABI and EPPO (2005)
-New South WalesPresentCABI and EPPO (2005)
-Northern TerritoryPresentCABI and EPPO (2005)
-QueenslandPresentCABI and EPPO (2005)
-South AustraliaPresentCABI and EPPO (2005)
-TasmaniaPresentCABI and EPPO (2005)
-VictoriaPresentCABI and EPPO (2005)
-Western AustraliaPresentCABI and EPPO (2005)
Cook IslandsPresentCABI and EPPO (2005)
New ZealandPresentCABI and EPPO (2005)
Papua New GuineaPresentCABI and EPPO (2005)
SamoaPresentCABI and EPPO (2005)

South America

ArgentinaPresentCABI and EPPO (2005)
BrazilPresentCABI and EPPO (2005)
-Espirito SantoPresentTruta et al. (2004)
-GoiasPresentCABI and EPPO (2005)
-Minas GeraisPresentCABI and EPPO (2005)
-ParaibaPresentCABI and EPPO (2005)
-PernambucoPresentCABI and EPPO (2005)
-Rio de JaneiroPresentCABI and EPPO (2005)
-Rio Grande do SulPresentCABI and EPPO (2005)
-Santa CatarinaPresentFonseca et al. (2005)
-Sao PauloPresentCABI and EPPO (2005)
ChilePresentCABI and EPPO (2005)
ColombiaPresentCABI and EPPO (2005)
PeruPresentCABI and EPPO (2005)
VenezuelaPresentCABI and EPPO (2005)

Growth Stages

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List of Symptoms/Signs

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SignLife StagesType
Leaves / abnormal colours
Leaves / abnormal forms
Leaves / abnormal leaf fall
Leaves / abnormal patterns
Leaves / necrotic areas
Stems / discoloration of bark
Vegetative organs / surface lesions or discoloration
Whole plant / dwarfing

Plant Trade

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Plant parts liable to carry the pest in trade/transportPest stagesBorne internallyBorne externallyVisibility of pest or symptoms
Bulbs/Tubers/Corms/Rhizomes Yes Pest or symptoms usually invisible
Flowers/Inflorescences/Cones/Calyx Yes Pest or symptoms usually invisible
Fruits (inc. pods) Yes Pest or symptoms usually invisible
Leaves Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Roots Yes Pest or symptoms usually invisible
Seedlings/Micropropagated plants Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Stems (above ground)/Shoots/Trunks/Branches Yes Pest or symptoms usually invisible
Plant parts not known to carry the pest in trade/transport
Bark
Growing medium accompanying plants
True seeds (inc. grain)
Wood

References

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Afouda LAC; Kotchofa R; Sare R; Zinsou V; Winter S, 2013. Occurrence and distribution of viruses infecting tomato and pepper in Alibori in northern Benin. Phytoparasitica, 41(3):271-276. http://rd.springer.com/article/10.1007/s12600-013-0287-z

Alabi OJ; Crosslin JM; Saidov N; Naidu RA, 2012. First report of Potato virus Y in potato in Tajikistan. Plant Disease, 96(7):1074-1075. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis

Ali MC; Katayama K; Maoka T; Natsuaki KT, 2006. The occurrence of Potato virus Y on potato in Syria. Japanese Journal of Tropical Agriculture, 50(1):23-28.

Anderson CW, 1959. A study of field sources of and spread of five viruses of peppers in central Florida. Phytopathology, 49: 97-101.

Anfoka G; Ahmad FH; Altaleb M; Abadi M; Abubaker S; Levy D; Rosner A; Czosnek H, 2014. First report of recombinant Potato virus Y strains infecting potato in Jordan. Plant Disease, 98(7):1017-1018. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis

Anfoka G; Altaleb M; Abu-Obaida M, 2016. First report of Potato virus Y strain N-Wilga affecting potato in Jordan. Plant Disease, 100(11):2176. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis

AVA, 2001. Diagnostic records of the Plant Health Diagnostic Services, Plant Health Centre, Agri-food & Veterinary Authority, Singapore.

Baldo NH; Elhassan SM; Elballa MMA, 2010. Occurrence of viruses affecting potato crops in Khartoum State-Sudan. Potato Research, 53(1):61-67. http://springerlink.com/content/1656x7876u3w3328/?p=e735c9a4aa32413c9db64da60c3fe23c&pi=4

Barker H; Webster KD; Reavy B, 1993. Detection of potato virus Y in potato tubers: a comparison of polymerase chain reaction and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Potato Research, 36(1):13-20

Baulcombe DC; Fernandez-Northcote EN, 1988. Detection of strains of potato virus X and of a broad spectrum of potato virus Y isolates by nucleic acid spot hybridization (NASH). Plant Disease, 72(4):307-309

Beczner L; Horvath H; Romahanyi I; Forster H, 1984. Studues on the etiology of tuber necrotic ringspot disease in potato. Potato Research, 27:339-352.

Beemster ABR; Rozendaal A, 1972. In: de Bokx JA, ed. Viruses of Potatoes and Seed-Potato Production. Wageningen: PUDOC.

Berger PH; German T, 2001. Resistance; Biotechnology and resistance to potato viruses. In: Loebenstein G., Berger PH, Brunt AA, Lawson RH, eds. Virus and Virus-like Diseases if Potatoes and Production of Seed-Potatoes, pp. 341-363. Dordrecht, The Netherlands; Kluwer Academic Publishers.

Bhat AI; Varma A; Jain RK, 1999. Comparison of three serological assays for the detection of potyviruses. Indian Phytopathology, 52(4):362-365; 22 ref.

Binyam Tsedaley, 2015. A review paper on Potato virus Y (PVY) biology, economic importance and its managements. Journal of Biology, Agriculture and Healthcare, 5(9):110-126. http://www.iiste.org/Journals/index.php/JBAH/article/view/22323

Blackman RL; Eastop VF, 2000. Aphids on the world's crops: an identification and information guide. Aphids on the world's crops: an identification and information guide., Ed. 2:x + 466 pp.; 39 pp. of ref.

Bokx JA de; Cuperus C, 1987. Detection of potato virus Y in early-harvested potato tubers by cDNA hybridization and three modifications of ELISA. Bulletin-OEPP, 17:(1):73-79.

Bokx JA de; Piron PGM, 1977. Effect of temperature on symptom expression and relative virus concentration in potato plants infected with potato virus YN and YO. Potato Research, 20(3):207-213

Bouhachem SB; Khamassy N; Glais L; Kerlan C, 2008. Occurrence in Tunisia of potato tuber necrotic ringspot disease (PTNRD) caused by variant PVYNTN of Potato virus Y. Plant Pathology, 57(2):388. http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/doi/abs/10.1111/j.1365-3059.2007.01660.x

Brown CR; Corsini D, 2001. Resistance. Genetics and breeding of virus resistance; traditional methods. In: Loebenstein G, Berger PH, Brunt AA, Lawson RH, eds. Virus and Virus-like Diseases of Potatoes and Production of Seed-Potatoes, pp. 323- 340. Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Kluwer Academic Publishers.

Brunt AA, 2001. Potyviruses. In: Loebenstein G, Berger PH, Brunt AA, Lawson RH, eds. Virus and Virus-like Diseases of Potatoes and Production of Seed-Potatoes, pp. 77-86. Dordrecht, The Netherlands; Kluwer Academic Publishers.

Brunt AA; Crabtree K; Dallwitz MJ; Gibbs AJ; Watson L (eds), 1996. Viruses of plants. Descriptions and lists from the VIDE database. Wallingford, UK: CAB INTERNATIONAL, 1484 pp.

Brunt AA; Crabtree K; Dallwitz MJ; Gibbs AJ; Watson L (eds), 1996. Viruses of plants. Descriptions and lists from the VIDE database. Wallingford, UK: CAB INTERNATIONAL, 1484 pp.

Bystricka D; Lenz O; Mraz I; Piherova L; Kmoch S; Sip M, 2005. Oligonucleotide-based microarray: a new improvement in microarray detection of plant viruses. Journal of Virological Methods, 128(1/2):176-182. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal01660934

CABI/EPPO, 2005. Potato virus Y. Distribution Maps of Plant Diseases, No. 970. Wallingford, UK: CAB International.

Cerovskß N, 1998. Production of monoclonal antibodies to potato virus Y strain and their use for strain differentiation. Plant Pathology, 47(4):505-509; 21 ref.

Chagas CM; Vicente M; Alba APC; July JR, 1977. Solanum atropurpureum Schrank, a natural reservoir of potato virus Y (PVY). Phytopathologische Zeitschrift, 90(2):147-151

Chao HY; Bau HJ; Chang YS; Chen YK, 2014. Pepper mottle virus and Potato virus Y caused tamarillo viral diseases in Taiwan. Plant Pathology Bulletin, 23(2):159-171.

Chikh-Ali M; Bosque-Pérez NA; Pol Dvander; Sembel D; Karasev AV, 2016. Occurrence and molecular characterization of recombinant Potato virus Y<sup>NTN</sup> isolates from Sulawesi, Indonesia. Plant Disease, 100(2):269-275. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis

Cockerham G, 1958. Proeedings of the 3rd Conference on Experimental Breeding in relation to Virus Resistance. Potato Virus Diseases. Lisse-Wageningen, Netherlands, 199-203.

Culjak TG; Grubisic D; Kristic I, 2013. Importance and control of aphids in potato production. (Vaznost i suzbijanje lisnih usi u proizvodnji krumpira.) Glasilo Biljne Zastite, 13(4):306-312. http://www.hdbz.hr

de Bokx JA; Huttinga H, 1981. Potato virus Y. CMI/AAB Descriptions of Plant Viruses No 242. Wellesbourne, UK: Association of Applied Biologists, 6 pp.

Ðekic I; Bulajic A; Zindovic J; Berenji J; Paukovic M; Krstic B, 2007. Identification of Potato Virus Y strains in tobacco crops. (Identifikacija sojeva virusa crticastog mozaika krompira na duvanu.) Pesticidi i Fitomedicina, 22(2):155-163.

Delgado-Sanchez S; Grogan RG, 1966. Purification and properties of potato virus Y. Phytopathology, 56:1397.

Edwardson JR, 1974. Some properties of potato virus Y group. Forida Agricultural Experiment Station Monograph, No. 4, 398 pp.

Edwardson JR; Christie RG, 1997. Viruses infecting peppers and other solanaceous crops. Volume 1. Viruses infecting peppers and other solanaceous crops. Volume 1., 336 pp.; [^italic~University of Florida Monograph 18-I.^roman~]; many ref.

Ellis P; Stace-Smith R; Bowler G; MacKenzie DJ, 1996. Production of monoclonal antibodies for detection and identification of strains of potato virus Y. Canadian Journal of Plant Pathology, 18: 64-70.

EPPO, 2014. PQR database. Paris, France: European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization. http://www.eppo.int/DATABASES/pqr/pqr.htm

Faccioli G, 2001. Control of potato viruses using meristem and stem-cutting cultures, thermotherapy and chemotherapy. In: Loebenstein G, Berger PH, Brunt AA, Lawson RH, eds. Viruses and Virus-like Diseases of Potatoes and Production of Seed-Potatoes, pp. 365-390. Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Kluwer Academic Publishers.

Fang HS; Nee HH; Chou TG, 1985. Comparative ability of seventeen aphid species to transmit tobacco vein-banding mosaic virus. Bulletin of the Tobacco Research Institute, Taiwan Tobacco & Wine Monopoly Bureau, No.22:41-46

Fernandez-Northcote EN; Gugerli P, 1988. Reaction of a broad spectrum of potato virus Y isolates to monoclonal antibodies in ELISA. Fitopatologia, 22: 33-36.

Flis B; Zimnoch-Guzowska E, 2000. Field performance of transgenic clones obtained from potato cv. Irga. Journal of Applied Genetics, 41(2):81-90; 11 ref.

Folimonova SY; Folimonov AS; Agranovsky AA; Atabekov IG, 1998. Immunospecific polymerase chain reaction used to identify strain of the potato virus Y causing ring tuber necrosis. Russian Agricultural Sciences, No. 9:11-14; [translated from ^italic~Doklady Rossii^breve~skoi^breve~ Akademii Sel'skokhozyai^breve~stvennykh Nauk^roman~ (1998) No. 5, 16-17.]; 3 ref.

Fonseca LN; Inoue-Nagata AK; Nagata T; Singh RP; Âvila ACde, 2005. RT-PCR for differentiation of potato virus Y strains in potato. (Diferenciação de estirpes de Potato virus Y (PVY) por RT-PCR.) Horticultura Brasileira, 23(4):904-910.

Franc GD, 2001. Seed certification as a management tool. In: Loebenstein G, Berger PH, Brunt AA, Lawson RH, eds. Virus and Virus-like Diseases of Potatoes and Production of Seed-Potatoes, pp. 407-420. Dordrecht, The Netherlands; Kluwer Academic Publishers.

Gadum J; Pinto CABP; Rios MCD, 2003. Agronomic performance and reaction of potato clones to PVY. (Desempenho agronômico e reação de clones de batata (Solanum tuberosum L.) ao PVY.) Ciência e Agrotecnologia, 27(Especial):1484-1492.

Gao XiuYan; Gao YanLing; Geng HongWei; Zhang Wei; Fan GuoQuan; Bai YanJu; Lu WenHe; Jiang XiFeng, 2009. Identification of a potato virus Y isolate from the Heilongjiang Province in China. Chinese Potato Journal, 23(1):11-14.

Gera A; Marco S, 2001. Detection and identification of viruses in potatoes. In: Loebenstein G, Berger PH, Brunt AA, Lawson RH, eds. Virus and Virus-like Diseases of Potatoes and Production of Seed-Potatoes, 271-283. Dordrecht, The Netherlands; Kluwer Academic Publishers.

Glais L; Kerlan C; Tribodet M; Astier-Manifacier S; Robaglia C, 1996. Molecular characterization of potato virus YN isolates by PCR_RFLP. European Journal of Plant Pathology, 106: 655-662.

Glais L; Tribodet M; Kerlan C, 2005. Specific detection of the PVYN-W variant of Potato virus Y. Journal of Virological Methods, 125(2):131-136. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal01660934

Gugerli P; Gehriger W, 1980. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the detection of potato leafroll virus and potato virus Y in potato tubers after artificial break of dormancy. Potato Research, 23(3):353-359

Gutbrod OA; Mosley AR, 2001. Common seed potato certification schemes. In: Loebenstein G, Berger PH, Brunt AA, Lawson RH, eds. Virus and Virus-like Diseases of Potatoes and Production of Seed-Potatoes, pp. 421-438. Dordrecht, The Netherlands; Kluwer Academic Publishers.

Ha C; Revill P; Harding RM; Vu M; Dale JL, 2008. Identification and sequence analysis of potyviruses infecting crops in Vietnam. Archives of Virology, 153(1):45-60. http://springerlink.metapress.com/content/90316764184520r2/fulltext.pdf

Hansen AJ; Lesemann DE, 1978. Occurrence and characteristics of a seed-transmitted potyvirus from Indian, African, and North American guar. Phytopathology, 68(6):841-846

Harrington R; Katis N; Gibson RW, 1986. Field assessment of the relative importance of different aphid species in the transmission of potato virus Y. Potato Research, 29(1):67-75.

Heuvel JFJM van den; Vlugt RAA van der; Verbeek M; Haan PT de; Huttinga H, 1994. Characteristics of a resistance-breaking isolate of potato virus Y causing potato tuber necrotic ringspot disease. European Journal of Plant Pathology, 100(5):347-356

Hutton F; Kildea S; Griffin D; Spink J; Doherty G; Hunter A, 2013. First report of potato tuber necrotic ringspot disease associated with PVY recombinant strains in Ireland. New Disease Reports, 28:12. http://www.ndrs.org.uk/pdfs/028/NDR_028012.pdf

Jarjees MM, 2000. Application of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for rapid detecting of potato virus Y in Iraq. Arab Journal of Plant Protection, 18(1):46-50.

Jeffries CJ, 1998. FAO/IPGRI technical guidelines for the safe movement of germplasm. No. 19: Potato. FAO/IPGRI Technical Guidelines for the Safe Movement of Germplasm. No. 19. Potato, No. 19:177 pp.; many ref.

Kaniewski W; Lawson C; Sammons B; Haley L; Hart J; Delannay X; Tumer NE, 1990. Field resistance of transgenic Russet Burbank potato to effects of infection by potato virus X and potato virus Y. Bio/Technology, 8(8):750-754

Kennedy JS; Day MF; Eastop VF, 1962. A Conspectus of Aphids as Vectors of Plant Viruses. Wallingford, UK: CAB INTERNATIONAL.

Kerlan C; Tribodet M; Glais L; Guillet M, 1999. Variability of potato virus Y in potato crops in France. Journal of Phytopathology, 147(11-12):643-651; 37 ref.

Larbi I; Djilani-Khouadja F; Khamassy N; Fakhfakh H, 2012. Potato virus surveys and wide spread of recombinant PVYNTN variant in Central Tunisia. African Journal of Microbiology Research, 6(9):2109-2115. http://www.academicjournals.org/ajmr/abstracts/abstracts/abstract%202012/9Mar/Larbi%20et%20al.htm

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Distribution References

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Li N, Wang X, Zhou G, Dong J, 2006. Molecular variability of the coat protein gene of Potato virus Y from tobacco in China. Acta Virologica. 50 (2), 107-113. http://www.elis.sk

Liu X L, Wei Q, Hong B, Zhao X T, 2014. First report of Potato virus Y strain N-Wilga infecting chrysanthemum in China. Plant Disease. 98 (11), 1589. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis DOI:10.1094/PDIS-02-14-0154-PDN

Liu Yong, Mo XiaoHan, Yu Qing, Gu Gang, Huang ShiWang, Xia YuZhen, Zhou XuePing, 2006. Virus detection of tobacco mosaic disease and subgrouping of Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) in Yunnan, Fujian and Hunan Provinces. Acta Phytopathologica Sinica. 36 (4), 310-313.

Mishchenko L T, Dunich A A, Danilova O I, Polischuk V P, 2013. Properties of potato virus M and potato virus Y isolates in Ukraine. Mi¯krobiologi¯chniĭ Zhurnal. 75 (2), 89-97. http://www.imv.kiev.ua/images/doc/MBJ/2013/MB_2_2013.pdf

Mousavi L, Mozafari J, Rakhshandehroo F, Amir Modarresi Chahardehi, Mousavi M, 2014. Distribution and prevalence Potato virus Y isolates obtained from potatoes grown in the Iran by RT-PCR. Journal of Biology, Agriculture and Healthcare. 4 (4), 45-53. http://www.iiste.org/Journals/index.php/JBAH/article/view/11217/11509

Narute I K, Sawane D M, Deshmukh G P, 2008. Incidence, survey and symptomatology of chilli mosaic virus grown under polyhouse condition in Western Maharashtra. Journal of Plant Disease Sciences. 3 (2), 206-209.

Neergaard E de, Munk L, Nielsen S L, 2014. First report of Potato leafroll virus, Potato virus A, Potato virus X and Potato virus Y in potato in Greenland. New Disease Reports. 20. http://www.ndrs.org.uk/article.php?id=030020

Quintero-Ferrer A, Karasev A V, 2013. First report of recombinant Potato virus Y strains in potato in Jalisco, Mexico. Plant Disease. 97 (3), 430. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis DOI:10.1094/PDIS-10-12-0919-PDN

Surendran M, Shanmugam V, Kamalakannan A, Srinivasan R, 2000. Transmission studies of brinjal mosaic virus. International Journal of Tropical Agriculture. 18 (2), 123-131.

Truta A A C, R e Souza A R, Nascimento A V S do, Pereira R de C, Pinto C M F, Brommonschenkel S H, Carvalho M G de, Zerbini F M, 2004. Identity and properties of potyvirus isolates obtained from Capsicum spp. (Identidade e propriedades de isolados de potyvírus provenientes de Capsicum spp.). Fitopatologia Brasileira. 29 (2), 160-168. http://www.scielo.br/pdf/fb/v29n2/19559.pdf DOI:10.1590/S0100-41582004000200007

Wang F, Wu Y H, Gao Z L, Zhou B G, Guo L, 2012. First report of Potato virus Y in Kalimeris indica in China. Plant Disease. 96 (12), 1827-1828. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis DOI:10.1094/PDIS-07-12-0621-PDN

Wu ZhiMing, Dong ZhiRu, Liu XiaoJuan, Wen ChunXiu, Xie XiaoLiang, Zhang QingLiang, 2005. Coat protein gene sequence analysis and identification of a potato virus Y Hebei isolate. Acta Horticulturae Sinica. 32 (2), 324-326.

Zindović J, Dukić N, Bulajić A, Latinović J, Ðekić I, Duduk B, Krstić B, 2007. Presence and distribution of tobacco viruses in Montenegro. (Prisustvo i rasprostranjenost virusa duvana u Crnoj Gori.). Pesticidi i Fitomedicina. 22 (1), 39-44.

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