Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Medicago lupulina
(black medick)

Rojas-Sandoval J, 2017. Medicago lupulina (black medick). Invasive Species Compendium. Wallingford, UK: CABI. DOI:10.1079/ISC.33034.20203483506

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Datasheet

Medicago lupulina (black medick)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 19 November 2019
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Pest
  • Host Plant
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Medicago lupulina
  • Preferred Common Name
  • black medick
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Plantae
  •     Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •       Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •         Class: Dicotyledonae
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • Medicago lupulina is an annual or short-lived perennial herb with a wide native range across Africa, Asia and Europe. It is a common weed in disturbed areas, wastelands, roadsides, abandoned pastures and forest margins. It is a nitrogen-f...

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Medicago lupulina (black medick); inflorescence and leaves. The Netherlands. August 2010.
TitleInflorescence
CaptionMedicago lupulina (black medick); inflorescence and leaves. The Netherlands. August 2010.
Copyright©Rasbak/via wikipedia - CC BY-SA 3.0
Medicago lupulina (black medick); inflorescence and leaves. The Netherlands. August 2010.
InflorescenceMedicago lupulina (black medick); inflorescence and leaves. The Netherlands. August 2010.©Rasbak/via wikipedia - CC BY-SA 3.0
Medicago lupulina (black medick); habit, scrambling across a gravel pile. West Beach, Sand Island, Midway Atoll, Hawaii, USA. April 2015.
TitleHabit
CaptionMedicago lupulina (black medick); habit, scrambling across a gravel pile. West Beach, Sand Island, Midway Atoll, Hawaii, USA. April 2015.
Copyright©Forest & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Medicago lupulina (black medick); habit, scrambling across a gravel pile. West Beach, Sand Island, Midway Atoll, Hawaii, USA. April 2015.
HabitMedicago lupulina (black medick); habit, scrambling across a gravel pile. West Beach, Sand Island, Midway Atoll, Hawaii, USA. April 2015.©Forest & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Medicago lupulina (black medick); habit, showing flower, leaves and green seeds. Sand Island, Midway Atoll, Hawaii, USA. June 2008.
TitleHabit
CaptionMedicago lupulina (black medick); habit, showing flower, leaves and green seeds. Sand Island, Midway Atoll, Hawaii, USA. June 2008.
Copyright©Forest & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Medicago lupulina (black medick); habit, showing flower, leaves and green seeds. Sand Island, Midway Atoll, Hawaii, USA. June 2008.
HabitMedicago lupulina (black medick); habit, showing flower, leaves and green seeds. Sand Island, Midway Atoll, Hawaii, USA. June 2008.©Forest & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Medicago lupulina (black medick); habit. The Netherlands. August 2010.
TitleHabit
CaptionMedicago lupulina (black medick); habit. The Netherlands. August 2010.
Copyright©Rasbak/via wikipedia - CC BY-SA 3.0
Medicago lupulina (black medick); habit. The Netherlands. August 2010.
HabitMedicago lupulina (black medick); habit. The Netherlands. August 2010.©Rasbak/via wikipedia - CC BY-SA 3.0
Medicago lupulina (black medick); habit, with seeds. nr. Norwich, Norfolk, UK. August 2017.
TitleHabit
CaptionMedicago lupulina (black medick); habit, with seeds. nr. Norwich, Norfolk, UK. August 2017.
Copyright©Evelyn Simak/via Geograph - CC BY-SA 2.0
Medicago lupulina (black medick); habit, with seeds. nr. Norwich, Norfolk, UK. August 2017.
HabitMedicago lupulina (black medick); habit, with seeds. nr. Norwich, Norfolk, UK. August 2017.©Evelyn Simak/via Geograph - CC BY-SA 2.0

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Medicago lupulina L.

Preferred Common Name

  • black medick

Other Scientific Names

  • Medica lupulina Scop.
  • Medicago appenina Woods
  • Medicago cupaniana Guss.
  • Medicago wildenowii Merat

International Common Names

  • English: hop-clover; nonesuch; yellow trefoil
  • Spanish: lupulina; mielga azafranada
  • French: lupuline; luzerne lupuline; minette dorée
  • Chinese: tian lan mu xu
  • Portuguese: luzerna-brava; luzerna-lupulina

Local Common Names

  • Dominican Republic: frijolillo; frijolito; habichuelita
  • Estonia: humal-lutsern
  • Georgia (Republic of): sviisebri iondzha
  • Germany: gelbklee; hopfenklee; hopfen-luzerne
  • Lithuania: apynine liucerne
  • Mexico: alfalfilla; carretilla
  • Portugal: alfalfa-lupulina; luzerna-preta; trevo-amarelo
  • Romania: lucherne lupuline
  • Spain: meligón; mielga negra; trébol rastrero; trebolera
  • Ukraine: burkunchik

Summary of Invasiveness

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Medicago lupulina is an annual or short-lived perennial herb with a wide native range across Africa, Asia and Europe. It is a common weed in disturbed areas, wastelands, roadsides, abandoned pastures and forest margins. It is a nitrogen-fixing species cultivated for forage and used as a soil improver; it is also a seed contaminant of other crops. Currently, it is listed as invasive in the Philippines, Hawaii, New Zealand and a small number of islands in Oceania. However, there is limited information available about its environmental impact in these locations.

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Plantae
  •         Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •             Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •                 Class: Dicotyledonae
  •                     Order: Fabales
  •                         Family: Fabaceae
  •                             Subfamily: Faboideae
  •                                 Genus: Medicago
  •                                     Species: Medicago lupulina

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

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Fabaceae is one of the largest families of flowering plants, and includes about 745 genera and 19,500 species growing in a wide range of climates and habitats (Stevens, 2012). The genus Medicago comprises more than 88 species of both annuals and perennials (The Plant List, 2013). The primary centre of diversity for this genus is located in the Caucasus, northwestern Iran and northeastern Turkey. The most well-known species within this genus is M. sativa (alfalfa), an important forage crop cultivated worldwide. Most members of the genus are creeping herbs, but some are shrubs and trees (Quiros and Bauchan, 1988).

Description

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The following description is from the Flora of China Editorial Committee (2017):

Annual or short-lived perennial herbs, 15-60 cm height, glabrescent to pubescent, sometimes glandular. Stems decumbent, prostrate or ascending, much branched. Stipules ovate-lanceolate, to 10 mm, entire or toothed, base rounded or hastate, apex acuminate; petiole 1-2 cm; leaflets elliptic, ovate, or obovate, 5-20 x 4-6 mm, papery, pubescent, lateral veins to 10 pairs, base cuneate, margin distally obscurely serrate, apex truncate or retuse, apiculate. Flowers 10-20 in small heads; peduncles slender, straight, longer than subtending leaves, glabrate to densely appressed pubescent; bracts bristlelike, minute; pedicel less than 1 mm. Calyx 2 mm, glabrate to densely hairy. Corolla yellow, 2-2.2 mm; standard suborbicular, apex retuse, longer than wings and keel. Legume reniform, 3 x 2 mm, sculptured with concentric arcuate veins, sparsely hairy, black when ripe, one seeded, seed is brown, ovoid and smooth.

Plant Type

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Annual
Broadleaved
Herbaceous
Perennial
Seed propagated

Distribution

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M. lupulina has a wide native range across northern Africa, temperate and subtropical Asia and Europe (USDA-ARS, 2017). It has also been widely introduced and occurs in North America, the Caribbean, Central and South America, Central and East Asia, South Africa, Oceania and some parts of Europe (ILDIS, 2017; USDA-ARS, 2017USDA-NRCS, 2017). It is listed as an invasive species in the Philippines, Hawaii, New Zealand and on a small number of islands in Oceania (PIER, 2017). According to NOBANIS (2017), M. lupulina is considered native to Finland and Sweden according to USDA-ARS (2017), although elsewhere it is listed as introduced in these countries (NOBANIS, 2017).

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 25 Feb 2021
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

AlgeriaPresentNative
EgyptPresentNative
EthiopiaPresent
KenyaPresent
LibyaPresentNative
MauritiusPresent
MoroccoPresentNative
SomaliaPresent
South AfricaPresentIntroducedNaturalizedNaturalized
TanzaniaPresent
TunisiaPresentNative

Asia

AfghanistanPresentNative
ArmeniaPresentNative
AzerbaijanPresentNative
ChinaPresentNative
GeorgiaPresentNative
IndiaPresentNative
-BiharPresentNative
-DelhiPresentNative
-GujaratPresentNative
-HaryanaPresentNative
-Himachal PradeshPresentNative
-Jammu and KashmirPresentNative
-Madhya PradeshPresentNative
-PunjabPresentNative
-RajasthanPresentNative
-Uttar PradeshPresentNative
-West BengalPresentNative
IranPresentNative
IraqPresentNative
IsraelPresentNative
JapanPresentIntroducedNaturalizedNaturalized
-Bonin IslandsPresentIntroduced
KazakhstanPresentIntroducedNaturalizedNaturalized
KyrgyzstanPresentIntroducedNaturalizedNaturalized
LebanonPresentNative
MongoliaPresentIntroducedNaturalizedNaturalized
NepalPresentNative
North KoreaPresentNative
PakistanPresentNative
PhilippinesPresentIntroducedInvasive
Saudi ArabiaPresentNative
South KoreaPresentNative
SyriaPresentNative
TaiwanPresentNative
TajikistanPresentIntroducedNaturalizedNaturalized
TurkeyPresentNative
TurkmenistanPresentIntroducedNaturalizedNaturalized
UzbekistanPresentIntroducedNaturalizedNaturalized
YemenPresentNative

Europe

AlbaniaPresentNative
AustriaPresentNative
BelarusPresentNative
BelgiumPresentNative
BulgariaPresentNative
CroatiaPresent
CyprusPresentNative
CzechiaPresent
CzechoslovakiaPresentNative
Federal Republic of YugoslaviaPresentNative
DenmarkPresentNative
EstoniaPresentNative
FinlandPresentNative and IntroducedConsidered both native and introduced in the country
FrancePresentNative
GermanyPresentNative
GreecePresentNative
HungaryPresentNative
IcelandPresentIntroduced1874Rare
IrelandPresentNative
ItalyPresentNative
LatviaPresentNative
LithuaniaPresentNative
NetherlandsPresentNative
NorwayPresentNative
PolandPresentNative
PortugalPresentNative
-AzoresPresentIntroducedNaturalizedNaturalized
-MadeiraPresentNative
RomaniaPresentNative
RussiaPresentNative and IntroducedConsidered both native and introduced in the country
-Central RussiaPresentNative
-Eastern SiberiaPresentIntroducedNaturalizedNaturalized
-Russian Far EastPresentIntroducedNaturalizedNaturalized
-Southern RussiaPresentNative
-Western SiberiaPresentIntroducedNaturalizedNaturalized
SerbiaPresent
Serbia and MontenegroPresentNative
SpainPresentNative
-Canary IslandsPresentNative
SwedenPresentNative and IntroducedConsidered both native and introduced in the country
SwitzerlandPresentNative
UkrainePresentNative
United KingdomPresentNative

North America

BahamasPresentIntroduced
CanadaPresentIntroducedNaturalizedNaturalized
-AlbertaPresentIntroduced
-British ColumbiaPresentIntroduced
-ManitobaPresentIntroduced
-New BrunswickPresentIntroduced
-Newfoundland and LabradorPresentIntroduced
-Northwest TerritoriesPresentIntroduced
-Nova ScotiaPresentIntroduced
-OntarioPresentIntroduced
-Prince Edward IslandPresentIntroduced
-QuebecPresentIntroduced
-SaskatchewanPresentIntroduced
CubaPresentIntroduced
Dominican RepublicPresentIntroducedPossible invasive
GreenlandPresentIntroduced
GuatemalaPresentIntroducedAdventive
HaitiPresentIntroduced
MexicoPresentIntroducedAdventive
Saint Pierre and MiquelonPresentIntroduced
United StatesPresentIntroducedNaturalizedNaturalized
-AlabamaPresentIntroduced
-AlaskaPresentIntroduced
-ArizonaPresentIntroduced
-ArkansasPresentIntroduced
-CaliforniaPresentIntroduced
-ColoradoPresentIntroduced
-ConnecticutPresentIntroduced
-DelawarePresentIntroduced
-District of ColumbiaPresentIntroduced
-FloridaPresentIntroduced
-GeorgiaPresentIntroduced
-HawaiiPresentIntroducedInvasive
-IdahoPresentIntroduced
-IllinoisPresentIntroduced
-IndianaPresentIntroduced
-IowaPresentIntroduced
-KansasPresentIntroduced
-KentuckyPresentIntroduced
-LouisianaPresentIntroduced
-MainePresentIntroduced
-MarylandPresentIntroduced
-MassachusettsPresentIntroduced
-MichiganPresentIntroduced
-MinnesotaPresentIntroduced
-MississippiPresentIntroduced
-MissouriPresentIntroduced
-MontanaPresentIntroduced
-NebraskaPresentIntroduced
-NevadaPresentIntroduced
-New HampshirePresentIntroduced
-New JerseyPresentIntroduced
-New MexicoPresentIntroduced
-New YorkPresentIntroduced
-North CarolinaPresentIntroduced
-North DakotaPresentIntroduced
-OhioPresentIntroduced
-OklahomaPresentIntroduced
-OregonPresentIntroduced
-PennsylvaniaPresentIntroduced
-Rhode IslandPresentIntroduced
-South CarolinaPresentIntroduced
-South DakotaPresentIntroduced
-TennesseePresentIntroduced
-TexasPresentIntroduced
-UtahPresentIntroduced
-VermontPresentIntroduced
-WashingtonPresentIntroduced
-West VirginiaPresentIntroduced
-WisconsinPresentIntroduced
-WyomingPresentIntroduced

Oceania

AustraliaPresentIntroducedNaturalizedNaturalized
-Lord Howe IslandPresentIntroducedInvasive
-New South WalesPresentIntroduced
-QueenslandPresentIntroduced
-South AustraliaPresentIntroduced
-TasmaniaPresentIntroduced
-VictoriaPresentIntroduced
-Western AustraliaPresentIntroduced
New ZealandPresentIntroducedInvasive
Norfolk IslandPresentIntroducedInvasiveAlso cultivated
TongaPresent
U.S. Minor Outlying IslandsPresentIntroducedInvasive

South America

ArgentinaPresentIntroducedNaturalizedNaturalized
BrazilPresentIntroducedNaturalizedNaturalized
ChilePresentIntroducedNaturalizedNaturalized
EcuadorPresentIntroducedNaturalizedNaturalized
PeruPresentIntroducedNaturalizedNaturalized
UruguayPresentIntroducedNaturalizedNaturalized

History of Introduction and Spread

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M. lupulina was introduced from Eurasia into North America for use as a forage plant for livestock and as a soil improver. It was probably also introduced unintentionally as a contaminant among seeds of other crops. By 1792, it was harvested in Canada and, by 1821, it was recorded as naturalized in Montreal (Turkington and Cavers, 1979). In 1874 it was introduced to Iceland, where it remains rare and has not become established (NOBANIS, 2017).

Habitat

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M. lupulina grows in wastelands, forest margins, fields, and along riverbanks and roadsides (Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2017). This species also grows in waterlogged areas such as marshes, bogs, watercourses and lake and river shores (Belov, 2013).

Habitat List

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CategorySub-CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Terrestrial

Hosts/Species Affected

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M. lupulina is listed as an agricultural weed of alfalfa, maize plantations and apple orchards (Vibrans, 2009).

Host Plants and Other Plants Affected

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Plant nameFamilyContextReferences
Malus domestica (apple)RosaceaeMain
    Medicago sativa (lucerne)FabaceaeMain
      Zea mays (maize)PoaceaeMain

        Growth Stages

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        Flowering stage, Fruiting stage, Vegetative growing stage

        Biology and Ecology

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        Genetics

        The chromosome number reported for M. lupulina varies from 2n = 16 to 2n = 32 (Turkington and Cavers, 1979; Quiros and Bauchan, 1988).

        Reproductive Biology

        M. lupulina has hermaphroditic flowers and a mixed breeding system, varying from complete self-pollination to extensive outcrossing (Turkington and Cavers, 1979). The nectar and pollen of its flowers attract various insects, particularly bees (i.e. Apis, Bombus and Halictid bees), but also butterflies and flies (PFAF, 2017).

        Physiology and Phenology

        In North America, seedlings of M. lupulina often appear in spring and plants will flower within six weeks after emergence. Under favourable conditions, seeds are produced after nine weeks and vigorous plants are able to continue producing seeds throughout the growing season. In most habitats the majority of plants die during the winter and seeds remain dormant until spring (Turkington and Cavers, 1979).

        In China, M. lupulina produces flowers from April to September (Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2017). Similarly, in Canada, it flowers between April and October (Turkington and Cavers, 1979). In Pakistan, plants produce flowers from March to June (Flora of Pakistan, 2017).

        Associations

        Similar to other Fabaceae species, rhizobia bacteria are found in nodules on the roots of M. lupulina, which allow the plant to fix nitrogen (PFAF, 2017).

        Environmental Requirements

        M. lupulina thrives in moist habitats with full to partial sunlight at elevations from sea level to 2800 m. It has the potential to grow in a wide range of soil types including calcareous and dry soils, sandy soils, loams, clay-loams and gravel soils with pH ranging from 4.8 to 7.8 (Turkington and Cavers, 1979; PIER, 2017). Plants generally do not survive dry periods of longer than one month (PFAF, 2017).

        Climate

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        ClimateStatusDescriptionRemark
        As - Tropical savanna climate with dry summer Tolerated < 60mm precipitation driest month (in summer) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
        Aw - Tropical wet and dry savanna climate Tolerated < 60mm precipitation driest month (in winter) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
        BS - Steppe climate Tolerated > 430mm and < 860mm annual precipitation
        Cs - Warm temperate climate with dry summer Preferred Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry summers
        Cw - Warm temperate climate with dry winter Preferred Warm temperate climate with dry winter (Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry winters)
        Cf - Warm temperate climate, wet all year Preferred Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, wet all year
        Ds - Continental climate with dry summer Preferred Continental climate with dry summer (Warm average temp. > 10°C, coldest month < 0°C, dry summers)
        Dw - Continental climate with dry winter Preferred Continental climate with dry winter (Warm average temp. > 10°C, coldest month < 0°C, dry winters)

        Latitude/Altitude Ranges

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        Latitude North (°N)Latitude South (°S)Altitude Lower (m)Altitude Upper (m)
        63 45 0 2800

        Air Temperature

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        Parameter Lower limit Upper limit
        Mean annual temperature (ºC) 10 30

        Rainfall

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        ParameterLower limitUpper limitDescription
        Dry season duration1 monthnumber of consecutive months with <40 mm rainfall

        Rainfall Regime

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        Bimodal
        Uniform

        Soil Tolerances

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        Soil drainage

        • free
        • seasonally waterlogged

        Soil reaction

        • acid
        • alkaline
        • neutral

        Soil texture

        • heavy
        • light
        • medium

        Natural enemies

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        Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
        Bean leafroll virus Pathogen not specific
        Costelytra zealandica Herbivore Other/All Stages not specific
        Dasineura lupulinae Antagonist Other/All Stages not specific
        Fusarium culmorum Pathogen Other/All Stages not specific
        Phoma medicaginis Pathogen Other/All Stages not specific
        Uromyces striatus Herbivore Other/All Stages not specific

        Notes on Natural Enemies

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        A range of diseases, herbivores and pests have been reported to affect M. lupulina. These include the bean leafroll virus, the fungus Fusarium culmorum and the larvae of Costelytra zealandica (Turkington and Cavers, 1979).

        Means of Movement and Dispersal

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        M. lupulina spreads by seed, which can be dispersed over great distances by birds and other grazing animals. Seeds can also float in water for up to five days (Turkington and Cavers, 1979; Vibrans, 2009; PIER, 2017).

        Accidental Introduction

        Seeds of M. lupulina are reported as a common contaminant in seed samples of white clover, red clover, alfalfa and birdsfoot trefoil (Turkington and Cavers, 1979).

        Intentional Introduction

        M. lupulina has been widely and intentionally introduced for agricultural use as a forage plant for livestock and as a soil improver (Turkington and Cavers, 1979; USDA-ARS, 2017).

        Pathway Causes

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        CauseNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
        Crop productionWeed in agricultural land; seed contaminant Yes Yes USDA-ARS (2017)
        ForageCultivated as forage for livestock Yes Yes USDA-ARS (2017)
        Habitat restoration and improvementSoil improver Yes Yes USDA-ARS (2017)
        Seed tradeSeed contaminant Yes Yes USDA-ARS (2017)

        Pathway Vectors

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        VectorNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
        LivestockForage plant for livestock Yes Yes USDA-ARS (2017)
        WaterSeeds float in water for up to five days Yes Yes Turkington and Cavers (1979)

        Impact

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        Although M. lupulina is listed as invasive on a number of islands, e.g. Philippines, Hawaii and some islands in Oceania (PIER, 2017), there is very little information about the impact of this species in these locations. However, this species is an aggressive agricultural weed and is a seed contaminant, so it is likely to have a negative economic impact (Turkington and Cavers, 1979; Vibrans, 2009).

        Risk and Impact Factors

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        Invasiveness
        • Proved invasive outside its native range
        • Has a broad native range
        • Abundant in its native range
        • Highly adaptable to different environments
        • Is a habitat generalist
        • Tolerates, or benefits from, cultivation, browsing pressure, mutilation, fire etc
        • Pioneering in disturbed areas
        • Highly mobile locally
        • Fast growing
        • Has high reproductive potential
        Impact outcomes
        • Modification of nutrient regime
        • Negatively impacts agriculture
        Impact mechanisms
        • Competition (unspecified)
        • Rapid growth
        Likelihood of entry/control
        • Highly likely to be transported internationally accidentally
        • Highly likely to be transported internationally deliberately
        • Difficult to identify/detect as a commodity contaminant
        • Difficult to identify/detect in the field

        Uses

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        M. lupulina is cultivated as a forage crop and is also used as a soil improver and for ground cover. This species is often planted as a “bee plant” for honey production. It is sometimes used as revegetator and as part of the composition of artificial meadows (Turkington and Cavers, 1979; USDA-ARS, 2017).

        Uses List

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        Animal feed, fodder, forage

        • Forage

        Environmental

        • Revegetation
        • Soil improvement

        Human food and beverage

        • Honey/honey flora

        Similarities to Other Species/Conditions

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        M. lupulina is similar in appearance to Trifulium dubium, but these two species can be distinguished by: (1) the large, broad, toothed or sharply pointed stipules and (2) the mucronate leaf tip of M. lupulina (Turkington and Cavers, 1979).

        Prevention and Control

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        Due to the variable regulations around (de)registration of pesticides, your national list of registered pesticides or relevant authority should be consulted to determine which products are legally allowed for use in your country when considering chemical control. Pesticides should always be used in a lawful manner, consistent with the product's label.

        Control

        Chemical Control

        Herbicides such as 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid and dicamba have been used to control M. lupulina when growing as a weed in agricultural fields (Turkington and Cavers, 1979).

        References

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        Acevedo-Rodríguez P, Strong MT, 2012. Catalogue of the Seed Plants of the West Indies. Smithsonian Contributions to Botany, 98:1192 pp. Washington DC, USA: Smithsonian Institution. http://botany.si.edu/Antilles/WestIndies/catalog.htm

        Belov M, 2013. Chileflora. http://www.chileflora.com/index.html

        Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2017. Flora of China. St. Louis, Missouri and Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden and Harvard University Herbaria. http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2

        Flora of Pakistan, 2017. Flora of Pakistan/Pakistan Plant Database (PPD). St. Louis, Missouri and Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: Tropicos website. http://www.tropicos.org/Project/Pakistan

        ILDIS, 2017. International Legume Database and Information Service: World Database of Legumes (version 10). Reading, UK: School of Plant Sciences, University of Reading. http://www.ildis.org/

        Jorgensen, P. M., Ulloa U, C., 1994. Seed plants of the high Andes of Ecuador: a checklist. In: AAU Reports Department of Systematic Botany, University of Aarhus (Denmark) , (No. 34) . 453 pp.

        Mir C, 2012. Estrategia Nacional de Especies Exóticas Invasoras Realizado en el marco del Proyecto “Mitigando las amenazas de las especies exóticas invasoras en el Caribe Insular”. Dominican Republic: Ministerio de Medio Ambiente y Recursos Naturales Santo Domingo

        NOBANIS, 2017. European Network on Invasive Alien Species. https://www.nobanis.org/about-nobanis/

        PFAF, 2017. Plants For A Future Database. http://www.pfaf.org/USER/Default.aspx

        PIER, 2017. Pacific Islands Ecosystems at Risk. Honolulu, USA: HEAR, University of Hawaii. http://www.hear.org/pier/index.html

        Quiros CF, Bauchan GR, 1988. The genus Medicago and the origin of the Medicago sativa complex. Alfalfa and Alfalfa Improvement—Agronomy Monographs, 29:93-126

        Stevens PF, 2012. Angiosperm Phylogeny Website. http://www.mobot.org/MOBOT/research/APweb/

        The Plant List, 2013. The Plant List: a working list of all plant species. Version 1.1. London, UK: Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.http://www.theplantlist.org

        Turkington, R., Cavers, P. B., 1979. The biology of Canadian weeds. 33. Medicago lupulina L. Canadian Journal of Plant Science, 59(1), 99-110.

        USDA-ARS, 2017. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Online Database. Beltsville, USA: National Germplasm Resources Laboratory. http://www.ars-grin.gov/cgi-bin/npgs/html/tax_search.pl

        USDA-NRCS, 2017. The PLANTS Database. Baton Rouge, USA: National Plant Data Center. http://plants.usda.gov/

        Vibrans H, 2009. Malezas de México. Listado alfabético de las especies, ordenadas por género (Weeds of Mexico. Alphabetical list of species, ordered by genera). http://www.conabio.gob.mx/malezasdemexico/2inicio/paginas/lista-plantas-generos.htm

        Wagner, W. L., Herbst, D. R., Sohmer, S. H., 1999. Manual of the Flowering Plants of Hawai'i, Vols. 1 and 2, (Edn 2) : University of Hawai'i and Bishop Museum Press.xviii + 1919 pp.

        Distribution References

        Acevedo-Rodríguez P, Strong M T, 2012. Catalogue of the Seed Plants of the West Indies. Washington, DC, USA: Smithsonian Institution. 1192 pp. http://botany.si.edu/Antilles/WestIndies/catalog.htm

        CABI, Undated. CABI Compendium: Status as determined by CABI editor. Wallingford, UK: CABI

        Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2017. Flora of China. In: Flora of China. St. Louis, Missouri and Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden and Harvard University Herbaria. http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2

        ILDIS, 2017. International Legume Database and Information Service: World Database of Legumes (version 10)., Reading, UK: School of Plant Sciences, University of Reading. http://www.ildis.org/

        Jorgensen P M, Ulloa U C, 1994. Seed plants of the high Andes of Ecuador: a checklist. In: AAU Reports Department of Systematic Botany, University of Aarhus (Denmark). 453 pp.

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        03/04/17 Original text by:

        Julissa Rojas-Sandoval, Department of Botany-Smithsonian NMNH, Washington DC, USA

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