Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Nicandra physalodes
(apple of Peru)

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Datasheet

Nicandra physalodes (apple of Peru)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 22 November 2019
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Pest
  • Host Plant
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Nicandra physalodes
  • Preferred Common Name
  • apple of Peru
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Plantae
  •     Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •       Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •         Class: Dicotyledonae

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Mature N. physalodes plant, showing bell-shaped flowers and the papery calyx, which contains the berries and resembles a Chinese lantern.
TitleFlower and fruits
CaptionMature N. physalodes plant, showing bell-shaped flowers and the papery calyx, which contains the berries and resembles a Chinese lantern.
Copyright©Chris Parker/Bristol, UK
Mature N. physalodes plant, showing bell-shaped flowers and the papery calyx, which contains the berries and resembles a Chinese lantern.
Flower and fruitsMature N. physalodes plant, showing bell-shaped flowers and the papery calyx, which contains the berries and resembles a Chinese lantern.©Chris Parker/Bristol, UK

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Nicandra physalodes (L.) Gaertner (1791)

Preferred Common Name

  • apple of Peru

Other Scientific Names

  • Atropa physaloides L.
  • Calydermos erosus Ruiz & Pav.
  • Nicandra physaloides (L.) Pers.
  • Physalis daturaefolia Lam.

International Common Names

  • English: Chinese lantern; shoo-fly plant (USA, South Africa); wild gooseberry (Zambia); wild hops (Australia)
  • Spanish: capuli cimarron
  • French: fausse coquerette; nicandre faux-alkekenge

Local Common Names

  • Angola: margarita; onigahongula
  • Bolivia: farolita; guackonto; tonto
  • Brazil: balão; bexiga; falso joá de capote; joá de capote; juá de capote; quintilho
  • Germany: Giftbeere, Blasen-
  • Indonesia: endog bangkok; tjeploekan
  • Indonesia/Java: ceplukan
  • Kenya: chemogong'it-chepitet
  • Madagascar: bereda
  • Netherlands: giftbes
  • Peru: capuli de lacosta; toccoro
  • South Africa: basterapplliepie; bitter-appelliefie; bloubitter; Peru apple; rivabe; wildebitter
  • Zimbabwe: mubumacembre

EPPO code

  • NICPH (Nicandra physalodes)

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Plantae
  •         Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •             Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •                 Class: Dicotyledonae
  •                     Order: Solanales
  •                         Family: Solanaceae
  •                             Genus: Nicandra
  •                                 Species: Nicandra physalodes

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

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Nicandra is a single species genus in the family Solanaceae. Whilst physalodes is the widely accepted spelling of the species name, it is also commonly referred to as physaloides. The generic Nicandra is named after Nikander, a poet of Asia Minor who lived about 100 BC and wrote of the medicinal uses of this plant. The specific name is derived from the Greek physo, meaning bladdery and alluding to the inflated calyx.

Description

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N. physalodes is an annual herb with a taproot, 1-2 m tall, occasionally to 4 m in Australia (Auld and Medd, 1987). Stems are extensively branched, hollow, heavily ribbed, soft, smooth and without hairs. Leaves are sparsely hairy, ovate-oblong, alternate, 6 to 25 cm long and 2.5 to 18 cm wide, with irregular, shallow or deeply lobed margins. Petioles are 1 to 20 cm long. The pale blue to white, bell-shaped flowers are 2.5 to 4 cm across and solitary in the axils of upper leaves on pedicels (stalks) 1 to 4 cm long. The calyx is 1 to 3 cm long, membranous, more or less 5-winged, enlarging to a bladder enclosing the fruit. Initially green, the calyx turns brown, becomes papery and resembles a Chinese lantern. The fruit is a berry, almost spherical, 1 to 1.5 cm in diameter, yellow and containing numerous seeds. Seeds are flattened, 1 to 1.5 mm in diameter, light brown and pitted.

Distribution

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N. physalodes orginates from South America (Moore, 1972; Auld and Medd, 1987), but is now distributed worldwide. It is reported to be a weed of 35 countries around the world from 50°N (Poland and eastern Canada) to 35°S (South Africa and Australia). It is most troublesome in southern and eastern Africa and Australia but is also widespread in the eastern Mediterranean, India, Central America and the central latitudes of South America (Holm et al., 1997).

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 25 Feb 2021
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

AngolaPresent
BotswanaPresent
BurundiPresent
Congo, Republic of thePresent
EswatiniPresent
EthiopiaPresent
KenyaPresent
LesothoPresent
MadagascarPresent
MalawiPresent
MozambiquePresent
NamibiaPresent
RwandaPresent
South AfricaPresent
TanzaniaPresent
UgandaPresent
ZambiaPresent
ZimbabwePresent

Asia

BhutanPresent
ChinaPresent
IndiaPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-Himachal PradeshPresent
-KarnatakaPresent
-Uttar PradeshPresent
IndonesiaPresent
-JavaPresent
IranPresent
JapanPresent
NepalPresent
ThailandPresent

Europe

AustriaPresent
BulgariaPresent
Federal Republic of YugoslaviaPresent
HungaryPresent
PolandPresent
RomaniaPresent
SwitzerlandPresent

North America

BelizePresent
United StatesPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-HawaiiPresent
-OhioPresent

Oceania

AustraliaPresent
-New South WalesPresent
-QueenslandPresent
-South AustraliaPresent
-TasmaniaPresent
-VictoriaPresent
-Western AustraliaPresent
New ZealandPresent

South America

ArgentinaPresent
BoliviaPresent
BrazilPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-BahiaPresent
-Distrito FederalPresent
-GoiasPresent
-Minas GeraisPresent
-ParanaPresent
-Rio Grande do SulPresent
-Santa CatarinaPresent
-Sao PauloPresent
ColombiaPresent
PeruPresent

Habitat

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N. physalodes is a common weed of fertile, arable land but also occurs on wasteland and roadsides. It was very common on the blacks soils of Western Australia but has been replaced by other weeds since the land has been irrigated (Holm et al., 1997). In Indonesia, it occurs on all but the driest soils at elevations of 400-2100 m (Everaarts, 1981) and up 2400 m in East Africa (Terry and Michieka, 1987).

Hosts/Species Affected

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Holm et al. (1997) cite N. physalodes as being a weed in 35 crops. A wide range of crop types are infested, including cereals, legumes (forage and food), pastures, trees (including vineyards and orchards) and vegetables.

Host Plants and Other Plants Affected

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Biology and Ecology

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N. physalodes is an annual species and reproduces only by seed. Dormant seeds in the field can be induced to germinate in five days with favourable weather and soil moisture. Whilst year-round germination is possible, five times more plants grew in summer than in winter in Zimbabwe (Schwerzel et al., 1982). Seeds can be encouraged to germinate by breaking or removing the seed coat. Hocombe (1961) obtained 55% germination following acid scarification of seeds. The presence or absence of an iso-chromosome determines whether seeds of N. physalodes will germinate readily (2n = 20) or remain dormant (2n = 19) (Darlington and Janaki-Ammal, 1945). Seed longevity studies have shown that seeds of N. physalodes can remain viable for at least five years after burial to a depth of 75 cm or more, indicating that deep ploughing can increase survival of this weed (Schwerzel et al., 1982). There is evidence that chromosome-deficient seeds (2n = 19) can remain dormant during burial for 28 years (Holm et al.¸ 1997). In Zimbabwe, monthly cultivations exhausted the supplies of N. physalodes in the seed bank in 10 years but, in soil disturbed only once a year, 3.6% of seeds still germinated after 15 years (Schwerzel et al., 1982).

The time from germination to flowering ranges from 43 to 54 days and to seed ripening, 53 to 64 days (Holm et al., 1997). A single plant of N. physalodes can produce 44,000 seeds and a pure stand of the weed can produce 22 billion seed/ha weighing about 4.4 t (Schwerzel 1967, 1970; Thomas and Schwerzel, 1982). Some seed lots are reported to be 90% viable (Holm et al., 1997). Dispersal is likely to occur through soil and water movement but Ridley (1930) suggested that ants are also responsible in East Africa. Contamination of seed crops is also thought to aid the spread of this weed.

Notes on Natural Enemies

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Little is reported of natural enemies of N. physalodes but this weed is a host of viruses, nematodes, fungal pathogens and insects which are crop pests.

Impact

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Rapid growth and canopy formation make N. physalodes a competitor for light against many crops. Cotton is critically damaged if this weed is allowed to remain for more than two weeks after germination of the crop. Thomas and Schwerzel (1968) attribute this predominantly to competition for light rather than for water or nutrients. In Australia, N. physalodes causes heavy losses in tropical pastures in Queensland (Holm et al., 1997). Populations of N. physalodes as low as 4.7 plants/m² have reduced maize yields by about 35% and can impede harvesting of the crop (Hawton, 1976). Seeds of N. physalodes are a contaminant of grass and legume seed crops grown in East Africa (Holm et al., 1997).

N. physalodes is an alternative host of several pests of crops, including alfalfa mosaic alfamovirus (Gallo and Ciampor, 1977), Cassava African mosaic bigeminivirus in India (Mathew and Muniyappa, 1993), Meloidogyne javanica in Zimbabwe (Ivens 1989) and Malawi (Hillocks et al., 1995), Meloidogyne arenaria in Java (Everaarts, 1981), Tomato Peru potyvirus (Fribourg, 1979), potato blight [Alternaria solani] in India (Singh and Nagaich, 1977), Potato leafroll luteovirus in Australia (Thomas, 1993), potato leafroll luteovirus (Everaarts, 1981), potato tuber moth [Phthorimaea operculella] (Broodryk, 1977), Potato Y potyvirus in India (Suteri et al., 1979), tobacco viruses in Zimbabwe (Shaw, 1979) and tomato yellow leaf curl bigeminivirus in Tanzania (Nono et al., 1996).

Uses

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The medicinal properties of N. physalodes have been recognized for over 2000 years. Among its chemical compounds is nicandrenone which has shown cytotoxicity against certain cancerous cells in mice and humans (Subramainan et al., 1973; Begley et al., 1972). Other chemicals are also present which have antifeedant properties against various insects, including Colorado beetle [Leptinotarsa decemlineata] (Britskii, 1982) and Epilachna varivestis (Ascher et al., 1981). The insect repellent properties of N. physalodes are indicated in one of its common names, shoo-fly. The high protein content of the seeds (>15%) makes them a useful food source for caged birds. Czekalski (1981) reports on the experimental use of the plant as fodder for animals.

Uses List

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General

  • Ornamental

Materials

  • Pesticide

Medicinal, pharmaceutical

  • Source of medicine/pharmaceutical

Similarities to Other Species/Conditions

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Several weedy species of Physalis have inflated calyces but the flowers are yellow to orange.

Prevention and Control

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Due to the variable regulations around (de)registration of pesticides, your national list of registered pesticides or relevant authority should be consulted to determine which products are legally allowed for use in your country when considering chemical control. Pesticides should always be used in a lawful manner, consistent with the product's label.

N. physalodes is readily controlled as a seedling or small plant by light tillage, hoeing or cutting. Deep cultivations can increase the longevity of N. physalodes seeds in the soil (Schwerzel et al., 1982) and frequent cultivations help to reduce the weed seed bank. Herbicides reported to control N. physalodes include: 2,4-D in pastures (Parsons, 1992); bentazon in maize (Saigusa et al., 1993) and soybeans (Parsons, 1992); bromofenoxim and bromoxynil in oats, barley and wheat (Richards et al., 1978); chlorthal dimethyl in onions (Richards, 1979) and vegetables (Parsons, 1992); dicamba in cereals (Parsons, 1992); fluometuron in cotton (Anon., 1980); fluorodifen in beans (de Groot, 1980); glufosinate-ammonium in stone fruit orchards, vineyards and bananas (Parsons, 1992); glyphosate for land preparation (Parsons, 1992); linuron in beans (de Groot, 1980), potatoes and soyabean (Parsons, 1992); metobromuron and DNBP in beans (Carmona and Jeffery, 1972); metolachlor in brassica crops (Parsons, 1992); metribuzin in soyabeans (Anon., 1978; Parsons, 1992) and tomatoes (Ward, 1973; Parsons, 1992); and prometryne in cotton (Anon., 1980).

References

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Ascher KRS; Schmutterer H; Glotter E; Kirson I, 1981. Withanolides and related ergostane-type steroids as antifeedants for larvae of Epilachna varivestis (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae). Phytoparasitica, 9(3):197-205

Auld BA; Medd RW, 1987. Weeds. An illustrated botanical guide to the weeds of Australia. Melbourne, Australia; Inkata Press, 255 pp.

Auld BA; Medd RW, 1992. Weeds: An Illustrated Botanical Guide to the Weeds of Australia. Melbourne, Australia: Inkata Press.

Banda EA; Morris B, 1986. Common Weeds of Malawi. Lilongwe, Malawi: The University of Malawi.

Begley M; Crombie L; Ham P; Whiting D, 1972. Terpenoid constituents of the insect repellant plant Nicandra physalodes: X-ray structure of methyl steroid (Nic-3) acetate. Journal of the Chemical Society, Chemistry Communications (London), 19:1108.

Bolnick D, 1995. A Guide to the Common Wild flowers of Zambia and Neighbouring Regions. London, UK: Macmillan.

Britskii YaV, 1982. Antifeedants against the Colorado beetle. Zashchita Rastenii, No. 2:38-39

Broodryk SW, 1977. Phthorimaea operclella (Zell.). In: Kranz J, Schmutterer H, Koch W, eds. Diseases, Pests and Weeds of Tropical Crops. Berlin and Hamburg, Germany: Verlag Paul Parey, 429-431.

Carmona B-C; Jeffery LS, 1972. Chemical control of weeds in beans in the Medellin Valley. Revista, Facultad Nacional de Agronomia, Medellin, 27(2):57-70.

Czekalski M, 1981. Nicandra physalodes, a new fodder plant. Kosmos, Seria Biologica, Warsaw, 30:427-428.

Darlington C; Janaki-Ammal E, 1945. Adaptive iso-chromosomes in Nicandra. Annals of Botany, 9:267-281.

Drummond RB, 1984. Arable Weeds of Zimbabwe. Harare, Zimbabwe: Agricultural Research Trust of Zimbabwe.

Everaarts AP, 1981. Weeds of vegetables in the highlands of Java. Weeds of vegetables in the highlands of Java. Horticultural Research Institute. Pasarminggu, Jakarta Indonesia, 121 pp.

Fribourg CE, 1979. Host plant reactions, some properties, and serology of Peru tomato virus. Phytopathology, 69(5):441-445

Gallo J; Ciampor F, 1977. Transmission of alfalfa mosaic virus through Nicandra physaloides seeds and its location in embryo cotyledons. Acta Virologica, 21(4):344-346

Grabandt K, 1985. Weeds of Crops and Gardens in Southern Africa. Johannesburg, South Africa: Seal Publishing.

Greenhalgh WJ; Michpl PW, 1989. Recalcitrant weeds in herbicide trials at Camden, NSW. Acta Horticulturae, 247:253-256.

Groot W de, 1980. Review of results of weed control experiments in dry beans in Kenya. Proceedings of the Seventh East African Weed Science Conference, 55-62.

Hawton D, 1976. Control of apple of Peru (Nicandra physalodes) in maize on the Atherton Tableland, Queensland. Australian Journal of Experimental Agriculture and Animal Husbandry, 16(82):765-770

Henderson M; Anderson JG, 1966. Common Weeds in South Africa. South Africa: Department of Agricultural and Technical Services.

Hillocks RJ; Stokes S; Jones M, 1995. Reproduction of Meloidogyne javanica on legume crops and some weed species associated with their cultivation in Malawi. Nematologica, 41(4):505-515

Hocombe S, 1961. Simple experiments on the greenhouse germination of some East African weed species. Miscellaneous Report No. 285. Arusha, Tanzania: Colonial Pesticides Research Institute.

Holm LG; Doll J; Holm E; Pancho JV; Herberger JP, 1997. World Weeds: Natural Histories and Distribution. New York, USA: John Wiley & Sons Inc.

Holm LG; Pancho JV; Herberger JP; Plucknett DL, 1979. A geographical atlas of world weeds. New York, USA: John Wiley and Sons, 391 pp.

Horton P, 1979. Taxonomic account of Nicandra (Solanaceae) in Australia. Journal of the Adelaide Botanical Garden, 1(6):351-356

Ivens GW, 1989. East African Weeds and their Control, 2nd edition. Nairobi, Kenya: Oxford University Press.

Lorenzi H, 1982. Weeds of Brazil, terrestrial and aquatic, parasitic, poisonous and medicinal. (Plantas daninhas de Brasil, terrestres, aquaticas, parasitas, toxicas e medicinais.) Nova Odessa, Brazil: H. Lorenzi, 425 pp.

Marzocca A, 1979. Manual de Malezas. 3rd edition. Buenos Aires, Argentina: Editorial Hemisferio Sur.

Mathew AV; Muniyappa V, 1993. Host range of Indian cassava mosaic virus. Indian Phytopathology, 46(1):16-23

Moore DM, 1972. 1. Nicandra. In: Tutin TG, Heywood VH, Burges NA, Moore DM, Valentine DH, Walters SM, Webb DA, eds. Flora Europaea, Volume 3. Diapensiaceae to Myoporaceae. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 193.

Nalini AS; Prabhakar AS; Uppar DS, 1993. Weed flora of University of Agricultural Sciences campus Dharwad. Farming systems, 9(1-2):59-60.

Nono-Womdim R; Swai IS; Green SK; GTbrT-SelassiT K; Laterrot H; Marchoux G; Opena RT, 1996. Tomato viruses in Tanzania: identification, distribution and disease incidence. Journal of the Southern African Society for Horticultural Sciences, 6(1):41-44; 13 ref.

Parker C, 1992. Weeds of Bhutan. Weeds of Bhutan., vi + 236 pp.

Parsons JM(Editor), 1992. Australian weed control handbook. Melbourne, Australia; Inkata Press.

Querci M; Owens RA; Vargas C; Salazar LF, 1995. Detection of potato spindle tuber viroid in avocado growing in Peru. Plant Disease, 79(2):196-202

Rahman A, 1985. Weed control in maize in New Zealand. Special Publication, Agronomy Society of New Zealand, No. 4:37-45

Richards PVM, 1979. Chemical weed control in onions. Hortus, 26:56-58.

Richards PVM; Schwerzel PJ; Lindert HJA van; Budd GD; Oosterman HM, 1978. Herbicide evaluation. Rhodesia, Agronomy Institute, Weed Research Team: Annual report 1975-77. Salisbury, Zimbabwe: Department of Research and Specialist Services, 11-24.

Ridley H, 1930. The Dispersal of Plants throughout the World. Kent, UK: Reeve and Ashford.

Runnels HA; Schaffner JH, 1931. Manual of Ohio Weeds. Ohio, USA: Ohio Agricultural Experimental Station, Bulletin No. 475.

Saigusa M; Shibuya K; Abe T, 1993. Ecological study and control of Nicandra physalodes (L.) Pers. on dent corn field. Journal of Japanese Society of Grassland Science, 39:71-76.

Sangar RBS; Agrawal HO, 1988. Potato virus Y causing mosaic disease of winter cherry. Indian Phytopathology, 41(4):509-512

Schwerzel P, 1967. Seed production of some common Rhodesian weeds. PANS, 13:215-217.

Schwerzel P, 1970. Weed seed production study. PANS, 16:357.

Schwerzel P; Thomas P; Oosterman H, 1982. Weed biology. Annual Report of the Weed Research Team, 1979-80. Zimbabwe: Department of Research and Specialist Services, Henderson Research Station.

Shaw M, 1979. Control recommendations. Rhodesian Tobacco Today, 2(8):13-17

Singh DS; Nagaich BB, 1977. Nicandra physaloides Gprtn. - an additional host of Alternaria solani (Ellis & Mart.) Jones and Grout. causing early blight of potato. Science and Culture, 43(10):453-454

Stroud A; Parker C, 1989. A Weed Identification Guide for Ethiopia. Rome, Italy: Food and Agriculture Organization.

Subramainan S; Sethi P; Adam G, 1973. Structure of nicandrenone from Nicandra physalodes. Indian Journal of Pharmacy, 35:123-124.

Suteri BD; Joshi CC; Bala S, 1979. Some ornamentals and weeds as reservoirs of potato virus Y and cucumber mosaic virus in Kumaon. Indian Phytopathology, 32(4):640

Terry PJ; Michieka RW, 1987. Common Weeds of East Africa. Rome, Italy: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations.

Thomas JE, 1993. Alternative hosts and the epidemiology of potato leafroll virus in Queensland. Australian Journal of Agricultural Research, 44(8):1905-1916

Thomas P; Schwerzel P, 1968. A cotton weed competition experiment. Proceedings of the 9th British Weed Control Conference, Brighton, UK. Farnham, UK: British Crop Protection Council, 737-743.

Thomas P; Schwerzel P, 1982. The facts about weeds and their effects on crops. In: Ventner HA van de, Mason M, eds. Proceedings of the 4th National Weed Conference, South Africa. Cape Town, South Africa: A A Balkema, 55-59.

Tutin TG; Heywood VH; Burges NA; Moore DM; Valentine DH; Walters SM; Webb DA, 1972. Flora Europaea. Vol. 3. Diapensiaceae to Myoporaceae. London, Cambridge University Press., UK xxix+370pp.

Vernon R, unda. Field guide to important arable weeds of Zambia. Field guide to important arable weeds of Zambia. Department of Agriculture Chilanga Zambia, 151pp.

Wang ZR, 1990. Farmland Weeds in China. Beijing, China: Agricultural Publishing House.

Ward JR, 1973. Sencor - a new triazinon herbicide. Proceedings of the 2nd Victorian Weeds Conference. W1973, 5. New Chemicals. Melbourne, Australia: Weed Science Society of Victoria, 3-5.

Wells MJ; Balsinhas AA; Joffe H; Engelbrecht VM; Harding G; Stirton CH, 1986. A catalogue of problem plants in South Africa. Memoirs of the botanical survey of South Africa No 53. Pretoria, South Africa: Botanical Research Institute.

Zambia; Department of Agriculture; Research Branch, 1978. Annual report, weed control research 1976-1977. Annual report, weed control research 1976-1977. Mt. Makulu Research Station. PO Box 7, Chilanga Zambia, 33 pp.

Zambia; Ministry of Agriculture and Water Affairs; Department of Agriculture, 1980. Annual report of the weed control research and extension team, 1979. Annual report of the weed control research and extension team, 1979. Mt. Makulu Research Station. P.O. Box 7, Chilanga Zambia, 58 pp.

Distribution References

Auld BA, Medd RW, 1992. Weeds: An Illustrated Botanical Guide to the Weeds of Australia., Melbourne, Australia: Inkata Press.

Banda EA, Morris B, 1986. Common Weeds of Malawi., Lilongwe, Malawi: The University of Malawi.

Bolnick D, 1995. A Guide to the Common Wild flowers of Zambia and Neighbouring Regions., London, UK: Macmillan.

CABI, Undated. Compendium record. Wallingford, UK: CABI

CABI, Undated a. CABI Compendium: Status inferred from regional distribution. Wallingford, UK: CABI

CABI, Undated b. CABI Compendium: Status as determined by CABI editor. Wallingford, UK: CABI

Carmona B C, Jeffery L S, 1972. Chemical control of weeds in beans in the Medellin Valley. Revista, Facultad Nacional de Agronomia, Medellin. 27 (2), 57-70.

Drummond RB, 1984. Arable Weeds of Zimbabwe., Harare, Zimbabwe: Agricultural Research Trust of Zimbabwe.

Everaarts A P, 1981. Weeds of vegetables in the highlands of Java. In: Weeds of vegetables in the highlands of Java. Pasarminggu, Jakarta, Indonesia: Horticultural Research Institute. 121 pp.

Gobatto D, Oliveira L A de, Franco D A de S, Velásquez N, Daròs J A, Eiras M, 2019. Surveys in the chrysanthemum production areas of Brazil and Colombia reveal that weeds are potential reservoirs of chrysanthemum stunt viroid. Viruses. 11 (4), 355. DOI:10.3390/v11040355

Grabandt K, 1985. Weeds of Crops and Gardens in Southern Africa., Johannesburg, South Africa: Seal Publishing.

Greenhalgh W J, Michael P W, 1989. Recalcitrant weeds in herbicide trials at Camden, NSW. In: Acta Horticulturae, 253-256.

Hawton D, 1976. Control of apple of Peru (Nicandra physalodes) in maize on the Atherton Tableland, Queensland. Australian Journal of Experimental Agriculture and Animal Husbandry. 16 (82), 765-770.

Henderson M, Anderson JG, 1966. Common Weeds in South Africa., South Africa: Department of Agricultural and Technical Services.

Holm L, Doll J, Holm E, Pancho J, Herberger J, 1997. World weeds: natural histories and distribution. New York, USA: John Wiley and Sons. xv + 1129 pp.

Holm L, Pancho J V, Herberger J P, Plucknett D L, 1979. A geographical atlas of world weeds. New York, Chichester (), Brisbane, Toronto, UK: John Wiley and Sons. xlix + 391 pp.

Horton P, 1979. Taxonomic account of Nicandra (Solanaceae) in Australia. Journal of the Adelaide Botanical Garden. 1 (6), 351-356.

Lorenzi H, 1982. Plantas daninhas de Brasil, terrestres, aquaticas, parasitas, toxicas e medicinais. Nova Odessa, Brazil: H. Lorenzi. 425 pp.

Macharia I, Backhouse D, Wu S B, Ateka E M, 2016. Weed species in tomato production and their role as alternate hosts of Tomato spotted wilt virus and its vector Frankliniella occidentalis. Annals of Applied Biology. 169 (2), 224-235. DOI:10.1111/aab.12297

Marzocca A, 1979. (Manual de Malezas)., Buenos Aires, Argentina: Editorial Hemisferio Sur.

Moore DM, 1972. 1. Nicandra. In: Flora Europaea, Diapensiaceae to Myoporaceae, 3 [ed. by Tutin TG, Heywood VH, Burges NA, Moore DM, Valentine DH, Walters SM, Webb DA]. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. 193.

Nalini A S, Prabhakar A S, Uppar D S, 1993. Weed flora of University of Agricultural Sciences campus Dharwad. Farming systems. 9 (1-2), 59-60.

Parker C, 1992. Weeds of Bhutan. Thimphu, Bhutan: National Plant Protection Centre. vi + 236 pp.

Querci M, Owens R A, Vargas C, Salazar L F, 1995. Detection of potato spindle tuber viroid in avocado growing in Peru. Plant Disease. 79 (2), 196-202. DOI:10.1094/PD-79-0196

Rahman A, 1985. Weed control in maize in New Zealand. Special Publication, Agronomy Society of New Zealand. 37-45.

Runnels H A, Schaffner J H, 1931. Bulletin. Ohio Agricultural Experiment Station, Wooster, Ohio, USA: Ohio Agricultural Experiment Station.

Salamon P, Burgyán J, 2004. Poster - new natural hosts of Potato virus Y (PVY) in Hungary and some interesting pathological properties of the tuber necrotic ringspot (NTN) strain. In: EAPR Virology 2004, Abstracts of the 12th European Association for Potato Research Virology Section Meeting, Rennes, France, 13-19 June 2004. [ed. by Giblot-Ducray D]. Wageningen, Netherlands: European Association for Potato Research. 53.

Sangar R B S, Agrawal H O, 1988. Potato virus Y causing mosaic disease of winter cherry. Indian Phytopathology. 41 (4), 509-512.

Souza T A, Macedo M A, Inoue-Nagata A K, 2019. Natural infection of apple-of-Peru (Nicandra physaloides) with Tomato chlorosis virus in Brazil. Plant Disease. 103 (3), 593. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis DOI:10.1094/PDIS-03-18-0399-PDN

Stroud A, Parker C, 1989. A weed identification guide for Ethiopia. In: A weed identification guide for Ethiopia. Rome, Italy: Food and Agriculture Organization. 278 pp.

Suteri B D, Joshi C C, Bala S, 1979. Some ornamentals and weeds as reservoirs of potato virus Y and cucumber mosaic virus in Kumaon. Indian Phytopathology. 32 (4), 640.

Terry P J, Michieka R W, 1987. Magugu ya Afrika Mashariki. Rome, Italy: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. xiii + 194 pp.

Wang D, Hamim I, Borth W B, Melzer M J, Suzuki J Y, Wall M M, Matsumoto T, Sun G F, Hu J S, 2019. First report of apple of Peru (Nicandra physalodes) infected with pepper mottle virus in Hawaii. Plant Disease. 103 (1), 169. DOI:10.1094/PDIS-06-18-1061-PDN

Wang Z R, 1990. Farmland Weeds in China. Beijing, China: Agricultural Publishing House.

Wells M J, Balsinhas A A, Joffe H, Engelbrecht V M, Harding G, Stirton C H, 1986. A catalogue of problem plants in southern Africa incorporating the national weed list of South Africa. Memoirs, Botanical Survey of South Africa. v + 658pp.

Links to Websites

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GISD/IASPMR: Invasive Alien Species Pathway Management Resource and DAISIE European Invasive Alien Species Gatewayhttps://doi.org/10.5061/dryad.m93f6Data source for updated system data added to species habitat list.

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