Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Paspalum dilatatum
(dallisgrass)

Vélez-Gavilán J, 2017. Paspalum dilatatum (dallisgrass). Invasive Species Compendium. Wallingford, UK: CABI. DOI:10.1079/ISC.38953.20203483565

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Datasheet

Paspalum dilatatum (dallisgrass)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 20 November 2019
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Pest
  • Host Plant
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Paspalum dilatatum
  • Preferred Common Name
  • dallisgrass
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Plantae
  •     Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •       Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •         Class: Monocotyledonae
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • Paspalum dilatatum is a perennial grass native to South America that has been introduced into tropical and subtropical areas as a forage species/fodder. It is reported as invasive in Japan, Malaysia, Taiwan, Vietnam, Indonesia, Philippine...

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Paspalum dilatatum (dallisgrass); habit. Dungog, New South Wales, Australia. December 2015.
TitleHabit
CaptionPaspalum dilatatum (dallisgrass); habit. Dungog, New South Wales, Australia. December 2015.
Copyright©Harry Rose (Macleay Grass Man)/via flickr - CC BY 2.0
Paspalum dilatatum (dallisgrass); habit. Dungog, New South Wales, Australia. December 2015.
HabitPaspalum dilatatum (dallisgrass); habit. Dungog, New South Wales, Australia. December 2015.©Harry Rose (Macleay Grass Man)/via flickr - CC BY 2.0
Paspalum dilatatum (dallisgrass); habit. Dungog, New South Wales, Australia. December 2015.
TitleHabit
CaptionPaspalum dilatatum (dallisgrass); habit. Dungog, New South Wales, Australia. December 2015.
Copyright©Harry Rose (Macleay Grass Man)/via flickr - CC BY 2.0
Paspalum dilatatum (dallisgrass); habit. Dungog, New South Wales, Australia. December 2015.
HabitPaspalum dilatatum (dallisgrass); habit. Dungog, New South Wales, Australia. December 2015.©Harry Rose (Macleay Grass Man)/via flickr - CC BY 2.0
Paspalum dilatatum (dallisgrass); habit. Dungog, New South Wales, Australia. December 2015.
TitleHabit
CaptionPaspalum dilatatum (dallisgrass); habit. Dungog, New South Wales, Australia. December 2015.
Copyright©Harry Rose (Macleay Grass Man)/via flickr - CC BY 2.0
Paspalum dilatatum (dallisgrass); habit. Dungog, New South Wales, Australia. December 2015.
HabitPaspalum dilatatum (dallisgrass); habit. Dungog, New South Wales, Australia. December 2015.©Harry Rose (Macleay Grass Man)/via flickr - CC BY 2.0
Paspalum dilatatum (dallisgrass); habit. Dungog, New South Wales, Australia. December 2015.
TitleHabit
CaptionPaspalum dilatatum (dallisgrass); habit. Dungog, New South Wales, Australia. December 2015.
Copyright©Harry Rose (Macleay Grass Man)/via flickr - CC BY 2.0
Paspalum dilatatum (dallisgrass); habit. Dungog, New South Wales, Australia. December 2015.
HabitPaspalum dilatatum (dallisgrass); habit. Dungog, New South Wales, Australia. December 2015.©Harry Rose (Macleay Grass Man)/via flickr - CC BY 2.0
Paspalum dilatatum (dallisgrass); ligule, showing long hairs, and papery ears. Ulupalakua, Maui, Hawaii, USA. August 2015.
TitleLigule
CaptionPaspalum dilatatum (dallisgrass); ligule, showing long hairs, and papery ears. Ulupalakua, Maui, Hawaii, USA. August 2015.
Copyright©Forest & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Paspalum dilatatum (dallisgrass); ligule, showing long hairs, and papery ears. Ulupalakua, Maui, Hawaii, USA. August 2015.
LigulePaspalum dilatatum (dallisgrass); ligule, showing long hairs, and papery ears. Ulupalakua, Maui, Hawaii, USA. August 2015.©Forest & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Paspalum dilatatum (dallisgrass); florets ,with anthers and stigmas. Ulupalakua, Maui, Hawaii, USA. August 2015.
TitleFlorets
CaptionPaspalum dilatatum (dallisgrass); florets ,with anthers and stigmas. Ulupalakua, Maui, Hawaii, USA. August 2015.
Copyright©Forest & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Paspalum dilatatum (dallisgrass); florets ,with anthers and stigmas. Ulupalakua, Maui, Hawaii, USA. August 2015.
FloretsPaspalum dilatatum (dallisgrass); florets ,with anthers and stigmas. Ulupalakua, Maui, Hawaii, USA. August 2015.©Forest & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Paspalum dilatatum (dallisgrass); florets, with anthers and stigmas. Ulupalakua, Maui, Hawaii, USA. August 201
TitleFlorets
CaptionPaspalum dilatatum (dallisgrass); florets, with anthers and stigmas. Ulupalakua, Maui, Hawaii, USA. August 201
Copyright©Forest & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Paspalum dilatatum (dallisgrass); florets, with anthers and stigmas. Ulupalakua, Maui, Hawaii, USA. August 201
FloretsPaspalum dilatatum (dallisgrass); florets, with anthers and stigmas. Ulupalakua, Maui, Hawaii, USA. August 201©Forest & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Paspalum dilatatum (dallisgrass); seedhead. Kawela Bridge, Molokai, Hawaii, USA. October 2014.
TitleSeedhead
CaptionPaspalum dilatatum (dallisgrass); seedhead. Kawela Bridge, Molokai, Hawaii, USA. October 2014.
Copyright©Forest & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Paspalum dilatatum (dallisgrass); seedhead. Kawela Bridge, Molokai, Hawaii, USA. October 2014.
SeedheadPaspalum dilatatum (dallisgrass); seedhead. Kawela Bridge, Molokai, Hawaii, USA. October 2014.©Forest & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Paspalum dilatatum (dallisgrass); mature seedheads. Puu Nianiau, Maui, Hawaii, USA. January 2009.
TitleSeedhead
CaptionPaspalum dilatatum (dallisgrass); mature seedheads. Puu Nianiau, Maui, Hawaii, USA. January 2009.
Copyright©Forest & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Paspalum dilatatum (dallisgrass); mature seedheads. Puu Nianiau, Maui, Hawaii, USA. January 2009.
SeedheadPaspalum dilatatum (dallisgrass); mature seedheads. Puu Nianiau, Maui, Hawaii, USA. January 2009.©Forest & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Paspalum dilatatum (dallisgrass); mature seedhead. Crater Hill Kilauea Pt NWR, Kauai, Hawaii, USA. March 2013.
TitleSeedhead
CaptionPaspalum dilatatum (dallisgrass); mature seedhead. Crater Hill Kilauea Pt NWR, Kauai, Hawaii, USA. March 2013.
Copyright©Forest & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Paspalum dilatatum (dallisgrass); mature seedhead. Crater Hill Kilauea Pt NWR, Kauai, Hawaii, USA. March 2013.
SeedheadPaspalum dilatatum (dallisgrass); mature seedhead. Crater Hill Kilauea Pt NWR, Kauai, Hawaii, USA. March 2013.©Forest & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Paspalum dilatatum Poir.

Preferred Common Name

  • dallisgrass

Other Scientific Names

  • Digitaria dilatata (Poir.) Coste
  • Panicum platense (Spreng.) Kuntze
  • Paspalum eriophorum Schult. & Schult.f
  • Paspalum lanatum Spreng.
  • Paspalum moluccanum Huber
  • Paspalum ovatum Ness ex Trin.
  • Paspalum pedunculare J.Presl
  • Paspalum platense Spreng.
  • Paspalum selloi Spreng. ex Ness

International Common Names

  • English: caterpillar grass; dallis grass; golden crown grass; Leichhardt grass; paspalum; sticky heads; water grass; water paspalum
  • Spanish: grama de agua; gramilla; pasto chato; pasto dallis; pasto miel; zacate dilación
  • French: herbe de dallis; herbe de miel; herbe sirop; millet bâtard; paspalum dilate
  • Portuguese: capim-comprido; grama-comprida
  • German: Brasilianische futterhirse; Brasilianische hirse; dallisgras

Local Common Names

  • Australia: bastard millet grass; hairy flowered paspalum; large watergrass; large waterseed paspalum; paspalum grass; watergrass
  • Brazil: capim melador; capim mimosa; capim-dallis; capim-melado; capim-papua; grama-das-rocas; gramão; grama-samandura; sanduva
  • Chile: camalote; chepica gigante
  • China: mao hua que bai
  • Cuba: grama
  • Denmark: hirse
  • Dominican Republic: yerba de Australia
  • France: panic du Brésil; paspale dilate
  • Hungary: széles csomósmuhar
  • Indonesia: rumput australi
  • Israel: paspalum merhav
  • Italy: panico brasiliano; panico brasilinao; paspalo dilatato
  • Japan: shima-suzume-no-hie
  • Mauritius: herbe codaya
  • Mexico: zacate dallis
  • Niue: hiku nua
  • Philippines: halanaw; lawa-lawa; sakata
  • Portugal: grama-de-água; milha-graminheira
  • Puerto Rico: dalis; yerba dalis
  • Spain: gramón; mijera
  • Thailand: ya-daenlit
  • Vietnam: co'san dep

EPPO code

  • PASDI (Paspalum dilatatum)

Summary of Invasiveness

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Paspalum dilatatum is a perennial grass native to South America that has been introduced into tropical and subtropical areas as a forage species/fodder. It is reported as invasive in Japan, Malaysia, Taiwan, Vietnam, Indonesia, Philippines, Hawaii, American Samoa, Australia, Fiji, French Polynesia, New Caledonia, New Zealand, Niue, Norfolk Island, Solomon Islands and the Minor Outlying Islands. In Hawaii and New Zealand, it forms dense stands that smother and prevent recruitment of native species.

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Plantae
  •         Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •             Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •                 Class: Monocotyledonae
  •                     Order: Cyperales
  •                         Family: Poaceae
  •                             Genus: Paspalum
  •                                 Species: Paspalum dilatatum

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

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Paspalum is a genus in the Poaceae family with about 330 species, mainly from tropical to warm-temperate regions of the American continent (PROTA, 2017). The genus includes important forage grasses and widespread weeds. Paspalum comes from the Greek word for millet, Paspalos (Quattrocchi, 1999). The common name of dallisgrass for P. dilatatum is in honour of AT Dallis, who grew it extensively at La Grange, Georgia, USA (Hitchcock and Chase, 1951). From the synonyms applied to the species, P. lanatum, P. moluccanum and P. ovatum are illegitimate names and P. selloi is an invalid name (The Plant List, 2013).

Description

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The following description is from Flora of China Editorial Committee (2017):

Perennial from a short rhizome. Culms forming a coarse, spreading tuft, 50-150 cm tall, c. 5 mm in diameter, glabrous. Leaf sheaths glabrous or pilose in the lower part; leaf blades linear, 10-45 x 0.3-1.2 cm, glabrous, apex attenuate; ligule 2-4 mm. Inflorescence axis 2-20 cm; racemes 2-10, 5-12 cm, spaced, diverging, axils pilose; spikelets paired; rachis 1-1.5 mm wide, glabrous. Spikelets green or purplish, broadly ovate, 3-4 mm, sharply acute; upper glume membranous, 5-9-veined, sparsely pubescent to almost glabrous on back, margins fringed with long white hairs; lower lemma similar but not hairy; upper lemma pallid at maturity, orbicular, c. 2 mm, clearly shorter than spikelet, papillose-striate, apex rounded.

Plant Type

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Grass / sedge
Herbaceous
Perennial
Seed propagated
Vegetatively propagated

Distribution

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P. dilatatum is native to Brazil, Argentina, Bolivia, Chile, Guyana, Paraguay and Uruguay (Missouri Botanical Garden, 2017; PIER, 2017; PROTA, 2017; USDA-ARS, 2017), and Hanelt (2017) extends its reported native distribution to Central America. The species has been introduced worldwide, being present in Asia, Africa, North America, Central America, the Caribbean, South America, Europe and Oceania and invasive in many of the introduced countries (Acevedo-Rodríguez and Strong, 2012; DAISIE, 2017Encyclopedia of Life, 2017; Missouri Botanical Garden, 2017; PIER, 2017; PROTA, 2017; USDA-ARS, 2017).

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 17 Feb 2021
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

AlgeriaPresentIntroduced
AngolaPresentIntroduced
CameroonPresentIntroduced
EgyptPresentIntroducedNile region and Sinai
EswatiniPresentIntroduced
GhanaPresentIntroduced
KenyaPresentIntroduced
LesothoPresentIntroduced
MadagascarPresentIntroducedAntananarivo
MauritaniaPresentIntroduced
MauritiusPresentIntroducedMauritius and Mascarene islands
MoroccoPresentIntroduced
South AfricaPresentIntroduced
TanzaniaPresentIntroduced
UgandaPresentIntroduced
ZambiaPresentIntroduced
ZimbabwePresentIntroduced

Asia

ArmeniaPresentIntroduced
AzerbaijanPresentIntroduced
BhutanPresentIntroduced
ChinaPresentIntroducedAlso as cultivated
-FujianPresentIntroduced
-GuangxiPresentIntroduced
-GuizhouPresentIntroduced
-HubeiPresentIntroduced
-ShanghaiPresentIntroduced
-YunnanPresentIntroduced
-ZhejiangPresentIntroduced
GeorgiaPresentIntroduced
Hong KongPresentIntroduced
IndiaPresentIntroduced
-Himachal PradeshPresentIntroduced
-KeralaPresentIntroduced
-MaharashtraPresentIntroduced
-MeghalayaPresentIntroduced
-PunjabPresentIntroduced
-RajasthanPresentIntroduced
-SikkimPresentIntroduced
-Tamil NaduPresentIntroduced
IndonesiaPresentIntroducedInvasive
-JavaPresentIntroduced
-Lesser Sunda IslandsPresentIntroduced
IraqPresentIntroduced
IsraelPresentIntroduced
JapanPresentIntroducedInvasive
-Bonin IslandsPresentIntroduced
JordanPresentIntroduced
MalaysiaPresentIntroducedInvasive
-SabahPresentIntroduced
PakistanPresentIntroduced
PhilippinesPresentIntroducedInvasive
Saudi ArabiaPresentIntroduced
Sri LankaPresentIntroduced
TaiwanPresentIntroducedInvasive
TurkeyPresentIntroduced
VietnamPresentIntroducedInvasive

Europe

AustriaPresentIntroduced
BelgiumPresent, Only in captivity/cultivationIntroduced
CroatiaPresentIntroduced
CyprusPresentIntroduced
FrancePresentIntroduced1878
-CorsicaPresentIntroduced
GermanyPresentIntroduced
GreecePresentIntroduced
HungaryPresent, Only in captivity/cultivationIntroduced
ItalyPresentIntroduced
PortugalPresentIntroduced
-AzoresPresentIntroduced
-MadeiraPresentIntroduced
RussiaPresentIntroduced
SpainPresentIntroduced
-Balearic IslandsPresentIntroduced
-Canary IslandsPresentIntroduced
SwitzerlandPresent, Only in captivity/cultivationIntroduced
United KingdomPresentIntroduced

North America

BahamasPresentIntroduced
BermudaPresentIntroduced1913Original citation: New York Botanical Garden (2017)
Costa RicaPresentIntroducedAlajuela, San José
CubaPresentIntroduced1921Original citation: New York Botanical Garden (2017)
Dominican RepublicPresentIntroduced
El SalvadorPresentIntroduced
GuatemalaPresentIntroduced
HaitiPresentIntroduced1909Original citation: New York Botanical Garden (2017)
JamaicaPresentIntroduced1917Original citation: New York Botanical Garden (2017)
MexicoPresentIntroducedChiapas, Chihuahua, Jalisco, Nuevo León, Veracruz
PanamaPresentIntroducedChiriquí
Puerto RicoPresentIntroduced1924
United StatesPresentIntroduced1875
-AlabamaPresentIntroduced
-ArizonaPresentIntroduced
-ArkansasPresentIntroduced
-CaliforniaPresentIntroduced
-ColoradoPresentIntroduced
-FloridaPresentIntroduced
-GeorgiaPresentIntroduced
-HawaiiPresentIntroducedInvasiveInvasive at Big Island, Kaua’i, Lana’i, Maui, Moloka’i and O’ahu islands
-IllinoisPresentIntroduced
-LouisianaPresentIntroduced
-MarylandPresentIntroduced
-MississippiPresentIntroduced
-MissouriPresentIntroduced
-New JerseyPresentIntroduced
-New MexicoPresentIntroduced
-North CarolinaPresentIntroduced
-OklahomaPresentIntroduced
-OregonPresentIntroduced
-South DakotaPresentIntroduced
-TennesseePresentIntroduced
-TexasPresentIntroduced
-VirginiaPresentIntroduced
-West VirginiaPresentIntroduced

Oceania

American SamoaPresentIntroducedInvasiveTutuila Island
AustraliaPresentIntroduced
-Lord Howe IslandPresentIntroducedInvasiveAlso cultivated
-New South WalesPresentIntroduced
-Northern TerritoryPresentIntroduced
-QueenslandPresentIntroducedInvasive
-South AustraliaPresentIntroduced
-TasmaniaPresentIntroduced
-VictoriaPresentIntroduced
Cook IslandsPresentIntroducedMangaia, Ma’uke, Miti’aro and Rarotonga Islands
FijiPresentIntroducedInvasiveKandavu, Rambi, Taveuni, Vanua Levu and Viti Levu islands
French PolynesiaPresentIntroducedInvasiveAboriginal introduction and invasive in Nuku Hiva Island. Present in Raiatea and Tupai islands. Introduced and cultivated in Tahiti Island
GuamPresentIntroducedAlso cultivated
New CaledoniaPresentIntroducedInvasiveInvasive and cultivated in Loyalty Islands, New Caledonia Islands, Ile Grande Terre, Isle of Pines
New ZealandPresentIntroducedInvasive
NiuePresentIntroducedInvasiveKermadee Islands
Norfolk IslandPresentIntroducedInvasiveAlso cultivated
Papua New GuineaPresentIntroduced
SamoaPresentIntroducedUpolu Island
Solomon IslandsPresentIntroducedInvasive
TongaPresentIntroducedTongatapu Island
U.S. Minor Outlying IslandsPresentIntroducedInvasive
-Johnston AtollPresentIntroducedInvasive
VanuatuPresentIntroduced

South America

ArgentinaPresentNativeBuenos Aires, Córdoba, Corrientes, Distrito Federal, Entre Ríos, Jujuy, Misiones, Salta, San Juan, Santa Fe
BoliviaPresentNativeTarija
BrazilPresentNative
-Minas GeraisPresentNative
-ParaPresentNative
-ParanaPresentNative
-Rio de JaneiroPresentNative
-Rio Grande do SulPresentNative
-Santa CatarinaPresentNative
-Sao PauloPresentNative
ChilePresentNative
ColombiaPresentIntroduced
French GuianaPresentIntroduced
GuyanaPresentNative
ParaguayPresentNative
UruguayPresentNativeCanelones, Colonia, Florida, Montevideo
VenezuelaPresentIntroducedBarinas, Mérida

History of Introduction and Spread

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P. dilatatum was introduced to southern USA from Uruguay or Argentina in 1875 (Heuzé et al., 2015). In 1878, it was introduced from Uruguay into France (Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, 2017). The species was introduced to Japan in the early 1900s and is now naturalized in central-southern Japan (Sugiura and Yamazaki, 2007). There are collections reported from Haiti in 1909, Bermuda in 1913, Jamaica in 1917 (introduced as forage grass) and Cuba in 1921 (New York Botanical Garden, 2017). P. dilatatum was reported in Puerto Rico in 1924 (UPRRP, 2017).

Introductions

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Introduced toIntroduced fromYearReasonIntroduced byEstablished in wild throughReferencesNotes
Natural reproductionContinuous restocking
USA 1875 Forage (pathway cause) Yes No Heuzé et al. (2015)
Cuba 1921 Forage (pathway cause) Yes No New York Botanical Garden (2017)
Jamaica 1917 Forage (pathway cause) Yes No New York Botanical Garden (2017)
Haiti 1909 Forage (pathway cause) Yes No New York Botanical Garden (2017)
Bermuda 1913 Forage (pathway cause) Yes No New York Botanical Garden (2017)
Puerto Rico 1924 Forage (pathway cause) Yes No UPRRP (2017)
France Uruguay 1878 Forage (pathway cause) Yes No Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle (2017)

Risk of Introduction

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P. dilatatum has a medium to high risk of introduction into tropical, subtropical and temperate zones, usually to be used as forage/fodder. However, its low sexual reproduction, low germination and slow establishment, together with its susceptibility of being infected by ergot (Claviceps paspali), are a deterrent to its spread. Nevertheless, the use of this species is favoured due to the high productivity of livestock that feeds on it (Miz and Souza-Chies, 2006). As research to identify genotypes that improve its use as a crop is underway, its distribution is likely to increase in the future (Glison et al., 2015).

Habitat

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P. dilatatum is present in disturbed sites, savannas, moist grasslands, forests, wetlands, riparian habitats, roadsides and agricultural land (Flora do Brasil, 2017; PIER, 2017). It grows from 5 to 2200 m of elevation (PROTA, 2017).

Hosts/Species Affected

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P. dilatatum is reported as a weed of cultivation and is sometimes present in rice fields (Heuzé et al., 2015; Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2017). When the species is infected by the ergot fungus, Claviceps paspali, it becomes toxic to animals that feed on it (FAO, 2017; PROTA, 2017; USDA-ARS, 2017).

Host Plants and Other Plants Affected

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Plant nameFamilyContextReferences
CitrusRutaceaeMain
    Oryza sativa (rice)Poaceae

      Biology and Ecology

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      Genetics

      The chromosome numbers reported for P. dilatatum are 2n = 40, 50, 60 (PROTA, 2017). Germplasm collections are stored at various institutions, with the oldest collection in storage being around 21 years old (Glison et al., 2015; Kew Royal Botanic Gardens, 2017; PROTA, 2017; USDA-ARS, 2017). DNA barcode information for the species is available at the Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD, 2017). Seeds are produced in Australia, USA and Uruguay, and breeding work is being undertaken to increase species resistance to ergot and anthracnose, and to improve species management (Glison et al., 2015; PROTA, 2017).

      The species is mainly apomictic by apospory and pseudogamy, with the sexual type being less common. Crossing apomict and sexual plants produces an interspecific hybrid with 2n = 50 (PROTA, 2017). There are reports of hybrids between P. dilatatum and P. urvellei (Miz and Souza-Chies, 2006). Important cultivars developed for P. dilatatum are ‘raki’ from New Zealand, ‘charu’ from Uruguay and ‘natsugumo’ from Japan (PROTA, 2017).

      Reproductive Biology

      Reproduction of P. dilatatum is by seed (PROTA, 2017). Most seeds are produced by apomixis, although wind pollination and pollination by solitary bees have been reported for the species (Adams et al., 1981). Pollen viability is low (Miz and Souza-Chies, 2006). Seed production is 570-750 seeds/g and is inhibited below 13°C (FAO, 2017; PROTA, 2017). Seeds have some post-harvesting dormancy, which is broken by removal of the glumes (FAO, 2017; PROSEA, 2017). It is considered a slow starter species, with slow germination and establishment rates (Miz and Souza-Chies, 2006; PROTA, 2017).  

      Physiology and Phenology

      P. dilatatum flowering and fruiting occurs from spring to summer, after which flowering declines (FAO, 2017; Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2017). Early growth is slow but, once established, it grows vigorously. The fastest growth occurs during the reproductive season and slows down during mid-summer and autumn. In subtropical regions and at higher altitudes, the species becomes dormant during cool periods (PROTA, 2017).

      Associations

      P. dilatatum is usually grown with other fast growing plants in order to improve pastures (Heuzé et al., 2015). Species that are grown in association with P. dilatatum are Trifolium repens, T. semipilosum, T. subterraneum, Vigna parkeri, Cynodon dactylon and Lolium rigidum (Heuzé et al., 2015; PROTA, 2017).

      Environmental Requirements

      P. dilatatum can grow in areas with annual rainfall from 750 to 1650 mm, but is better adapted to permanently humid subtropical conditions of 10 to 12 humid months, with over 1000 mm annual rainfall (FAO, 2017; PROTA, 2017). It prefers moist fertile soils of fine and medium texture, with a pH of 4.9 to 7.5, although it can grow on heavy clay soils (Encyclopedia of Life, 2017; FAO, 2017). The species tolerates flooding, but will also grow in dry areas, being drought tolerant (Heuzé et al., 2015; PROTA, 2017). It is not common in areas exposed to fires, although it recovers well from them (FAO, 2017). Optimum growing temperature is 22 to 30°C, but it can grow in temperatures as low as -3°C, as its deep roots allow it to regrow after frost (Heuzé et al., 2015). It requires full sun and has an optimal day-length response of 14-16 hours (PROTA, 2017).

      Climate

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      ClimateStatusDescriptionRemark
      Af - Tropical rainforest climate Preferred > 60mm precipitation per month
      Am - Tropical monsoon climate Preferred Tropical monsoon climate ( < 60mm precipitation driest month but > (100 - [total annual precipitation(mm}/25]))
      As - Tropical savanna climate with dry summer Preferred < 60mm precipitation driest month (in summer) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
      Aw - Tropical wet and dry savanna climate Preferred < 60mm precipitation driest month (in winter) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
      BS - Steppe climate Tolerated > 430mm and < 860mm annual precipitation
      Cs - Warm temperate climate with dry summer Preferred Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry summers
      Cw - Warm temperate climate with dry winter Preferred Warm temperate climate with dry winter (Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry winters)
      Cf - Warm temperate climate, wet all year Preferred Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, wet all year

      Latitude/Altitude Ranges

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      Latitude North (°N)Latitude South (°S)Altitude Lower (m)Altitude Upper (m)
      50 45 5 2200

      Air Temperature

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      Parameter Lower limit Upper limit
      Absolute minimum temperature (ºC) -3
      Mean annual temperature (ºC) 10 30

      Rainfall

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      ParameterLower limitUpper limitDescription
      Mean annual rainfall750 mm1650 mmmm; lower/upper limits

      Soil Tolerances

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      Soil drainage

      • free
      • seasonally waterlogged

      Soil reaction

      • acid
      • alkaline
      • neutral

      Soil texture

      • heavy
      • light
      • medium

      Natural enemies

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      Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
      Barley yellow dwarf viruses Pathogen Other/All Stages not specific
      Bipolaris micropus Pathogen Other/All Stages not specific
      Claviceps paspali Pathogen Other/All Stages to species
      Colletotrichum graminicola Pathogen Other/All Stages not specific
      Diatraea saccharalis Herbivore Other/All Stages not specific
      Lepidiota caudata Herbivore Other/All Stages not specific
      Mocis latipes
      Paspalum striate mosaic virus Pathogen Other/All Stages to genus
      Rhopaea Herbivore Other/All Stages not specific
      Spodoptera frugiperda

      Notes on Natural Enemies

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      P. dilatatum is affected by the following pests: Claviceps paspali, Glomerella graminicola [Colletotrichum graminicola] and Helminthosporium micropus [Bipolaris micropus]; the insects Lepidiota caudata, Rhopaea spp. and Diatraea saccharalis; and the barley and cereal yellow dwarf viruses (B/CYDV) and the Paspalum striate mosaic virus (PSMV) (Geering et al., 2012; Rúa et al., 2014; FAO, 2017; PROTA, 2017).

      Means of Movement and Dispersal

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      Natural Dispersal

      P. dilatatum can be dispersed by water (PIER, 2017).

       

      Vector Transmission (Biotic)

      P. dilatatum can be dispersed by animals (Eurobodalla Shire Council, 2017; PIER, 2017; PROTA, 2017).

       

      Accidental Introduction

      P. dilatatum has been accidentally dispersed by soil, clothing, machinery and vehicles (Eurobodalla Shire Council, 2017).

       

      Intentional Introduction

      P. dilatatum has been introduced in tropical, subtropical and temperate regions as a forage species (PROTA, 2017).

      Pathway Causes

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      CauseNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
      Disturbance Yes PIER (2017)
      Foragewidely introduced as forage for livestock Yes Yes PIER (2017)
      Habitat restoration and improvementrecommended for erosion control Yes Yes Tropical Forages (2017)
      Hitchhikerunintentionally dispersed by animals and humans Yes Yes Eurobodalla Shire Council (2017); PIER (2017)
      Intentional releasewidely introduced as forage/fodder for livestock Yes Yes PROTA (2017); Tropical Forages (2017)
      Internet salesplants and seeds available for sale locally and internationally Yes Yes
      Off-site preservation germplasm collections at various institutions Yes Yes Kew Royal Botanic Gardens (2017); PROTA (2017); USDA-ARS (2017)
      Researchbreeding work carried out to increase resistance to ergot and anthracnose, and to improve management of the species Yes Yes Glison et al. (2015); PROTA (2017)

      Pathway Vectors

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      VectorNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
      Germplasmgermplasm collections at various institutions Yes Yes Kew Royal Botanic Gardens (2017); PROTA (2017); USDA-ARS (2017)
      Machinery and equipment Yes Eurobodalla Shire Council (2017)
      Soil, sand and gravelseeds possibly dispersed in soil debris from cultivation Yes
      Land vehicles Yes Eurobodalla Shire Council (2017)
      Water Yes PIER (2017)

      Economic Impact

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      P. dilatatum is reported to be a potential seed contaminant (USDA-ARS, 2017) and to cause problems in irrigation channels (Nasseri, 2016).

      Environmental Impact

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      Impact on Biodiversity

      P. dilatatum forms dense stands that smother and prevent recruitment of native species (PIER, 2017). The species by itself is not toxic, but can be infected by the ergot fungus Claviceps paspali, which is toxic to animals (FAO, 2017; PROTA, 2017; USDA-ARS, 2017).

      Social Impact

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      P. dilatatum is a pest of lawns and turf grass (PROTA, 2017). It tolerates close mowing, traffic and high soil moisture, which contributes to its persistence in lawns (Elmore et al., 2013).

      Risk and Impact Factors

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      Invasiveness
      • Proved invasive outside its native range
      • Has a broad native range
      • Highly adaptable to different environments
      • Is a habitat generalist
      • Tolerates, or benefits from, cultivation, browsing pressure, mutilation, fire etc
      • Pioneering in disturbed areas
      • Long lived
      • Gregarious
      • Has propagules that can remain viable for more than one year
      • Reproduces asexually
      • Has high genetic variability
      Impact outcomes
      • Ecosystem change/ habitat alteration
      • Monoculture formation
      • Negatively impacts agriculture
      • Negatively impacts animal health
      • Reduced native biodiversity
      • Threat to/ loss of native species
      Impact mechanisms
      • Competition - monopolizing resources
      • Competition - shading
      • Competition - smothering
      • Pest and disease transmission
      Likelihood of entry/control
      • Highly likely to be transported internationally accidentally
      • Highly likely to be transported internationally deliberately

      Uses

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      Economic Value
      P. dilatatum is one of the earliest grasses used for sown pastures (Tropical Forages, 2017). Its use is favoured due to its palatability, productivity and ability to withstand heavy grazing. High production and milk yields are obtained from animals feeding on P. dilatatum (PROTA, 2017). It is one of the grasses recommended for broadening and stabilisation of the forage production calendar in Mediterranean-type environments (Gherbin et al., 2007). 
      Social Benefit 
      P. dilatatum is used as fodder/forage, for hay and silage (USDA-ARS, 2017). It is also used as a source of vitamins and minerals (PROTA, 2017).
      Environmental Services
      P. dilatatum is used for erosion control and for mine habitat restoration (USDA-ARS, 2017). In Australia, it is foraged by the eastern grey kangaroo (Macropus giganteus) and the common wombat (Vombatus ursinus) (Jarman and Evans, 2010).

      Uses List

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      Animal feed, fodder, forage

      • Fodder/animal feed
      • Forage

      Environmental

      • Erosion control or dune stabilization
      • Soil conservation

      Similarities to Other Species/Conditions

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      P. dilatatum is similar to P. mandiocanum, P. notatum, P. urvillei, P. scrobiculatum and P. quadrifarium (University of Queensland, 2017). These species can be differentiated by the following: P. dilatatum is a moderately-sized grass with narrow leaves, large flower spikelets (3-4 mm long), long silky hairs on the leaf margins and seed-heads usually with 3-7 branches. P. mandiocanum is a low-growing grass with broad leaves, small flower spikelets (2-2.5 mm long), without long silky hairs on the leaf margins and seed-heads usually with 3-10 branches. P. notatum is a low-growing grass with relatively narrow leaves, relatively large flower spikelets (2.75-4 mm long), without silky hairs on the leaf margins and seed-heads usually with only two branches. P. urvillei is a tall grass with narrow leaves, small flower spikelets with long silky hairs on the leaf margins and seed-heads usually with 10-20 branches. P. scrobiculatum is a moderate-sized grass with narrow leaves, small flower spikelets (2-2.5 mm long), without long silky hairs on the leaf margins and seed-heads usually with only 2-7 branches (i.e. racemes). P. quadrifarium is a tall grass (1-2 m tall) with narrow leaves, relatively small flower spikelets (2-3 mm long), without long silky hairs on the leaf margins and seed-heads usually with 15-25 branches.

      Prevention and Control

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      Due to the variable regulations around (de)registration of pesticides, your national list of registered pesticides or relevant authority should be consulted to determine which products are legally allowed for use in your country when considering chemical control. Pesticides should always be used in a lawful manner, consistent with the product's label.

      Prevention

      In Canada, although the species is not present, it is listed as a prohibited noxious weed under the Seeds Act (Canadian Food Inspection Agency, 2017).

       

      Control

      Physical/mechanical control

      Small plants of P. dilatatum can be dug out, removing all rhizomes. Plants that are cut or mowed regenerate fast, so mowing should be combined with chemical control (Henry et al., 2007a; PIER, 2017).

       

      Chemical control

      Herbicides recommended for the control of P. dilatatum are: paraquat, glyphosate, thiencarbazone-methyl, foramsulfuron, halosulfuron-methyl, fluazifop and monosodium methanearsonate (MSMA) combined with foramsulfuron (Henry et al., 2007b; Elmore et al., 2013; Johnston and Henry, 2016; PIER, 2017).

      Gaps in Knowledge/Research Needs

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      More detailed information about the species impacts on habitats and other species is needed.

      References

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      Acevedo-Rodríguez P, Strong MT, 2012. Catalogue of the seed plants of the West Indies. Smithsonian Contributions to Botany, 98:1-1192. Washington DC, USA: Smithsonian Institution.

      Adams, D. E., Perkins, W. E., Estes, J. R., 1981. Pollination systems in Paspalum dilatatum (Poaceae): an example of insect pollination in a temperate grass. American Journal of Botany, 68(3), 389-394. doi: 10.2307/2442775

      BOLD, 2017. BOLD Systems - Barcode of Life Data System. http://www.boldsystems.org/index.php/

      Canadian Food Inspection Agency, 2017. CFIA. Canada: Government of Canada. http://www.inspection.gc.ca/invasive

      DAISIE, 2017. Delivering Alien Invasive Species Inventories for Europe. DAISIE (online). http://www.europe-aliens.org/

      Elmore, M. T., Brosnan, J. T., Mueller, T. C., Horvath, B. J., Kopsell, D. A., Breeden, G. K., 2013. Seasonal application timings affect dallisgrass (Paspalum dilatatum) control in tall fescue. Weed Technology, 27(3), 557-564. http://www.wssajournals.org/doi/abs/10.1614/WT-D-13-00007.1 doi: 10.1614/WT-D-13-00007.1

      Encyclopedia of Life, 2017. http://www.eol.org/

      Eurobodalla Shire Council, 2017. Paspalum (Paspalum dilatatum). Moruya, New South Wales, Australia: Eurobodalla Shire Council. http://www.esc.nsw.gov.au/living-in/about/our-natural-environment/introduced-plants-and-animals/weeds/weed-profiles/paspalum-paspalum-dilatatum

      FAO, 2017. Plant Production and Protection Division of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. http://www.fao.org/agriculture/crops/en/

      Flora do Brasil, 2017. Brazilian Flora 2020 under construction. Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: Rio de Janeiro Botanical Garden. http://reflora.jbrj.gov.br/reflora/listaBrasil/ConsultaPublicaUC/ConsultaPublicaUC.do#CondicaoTaxonCP

      Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2017. Flora of China. St. Louis, Missouri and Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden and Harvard University Herbaria. http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2

      Geering, A. D. W., Thomas, J. E., Holton, T., Hadfield, J., Varsani, A., 2012. Paspalum striate mosaic virus: an Australian mastrevirus from Paspalum dilatatum. Archives of Virology, 157(1), 193-197. http://www.springerlink.com/content/a7466256qvk52217/ doi: 10.1007/s00705-011-1129-2

      Gherbin, P., Franchi, A. S. de, Monteleone, M., Rivelli, A. R., 2007. Adaptability and productivity of some warm-season pasture species in a Mediterranean environment. Grass and Forage Science, 62(1), 78-86. http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/loi/gfs doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2494.2007.00566.x

      Glison, N., Viega, L., Cornaglia, P., Gutiérrez, L., Speranza, P., 2015. Variability in germination behaviour of Paspalum dilatatum Poir. seeds is genotype dependent. Grass and Forage Science, 70(1), 144-153. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/journal/10.1111/(ISSN)1365-2494 doi: 10.1111/gfs.12119

      Hanelt P, 2017. Mansfeld’s World Database of Agricultural and Horticultural Crops. Gatersleben, Germany: Leibniz Institute of Plant Genetics and Crop Plant Research (IPK). http://mansfeld.ipk-gatersleben.de/apex/f?p=185:1:::NO

      Henry, G. M., Burton, M. G., Yelverton, F. H., 2007a. Effect of mowing on lateral spread and rhizome growth of troublesome Paspalum species. Weed Science, 55(5), 486-490. http://wssa.allenpress.com/wssaonline/?request=get-abstract&issn=0043-1745&volume=055&issue=05&page=0486 doi: 10.1614/WS-07-030.1

      Henry, G. M., Yelverton, F. H., Burton, M. G., 2007b. Dallisgrass (Paspalum dilatatum) control with foramsulfuron in bermudagrass turf. Weed Technology, 21(3), 759-762. http://wssa.allenpress.com/wssaonline/?request=get-abstract&doi=10.1614/WT-06-163.1 doi: 10.1614/WT-06-163.1

      Heuzé V, Tran G, Sauvant D, 2015. Dallis grass (Paspalum dilatatum). Feedipedia, animal feed resources information system. A programme by INRA, CIRAD, AFZ and FAO. http://www.feedipedia.org/node/404

      Hitchcock, A. S., Chase, A., 1951. Manual of the grasses of the United States. Manual of the grasses of the United States, 2nd ed(200), 1051 pp.

      India Biodiversity Portal, 2017. Online Portal of India Biodiversity. http://indiabiodiversity.org/

      Jarman, P. J., Evans, M. C., 2010. Circadian variation in resource quality: leaf water content and its relevance to eastern grey kangaroo Macropus giganteus and common wombat Vombatus ursinus. Austral Ecology, 35(2), 176-188. http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/loi/aec doi: 10.1111/j.1442-9993.2009.02023.x

      Johnston, C. R., Henry, G. M., 2016. Dallisgrass (Paspalum dilatatum) control with thiencarbazone-methyl, foramsulfuron, and halosulfuron-methyl in bermudagrass turf. HortScience, 51(6), 754-756. http://hortsci.ashspublications.org/

      Kew Royal Botanic Gardens, 2017. Millennium Seed Bank - Seed List. Richmond, UK: Kew Royal Botanic Gardens. http://apps.kew.org/seedlist/SeedlistServlet

      Mazih A, 2015. Status of citrus IPM in the southern Mediterranean basin Morocco, North Africa. Acta Horticulturae [XII International Citrus Congress - International Society of Citriculture, Valencia, Spain.], No.1065:1097-1103. http://www.actahort.org/books/1065/1065_138.htm

      Missouri Botanical Garden, 2017. Tropicos database. http://www.tropicos.org/

      Miz, R. B., Souza-Chies, T. T. de, 2006. Genetic relationships and variation among biotypes of dallisgrass (Paspalum dilatatum Poir.) and related species using random amplified polymorphic DNA markers. Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution, 53(3), 541-552. doi: 10.1007/s10722-005-1290-0

      Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, 2017. Collection: vascular plants (P). https://science.mnhn.fr/institution/mnhn/collection/p/item/search

      Nasseri, A., 2016. Canal geometry, flow velocity, dallisgrass (Paspalum dilatatum Poir.) density and soil phosphorous effects on hydraulic resistance of vegetated canals. Tarim Bilimleri Dergisi, 22(2), 187-195. http://tarimbilimleri.agri.ankara.edu.tr/2016/22_2/6.makale%20(1).pdf

      New York Botanical Garden, 2017. The C.V. Starr Virtual Herbarium. New York, USA: The New York Botanical Garden. http://sweetgum.nybg.org/science/vh/

      PIER, 2017. Pacific Islands Ecosystems at Risk. Honolulu, USA: HEAR, University of Hawaii. http://www.hear.org/pier/index.html

      PROSEA, 2017. Plant Resources of South-East Asia

      PROTA, 2017. PROTA4U web database. Grubben GJH, Denton OA, eds. Wageningen, Netherlands: Plant Resources of Tropical Africa. http://www.prota4u.org/search.asp

      Quattrocchi U, 1999. CRC world dictionary of plant names: common names, scientific names, eponyms. Synonyms, and Etymology, Volume 4. Boca Raton, Florida, USA: CRC Press, 640 pp

      Rúa, M. A., McCulley, R. L., Mitchell, C. E., 2014. Climate drivers, host identity and fungal endophyte infection determine virus prevalence in a grassland ecosystem. Journal of Ecology (Oxford), 102(3), 690-699. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/journal/10.1111/(ISSN)1365-2745 doi: 10.1111/1365-2745.12238

      Sugiura, S., Yamazaki, K., 2007. Migratory moths as dispersal vectors of an introduced plant-pathogenic fungus in Japan. Biological Invasions, 9(2), 101-106. http://www.springerlink.com/content/v2717gx06jlv5616/?p=6a1bd53b63544519b4d28bf5c296fbd7&pi=0 doi: 10.1007/s10530-006-9006-8

      The Plant List, 2017. The Plant List: a working list of all plant species. Version 1.1. London, UK: Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. http://www.theplantlist.org

      Tropical Forages, 2017. Tropical Forages: an interactive selection tool. Brisbane, Australia: CSIRO Sustainable Ecosystems, Department of Primary Industries and Fisheries Queensland, Centro Internacional de Agricultura Tropical and International Livestock Research Institute. http://www.tropicalforages.info/

      University of Queensland, 2017. Weeds of Australia. Biosecurity Queensland Edition. Queensland, Australia: University of Queensland. https://keyserver.lucidcentral.org/weeds/

      UPRRP, 2017. UPRRP Herbarium. San Juan, Puerto Rico: University of Puerto Rico. http://herbario.uprrp.edu/

      USDA-ARS, 2017. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Online Database. Beltsville, USA: National Germplasm Resources Laboratory. http://www.ars-grin.gov/cgi-bin/npgs/html/tax_search.pl

      USDA-NRCS, 2017. The PLANTS Database. Baton Rouge, USA: National Plant Data Center. http://plants.usda.gov/

      Distribution References

      Acevedo-Rodríguez P, Strong M T, 2012. Catalogue of the Seed Plants of the West Indies. Washington, DC, USA: Smithsonian Institution. 1192 pp. http://botany.si.edu/Antilles/WestIndies/catalog.htm

      CABI, Undated. Compendium record. Wallingford, UK: CABI

      DAISIE, 2017. Delivering Alien Invasive Species Inventories for Europe. http://www.europe-aliens.org/

      Flora do Brasil, 2017. Brazilian Flora 2020 under construction., Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: Rio de Janeiro Botanical Garden. http://reflora.jbrj.gov.br/reflora/listaBrasil/ConsultaPublicaUC/ConsultaPublicaUC.do#CondicaoTaxonCP

      Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2017. Flora of China. In: Flora of China. St. Louis, Missouri and Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden and Harvard University Herbaria. http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2

      Heuzé V, Tran G, Sauvant D, 2015. (Dallis grass (Paspalum dilatatum)). In: Feedipedia, animal feed resources information system, INRA, CIRAD, AFZ and FAO. http://www.feedipedia.org/node/404

      India Biodiversity Portal, 2017. Online Portal of India Biodiversity., http://indiabiodiversity.org/

      Mazih A, 2015. Status of citrus IPM in the southern Mediterranean basin Morocco, North Africa. Acta Horticulturae. 1097-1103. http://www.actahort.org/books/1065/1065_138.htm

      Mills L, Leaman T M, Taghavi S M, Shackel L, Dominiak B C, Taylor P W J, Fegan M, Teakle D S, 2001. Leifsonia xyli-like bacteria are endophytes of grasses in eastern Australia. Australasian Plant Pathology. 30 (2), 145-151. DOI:10.1071/AP01003

      Missouri Botanical Garden, 2017. Tropicos database., St. Louis, Missouri, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden. http://www.tropicos.org/

      Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, 2017. Collection: vascular plants (P)., https://science.mnhn.fr/institution/mnhn/collection/p/item/search

      PIER, 2017. Pacific Islands Ecosystems at Risk., Honolulu, USA: HEAR, University of Hawaii. http://www.hear.org/pier/index.html

      PROTA, 2017. PROTA4U web database., [ed. by Grubben GJH, Denton OA]. Wageningen, Netherlands: Plant Resources of Tropical Africa. http://www.prota4u.org/search.asp

      UPRRP, 2017. UPRRP Herbarium., San Juan, Puerto Rico: University of Puerto Rico. http://herbario.uprrp.edu/

      USDA-ARS, 2017. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Online Database. Beltsville, Maryland, USA: National Germplasm Resources Laboratory. https://npgsweb.ars-grin.gov/gringlobal/taxon/taxonomysimple.aspx

      USDA-NRCS, 2017. The PLANTS Database. Greensboro, North Carolina, USA: National Plant Data Team. https://plants.sc.egov.usda.gov

      Vuković N, Miletić M, Milović M, Jelaska S D, 2014. Grime's CSR strategies of the invasive plants in Croatia. Periodicum Biologorum. 116 (3), 323-329. http://hrcak.srce.hr/index.php?show=clanak&id_clanak_jezik=199334

      Zhao LiFeng, Qin ShaoWei, 2017. Expression profiles of miRNAs in the genesis of Populus euphratica Oliv. heteromorphic leaves. Plant Growth Regulation. 81 (2), 231-242. http://rd.springer.com/journal/10725 DOI:10.1007/s10725-016-0200-0

      Links to Websites

      Top of page
      WebsiteURLComment
      Canadian Food Inspection Agencyhttp://www.inspection.gc.ca/invasive
      Eurobodalla Shire Councilhttp://www.esc.nsw.gov.au/
      Flora do Brasilhttp://reflora.jbrj.gov.br/reflora/listaBrasil/ConsultaPublicaUC/ConsultaPublicaUC.do#CondicaoTaxonCP
      Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO)http://www.fao.org/agriculture/crops/en/
      India Biodiversity Portalhttp://indiabiodiversity.org/
      Millennium Seed Bankhttp://apps.kew.org/seedlist/SeedlistServlet
      Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle databasehttp://www.mnhn.fr/
      New York Botanical Garden databasehttp://sweetgum.nybg.org/science/vh/
      The Barcode of Life Data Systemshttp://www.boldsystems.org/index.php/TaxBrowser_Home
      Tropical Forageshttp://www.tropicalforages.info/
      UPRRP Herbarium databasehttp://herbario.uprrp.edu

      Contributors

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      07/02/17 Original text by:

      Jeanine Vélez-Gavilán, Department of Biology, University of Puerto Rico, Mayaguez, Puerto Rico, USA

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