Invasive Species Compendium

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Datasheet

Adiantum raddianum
(delta maidenhair fern)

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Datasheet

Adiantum raddianum (delta maidenhair fern)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 20 November 2019
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Adiantum raddianum
  • Preferred Common Name
  • delta maidenhair fern
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Plantae
  •     Phylum: Pteridophyta
  •       Class: Filicopsida
  •         Order: Polypodiales
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • A. raddianum is a delicate fern native to tropical and subtropical South America. The fern grows terrestrially or on rocks and erects arching fronds, up to 50 cm high, growing out of a short rhizome. The plant has become naturalized in va...

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Adiantum raddianum (maidenhair fern); leaves at Waikapu Valley, Maui.  February 29, 2012
TitleLeaves
CaptionAdiantum raddianum (maidenhair fern); leaves at Waikapu Valley, Maui. February 29, 2012
Copyright©Forest & Kim Starr Images-2012. CC-BY-3.0
Adiantum raddianum (maidenhair fern); leaves at Waikapu Valley, Maui.  February 29, 2012
LeavesAdiantum raddianum (maidenhair fern); leaves at Waikapu Valley, Maui. February 29, 2012©Forest & Kim Starr Images-2012. CC-BY-3.0

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Adiantum raddianum C Presl., 1836

Preferred Common Name

  • delta maidenhair fern

Other Scientific Names

  • Adiantum amabile Liebm.
  • Adiantum boliviense Chr. & Rosenst.
  • Adiantum colpodes Moore
  • Adiantum cuneatum Langsd. & Fisch.
  • Adiantum mexicanum Presl.
  • Adiantum werckleanum Christ.

International Common Names

  • English: delta maidenhair fern
  • French: capillaire

Local Common Names

  • Germany: Frauenhaarfarn
  • Sweden: snittadiantum

EPPO code

  • ADIRA (Adiantum raddianum)

Summary of Invasiveness

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A. raddianum is a delicate fern native to tropical and subtropical South America. The fern grows terrestrially or on rocks and erects arching fronds, up to 50 cm high, growing out of a short rhizome. The plant has become naturalized in various tropical and subtropical islands and is considered to be invasive in Hawaii and French Polynesia. The fern readily spreads and becomes locally abundant. In Hawaii it was first observed around 1910 and is now the most common Adiantum species. It grows best in moist and shady places and appears to replace the closely related native Adiantum capillus-veneris. It also threatens an endemic species of silversword, Dubautia plantaginea subsp. humilis, and another native fern, Pteris lidgatei.

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Plantae
  •         Phylum: Pteridophyta
  •             Class: Filicopsida
  •                 Order: Polypodiales
  •                     Family: Pteridaceae
  •                         Genus: Adiantum
  •                             Species: Adiantum raddianum

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

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The taxonomic treatment of Adiantum raddianum has frequently changed. This has resulted in a number of synonyms, of which Adiantum cuneatum is still widely used. The name A. raddianum honours the Italian botanist Giuseppe Raddi (1770-1829). This fern species is an important ornamental and more than seventy cultivars have been developed. The cultivars vary in their cultural requirements, their frond shape and growth forms. Closely related species of A. raddianum include the brittle maidenhair fern (A. tenerum) and the common maidenhair fern or Venus' hair fern (A. capillus-veneris). In Hawaii, the naturalized Adiantum 'Edwinii' is probably a cultivar of A. raddianum, or a cultivar or hybrid of A. concinnum.

Description

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A. raddianum is a fern with a short-creeping and irregularly-branched rhizome up to 50 mm long and ca 2 mm wide. The rhizome and the bases of the frond stalks are covered with dark-brown scales of less than 1 mm length. Fronds are arched to erect, 10-50 cm long and 6-20 cm wide, and triangular in shape. Frond stalks and axes are dark reddish-brown to blackish and shining. The frond stalk is usually longer than the lamina. Laminas are 3-4-pinnately divided, with the ultimate segments delicate, herbaceous and up to 1 cm wide. Ultimate segments are wedge-shaped and have slender red-black stalks. Segments of sterile fronds, if present, are larger than fertile fronds. Spore cases (sori) are 'U'-shaped and arranged either at the edge of veins or at their tips and less than 4 mm wide. Each sorus is covered with a pale or whitish membrane (indusium).

Plant Type

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Herbaceous
Perennial

Distribution

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In its native range, in tropical and sub-tropical South America, from Mexico down to Argentina, the fern is found from 0 to 4000 m (Luteyn, 1999; Zuloaga et al., 2008). It has been quite widely introduced elsewhere as an ornamental and now occurs in Asia, Africa and the Pacific. In Hawaii, the fern occurs on all major islands and ascends from sea level to 4,400 m. On the Azores it is found on all islands except Terceira and Corvo and ascends to 400 m (Schäfer, 2002; Palmer, 2003).

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 10 Jan 2020
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

EswatiniPresent, Few occurrencesIntroduced1300-1400 m
MauritiusPresentIntroduced
RéunionPresentIntroduced
South AfricaPresentIntroduced100-1650 m
TanzaniaPresentIntroducedEast Usambara Mountains; Original citation: Sheil (1994)

Asia

IndonesiaPresentIntroduced
SingaporePresent, Only in captivity/cultivationIntroduced
Sri LankaPresentIntroduced650-2140 m

Europe

PortugalPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-AzoresPresent, LocalizedIntroduced0-250 m
-MadeiraPresent, WidespreadIntroduced1911
SpainPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-Canary IslandsPresentIntroducedLa Palma, Tenerife, Gran Canaria

North America

Costa RicaPresentNative200-2300 m
DominicaPresentNative
JamaicaPresentNative
MexicoPresentNative
NicaraguaPresentNative
Trinidad and TobagoPresentNative
United StatesPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-HawaiiPresentIntroduced1907InvasiveAll major islands. 0 - 4400 m

Oceania

French PolynesiaPresentIntroducedInvasive
KiribatiPresentIntroduced
New ZealandPresent, Few occurrencesIntroduced
Papua New GuineaPresentIntroduced

South America

ArgentinaPresentNative
BoliviaPresentNative500-2500 m; Original citation: Jørgensen, 2012
BrazilPresentNative
-BahiaPresentNative
-CearaPresentNative
-Espirito SantoPresentNative
-GoiasPresentNative
-Mato GrossoPresentNative
-Minas GeraisPresentNative
-ParanaPresentNative
-PernambucoPresentNative
-Rio de JaneiroPresentNative
-Rio Grande do SulPresentNative
-Santa CatarinaPresentNative
-Sao PauloPresentNative
ColombiaPresentNative
EcuadorPresentNative
ParaguayPresentNative
PeruPresentNative400-4000 m
UruguayPresentNative
VenezuelaPresentNative200-3000 m

History of Introduction and Spread

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On Hawaii, A. raddianum was first collected in the wild on the island Kaua'i in 1910, but was reportedly already seen outside of cultivation in 1907 (Palmer, 2003). On Madeira, the plant has been naturalized since 1911 (Press and Short, 1994).

Risk of Introduction

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The fern is available through the horticultural trade and sold in many nurseries. New specimens, possibly including different cultivars, are likely to be imported into many regions. Since the spores are easily dispersed and germinate readily, any specimen with fertile fronds will act as a potential source for new ferns. Dispersal of spores is an important vector in all regions with a subtropical to tropical climate where the fern can be grown outdoors.

Habitat

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The fern grows best in damp and shady places but does not tolerate very heavy shade. It is found in a wide range of habitats including forest floors, rock crevices, walls, roadside banks, river banks, coastal cliffs and basalt banks along trails and streams (Palmer, 2003).

Habitat List

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CategorySub-CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Terrestrial
Terrestrial ManagedCultivated / agricultural land Secondary/tolerated habitat
Terrestrial ManagedManaged forests, plantations and orchards Secondary/tolerated habitat Natural
Terrestrial ManagedRail / roadsides Secondary/tolerated habitat Natural
Terrestrial ManagedBuildings Secondary/tolerated habitat Natural
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalNatural forests Principal habitat Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalNatural forests Principal habitat Natural
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalRiverbanks Principal habitat Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalRiverbanks Principal habitat Natural
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalRocky areas / lava flows Secondary/tolerated habitat Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalRocky areas / lava flows Secondary/tolerated habitat Natural

Host Plants and Other Plants Affected

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Plant nameFamilyContextReferences
Camellia sinensis (tea)TheaceaeUnknown
    Oryza sativa (rice)PoaceaeUnknown

      Biology and Ecology

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      Genetics

      Reported chromosome numbers are 2n=60, 2n=114, 2n=58 and 2n=228 (Missouri Botanical Garden, 2012).

      Reproductive Biology

      As a fern, A. raddianum possesses the typical life cycle with a sporophyte generation and a gametophyte generation. The sporophyte (spore-bearing plant) is the conspicuous fern plant with fronds, roots and stems. It produces spores and its tissues are diploid. A spore germinates and forms a tiny green prothallus, which is the gametophyte (gamete-bearing plant). The prothallus is haploid and has structures on its surface producing the gametes or sex cells, e.g. sperm and egg cells. After fertilization a new sporophyte grows out of the prothallus. Fertilization is in most cases cross-fertilization. This is ensured by the large number of prothalli lying next to each other at a site where spores germinated.

      The fern spreads mainly by its spores, which are produced abundantly and dispersed by wind and water. The rhizome is short but fragments may resprout if large enough. Rhizome fragments may be carried to new places by heavy rains or soil disturbances. 

      Physiology and Phenology

      The broad elevational range of this fern species suggests a broad environmental tolerance, including high and low temperatures, shade and bright light.

      Environmental Requirements

      In Hawaii, the fern has a remarkable altitudinal distribution, from 0 to 4400 m (Palmer, 2003). It grows on young volcanic soils such as moist cinder and basalt banks. In French Polynesia, it occupies a similar range between 0 and 4000 m.

      Climate

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      ClimateStatusDescriptionRemark
      Af - Tropical rainforest climate Preferred > 60mm precipitation per month
      Am - Tropical monsoon climate Preferred Tropical monsoon climate ( < 60mm precipitation driest month but > (100 - [total annual precipitation(mm}/25]))
      Aw - Tropical wet and dry savanna climate Preferred < 60mm precipitation driest month (in winter) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
      Cf - Warm temperate climate, wet all year Tolerated Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, wet all year

      Soil Tolerances

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      Soil drainage

      • free

      Soil reaction

      • acid
      • neutral

      Soil texture

      • heavy
      • medium

      Special soil tolerances

      • infertile
      • shallow

      Notes on Natural Enemies

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      Healthy plants do not suffer greatly from pests. Some generalist herbivores such as slugs, snails, earwigs and caterpillars can damage rhizomes and young fronds. Aphids are common pests on uncurling fronds in potted plants. Grey mould caused by a fungus of the genus Botrytis may occur on plants in stagnant and wet conditions (Jones, 1987).

      Means of Movement and Dispersal

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      Long-distance dispersal is by spores carried by wind and water. Local spread may be achieved by rhizome fragmentation and pieces growing to new plants, and from spores carried by animals. Accidental introduction by man to new sites is likely by clothing and shoes carrying spores. Delta maidenhair fern is the most commonly grown member of the genus in the world. Naturalizations are the result of imported plants used as ornamentals. Distributing the fern by nurseries and private persons is an important pathway for intentional introduction and dispersal.

      Pathway Causes

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      CauseNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
      Botanical gardens and zoosdeliberate planting Yes Jones, 1987
      Cut flower tradedeliberate introduction Yes Jones, 1987
      Escape from confinement or garden escapespores are carried by wind, accidental Yes Palmer, 2003
      Horticulturedeliberate distribution Yes Jones, 1987

      Pathway Vectors

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      VectorNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
      Aircraftwhole plants Yes
      Clothing, footwear and possessions Yes Yes
      Floating vegetation and debris Yes
      Germplasm Yes
      Plants or parts of plants Yes
      Water Yes Yes
      Wind Yes Yes

      Impact Summary

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      CategoryImpact
      Economic/livelihood Positive
      Environment (generally) Negative

      Economic Impact

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      A. raddianum has been reported to be weedy in rice fields (Moody, 1989) and under tea bushes (Schaffer-Fehre, 2006).

      Environmental Impact

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      A. raddianum has become the most common fern of Adiantum in the Hawaiian Islands (Palmer, 2003). In Hawaii, the native Adiantum capillus-veneris has become uncommon and seems to have been replaced by A. raddianum in places where both species grow (Wilson, 1996). Two endangered plant species native to Hawaii (Pteris lidgatei and Dubautia plantaginea sub. humilis) are threatened by the spread of A. raddianum, besides habitat alterations and spread of other invasive species (Torres-Santana et al., 2007; Freifeld et al., 2009).

      Threatened Species

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      Threatened SpeciesConservation StatusWhere ThreatenedMechanismReferencesNotes
      Dubautia plantaginea subsp. humilisNational list(s)HawaiiCompetition - monopolizing resources; Competition - shading; Competition - smothering; Rapid growthFreifeld et al., 2009
      Schiedea apokremnos (Kauai schiedea)CR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered); USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiCompetitionUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2010
      Pteris lidgatei (Lidgate's brake)CR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered); USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiCompetition - monopolizing resourcesUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2009

      Risk and Impact Factors

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      Invasiveness
      • Proved invasive outside its native range
      • Has a broad native range
      • Abundant in its native range
      • Highly adaptable to different environments
      • Is a habitat generalist
      • Tolerant of shade
      • Benefits from human association (i.e. it is a human commensal)
      • Long lived
      • Fast growing
      • Has high reproductive potential
      • Gregarious
      • Reproduces asexually
      Impact outcomes
      • Ecosystem change/ habitat alteration
      • Modification of successional patterns
      • Monoculture formation
      • Reduced native biodiversity
      • Threat to/ loss of endangered species
      • Threat to/ loss of native species
      Impact mechanisms
      • Competition - monopolizing resources
      • Competition - shading
      • Competition - smothering
      • Competition (unspecified)
      • Rapid growth
      Likelihood of entry/control
      • Highly likely to be transported internationally deliberately

      Uses

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      A. raddianum is an important horticultural plant and sold in many nurseries. A high number of cultivars are available on the market.

      Uses List

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      General

      • Botanical garden/zoo

      Ornamental

      • Potted plant

      Similarities to Other Species/Conditions

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      Common maidenhair fern (Adiantum capillus-veneris) is of similar size, but the frond stalk is usually shorter than the lamina. The ultimate segments are up to 3 cm wide, deeply lobed and irregularly shaped. Spore cases are not roundish and not 'U'-shaped, but longer than they are wide and arranged at the edge of ultimate segments. Brittle maidenhair fern (A. tenerum) has larger fronds (30-100 cm long) and the ultimate segments of blades are variable in shape, mostly triangular to diamond shaped. Stalks of ultimate segments are enlarged and form saucer-like discs at attachments.

      Gaps in Knowledge/Research Needs

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      Studies on the ecological impacts of A. raddianum are badly needed, as well as studies on the establishment of this fern in natural habitats. Threats to endangered plant species and its overall invasive character are largely based on anecdotal and correlative observations. Particularly noteworthy is the broad elevational range of A. raddianum on the Hawaiian Islands, i.e. 0 to 4,400 m. Here, studies on physiological tolerances or adaptations would be fruitful, especially on the effects of light and low temperatures on growth performance. Another question relates to longevity of spores, as it is not known for how long spores remain viable in the soil.

      References

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      Chong KY, Tan HTW, Corlett RT, 2009. A checklist of the total vascular plant flora of Singapore: native, naturalised and cultivated species. Singapore: Raffles Museum of Biodiversity Research, National University of Singapore, 273 pp. http://lkcnhm.nus.edu.sg/nus/pdf/PUBLICATION/LKCNH%20Museum%20Books/LKCNHM%20Books/flora_of_singapore_tc.pdf

      eFloras, 2012. Bolivia checklist. http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=40

      Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2012. Flora of China Web. Cambridge, USA: Harvard University Herbaria. http://flora.huh.harvard.edu/china/

      Fosberg FR, Sachet MH, 1987. Flora of the Gilbert Island, Kiribati: checklist. Flora of the Gilbert Island, Kiribati, 295.

      Freifeld H, Bruegmann M, Zablan MA, Shultz G, 2009. 5-Year Review. Dubautia plantaginea ssp. humilis (Naenae). 5-Year Review. Dubautia plantaginea ssp. humilis., USA: US Fish and Wildlife Service. http://ecos.fws.gov/speciesProfile/profile/speciesProfile.action?spcode=S00W

      Germishuizen G, Meyer NL, 2003. Plants of southern Africa: an annotated checklist [ed. by Germishuizen, G.\Meyer, N. L.]. Pretoria, South Africa: National Botanical Institute, vi + 1231 pp.

      Hokche O, Berry PE, Huber O, 2008. New catalogue of the vascular plants of Venezuela (Nuevo Catalogo de la Flora Vascular de Venezuela). Caracas, Venezuela: Fundacion Instituto Botanico de Venezuela.

      Holm LG, Pancho JK, Herberger JP, Plunkett PL, 1991. A Geographical Atlas of World Weeds. Malabar, Florida: Krieger Publishing Co.

      Izquierdo Zamora I, Martín Esquivel JM, Zurita Perez N, Arechavaleta Hernàndez M, 2004. List of wild species of the Canaries: fungi, plants and land animals. (Lista de especies silvestres de Canarias: hongos, plantas y animales terrestres.) Gobierno de Canarias, Spain: Direccion General de Medio Natural, 500 pp.

      Jones DL, 1987. Encyclopaedia of ferns. Portland, Oregon, USA: Timber Press.

      Lellinger DB, 1989. The Ferns and Fern-allies of Costa Rica, Panama and the Choco. Part 1: Psilotaceae through Dicksoniaceae. The Ferns and Fern-allies of Costa Rica, Panama and the Choco, 2A:1-364.

      Luteyn JL, Churchill SP, Griffin D III, Gradstein SR, Sipman HJM, Gavilanes A MR, 1999. Páramos. A checklist of plant diversity, geographical distribution, and botanical literature. The Bronx, USA: New York Botanical Garden, xv + 278 pp.

      Missouri Botanical Garden, 2012. Tropicos database. Missouri, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden. http://www.tropicos.org/

      Moody K, 1989. Weeds reported in Rice in South and Southeast Asia. Manila, Philippines: International Rice Research Institute.

      Moran RC, Zimmer B, Jermy AC, 1995. Adiantum L. Adiantum L, 1:106-117.

      Palmer DD, 2003. Hawaii's Ferns and Fern Allies. Honolulu, Hawaii, USA: University of Hawai'i Press.

      PIER, 2012. Pacific Islands Ecosystems at Risk. Honolulu, USA: HEAR, University of Hawaii. http://www.hear.org/pier/index.html

      Prado J, 2012. Pteridaceae. List of species from the flora of Brazil. (Pteridaceae. Lista de Especies da Flora do Brasil.) Pteridaceae. List of species from the flora of Brazil. Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: Jardim Botanico do Rio de Janeiro. http://floradobrasil.jbrj.gov.br/2012/FB091850

      Press JR, Short MJ, 1994. Flora of Madeira. London, UK: HMSO Publications Centre, xvii + 574 pp.

      Roux JP, 2003. Swaziland Ferns and Fern Allies. Compton Herbarium, Cape Town, South Africa: South African National Biodiversity Institute. http://plants.jstor.org/flora/sffa002740354400006

      Schäfer H, 2002. Flora of the Azores. Weikersheim, Germany: Margraf Verlag.

      Shaffer-Fehre M, 2006. A revised handbook to the flora of Ceylon. Volume XV, Part A: Ferns and fern-allies [ed. by Shaffer-Fehre, M.]. Enfield, USA: Science Publishers, Inc., xxix + 310 pp.

      Sheil D, 1994. Naturalized and invasive plant species in the evergreen forests of the East Usambara Mountains, Tanzania. African Journal of Ecology, 32(1):66-71; 19 ref.

      Sheil D, 1994. Naturalized and invasive plants in the evergreen forests of the East Usambara Mountains, Tanzania. African Journal of Ecology, 32:66-71.

      SNTC, 2012. SNTC., Swaziland: Swaziland National Trust Commission. http://www.sntc.org.sz/biodiversity/biodiversity.asp

      Torres-Santana C, Bruegmann M, Zablan MA, 2007. Endangered and threatened wildlife and plants: initiation of 5-year reviews of 71 species in Oregon, Hawaii, Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, and territory of Guam. Initiation of 5-year reviews of 71 species in Oregon, Hawaii, Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, and territory of Guam. US Fish and Wildlife Service. http://ecos.fws.gov/speciesProfile/profile/speciesProfile.action?spcode=S00W

      Tutin TG (ed.), Heywood VH (ed.), Burges NA (ed.), Moore DM (ed.), Valentine DH (ed.), Walters SM (ed.), Webb DA, 1972. Flora Europaea. Vol. 3. Diapensiaceae to Myoporaceae. 1972, xxix + 370 + 5 pp. + 5 maps; cf. FA 30, 3600.

      US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2009. In: 5-Year Review, Short Form Summary: Species Reviewed: Pteris lidgatei (no common name). US Fish and Wildlife Service, 7 pp.

      US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2010. In: Schiedea apokremnos (maolioli). 5-Year Review: Summary and Evaluation. US Fish and Wildlife Service, 16 pp.

      USDA-ARS, 2012. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Online Database. Beltsville, Maryland, USA: National Germplasm Resources Laboratory. https://npgsweb.ars-grin.gov/gringlobal/taxon/taxonomysearch.aspx

      USDA-NRCS, 2012. The PLANTS Database. Baton Rouge, USA: National Plant Data Center. http://plants.usda.gov/

      Wilson KA, 1996. Alien ferns in Hawaii. Pacific Science, 50(2):127-141.

      Zuloaga FO, Morrone O, Belgrano MJ, 2008. Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares del Cono Sur (Argentina, Sur de Brasil, Chile, Paraguay y Uruguay). Volumen 1: Pteridophyta, Gymnospermae y Monocotyledoneae (Catalogue of the vascular plants of the southern cone (Argentina, southern Brazil, Chile, Paraguay and Uruguay). Volume 1: Pteridophyta, Gymnospermae and Monocotyledoneae) [ed. by Zuloaga FO, Morrone O, Belgrano MJ]. St. Louis, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden Press, 983 pp.

      Zuloaga FO, Morrone O, Belgrano MJ, 2008. Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares del Cono Sur (Argentina, Sur de Brasil, Chile, Paraguay y Uruguay). Volumen 2: Dicotyledoneae: Acanthaceae-Fabaceae (Abarema-Schizolobium) (Catalogue of the vascular plants of the southern cone (Argentina, southern Brazil, Chile, Paraguay and Uruguay). Volume 2: Dicotyledoneae: Acanthaceae-Fabaceae (Abarema-Schizolobium)) [ed. by Zuloaga, F. O.\Morrone, O.\Belgrano, M. J.]. St. Louis, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden Press, xx + 985-2286 pp.

      Zuloaga FO, Morrone O, Belgrano MJ, 2008. Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares del Cono Sur (Argentina, Sur de Brasil, Chile, Paraguay y Uruguay). Volumen 3: Dicotyledoneae: Fabaceae (Senna-Zygia)-Zygophyllaceae (Catalogue of the vascular plants of the southern cone (Argentina, southern Brazil, Chile, Paraguay and Uruguay). Volume 3: Dicotyledoneae: Fabaceae (Senna-Zygia)-Zygophyllaceae) [ed. by Zuloaga, F. O.\Morrone, O.\Belgrano, M. J.]. St. Louis, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden Press, xxi + 2287-3348 pp.

      Distribution References

      Anon, 2004. List of forest species of the Canaries: terrestrial fungi, plants and animals (Canary Islands). (Lista de especies silvestres de Canarias: hongos, plantas y animales terrestres. (L Canaries).). In: Lista de especies silvestres de Canarias: hongos, plantas y animales terrestres. (L Canaries), [ed. by Izquierdo Zamora I, Martín Esquivel J M, Zurita Perez N, Arechavaleta Hernàndez M]. Gobierno de Canarias, Spain: Direccion General de Medio Natural. unpaginated.

      CABI, Undated. Compendium record. Wallingford, UK: CABI

      CABI, Undated a. CABI Compendium: Status inferred from regional distribution. Wallingford, UK: CABI

      CABI, Undated b. CABI Compendium: Status as determined by CABI editor. Wallingford, UK: CABI

      Chong K Y, Tan H T W, Corlett R T, 2009. A checklist of the total vascular plant flora of Singapore: native, naturalised and cultivated species. Singapore: Raffles Museum of Biodiversity Research, National University of Singapore. 273 pp. https://lkcnhm.nus.edu.sg/app/uploads/2017/04/flora_of_singapore_tc.pdf

      Fosberg FR, Sachet MH, 1987. Flora of the Gilbert Island, Kiribati: checklist. In: Flora of the Gilbert Island, Kiribati: 295.

      Germishuizen G, Meyer N L, 2003. Plants of southern Africa: an annotated checklist. [ed. by Germishuizen G, Meyer N L]. Pretoria, South Africa: National Botanical Institute. vi + 1231 pp.

      Hokche O, Berry PE, Huber O, 2008. New catalogue of the vascular plants of Venezuela. (Nuevo Catalogo de la Flora Vascular de Venezuela)., Caracas, Venezuela: Fundacion Instituto Botanico de Venezuela.

      Holm LG, Pancho JK, Herberger JP, Plunkett PL, 1991. A Geographical Atlas of World Weeds., Malabar, Florida, Krieger Publishing Co.

      Lellinger DB, 1989. The Ferns and Fern-allies of Costa Rica, Panama and the Choco. Part 1: Psilotaceae through Dicksoniaceae. In: The Ferns and Fern-allies of Costa Rica, Panama and the Choco, 2A 1-364.

      Luteyn J L, Churchill S P, Griffin D III, Gradstein S R, Sipman H J M, Gavilanes A M R, 1999. Páramos. A checklist of plant diversity, geographical distribution, and botanical literature. The Bronx, USA: New York Botanical Garden. xv + 278 pp.

      Moran RC, Zimmer B, Jermy AC, 1995. Adiantum L., 1 106-117.

      Palmer DD, 2003. Hawaii's Ferns and Fern Allies., Honolulu, Hawaii, USA: University of Hawai'i Press.

      PIER, 2012. Pacific Islands Ecosystems at Risk., Honolulu, USA: HEAR, University of Hawaii. http://www.hear.org/pier/index.html

      Prado J, 2012. Pteridaceae. List of species from the flora of Brazil. (Pteridaceae. Lista de Especies da Flora do Brasil). In: Pteridaceae. List of species from the flora of Brazil, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: Jardim Botanico do Rio de Janeiro. http://floradobrasil.jbrj.gov.br/2012/FB091850

      Roux JP, 2003. (Swaziland Ferns and Fern Allies). In: Compton Herbarium, Cape Town, South Africa: South African National Biodiversity Institute. http://plants.jstor.org/flora/sffa002740354400006

      Schäfer H, 2002. Flora of the Azores., Weikersheim, Germany: Margraf Verlag.

      Shaffer-Fehre M, 2006. A revised handbook to the flora of Ceylon. Volume XV, Part A: Ferns and fern-allies. [ed. by Shaffer-Fehre M]. Enfield, USA: Science Publishers, Inc. xxix + 310 pp.

      SNTC, 2012. SNTC., Swaziland: Swaziland National Trust Commission. http://www.sntc.org.sz/biodiversity/biodiversity.asp

      UK, Natural History Museum, 1994. Flora of Madeira. [ed. by Press J R, Short M J]. London, UK: HMSO Publications Centre. xvii + 574 pp.

      USDA-ARS, 2012. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Online Database. Beltsville, Maryland, USA: National Germplasm Resources Laboratory. https://npgsweb.ars-grin.gov/gringlobal/taxon/taxonomysimple.aspx

      Wilson K A, 1996. Alien ferns in Hawai'i. Pacific Science. 50 (2), 127-141.

      Links to Websites

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      WebsiteURLComment
      GISD/IASPMR: Invasive Alien Species Pathway Management Resource and DAISIE European Invasive Alien Species Gatewayhttps://doi.org/10.5061/dryad.m93f6Data source for updated system data added to species habitat list.
      Global register of Introduced and Invasive species (GRIIS)http://griis.org/Data source for updated system data added to species habitat list.

      Contributors

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      20/09/12 Original text by:

      E Weber, Consultant, Switzerland

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