Invasive Species Compendium

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Datasheet

Plantago lanceolata
(ribwort plantain)

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Datasheet

Plantago lanceolata (ribwort plantain)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 22 November 2019
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Pest
  • Host Plant
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Plantago lanceolata
  • Preferred Common Name
  • ribwort plantain
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Plantae
  •     Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •       Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •         Class: Dicotyledonae
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • There are little data to suggest that this species is a priority invasive species in its native range: it is principally a weed of arable field margins rather than the fields themselves. However it has dispersed widely throughout the temperate, and s...
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Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Plantago lanceolata L.

Preferred Common Name

  • ribwort plantain

International Common Names

  • English: buckhorn plantain; English plantain; lance-leaf plantain; lanceolate plantain; narrowleaf plantain; narrow-leaved plantain; ribgrass; ribwort
  • Spanish: llantén menor
  • French: petit plantain
  • Portuguese: tanchagem menor

Local Common Names

  • Cuba: llantén
  • Germany: Spitzwegerich
  • Italy: cinquenervi; lanciuola cinquenervi; mestolaccio; piantaggine commune
  • Japan: heraoobako
  • Netherlands: weegbree, smalle
  • South Africa: bolilanyana; German psyllium; klein tongblaar; lamb's tongue; narrow leaved ribwort; oorpynhoutjie; oorpynwortels; ripplegrass; smalblaarplantago; small plantain; smalweeblaar; smalweebree; smalweegbree; weeblaar; wild sago
  • Sweden: kaempar, svart-; spetsgroblad

EPPO code

  • PLALA (Plantago lanceolata)

Summary of Invasiveness

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There are little data to suggest that this species is a priority invasive species in its native range: it is principally a weed of arable field margins rather than the fields themselves. However it has dispersed widely throughout the temperate, and some of the tropical world, and is common in arable land and pastures. It has proved a problem in specific instances in the tropics and its lack of invasiveness in other areas may reflect global prophylactic use of broadleaf herbicides rather than an inherent lack of invasiveness in the species. It is a perennial and is, therefore, susceptible to cultivation. Traditional chemical control has proved effective.

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Plantae
  •         Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •             Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •                 Class: Dicotyledonae
  •                     Order: Plantaginales
  •                         Family: Plantaginaceae
  •                             Genus: Plantago
  •                                 Species: Plantago lanceolata

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

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Sagar and Harper (1964) note that a number of varieties have been recognised on the basis of hairiness, etc., but that the differences are often obscured as a result of phenotypic variation, and have not been adequately researched.

Description

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P. lanceolata is a small, glabrous to pubescent perennial with one to several rosettes; leaves linear- to narrowly ovate-elliptic, 2-30 x 0.5-3.5 cm, very gradually narrowed to the petiole, entire to sparsely and weakly toothed; bracts 2.5-3.5 mm, the anterior connate for most of their length but their midribs separate, often shortly hairy. Scapes to 50 cm deeply furrowed. Inflorescence a spike, up to 4(-8) cm long. Flowers bisexual, inconspicuous, corolla 4-lobed, tubular, almost as long as surrounding calyx. Corolla tube 2-3 mm, glabrous, the lobes 1.5-2.5 mm lanceolate to ovate, acute or acuminate, glabrous. Stamens 4, exserted, conspicuous, 3-5 mm long, the anthers yellowish. The fruit, 3-4 mm long, is a capsule opening with an operculum, containing 1-2 smooth, boat-shaped, mucilaginous. This species has a well-developed taproot (Lamp and Collet, 1979; Stace, 1997).

Plant Type

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Herbaceous
Perennial
Seed propagated

Distribution

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This remarkably widespread species is apparently native to Europe, North Africa and West and South Asia (USDA-ARS, 2003) but has been introduced extremely widely elsewhere and now occurs e.g. in every continental state of USA as well as in Hawaii, in Australia and New Zealand, 'throughout Japan' (Morita, 2002) and in many countries of Africa, where it thrives at high altitude.

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 17 Feb 2021
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

AlgeriaPresentNative
BotswanaPresentIntroduced
EgyptPresentNative
EthiopiaPresent
GabonPresentIntroduced
KenyaPresentIntroduced
LesothoPresentIntroduced
LibyaPresentNative
MalawiPresentIntroduced
MauritiusPresentIntroduced
MoroccoPresentNative
NamibiaPresentIntroduced
South AfricaPresentIntroduced
SudanPresentIntroduced
TanzaniaPresentIntroduced
TunisiaPresentNative
ZimbabwePresentNative

Asia

AfghanistanPresentNative
ArmeniaPresentNative
AzerbaijanPresentNative
BhutanPresent, LocalizedIntroducedOriginal citation: Grierson et al., 2001
ChinaPresent, WidespreadIntroducedInvasive
-FujianPresentIntroducedInvasiveOriginal citation: Wang et al. (1990)
-GuangdongPresentIntroducedInvasiveOriginal citation: Wang et al. (1990)
-GuangxiPresentIntroducedInvasiveOriginal citation: Wang et al. (1990)
-GuizhouPresentIntroducedInvasiveOriginal citation: Wang et al. (1990)
-HubeiPresentIntroducedInvasiveOriginal citation: Wang et al. (1990)
-HunanPresentIntroducedInvasiveOriginal citation: Wang et al. (1990)
-JiangsuPresentIntroducedInvasiveOriginal citation: Wang et al. (1990)
-ShaanxiPresentIntroducedInvasiveOriginal citation: Wang et al. (1990)
-SichuanPresentIntroducedInvasiveOriginal citation: Wang et al. (1990)
-XinjiangPresentIntroducedInvasiveOriginal citation: Wang et al. (1990)
-YunnanPresentIntroducedInvasiveOriginal citation: Wang et al. (1990)
-ZhejiangPresentIntroducedInvasiveOriginal citation: Wang et al. (1990)
GeorgiaPresentNative
IndiaPresentNative
IranPresentNativeOriginal citation: Mirkamaly Maddah (1973)
IraqPresentNative
IsraelPresentNative
JapanPresent, Widespread
JordanPresentNative
KazakhstanPresentNative
KyrgyzstanPresentNative
LebanonPresentNative
NepalPresentNative
PakistanPresentNative
PhilippinesPresentNative
Saudi ArabiaPresentNative
South KoreaPresent
SyriaPresentNative
TaiwanPresentIntroduced
TajikistanPresentNative
TurkeyPresentNative
TurkmenistanPresentNative
UzbekistanPresentNative
YemenPresentNative

Europe

AlbaniaPresentNative
AustriaPresentNative
BelarusPresentNative
BelgiumPresentNative
BulgariaPresentNativeOriginal citation: Milusheva & Rankova, 2002
CyprusPresentNative
CzechoslovakiaPresentNative
Federal Republic of YugoslaviaPresentNative
DenmarkPresentNative
EstoniaPresentNative
FinlandPresentNative
FrancePresentNative
GermanyPresentNative
GreecePresentNative
HungaryPresentNative
IcelandPresent
IrelandPresentNative
ItalyPresentNative
LatviaPresentNative
LithuaniaPresentNative
MaltaPresentNative
MoldovaPresentNative
NetherlandsPresentNative
NorwayPresentNative
PolandPresentNative
PortugalPresentNative
-AzoresPresentNative
RomaniaPresentNative
RussiaPresentNative
-Russia (Europe)PresentNative
-Western SiberiaPresentNative
SpainPresentNative
-Canary IslandsPresentNative
SwedenPresentNative
SwitzerlandPresentNative
UkrainePresentNative
United KingdomPresentNative

North America

CanadaPresentIntroduced
CubaPresentIntroducedInvasive
MexicoPresentIntroducedOriginal citation: Lopez and Tellez Reyes (1999)
Puerto RicoPresent
United StatesPresent, WidespreadIntroducedInvasive
-AlabamaPresentIntroducedInvasive
-AlaskaPresentIntroducedInvasive
-ArkansasPresentIntroducedInvasive
-CaliforniaPresentIntroducedInvasive
-ColoradoPresentIntroducedInvasive
-ConnecticutPresentIntroducedInvasive
-DelawarePresentIntroducedInvasive
-FloridaPresentIntroducedInvasive
-GeorgiaPresentIntroducedInvasive
-HawaiiPresentIntroducedInvasive
-IdahoPresentIntroducedInvasive
-IllinoisPresentIntroducedInvasive
-IndianaPresentIntroducedInvasive
-IowaPresentIntroducedInvasive
-KansasPresentIntroducedInvasive
-KentuckyPresentIntroducedInvasive
-LouisianaPresentIntroducedInvasive
-MainePresentIntroducedInvasive
-MarylandPresentIntroducedInvasive
-MassachusettsPresentIntroducedInvasive
-MichiganPresentIntroducedInvasive
-MinnesotaPresentIntroducedInvasive
-MississippiPresentIntroducedInvasive
-MissouriPresentIntroducedInvasive
-MontanaPresentIntroducedInvasive
-NebraskaPresentIntroducedInvasive
-NevadaPresentIntroducedInvasive
-New HampshirePresentIntroducedInvasive
-New JerseyPresentIntroducedInvasive
-New MexicoPresentIntroducedInvasive
-New YorkPresentIntroducedInvasive
-North CarolinaPresentIntroducedInvasive
-North DakotaPresentIntroducedInvasive
-OhioPresentIntroducedInvasive
-OklahomaPresentIntroducedInvasive
-OregonPresentIntroducedInvasive
-PennsylvaniaPresentIntroducedInvasive
-Rhode IslandPresentIntroducedInvasive
-South CarolinaPresentIntroducedInvasive
-South DakotaPresentIntroducedInvasive
-TennesseePresentIntroducedInvasive
-TexasPresentIntroducedInvasive
-UtahPresentIntroducedInvasive
-VermontPresentIntroducedInvasive
-WashingtonPresentIntroducedInvasive
-West VirginiaPresentIntroducedInvasive
-WisconsinPresentIntroducedInvasive
-WyomingPresentIntroducedInvasive

Oceania

AustraliaPresentIntroduced
-New South WalesPresentIntroduced
-VictoriaPresentIntroduced
New ZealandPresentIntroduced

South America

ArgentinaPresentIntroduced
ChilePresentIntroduced
EcuadorPresent
UruguayPresentIntroduced

Risk of Introduction

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Although not a federally listed noxious weed in USA, P. lanceolata is listed and regulated by many individual states (USDA-ARS, 2003).

Habitat

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P. lanceolata is a plant of grasslands and wastelands with neutral or basic soils (Clapham et al., 1989). It is found in a wider range of grassland microclimates and soil types than some close relatives (such as P. major and P. media), but is not found in the hottest and driest grasslands (Stoutjesdijk, 1992). In general, it is restricted to comparatively open vegetation where there is plenty of light at ground level (Aart et al., 1992).

Habitat List

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CategorySub-CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Terrestrial ManagedCultivated / agricultural land Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial ManagedManaged forests, plantations and orchards Present, no further details
Terrestrial ManagedManaged grasslands (grazing systems) Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial ManagedDisturbed areas Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial ManagedRail / roadsides Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial ManagedUrban / peri-urban areas Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalNatural grasslands Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)

Hosts/Species Affected

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This species is quick to colonize, establish and spread in disturbed agricultural areas. Its small size and low vigour, however, mean that it is seldom reported as a principal weed for a particular crop (Holm et al., 1977). It has been reported as a weed of lucerne in Iran (Mirkamaly and Maddah, 1973) and of citrus and mango in Mauritius (McIntyre and Barbe, 1994).

Host Plants and Other Plants Affected

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Plant nameFamilyContextReferences
CitrusRutaceaeMain
    Mangifera indica (mango)AnacardiaceaeMain
      Medicago sativa (lucerne)FabaceaeMain
        Solanum lycopersicum (tomato)SolanaceaeOther

          Biology and Ecology

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          Genetics

          P. lancelolata has a chromosome number of 2n=12 (Stace, 1997). The high level of genetic mixing, low polymorphism and lack of population genetic structure in this species are thought to result from its exclusive out-crossing strategy (Sharma and Koul, 1995).

          Physiology and Phenology

          Evidence suggests that there is little dormancy in this species, and virtually all seeds germinate within the first year (Roberts and Boddrell, 1984; Pons, 1992). However, germination rate seems to increase with storage over 6 months (Sousa et al., 1998). Unlike some close relatives, such as P. major, seed of this species does not require light for germination (Pons and Toorn, 1988; Blom, 1992) although the effect of light intensity on germination rate seems unclear (Roberts and Boddrell, 1984; Sousa et al., 1998). Optimum germination has been obtained at 21% soil moisture (Blom, 1992).

          Reproductive Biology

          Reproduction is via seed in this species. P. lanceolata is an obligate out-breeder and its flowers are self-incompatible (Sagar and Harper, 1964; Sharma et al., 1992; Sharma and Koul, 1995). The species is considered mainly anemophilous (wind-pollinated) (Sagar and Harper, 1964), but there is evidence to suggest biotic pollination by syrphid flies (Stelleman, 1982) and bees (Apis dorsata and Apis florea) (Sharma et al., 1993). Gynodioecy is observed in P. lanceolata, i.e. populations contain both hermaphrodites and sterile males (Poot et al., 1997).

          Environmental Requirements

          P. lanceolata is so widely distributed that it is probably not restricted by climate (Holm et al., 1977). Suitable climates include those with winter rainfall (temperate), all-year rainfall (temperate), summer rainfall (temperate), summer rainfall (sub-tropical) (Wells et al., 1986). The deep taproot enables this species to withstand periods of drought. It is seldom reported to be an important weed in the tropics because more vigorous plants keep its growth in check. In open areas, plants will overwinter below ground and, if frosted, they can re-grow from underground storage organs. The chemical and physical characteristics of the soils in which Plantago species grow have been described by Troelstra (1992). Sagar and Harper (1964) note that P. lanceolata is found on a wide variety of soil types in the British Isles and occurs on sand-dunes, and spray-washed cliffs, but is absent from acidic uplands. It is mainly a species of basic and neutral grasslands.

          Association

          Sagar and Harper (1964) provide detailed lists of plants associated with P. lanceolata in the British Isles.

          Natural enemies

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          Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
          Chrysolina staphylaea Herbivore Leaves
          Gibberella sacchari Pathogen
          Gymnetron pascuorum Herbivore Seeds
          Junonia coenia Herbivore Leaves
          Phomopsis subordinaria Pathogen
          Trichosirocalus troglodytes Herbivore Growing point

          Notes on Natural Enemies

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          Sagar and Harper (1964) provide a long list of natural enemies including invertebrates, fungi and viruses but imply that these have much less influence than livestock management.

          Means of Movement and Dispersal

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          Natural Dispersal (Non-Biotic)

          P. lanceolata produces a large number of small seeds which can be dispersed by the wind.

          Vector Transmission (Biotic)

          Seeds are mucilaginous and easily transported on animal fur or by man (Soekarjo, 1992). Sagar and Harper (1964) note that seeds retain over 50% viability after passing through cattle.

          Accidental introduction

          Because of the small size of its seeds, P. lanceolata may be introduced as a contaminant of agricultural produce.

          Plant Trade

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          Plant parts liable to carry the pest in trade/transportPest stagesBorne internallyBorne externallyVisibility of pest or symptoms
          Bulbs/Tubers/Corms/Rhizomes roots
          Flowers/Inflorescences/Cones/Calyx seeds
          Fruits (inc. pods) seeds
          Growing medium accompanying plants seeds
          Roots roots
          Seedlings/Micropropagated plants whole plants
          Stems (above ground)/Shoots/Trunks/Branches seeds
          True seeds (inc. grain) seeds
          Plant parts not known to carry the pest in trade/transport
          Bark
          Leaves
          Wood

          Impact Summary

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          CategoryImpact
          Animal/plant collections None
          Animal/plant products None
          Biodiversity (generally) None
          Crop production Negative
          Environment (generally) None
          Fisheries / aquaculture None
          Forestry production None
          Human health Negative
          Livestock production None
          Native fauna None
          Native flora None
          Rare/protected species None
          Tourism None
          Trade/international relations None
          Transport/travel None

          Impact

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          P. lanceolata has been described as an agricultural, pastoral and environmental weed competing with other plants for light, water and nutrients and replacing preferred vegetation. P. lanceolata and P. major have together been reported as weeds in over 50 countries affecting a wide range of crops (Holm et al., 1977). Holm et al. (1979) record P. lanceolata as a serious weed in Italy, and a principal weed in Canada, Ecuador, Iran, Mauritius and New Zealand.

          Impact: Biodiversity

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          P. lanceolata forms dense swards that crowd out native vegetation and prevent the establishment of native species (Weber, 2003).

          Threatened Species

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          Threatened SpeciesConservation StatusWhere ThreatenedMechanismReferencesNotes
          Speyeria callippe callippe (callippe silverspot butterfly)USA ESA listing as endangered speciesCaliforniaEcosystem change / habitat alterationUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2009
          Trifolium dichotomum (showy Indian clover)EN (IUCN red list: Endangered); National list(s); USA ESA listing as endangered speciesUSACompetition - smotheringUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2008

          Social Impact

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          Pollen of this species can cause allergies and respiratory problems (Lamp and Collet, 1979; Mehta and Wheeler, 1991).

          Risk and Impact Factors

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          Invasiveness
          • Invasive in its native range
          • Proved invasive outside its native range
          • Tolerates, or benefits from, cultivation, browsing pressure, mutilation, fire etc
          • Highly mobile locally
          • Has high reproductive potential
          • Has propagules that can remain viable for more than one year
          Impact outcomes
          • Ecosystem change/ habitat alteration
          • Negatively impacts agriculture
          • Negatively impacts human health
          Impact mechanisms
          • Competition - monopolizing resources
          • Competition - smothering
          Likelihood of entry/control
          • Difficult to identify/detect as a commodity contaminant

          Uses

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          P. lanceolata has been used for sward improvement (Stewart, 1996; Trzaskos, 1996; Kozlowski et al., 1997). The commercial cultivars 'Grasslands Lancelot' (Rumball et al., 1997) and 'Ceres Tonic' (Pyne Gould Guinness Ltd, 1996) have been developed in New Zealand for forage yield and suitability for livestock grazing. Sagar and Harper (1964) note that P. lanceolata is one of the most palatable species for sheep.

          It also has value as a tough amenity turf component (Odermatt et al., 1998) and has been utilized as permanent ground cover in vineyards (Crozier, 1998).

          Medicinal uses include the treatment of respiratory and inflammatory skin diseases (Marchesan et al., 1998; Paper and Marchesan, 1999).

          Uses List

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          Medicinal, pharmaceutical

          • Traditional/folklore

          Similarities to Other Species/Conditions

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          P. lanceolata can be distinguished from P. major by its furrowed scape, lanceolate leaves, one- to two-seeded capsule which splits around the middle and the smooth, boat-shaped seeds with a scar around the middle (Holm et al., 1977).

          Prevention and Control

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          Due to the variable regulations around (de)registration of pesticides, your national list of registered pesticides or relevant authority should be consulted to determine which products are legally allowed for use in your country when considering chemical control. Pesticides should always be used in a lawful manner, consistent with the product's label.

          Mechanical Control

          Grazing or mowing may reduce growth of P. lanceolata (Weber, 2003). This species is traditionally hand weeded in mango and citrus orchards in Mauritius (McIntyre and Barbe, 1994).

          Chemical Control

          Around young trees and shrubs: glyphosate applied twice a year controlled P. lanceolata over several years (Frank and Simon, 1981). Alternate treatments of glyphosate and a mixture of diuron + paraquat were also satisfactory (McIntyre and Barbe, 1994).

          In arable crops: butralin + linuron was found to be particularly effective (Fererro, 1978) and mecoprop has been recommended to control field margin weeds (including Plantago lanceolata; Birnie, 1984).

          In turf: 2,4-D used alone and bromoxynil and mecoprop together were effective (Wehner et al., 1981). Bingham et al. (1986) reported that P. lanceolata was controlled better with a mecoprop than a dichlorprop mixture.

          Integrated Control

          McIntyre and Barbe (1994) observed acceptable control in young mango and citrus orchards in Mauritius with combined chemical and traditional hand weeding.

          References

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          Aart PJM van der, Vulto JC, 1992. General ecology. Plantago: a multidisciplinary study [edited by Kuiper, P. J. C.; Bos, M.] Berlin, Germany; Springer-Verlag, 6

          Bingham SW, Rucker EG, Shaver RL, 1986. Broadleaf weed species' response to turfgrass herbicides. Proceedings, Southern Weed Science Society, 39th annual meeting, 110

          Birnie JE, 1984. A preliminary study on the effect of some agricultural herbicides on a range of field margin flora. Technical Report, AFRC Weed Research Organization, No.79:24 pp.

          Blom CWPM, 1992. Germination and establishment. In: Kuiper PJC, Bos M, eds. Plantago: a Multidisciplinary Study. Ecological Studies, Vol. 89. Berlin, Germany: Springer Verlag, 88-98.

          Cavers PB, Bassett IJ, Crompton CW, 1980. The biology of Canadian weeds. 47. Plantago lanceolata L. Canadian Journal of Plant Science, 60(4):1269-1282

          Chen ShihHuei, Tseng YenHsueh, Wu MingJou, Liu ChingYu, 1996. Plantago lanceolata L., a newly naturalized plant in Taiwan. Taiwania, 41(3):180-184; 8 ref.

          Clapham AR, Tutin TG, Moore DM, 1989. Flora of the British Isles. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.

          Cobanoglu S, 2000. Aphididae (Homoptera) species of Edirne Province (Thrace part of Turkey). Entomologist's Monthly Magazine, 136(1628-31):45-52; 18 ref.

          Conticello L, Gandullo R, 1991. Survey of summer weeds in the upper valley of Rio Negro y Neuquen. Proceedings of the 12th Argentine meeting on weeds and their control, Mar del Plata, Argentina, 9-11 October 1991., Vol. 1:19-26; 22 ref.

          Crozier P, 1998. Permanent ground cover and mulch: agricultural aspects. Phytoma, No. 511:42-45.

          Ferguson CM, Fraser WJ, 1993. Eurythecta zelaea, an occasional dryland pasture pest. Proceedings of the Forty Sixth New Zealand Plant Protection Conference, Christchurch, New Zealand, 10-12 August 1993 Rotorua, New Zealand; New Zealand Plant Protection Society, 242-244

          Ferrero A, 1978. Selective weed control in maize. Rapporti sull'attivita svolta nell'ambito del subprogetto "Fitoiatria del frumento del mais e del sorgo" Progetto finalizzato fitofarmaci e fitoregolatori, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche; coordinatore V. Piglionica, Rome, 1978., 309-316

          Frank JR, Simon JA, 1981. Glyphosate and paraquat effectiveness in woody nursery stock. Weed Science, 29(4):455-461

          Glen HF, 1998. Investigation of the antiinflammatory activity of liquid extracts of Plantago lanceolata L. FSA contributions 12: Plantaginaceae. Bothalia, 28(2):151-157; 26 ref.

          Grierson AJC, Long DG, 2001. Flora of Bhutan including a record of plants from Sikkim and Darjeeling. Volume 2 Part 3. Edinburgh, UK: Royal Botanic Garden, Edinburgh and Royal Government of Bhutan.

          Grzegorczyk S, Alberski J, 1999. The presence of forbs in meadow-pasture plant communities of the Olsztyn Lakeland. Folia Universitatis Agriculturae Stetinensis, Agricultura, No. 75:103-106.

          Holm L, Pancho JV, Herberger JP, Plucknett DL, 1979. A Geographical Atlas of World Weeds. Toronto, Canada: John Wiley and Sons Inc.

          Holm LG, Plucknett DL, Pancho JV, Herberger JP, 1977. The World's Worst Weeds. Distribution and Biology. Honolulu, Hawaii, USA: University Press of Hawaii.

          Iraola Calvo VM, Moraza ML, Biurrun R, 1999. Spider mites (Acari: Tetranychidae Berlese) and phytoseiid mites (Acari: Phytoseiidae Berlese) in pear orchards and ground cover vegetation in Navarra. Boleti^acute~n de Sanidad Vegetal, Plagas, 25(1):49-58; 27 ref.

          James DG, 1988. A new host plant for Junonia villida calybe (Godart) (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae). Australian Entomological Magazine, 15(1):6

          Kozlowski S, Golinski P, Swedrzynska D, Kolpak M, 1997. Plantago lanceolata - a commendable sward component of grasslands? Management for Grassland Biodiversity. Proceedings of the International Occasional Symposium of the European Grassland Federation, Warszawa-Lomza, Poland, 19-23 May, 1997. Grassland Science in Europe Vol. 2. Poznan, Poland: Organizing Committee of the International Occasional Symposium of the European Grassland Federation, 227-231.

          Lamp C, Collet F, 1979. A field guide to weeds in Australia, revised edition. Melbourne, Australia: Inkata Press.

          Lane D, 1976. The vegetation of roadsides and adjacent farmland of the Mornington Peninsula, Victoria, Australia. Weed Research, 16(6):385-389

          Lopez Tellez A, Reyes SA, 1999. Flora de Veracruz: Plantaginaceae, No. 108:1-20. Xalapa, Mexico: Instituto de Ecologia.

          Marchesan M, Paper DH, Hose S, Franz G, 1998. Investigation of the antiinflammatory activity of liquid extracts of Plantago lanceolata L. Phytother. Res., 12:33-34.

          McIntyre G, Barbe C, 1994. Chemical v/s hand weeding in young citrus and mango orchards. Revue Agricole et Sucriere de l'Ile Maurice, 73:44-47.

          Mehta V, Wheeler AW, 1991. IgE-mediated sensitization to English plantain pollen in seasonal respiratory allergy: identification and partial characterisation of its allergenic components. International Archives of Allergy and Applied Immunology, 96(3):211-217

          Milusheva S, Rankova Z, 2002. Plum pox potyvirus detection in weed species under field conditions. Acta Horticulturae, No.577:283-287; 10 ref.

          Mirkamaly H, Maddah MV, 1973. Weeds of alfalfa fields in Arak area. Iranian Journal of Plant Pathology, 9(2):23-24.

          Mohd Norowi Hamid, Perry JN, Powell W, Rennolls K, 1999. The effect of spatial scale on interactions between two weevils and their food plant. Acta Oecologica, 20(5):537-549; 39 ref.

          Mook JH, Haeck J, Toorn J van der, Tienderen PH van, 1989. Comparative demography of Plantago. I. Observations on eight populations of Plantago lanceolata. Acta Botanica Neerlandica, 38(1):67-78

          Morita H, 2002. Handbook of Arable Weeds of Japan. Tokyo, Japan: Kumiai Chemical Industry Co., Ltd.

          Odermatt S, Thomet E, Thomet P, 1998. NARA - development of a low-input turf with low growing ecotypes. In: Boller B, Stadelmann FJ, eds. Breeding for a Multifunctional Agriculture. Proceedings of the 21st meeting of the Fodder Crops and Amenity Grasses Section of EUCARPIA, KartauseIttingen, Switzerland, 9-12 September, 1997. Zurich, Switzerland: Swiss Federal Research Station for Agroecology and Agriculture, 115-117.

          Oviedo Prieto R, Herrera Oliver P, Caluff MG, et al. , 2012. National list of invasive and potentially invasive plants in the Republic of Cuba - 2011. (Lista nacional de especies de plantas invasoras y potencialmente invasoras en la República de Cuba - 2011). Bissea: Boletín sobre Conservación de Plantas del Jardín Botánico Nacional de Cuba, 6(Special Issue 1):22-96.

          Paper DH, Marchesan M, 1999. Plantain (Plantago lanceolata L.): its introduction, analysis, constituents, pharmacology and standardization. Zeitschrift fur Phytotherapie, 20(4):231-238.

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