Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Mangifera indica
(mango)

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Datasheet

Mangifera indica (mango)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 18 November 2019
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Host Plant
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Mangifera indica
  • Preferred Common Name
  • mango
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Plantae
  •     Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •       Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •         Class: Dicotyledonae
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • M. indica is a fruit tree which has been actively moved by humans for centuries. It is widely cultivated for commercial fruit production, as a garden tree, and as shade tree in many tropical and subtropical regions of the world. This spec...

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Mango fruits.
TitleM. indica fruit
CaptionMango fruits.
CopyrightCTC/Zeneca
Mango fruits.
M. indica fruitMango fruits.CTC/Zeneca
TitleMature tree
Caption
Copyright©K.M. Kochummen
Mature tree©K.M. Kochummen
TitleBole and bark
Caption
Copyright©K.M. Kochummen
Bole and bark©K.M. Kochummen
Mango fruit on tree, Mayotte, Indian Ocean.
TitleFruit
CaptionMango fruit on tree, Mayotte, Indian Ocean.
CopyrightRuth Ibbotson
Mango fruit on tree, Mayotte, Indian Ocean.
FruitMango fruit on tree, Mayotte, Indian Ocean.Ruth Ibbotson
1. flowering twig
2. single flower
3. open flower showing stamen and ovary
TitleLine artwork
Caption1. flowering twig 2. single flower 3. open flower showing stamen and ovary
Copyright©K.M. Kochummen
1. flowering twig
2. single flower
3. open flower showing stamen and ovary
Line artwork1. flowering twig 2. single flower 3. open flower showing stamen and ovary©K.M. Kochummen
Mango tree bearing fruits, Mayotte, Indian Ocean.
TitleTree
CaptionMango tree bearing fruits, Mayotte, Indian Ocean.
CopyrightRuth Ibbotson
Mango tree bearing fruits, Mayotte, Indian Ocean.
TreeMango tree bearing fruits, Mayotte, Indian Ocean.Ruth Ibbotson
M. indica: 1, flowering franch; 2, branchlet with fruit.

Reproduced from the series 'Plant Resources of South-East Asia', by kind permission of the PROSEA Foundation, Bogor, Indonesia.
TitleLine drawing of plant
CaptionM. indica: 1, flowering franch; 2, branchlet with fruit. Reproduced from the series 'Plant Resources of South-East Asia', by kind permission of the PROSEA Foundation, Bogor, Indonesia.
CopyrightPROSEA Foundation
M. indica: 1, flowering franch; 2, branchlet with fruit.

Reproduced from the series 'Plant Resources of South-East Asia', by kind permission of the PROSEA Foundation, Bogor, Indonesia.
Line drawing of plantM. indica: 1, flowering franch; 2, branchlet with fruit. Reproduced from the series 'Plant Resources of South-East Asia', by kind permission of the PROSEA Foundation, Bogor, Indonesia. PROSEA Foundation
1. flowering twig
2. branchlet with fruit
TitleLine artwork
Caption1. flowering twig 2. branchlet with fruit
CopyrightPROSEA Foundation
1. flowering twig
2. branchlet with fruit
Line artwork1. flowering twig 2. branchlet with fruitPROSEA Foundation
Mangifera sp. plants with fruit.

Reproduced from the series 'Plant Resources of South-East Asia', Vols 1-20 (1989-2000), by kind permission of the PROSEA Foundation, Bogor, Indonesia.
TitleWhole plant - line drawing
CaptionMangifera sp. plants with fruit. Reproduced from the series 'Plant Resources of South-East Asia', Vols 1-20 (1989-2000), by kind permission of the PROSEA Foundation, Bogor, Indonesia.
CopyrightPROSEA Foundation
Mangifera sp. plants with fruit.

Reproduced from the series 'Plant Resources of South-East Asia', Vols 1-20 (1989-2000), by kind permission of the PROSEA Foundation, Bogor, Indonesia.
Whole plant - line drawingMangifera sp. plants with fruit. Reproduced from the series 'Plant Resources of South-East Asia', Vols 1-20 (1989-2000), by kind permission of the PROSEA Foundation, Bogor, Indonesia.PROSEA Foundation

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Mangifera indica L.

Preferred Common Name

  • mango

Other Scientific Names

  • Mangifera amba Forssk.
  • Mangifera anisodora Blanco
  • Mangifera arbor Bonti
  • Mangifera austroindica Kosterm.
  • Mangifera austroyunnanensis Hu
  • Mangifera bompardii Kosterm.
  • Mangifera domestica Gaertn.
  • Mangifera equine Gen.
  • Mangifera fragrans Maingay
  • Mangifera gladiata Bojer
  • Mangifera integrifolia Gen.
  • Mangifera kukulu Blume
  • Mangifera linnaei Korth. ex Hassk.
  • Mangifera maritima Lechaume
  • Mangifera montana Heybe
  • Mangifera orophila Kosterm.
  • Mangifera oryza Genibrel
  • Mangifera racemosa Bojer
  • Mangifera rostrata Blanco
  • Mangifera rubra Bojer
  • Mangifera rubropetala Kosterm.
  • Mangifera sativa Roem & Schult.
  • Mangifera siamensis Warb.
  • Mangifera sugenda Gen.
  • Mangifera sylvatica Roxb.
  • Mangifera viridis Bojer

International Common Names

  • English: edible mango; Indian mango
  • Spanish: mango
  • French: mangot; manguier
  • Arabic: amba; manga
  • Portuguese: mangueira

Local Common Names

  • Bangladesh: am; ambra
  • Brazil: manga; mango; mangueira
  • Cambodia: svaay
  • Cuba: manga amarilla; manga blanca; mango de hilacha
  • Germany: Mangobaum; mangopalme
  • Haiti: mangot fil
  • India: am; amba; ambi; ambo; amra; amra chuta; amram; amri; chuta; cutam; ghari am; maa; madhudura; mamadi; mamaram; mamidi; mampalam; manga; marinamara; mau; mavena; mavi; mavu; rasala
  • India/Gujarat: amri
  • Indonesia: manga; mempelam
  • Laos: mwàngx
  • Malaysia: mangga; mempelam; taipa
  • Myanmar: ampelam; mempalam; tharyetthi; thayat; thayt-hypu
  • Netherlands: mangoboom
  • Papua New Guinea: mango
  • Philippines: mangga; mango; paho
  • Sri Lanka: mangass
  • Thailand: mamuan
  • Vietnam: xoài

EPPO code

  • MNGIN (Mangifera indica)

French acronym

  • mangue

Summary of Invasiveness

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M. indica is a fruit tree which has been actively moved by humans for centuries. It is widely cultivated for commercial fruit production, as a garden tree, and as shade tree in many tropical and subtropical regions of the world. This species has adapted to a wide variety of climates where it has become naturalized. Because fruits are eaten and dispersed by bats, hornbills, monkeys, elephants, raccoons, porcupines, and humans, it has easily escaped from cultivation and established in natural areas in practically every location where it has been intentionally introduced by humans (Bally, 2006; Orwa et al., 2009). Currently, M. indica is included in the Global Compendium of Weeds (Randall, 2012) and it is also listed as invasive in Singapore, Namibia, South Africa, Brazil, Costa Rica, the Galápagos Islands, Puerto Rico, Virgin Islands, Antigua, Australia and on many islands in the Pacific Ocean including among others Hawaii, Easter Island and French Polynesia (see Distribution Table for details). 

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Plantae
  •         Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •             Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •                 Class: Dicotyledonae
  •                     Order: Sapindales
  •                         Family: Anacardiaceae
  •                             Genus: Mangifera
  •                                 Species: Mangifera indica

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

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The Indomalesian genus Mangifera, a member of the family Anacardiaceae, contains approximately 69 species. Mangifera is divided into two subgenera: Mangifera and Limus. Subgenus Mangifera contains most of the species and is characterized by its cushion-shaped papillose disc which is 4 or 5 lobed, partly or completely surrounding the ovary and with free stamen filaments. Subgenus Limus consists of 11 species and is characterized by the cylindrical disc which is located at the base of the ovary in bisexual flowers and which is neither lobed nor papillose and contains united stamen filaments. M. indica belongs to subgenus Mangifera.

Besides M. indica, there are a number of other species of Mangifera which produce edible fruits: M. caesia, M. odorata, M. pentandra and M. pajang (Hou, 1978; Kostermans and Bompard, 1993).

Description

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The mango tree is a large, spreading evergreen with a dense crown. Mature trees can attain a height of 40 m or more, with a 60-120 cm trunk and greyish-brown, longitude-fissured bark.

Seeds

Mango seeds are solitary, large and flat, ovoid oblong, and surrounded by the fibrous endocarp at maturity. The testa and tegumen are thin and papery. Embryos are dicotyledonous. The seeds are recalcitrant and cannot survive for more than a few days or weeks at ambient temperatures. This important characteristic inhibited the long distance dispersal of mango by seed until recent times.

Seedlings

The mango seedling (or seedlings in the case of polyembryonic seeds) emerges after 2 weeks and grows rhythmically from the start: a flush brings out the new shoot which extends in about 1 months’ time, after which the buds remain quiescent for shorter or longer periods. Flushes occur more or less synchronously, depending upon the climate; during a long wet season the synchronization is gradually weakened.

Leaves

Leaves are produced in flushes of 10-12 new leaves, 1-3 times a year. Leaves persist on the tree for 4-5 years before being shed. Leaf morphology is highly variable depending on cultivar. Leaves are spirally arranged, simple; young leaves are copper-coloured, turning to light then dark shiny green; petiole 1-12.5 cm long, with pulvinus at the base; blade variable in size and shape, usually narrowly elliptic to lanceolate, 12-38 x 2-13 cm, somewhat leathery, tapering at base, margin often undulate, apex acuminate, nerves 12-30 pairs, elevated on both surfaces.

Roots

The tree roots to a considerable depth. The root system consists of a long, vigorous taproot and abundant surface feeder roots, enabling the tree to find the moisture necessary for flowering/flushing during the dry season.

Flowers

The inflorescence can reach full bloom from the time of flower initiation in 25-30 days. The Mango inflorescence is a terminal compose thirsoid and are glabrous or pubescent. The inflorescence is rigid and erect, up to 30 cm long, and is widely branched, usually tertiary, although the final branch is always cymose. It is usually densely flowered and the flowers are either male or hermaphrodite both borne within a single inflorescence. It has 300–6000 reddish-pink to greenish-white flowers (depending upon the cultivar), 5-8 mm in diameter, pedicels 1 mm long; calyx 5-lobed; 5 petals (twice as long as the calyx, ovate to ovoid to lanceolate and also thinly pubescent); pistil abortive in male flowers, style lateral, stigma simple. The panicles consist of male and perfect hermaphrodite flowers, with a varying sex ratio. The pistil aborts in male flowers. A good crop of fruit is obtained when only a small percentage of the flowers are pollinated. The ratio of male to perfect flowers is strongly influenced by environmental and cultural factors. The floral disc is also four- or five-lobed, fleshy and large and located above the base of the petals. There are five large, fleshy stamens, only one or two of them being fertile; the remaining stamens are sterile staminodes that are surmounted by a small gland. In addition, two or three smaller filaments arise from the lobes of the nectaries. The stamens are central. The ovule is anatropous and pendulous.

Fruit

The mango fruit is a large, fleshy drupe, containing an edible mesocarp of varying thickness. The mesocarp is resinous and highly variable with respect to shape, size, colour, presence of fibre and flavour. The flavour ranges from turpentine to sweet. The exocarp is thick and glandular. There is a characteristic beak that develops laterally on the proximal end of the fruit. A sinus is always present above the beak. Fruit shape varies, including elongate, oblong and ovate or intermediate forms involving two of these shapes. Fruit length can range from 2.5 to >30 cm, depending on the cultivar. The endocarp is woody, thick and fibrous; the fibres in the mesocarp arise from the endocarp. The mango fruit is climacteric, and increased ethylene production occurs during ripening. Chlorophyll, carotenes, anthocyanins and xanthophylls are all present in the fruit. The skin is generally a mixture of green, red and yellow pigments, although fruit colour at maturity is genotype dependent. Fruit of ‘Bombay Green’ is green; ‘Carabao’, ‘Manila’, ‘Mulgoa’ and ‘Arumanis’ are greenish-yellow; ‘Dashehari’ and ‘Alphonso’ are yellow; and ‘Haden’, ‘Keitt’ and ‘Tommy Atkins’ have a red blush. The red blush is due to the presence of anthocyanins.

The fruit grow fast: they ripen after 3-4 months, some late cultivars after 5 months. The period from fruit set to maturity depends upon cultivar and climate and can range from 10 to 28 weeks.

Lack of fruit set is attributed to: (i) lack of fertile pollen; (ii) poor pollen-tube growth; (iii) failure of ovule fertilization; (iv) failure of pistil or ovules to develop; (v) abortions of embryo sac, embryo or endosperm; (vi) anthracnose disease of the flowers; and (vii) other physical and cultural factors.

Principal sources: Litz (2009), Paull and Duarte (2010)

Plant Type

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Perennial
Seed propagated
Tree

Distribution

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The natural distribution of M. indica is in the Indo-Malesian region, specifically India and Myanmar. Wild populations can be found in the Assam-Chittagong Hills in India and in Myanmar. This species has become naturalized throughout the tropics and subtropics and much of its spread and naturalization has occurred associated with expansion of human populations. M. indica contains hundreds of cultivars, and is now pan-tropical and even sub-tropical. It is cultivated in, amongst other places, Pakistan, East and West Africa, North and South America, Malesia, Australia and Hawaii (Bailey, 1925; Hou, 1978; Mukherjee, 1972; Kochummen, 1989; Kochummen, 1995).

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 26 May 2021
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Planted Reference Notes

Africa

AngolaPresentIntroducedNaturalizedCultivated and naturalized
BeninPresentIntroducedNaturalizedCultivated and naturalized
Burkina FasoPresentIntroducedNaturalizedCultivated and naturalized
BurundiPresentIntroducedNaturalizedCultivated and naturalized
CameroonPresentIntroducedNaturalizedCultivated and naturalized
Central African RepublicPresentIntroducedNaturalizedCultivated and naturalized
ChadPresentIntroducedNaturalizedCultivated and naturalized
ComorosPresent
Côte d'IvoirePresentIntroducedNaturalizedCultivated and naturalized
EgyptPresentIntroducedNaturalizedCultivated and naturalized
Equatorial GuineaPresentIntroducedNaturalizedPlantedCultivated and naturalized
EritreaPresentIntroducedNaturalizedCultivated and naturalized
EthiopiaPresentIntroducedNaturalizedCultivated and naturalized
GabonPresentIntroducedNaturalizedCultivated and naturalized
GambiaPresentIntroducedNaturalizedCultivated and naturalized
GhanaPresentIntroducedNaturalizedCultivated and naturalized
GuineaPresentIntroducedNaturalizedCultivated and naturalized
Guinea-BissauPresentIntroducedNaturalizedCultivated and naturalized
KenyaPresentIntroducedNaturalizedCultivated and naturalized
LiberiaPresentIntroducedNaturalizedCultivated and naturalized
MadagascarPresentIntroducedNaturalizedCultivated and naturalized
MalawiPresentIntroducedNaturalizedCultivated and naturalized
MaliPresentIntroducedNaturalizedCultivated and naturalized
MauritaniaPresentIntroducedNaturalizedCultivated and naturalized
MauritiusPresentIntroducedInvasive
-RodriguesPresentIntroducedNaturalizedCultivated and naturalized
MayottePresentIntroducedInvasive
MozambiquePresentIntroducedNaturalizedCultivated and naturalized
NamibiaPresentIntroducedInvasive
NigerPresentIntroducedNaturalizedCultivated and naturalized
NigeriaPresentIntroducedNaturalizedCultivated and naturalized
RéunionPresentIntroducedInvasiveCultivated and naturalized
São Tomé and PríncipePresentIntroducedNaturalizedCultivated and naturalized
SenegalPresentIntroducedNaturalizedCultivated and naturalized
SeychellesPresentIntroducedNaturalizedCultivated and naturalized
Sierra LeonePresentIntroducedNaturalizedCultivated and naturalized
SomaliaPresentIntroducedNaturalizedCultivated and naturalized
South AfricaPresentIntroducedInvasiveInvasive in Kruger National Park
SudanPresentIntroducedNaturalizedCultivated and naturalized
TanzaniaPresentIntroducedNaturalizedPlantedCultivated and naturalized
-Zanzibar IslandPresentIntroducedNaturalizedCultivated and naturalized
TogoPresentIntroducedNaturalizedCultivated and naturalized
UgandaPresentIntroducedNaturalizedCultivated and naturalized
ZambiaPresentIntroducedNaturalizedPlantedCultivated and naturalized
ZimbabwePresentIntroducedNaturalizedCultivated and naturalized

Asia

BangladeshPresentIntroducedNaturalizedCultivated and naturalized
British Indian Ocean Territory
-Chagos ArchipelagoPresentIntroducedCultivated
BruneiPresentPlanted
CambodiaPresentIntroducedNaturalizedCultivated and naturalized
ChinaPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-FujianPresentIntroducedCultivated
-GuangdongPresentIntroducedCultivated
-GuangxiPresentIntroducedCultivated
-HainanPresent
-JilinPresent
-SichuanPresent
-YunnanPresentIntroducedCultivated
IndiaPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-Andaman and Nicobar IslandsPresentNativePlanted
-Andhra PradeshPresentNativePlanted
-Arunachal PradeshPresentNativePlanted
-AssamPresentNativePlanted
-BiharPresentNativePlanted
-ChandigarhPresentNativePlanted
-ChhattisgarhPresentNativeNative and cultivated
-Dadra and Nagar HaveliPresentNativePlanted
-Daman and DiuPresentNativePlanted
-DelhiPresentNativePlanted
-GoaPresentNativePlanted
-GujaratPresentNativePlanted
-HaryanaPresentNativePlanted
-Himachal PradeshPresentNativePlanted
-Jammu and KashmirPresentNativePlanted
-JharkhandPresentNativeNative and cultivated
-KarnatakaPresentNativePlanted
-KeralaPresentNativePlanted
-LakshadweepPresentNativePlanted
-Madhya PradeshPresentNativePlanted
-MaharashtraPresentNativePlanted
-ManipurPresentNativePlanted
-MeghalayaPresentNativePlanted
-MizoramPresentNativePlanted
-NagalandPresentNativePlanted
-OdishaPresentNativePlanted
-PunjabPresentNativePlanted
-RajasthanPresentNativePlanted
-SikkimPresentNativePlanted
-Tamil NaduPresentNativePlanted
-TripuraPresentNativePlanted
-Uttar PradeshPresentNativePlanted
-UttarakhandPresentNativeNative and cultivated
-West BengalPresentNativePlanted
IndonesiaPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-Irian JayaPresentPlanted
-JavaPresentIntroducedNaturalizedCultivated and naturalized
-Lesser Sunda IslandsPresentIntroducedNaturalizedCultivated and naturalized
-Maluku IslandsPresentIntroducedNaturalizedCultivated and naturalized
-SulawesiPresentIntroducedNaturalizedCultivated and naturalized
-SumatraPresentPlanted
IranPresent
IsraelPresent
JapanPresentIntroducedInvasiveInvasive on Bonin Islands
LaosPresentIntroducedNaturalizedCultivated and naturalized
MalaysiaPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-Peninsular MalaysiaPresentIntroducedNaturalizedCultivated and naturalized
-SabahPresentIntroducedNaturalizedCultivated and naturalized
-SarawakPresentIntroduced
MaldivesPresentIntroducedCultivated
MyanmarPresentNativeNative populations
NepalPresentIntroducedNaturalizedCultivated and naturalized
OmanPresentIntroducedNaturalizedCultivated and naturalized
PakistanPresentIntroducedNaturalizedCultivated and naturalized
PhilippinesPresentIntroducedNaturalizedCultivated and naturalized
SingaporePresentIntroducedInvasive
South KoreaPresent
Sri LankaPresent
TaiwanPresentIntroducedCultivated
ThailandPresentIntroducedNaturalizedCultivated and naturalized
VietnamPresentIntroducedNaturalizedCultivated and naturalized
YemenPresentIntroducedNaturalizedCultivated and naturalized

Europe

CroatiaPresent
FrancePresent
GreecePresent
-CretePresent
ItalyPresent
PortugalPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-MadeiraPresentIntroducedNaturalizedCultivated and naturalized
SpainPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-Canary IslandsPresentIntroducedNaturalizedPlantedCultivated and naturalized

North America

AnguillaPresentIntroduced
Antigua and BarbudaPresentIntroducedInvasive
BahamasPresentIntroduced
BarbadosPresentIntroduced
BelizePresentIntroducedNaturalizedCultivated and naturalized
British Virgin IslandsPresentIntroducedInvasivePlanted
Cayman IslandsPresentIntroduced
Costa RicaPresentIntroducedInvasiveOriginal citation: Chacon and Saborio (2012)
CubaPresentIntroducedListed as potentially invasive
DominicaPresentIntroduced
Dominican RepublicPresentIntroducedInvasive
El SalvadorPresentIntroducedNaturalizedCultivated and naturalized
GrenadaPresentIntroduced
GuadeloupePresentIntroduced
HaitiPresentIntroduced
HondurasPresentIntroducedNaturalizedCultivated and naturalized
JamaicaPresentIntroduced
MartiniquePresentIntroduced
MexicoPresentIntroducedNaturalizedCultivated and naturalized
MontserratPresentIntroduced
Netherlands AntillesPresentIntroduced
NicaraguaPresentIntroducedNaturalizedCultivated and naturalized
PanamaPresentIntroducedNaturalizedCultivated and naturalized
Puerto RicoPresentIntroducedInvasive
Saint LuciaPresentIntroduced
Saint Vincent and the GrenadinesPresentIntroduced
Trinidad and TobagoPresentIntroducedNaturalizedCultivated and naturalized
U.S. Virgin IslandsPresentIntroducedInvasive
United StatesPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-CaliforniaPresentPlanted
-FloridaPresentIntroducedNaturalizedPlantedCultivated and naturalized
-HawaiiPresentIntroducedInvasivePlanted

Oceania

American SamoaPresentIntroducedCultivated
AustraliaPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-New South WalesPresentIntroducedNaturalizedPlantedCultivated and naturalized
-Northern TerritoryPresentIntroducedNaturalizedPlantedCultivated and naturalized; environmental weed
-QueenslandPresentIntroducedNaturalizedPlantedCultivated and naturalized; environmental weed
-Western AustraliaPresentIntroducedNaturalizedCultivated and naturalized; environmental weed
Christmas IslandPresentIntroducedCultivated
Cook IslandsPresentIntroducedNaturalizedCultivated and naturalized
Federated States of MicronesiaPresentIntroducedInvasiveCultivated and naturalized
FijiPresentIntroducedInvasiveCultivated and naturalized
French PolynesiaPresentPlanted
GuamPresentIntroducedInvasiveCultivated and naturalized
KiribatiPresentIntroducedNaturalizedCultivated and naturalized
Marshall IslandsPresentIntroducedPlantedCultivated
NauruPresentIntroducedInvasive
New CaledoniaPresentIntroducedInvasive
New ZealandPresentIntroducedNaturalizedCultivated and naturalized
NiuePresentIntroducedInvasive
Northern Mariana IslandsPresentIntroducedNaturalizedCultivated and naturalized
PalauPresentIntroduced
Papua New GuineaPresentIntroducedNaturalizedPlantedCultivated and naturalized
Solomon IslandsPresentIntroducedPlanted
Timor-LestePresent
TongaPresentIntroducedInvasive
U.S. Minor Outlying IslandsPresentIntroducedNaturalizedCultivated and naturalized
VanuatuPresentPlanted
Wallis and FutunaPresentIntroduced

South America

BoliviaPresentIntroducedNaturalizedCultivated and naturalized
BrazilPresentIntroduced
-AlagoasPresent
-AmapaPresentIntroducedInvasiveCultivated and naturalized
-AmazonasPresentIntroducedInvasiveCultivated and naturalized
-BahiaPresentIntroducedInvasiveCultivated and naturalized
-Espirito SantoPresentIntroducedInvasiveCultivated and naturalized
-GoiasPresentIntroducedInvasiveCultivated and naturalized
-MaranhaoPresentIntroducedInvasiveCultivated and naturalized
-Mato GrossoPresent
-Mato Grosso do SulPresentIntroducedInvasiveCultivated and naturalized
-Minas GeraisPresentIntroducedInvasiveCultivated and naturalized
-ParaPresentIntroducedInvasiveCultivated and naturalized
-ParanaPresentIntroducedInvasiveCultivated and naturalized
-PernambucoPresentIntroducedInvasiveCultivated and naturalized
-PiauiPresent
-Rio de JaneiroPresentIntroducedInvasivePlantedCultivated and naturalized
-Santa CatarinaPresentIntroducedInvasiveCultivated and naturalized
-Sao PauloPresentIntroducedInvasiveCultivated and naturalized
ChilePresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-Easter IslandPresentIntroducedInvasive
ColombiaPresentIntroducedNaturalizedCultivated and naturalized
EcuadorPresentIntroducedNaturalizedCultivated and naturalized
-Galapagos IslandsPresentIntroducedInvasive
French GuianaPresentIntroducedNaturalizedCultivated and naturalized
GuyanaPresentIntroducedNaturalizedCultivated and naturalized
PeruPresentIntroducedNaturalizedCultivated and naturalized
SurinamePresentIntroducedNaturalizedCultivated and naturalized
VenezuelaPresentIntroducedNaturalizedPlantedCultivated and naturalized

History of Introduction and Spread

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Due to its delicious fruits, M. indica has been widely disseminated throughout the tropics in the last two centuries. M. indica spread throughout South-East Asia about 1500 years ago and reached Africa about 1000 years ago. Further expansion to Australia, West Africa and the Americas occurred during the last few hundred years.

Buddhist monks are believed to have moved the mango on voyages to Malaya and eastern Asia in the fourth and fifth centuries. The Persians carried it to East Africa around the tenth century. Mango was commonly grown in India before the earliest visits of the Portuguese who apparently introduced it to West Africa early in the sixteenth century and later to Brazil in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. After becoming established in Brazil, the mango was carried to the West Indies, where it was first planted in Barbados about 1742 and later in the Dominican Republic. It reached Jamaica about 1782 and, by the eighteenth century it was also found growing on the mainland of Central America. By 1833 it is also recorded in Mexico, in the Yucatan Peninsula.

Mango seeds were imported into Miami from the West Indies in 1862-1863. In Puerto Rico, mangos have been grown since about 1750-1800, but in 1948 the University of Puerto Rico began a program of mango improvement with the introduction and testing of over 150 cultivars. In Hawaii, mango was first recorded in an introduction of several small plants from Manila in 1825 (Morton, 1987). It is now found in all the tropical and subtropical regions such as the Canary Islands, Madeira, along the shores of the Mediterranean, Australia, the Persian Gulf region, and in southern Brazil and the southern USA.

Habitat

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M. indica grows from sea level up to 1200 m in wet valleys, riversides, coastal forests and natural grasslands.  It also thrives in open and disturbed areas along roadsides, pastures, and secondary wet and dry forests (Orwa et al., 2009). It is very common in abandoned gardens, plantations and old farms (Bally, 2006). 

Habitat List

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CategorySub-CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Terrestrial ManagedManaged forests, plantations and orchards Principal habitat Natural
Terrestrial ManagedManaged forests, plantations and orchards Principal habitat Productive/non-natural
Terrestrial ManagedDisturbed areas Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial ManagedDisturbed areas Present, no further details Natural
Terrestrial ManagedDisturbed areas Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Terrestrial ManagedRail / roadsides Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial ManagedRail / roadsides Present, no further details Natural
Terrestrial ManagedRail / roadsides Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Terrestrial ManagedUrban / peri-urban areas Principal habitat Natural
Terrestrial ManagedUrban / peri-urban areas Principal habitat Productive/non-natural
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalNatural forests Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalNatural forests Present, no further details Natural
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalNatural forests Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalRiverbanks Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalRiverbanks Present, no further details Natural
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalRiverbanks Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
LittoralCoastal areas Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
LittoralCoastal areas Present, no further details Natural
LittoralCoastal areas Present, no further details Productive/non-natural

Biology and Ecology

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Genetics

The chromosome number reported for M. indica is n = 20 (Singhal and Gill, 1990). There are over a thousand varieties around the world, with India having more than 50% (over 500 named). Bioversity International promotes and coordinates germplasm collections in all important mango-growing countries.

Reproductive Biology

The juvenile period of seedling trees can range from 2 years under subtropical conditions  to 7 years, and mature trees can survive for several hundred years. Flowers are visited and possibly pollinated by flies, ants, beetles and bats, but bees appear to be the most effective pollinators. Bisexual flowers are predominantly outcrossing and exhibit protogynousdychogamy, but trees are generally self-compatible and the occurrence of geitonogamy is common. About 65-85% of bisexual flowers remain unpollinated and only 0.1-0.25% of the flowers pollinated reach the harvesting stage, with fruit drop (abortion) occurring at all stages (Orwa et al., 2009).

Physiology and Phenology

Normally only the buds at the compressed shoot tip partake in extension growth and flowering. Vigour finds expression in shoots of larger size and in the leafing out of more (often up to five) lateral buds at the shoot tip. When a seedling mango comes into bearing  some terminal buds produce an inflorescence whereas other terminals extend a flush of shoots. With the onset of bearing, the number of flushes is reduced to two or three, including the dry-season flush which coincides with flowering. Studies of several mango cultivars have revealed biennial flowering at the twig level, which means that shoots emerging from twigs which have flowered are unlikely to flower in their turn, even where flowering did not result in fruiting. Also, shoots of the last flush before flowering are less likely to break into bloom than twigs of previous flushes which have gone through much longer quiescent periods. In many Indian cultivars these tendencies are so strong that prolific bloom or late flushing necessarily lead to failure of the following bloom, thus leading to biennial bearing.

In India, the general flowering season is between January and March. In south-east Asia, flowering starts at the beginning of the rainy season and fruits ripen at the end of the rainy season (Orwa et al., 2009). In the West Indies, flowering occurs from November to July (Parrotta, 1993). Studies of several mango cultivars have shown biennial flowering but most varieties flower only once a year. The inflorescence can reach full bloom from the time of flower initiation within 25-30 days and the fruits ripen after 3-4 months. One in 1000 perfect flowers can be expected to yield a fruit (Troup, 1921; Kostermans and Bompard, 1993).

Environmental Requirements

The mango thrives both in the subtropics and the tropics. In the subtropics the cold months ensure excellent floral induction, but late frosts are a major risk: tender parts of the tree are killed by frost. In the tropics the mango grows almost anywhere up to 1200 m elevation, but for fruit production a prominent dry season lasting more than 3 months is necessary. A flowering flush is produced during the dry season, but contrary to the subtropics, flowering is erratic and a yield-limiting factor. At elevations above 600 m in the tropics the climate becomes too cool for the commercial cultivars, the optimum temperature being around 24-27°C.

Rainfall ranges from 750 to 2500 mm per year in tropical centres of production. Mangoes grow in a wide range of soils and moisture regimes. The trees are drought-tolerant, and on the other hand do not seem to suffer from occasional flooding. A deep (rooting depth 2.5 m) but rather poor soil is preferred; easy access to water and nutrients tends to stimulate growth at the expense of flowering. A high pH is less detrimental than acid soils, the preferred range being 5.5-7.

Latitude/Altitude Ranges

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Latitude North (°N)Latitude South (°S)Altitude Lower (m)Altitude Upper (m)
22 -22 10 1200

Air Temperature

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Parameter Lower limit Upper limit
Absolute minimum temperature (ºC) 5
Mean annual temperature (ºC) 12 42
Mean maximum temperature of hottest month (ºC) 28 49
Mean minimum temperature of coldest month (ºC) 9 22

Rainfall

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ParameterLower limitUpper limitDescription
Dry season duration38number of consecutive months with <40 mm rainfall
Mean annual rainfall7502500mm; lower/upper limits

Rainfall Regime

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Bimodal
Summer
Uniform
Winter

Soil Tolerances

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Soil drainage

  • free
  • impeded

Soil reaction

  • acid
  • neutral

Soil texture

  • light
  • medium

Special soil tolerances

  • infertile
  • shallow

Notes on Natural Enemies

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Some 25 fungus diseases affect mango, the most serious and widespread disease being anthracnose (Glomerella cingulata). Anthracnose infects shoots, flowers and fruits; it is particularly ruinous if the trees flower under wet conditions. The dark-brown spots can develop at any time.

Other fungus diseases are powdery mildew (Oidium mangiferae) (which infects flowers and fruitlets as well as the leaves), and leaf spots and various storage rots of the fruit. Malformation of inflorescences, caused by Fusarium sacchari in conjunction with mites, affects the trees in the subtropics but apparently does not thrive in the warmer tropical climates. There are also several bacterial diseases.

Mango hoppers (Amritodus atkinsoni and Idioscopus spp.) can ruin even a heavy bloom and are important mango pests. A host of other insects can do serious damage, such as mango mealybug (Drosicha mangiferae, Perissopneumon ferox), mango gall midges (Erosomyia indica, Dasineura amaramanjarae, Procystiphora mangiferae, Amradiplosis allahabadensis, Procontarinia), mango shoot gall psylla (Apsylla cistellata, Pauropsylla brevicornis), fruit flies (Bactrocera, Ceratitis capitata, Anastrepha), fruit-sucking moths (Eudocima, Achaea), fruit borers, thrips, ants, termites (Isoptera), grey weevil (Myllocerus), flea weevil (Rhynchaenus mangiferae), leaf-cutting weevil (Deporaus (Eugnamptus) marginatus), aphids, stone weevil (Sternochetus), leaf-eating caterpillars, shoot borers, leaf miners (Acrocercops), bark-eating caterpillars (Indarbela quadrinotata), stem borers (Batocera), coccids and mango leaf webbers (Orthaga, Lamida carbonifera).

Means of Movement and Dispersal

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M. indica spreads by seeds. This species is mainly moved and dispersed by humans through the commercialization and consumption of its fruits. In addition to humans, fruits are also eaten and dispersed by large variety of animals including monkeys, bats, elephants, hornbills, raccoons and porcupines (Orwa et al., 2009). 

Pathway Causes

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CauseNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Crop productionFruit production Yes Yes Bally (2006)
Disturbance Yes Yes Bally (2006)
Escape from confinement or garden escape Yes Orwa et al. (2009)
FoodFruit production Yes Yes Bally (2006)
Forestry Yes Yes Bally (2006)
HorticultureOften interplanted with other fruits and vegetables Yes Yes Bally (2006)
Landscape improvementPlanted as a shade tree Yes Yes Bally (2006)

Impact Summary

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CategoryImpact
Cultural/amenity Positive and negative
Economic/livelihood Positive and negative
Environment (generally) Positive and negative
Human health Positive and negative

Risk and Impact Factors

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Invasiveness
  • Proved invasive outside its native range
  • Has a broad native range
  • Abundant in its native range
  • Highly adaptable to different environments
  • Is a habitat generalist
  • Tolerates, or benefits from, cultivation, browsing pressure, mutilation, fire etc
  • Pioneering in disturbed areas
  • Benefits from human association (i.e. it is a human commensal)
  • Long lived
  • Has high genetic variability
Impact outcomes
  • Damaged ecosystem services
  • Ecosystem change/ habitat alteration
  • Modification of successional patterns
  • Reduced native biodiversity
  • Threat to/ loss of native species
Impact mechanisms
  • Causes allergic responses
  • Competition - monopolizing resources
  • Competition - shading
  • Pest and disease transmission
  • Hybridization
  • Induces hypersensitivity
Likelihood of entry/control
  • Highly likely to be transported internationally deliberately

Uses

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Mango is cultivated for the fruit which can be eaten in three distinct ways, depending largely on the cultivar: unripe (mature green, very popular in Thailand and the Philippines); ripe (the common way to enjoy mango throughout the world); and processed (at various stages of maturity, in the form of pickles or chutneys, dried slices, canned slices in syrup, juice, puree or paste, etc.). The green fruit is also used to flavour fish and meat dishes in the same way as tamarind and other sour fruits. 

Seed kernels form a by-product of processing; they can be used as feed for cattle and poultry. In India the kernels are also important as a famine-food, but the astringency has to be removed by boiling, roasting or soaking the kernels for a long time. Young leaves are eaten fresh or cooked as a vegetable.

Dried flowers or bark and decoctions of the kernels serve as astringents in traditional medicine. Extracts of unripe fruit and of bark, stems and leaves have shown antibiotic activity. The wood is fairly strong, hard and easy to work but it must be treated with preservatives when used in construction and outdoor applications. It makes excellent charcoal and is also used to culture mushrooms.

Mangoes are an important component of the diet in many less developed countries in the subtropics and tropics. In regions of the world that have experienced low living standards and serious nutritional deficiencies their attractiveness and flavour have also enhanced the quality of life. Surplus production has increasingly been processed and fruit of certain cultivars is destined for export as fresh fruit. Approximately 1% of mango production is processed for juice, nectars, preserves (including chutney), fruit leather, dried fruit slices, frozen pulp and as flavouring for baked goods, ice cream, yoghurt, etc. No part of the fruit is wasted. In India and the subcontinent, the seed is used for extraction of starch ‘amchur’, and the peels (skin) have been used as a source of anacardic acid. Mango wood is a low quality timber, and the bark of the tree is an important source of tannins for curing leather. The fruit also has some medicinal characteristics (Garrido and Valdes, 2012).

Uses List

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Animal feed, fodder, forage

  • Fodder/animal feed
  • Forage

Environmental

  • Agroforestry
  • Boundary, barrier or support
  • Shade and shelter
  • Soil improvement

Fuels

  • Fuelwood

Human food and beverage

  • Beverage base
  • Emergency (famine) food
  • Fruits
  • Honey/honey flora
  • Spices and culinary herbs

Materials

  • Carved material
  • Dye/tanning
  • Miscellaneous materials
  • Wood/timber

Medicinal, pharmaceutical

  • Source of medicine/pharmaceutical
  • Traditional/folklore

Wood Products

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Boats

Containers

  • Boxes
  • Cases

Roundwood

  • Posts

Sawn or hewn building timbers

  • Beams
  • Flooring
  • For heavy construction
  • For light construction
  • Wall panelling

Vehicle bodies

Veneers

Wood wool

Wood-based materials

  • Plywood

Woodware

  • Industrial and domestic woodware
  • Pencils
  • Tool handles

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Johnson GI, 1997. Mango disease losses: balancing economy and ecology. In: Lavi U, Degani C, Gazit S, Lahav E, Pesis E, Prusky D, Tomer E, Wysoki M, eds. Proceedings of the 5th international mango symposium, Tel Aviv, Israel, 1-6 September, 1996, Volume 2. Acta Horticulturae, 455:575-586.

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Distribution References

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GISD/IASPMR: Invasive Alien Species Pathway Management Resource and DAISIE European Invasive Alien Species Gatewayhttps://doi.org/10.5061/dryad.m93f6Data source for updated system data added to species habitat list.

Contributors

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20/05/14 Updated by:

Julissa Rojas-Sandoval, Department of Botany-Smithsonian NMNH, Washington DC, USA

Pedro Acevedo-Rodríguez, Department of Botany-Smithsonian NMNH, Washington DC, USA

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