Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Lonicera maackii
(Amur honeysuckle)

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Datasheet

Lonicera maackii (Amur honeysuckle)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 08 February 2019
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Lonicera maackii
  • Preferred Common Name
  • Amur honeysuckle
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Plantae
  •     Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •       Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •         Class: Dicotyledonae
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • L. maackii is a species of honeysuckle native to East Asia and primarily invasive in central and eastern USA and in Ontario, Canada. It grows as a tall, deciduous shrub in dense stands along woods edges, in dis...

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Lonicera maackii (Amur honeysuckle); shrubs in an abandoned field. Maryland, USA. May 2005
TitleHabit
CaptionLonicera maackii (Amur honeysuckle); shrubs in an abandoned field. Maryland, USA. May 2005
Copyright©Sylvan Kaufman
Lonicera maackii (Amur honeysuckle); shrubs in an abandoned field. Maryland, USA. May 2005
HabitLonicera maackii (Amur honeysuckle); shrubs in an abandoned field. Maryland, USA. May 2005©Sylvan Kaufman
Lonicera maackii (Amur honeysuckle); fruits.
TitleFruits
CaptionLonicera maackii (Amur honeysuckle); fruits.
Copyright©Sylvan Kaufman
Lonicera maackii (Amur honeysuckle); fruits.
FruitsLonicera maackii (Amur honeysuckle); fruits.©Sylvan Kaufman
Lonicera maackii (Amur honeysuckle); habit, showing leaves and fruits. Beijing Botanical Garden. Beijing, China. October 2013
TitleHabit
CaptionLonicera maackii (Amur honeysuckle); habit, showing leaves and fruits. Beijing Botanical Garden. Beijing, China. October 2013
Copyright©A.R. Pittaway-2013
Lonicera maackii (Amur honeysuckle); habit, showing leaves and fruits. Beijing Botanical Garden. Beijing, China. October 2013
HabitLonicera maackii (Amur honeysuckle); habit, showing leaves and fruits. Beijing Botanical Garden. Beijing, China. October 2013©A.R. Pittaway-2013
Lonicera maackii (Amur honeysuckle); habit, showing fruits and foliage.Beijing Botanical Garden. Beijing, China. October 2013
TitleFruits
CaptionLonicera maackii (Amur honeysuckle); habit, showing fruits and foliage.Beijing Botanical Garden. Beijing, China. October 2013
Copyright©A.R. Pittaway-2013
Lonicera maackii (Amur honeysuckle); habit, showing fruits and foliage.Beijing Botanical Garden. Beijing, China. October 2013
FruitsLonicera maackii (Amur honeysuckle); habit, showing fruits and foliage.Beijing Botanical Garden. Beijing, China. October 2013©A.R. Pittaway-2013

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Lonicera maackii (Rupr.) Maxim.

Preferred Common Name

  • Amur honeysuckle

Other Scientific Names

  • Lonicera maackii var. podocarpa Franch. ex Rehder
  • Xylosteum maackii Ruprecht

International Common Names

  • English: Amur honeysuckle bush; late honeysuckle
  • French: Chevrefeuille de Maack; clematite de Maacke
  • Chinese: jin yin ren dong

Local Common Names

  • Germany: Heckenkirsche, Maacks; Maacks Heckenkirsche
  • Japan: hana-hy{o~]tanboko
  • Sweden: koreatry

EPPO code

  • LONMA (Lonicera maackii)

Summary of Invasiveness

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L. maackii is a species of honeysuckle native to East Asia and primarily invasive in central and eastern USA and in Ontario, Canada. It grows as a tall, deciduous shrub in dense stands along woods edges, in disturbed forests and along riparian corridors, outcompeting native species for resources. Few insects feed on the plant, but birds and mammals spread the fruits. It may have allelopathic affects on neighboring plant species. L. maackii was heavily promoted and planted from the 1960s to the 1980s in the USA, but its popularity has since declined. It is still available for sale at some nurseries and online. It is listed as a Class B Noxious Weed in Vermont and sale and planting are prohibited in Connecticut and Massachusetts, USA. L. maackii is critically endangered in parts of its native range in Japan.

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Plantae
  •         Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •             Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •                 Class: Dicotyledonae
  •                     Order: Dipsacales
  •                         Family: Caprifoliaceae
  •                             Genus: Lonicera
  •                                 Species: Lonicera maackii

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

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The genus Lonicera L. (syn. Caprifolium Mill., Metalonicera M. Wang & A. G. Gu, Xylosteum Mill., family Caprifoliaceae) includes some 200 species of erect shrubs and twining climbers native to North America (south to Mexico) and Eurasia (south to North Africa, the Himalaya, Java, and the Philippines). The genus has been divided into three sections: Xylosteum (Mill.) DC includes species that are upright shrubs, while Nintooa (Spach) Maxim. and Lonicera are climbing shrubs.

The species was first named Xylosteum maackii by Ruprecht in 1857, but was renamed Lonicera maackii by Maximowicz in 1859 (Flora of Japan, 2013). Specimens collected along the Amur River in Manchuria, northeast China, by plant explorer Richard Maack provided the first specimens described by taxonomist F. von Herder in 1864 (Luken and Thieret, 1996).

Two varieties or forms are sometimes listed: L. maackii var. erubescens Rehder and L. maackkii f. podocarpus Franch. ex Rehder (ITIS, 2013). L. quinquelocularis Hardwicke may be the same as L. maackii except for having translucent fruits with dark seeds (eFloras, 2013).

Description

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L. maackii grows to be a tall shrub, up to 6 m high. The leaves are opposite, lightly hairy, and have long, acuminate tips. The leaves range in length from 5-8 cm and are dark green above, paler beneath. Pairs of fragrant, tubular, white to pinkish flowers, fading to yellow bloom from the leaf axils in mid to late spring. Bright red fruits 5-6 mm in diameter mature from late summer into autumn (Zheng et al., 2006). The bark is a light grayish brown on mature stems.

Plant Type

Top of page Broadleaved
Perennial
Seed propagated
Shrub
Woody

Distribution

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In its native range, L. maackii is found in eastern China, Japan, Korea, Mongolia and far eastern Russia (eFloras, 2013; USDA-ARS, 2014). Flora of Japan (2013) described L. maackii as rare, occurring along the edges of montane deciduous forests and sometimes on calcareous rocks in northern and central Honshu, Japan. L. maackii var. erubescens occurs on hillside slopes in Anhui, Gansu, Jiangsu and Henan provinces in China (Zheng et al., 2006).

L. maackii has been introduced to North America, Germany and the UK. In North America it occurs from Ontario, Canada south to Georgia, USA and west to North Dakota and Texas (USDA-NRCS, 2013).

Although sometimes listed as a naturalized species in New Zealand, there is no record of L. maackii in the Flora of New Zealand (Webb et al., 1988).

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasivePlantedReferenceNotes

Asia

ChinaPresent1860Native Not invasive Natural GBIF, 2013Manchuria
-AnhuiPresentNative Not invasive eFloras, 2013
-GansuPresentNative Not invasive eFloras, 2013
-GuizhouPresentNative Not invasive eFloras, 2013
-HebeiPresentNative Not invasive eFloras, 2013
-HeilongjiangPresentNative Not invasive eFloras, 2013
-HenanPresentNative Not invasive eFloras, 2013
-HubeiPresentNative Not invasive eFloras, 2013
-HunanPresentNative Not invasive eFloras, 2013; GBIF, 2013
-JiangsuPresentNative Not invasive eFloras, 2013; GBIF, 2013
-JilinPresentNative Not invasive eFloras, 2013; GBIF, 2013
-LiaoningPresentNative Not invasive eFloras, 2013; GBIF, 2013
-ShaanxiPresentNative Not invasive eFloras, 2013
-ShandongPresentNative Not invasive eFloras, 2013
-ShanxiPresent1924Native Not invasive GBIF, 2013
-SichuanPresentNative Not invasive eFloras, 2013
-TibetPresentNative Not invasive eFloras, 2013
-YunnanPresentNative Not invasive eFloras, 2013
-ZhejiangPresentNative Not invasive eFloras, 2013
JapanPresentNative Not invasive Natural eFloras, 2013
-HonshuLocalisedNative Not invasive Flora of Japan, 2013
Korea, DPRPresentNative Not invasive GBIF, 2013
Korea, Republic ofPresentNative Not invasive Natural GBIF, 2013
MongoliaPresentNative Not invasive Natural Flora of Japan, 2013Inner Mongolia

North America

CanadaPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-OntarioPresentIntroducedPringle, 1973; USDA-NRCS, 2013
USAPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-AlabamaPresentIntroduced2002GBIF, 2013; GBIF, 2013Birmingham
-ArkansasPresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS, 2013
-CaliforniaPresentIntroducedGBIF, 2013Butte Co.
-ConnecticutPresent, few occurrences2008Introduced Invasive GBIF, 2013; GBIF, 2013
-DelawareLocalisedIntroduced Invasive Smith, 2013
-District of ColumbiaPresent, few occurrences1987Introduced Invasive GBIF, 2013Rock Creek Park
-GeorgiaLocalisedIntroducedUSDA-NRCS, 2013
-IllinoisPresent1993IntroducedGBIF, 2013; GBIF, 2013
-IndianaPresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS, 2013
-IowaPresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS, 2013
-KansasPresent, few occurrencesIntroducedGBIF, 2013
-KentuckyWidespreadIntroduced Invasive EDDMapS, 2013; USDA-NRCS, 2013
-LouisianaPresent, few occurrencesIntroducedGBIF, 2013
-MaineLocalisedIntroduced Invasive EDDMapS, 2013
-MarylandPresent1954IntroducedGBIF, 2013; GBIF, 2013Montgomery Co., Prince Georges Co.
-MassachusettsWidespreadIntroduced Invasive USDA-NRCS, 2013
-MichiganWidespreadIntroduced Invasive USDA-NRCS, 2013
-MississippiLocalisedIntroducedUSDA-NRCS, 2013
-MissouriLocalised1986Introduced Invasive GBIF, 2013
-NebraskaPresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS, 2013
-New HampshirePresent only in captivity/cultivation1942IntroducedEDDMapS, 2013
-New JerseyLocalisedIntroduced Invasive USDA-NRCS, 2013
-New YorkPresent, few occurrences1996Introduced Invasive GBIF, 2013Bronx
-North CarolinaPresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS, 2013
-OhioPresent, few occurrences1993Introduced Invasive GBIF, 2013; GBIF, 2013Butler Co.
-OklahomaPresent, few occurrences2009IntroducedGBIF, 2013Payne Co.
-OregonPresent2004IntroducedGBIF, 2013Eugene
-PennsylvaniaPresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS, 2013
-South CarolinaPresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS, 2013
-TennesseeLocalisedIntroduced Invasive EDDMapS, 2013; USDA-NRCS, 2013
-TexasLocalisedIntroduced Invasive Texas Invasives, 2013Forth Worth
-VermontLocalisedIntroduced Invasive Vermont Department of Agriculture, 2013
-VirginiaPresent1959IntroducedGBIF, 2013
-WashingtonPresent2007IntroducedGBIF, 2013Seattle
-West VirginiaWidespreadIntroduced Invasive EDDMapS, 2013
-WisconsinLocalisedIntroduced Invasive Fewless, 2013Southern WI

Europe

GermanyPresent only in captivity/cultivationIntroduced Not invasive Luken and Thieret, 1997
Russian FederationPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-Russian Far EastPresent1993Native Not invasive GBIF, 2013Primorye region
-SiberiaPresent Natural
UKPresent only in captivity/cultivationIntroduced Not invasive Luken and Thieret, 1997; Royal Botanic Gardens Kew, 2013

History of Introduction and Spread

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L. maackii had been cultivated in Chinese gardens before it was collected by western explorers. Outside of China it was first cultivated in Russia at the St. Petersburg Botanical Garden in 1883. Seeds from Russia were probably then distributed to gardens in Europe where it was being grown in England and Germany by the late 1800s (Luken and Thieret, 1996).

It was first grown in North America in 1896 at the Dominion Arboretum in Ottowa, Canada, from seeds sent from Germany. The New York Botanical Garden, USA, planted L. maackii in 1898 as part of a USDA (United States Department of Agriculture) experiment. The USDA received additional shipments of L. maackii seeds from Britain and Manchuria, China, in the early 1900s (Luken and Thieret, 1996).

By the early 1900s L. maackii had received awards of merit from the British Royal Horticultural Society and plants were widely sold in European and North American nurseries (Luken and Thieret, 1996). The USDA Soil Conservation Service promoted several cultivars of L. maackii from the 1960s to the 1980s for use in soil stabilization, reclamation and wildlife habitat improvement projects across the USA (Luken and Thieret, 1996).

The first record of naturalized L. maackii in the USA came from the Morton Arboretum, outside of Chicago, Illinois, in the 1920s. Most reports of naturalized populations began in the 1950s through to the 1970s (Luken and Thieret, 1996).

Introductions

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Introduced toIntroduced fromYearReasonIntroduced byEstablished in wild throughReferencesNotes
Natural reproductionContinuous restocking
Canada Germany 1896 Horticulture (pathway cause) Yes No Luken and Thieret (1997)
Russian Federation China 1883 Horticulture (pathway cause) No No Luken and Thieret (1997) Grown in St Petersburg
USA Russian Federation 1898 Horticulture (pathway cause) Yes No Luken and Thieret (1997)

Risk of Introduction

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Where L. maackii is already established there is a high probability of it spreading locally. It is not as widely sold or promoted in the USA as it once was, but is still readily available at some nurseries and through online sales worldwide. In the USA L. maackii sale and transportation is prohibited in Massachusetts, Connecticut and Vermont (USDA-NRCS, 2013).

Habitat

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In its native range in China L. maackii grows in open forests and scrub areas (eFloras, 2013) from 1800 m to 3000 m above sea level (Zheng et al., 2006). In Japan, L. maackii is described as rare, occurring along the edges of montane deciduous forests and sometimes on calcareous rocks in northern and central Honshu (Flora of Japan, 2013). L. maackii is listed as critically endangered on Japan's Red List (Japanese Society for Plant Systematics, 2012).

In North America, L. maackii is found in deciduous forests, along riparian corridors, in abandoned fields and on disturbed lands (Swearingen et al., 2010).

Habitat List

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CategorySub-CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Terrestrial
Terrestrial – ManagedCultivated / agricultural land Principal habitat Productive/non-natural
Disturbed areas Principal habitat Harmful (pest or invasive)
Disturbed areas Principal habitat Natural
Urban / peri-urban areas Principal habitat Productive/non-natural
Terrestrial ‑ Natural / Semi-naturalNatural forests Principal habitat Harmful (pest or invasive)
Natural forests Principal habitat Natural
Riverbanks Principal habitat Harmful (pest or invasive)
Riverbanks Principal habitat Natural
Wetlands Secondary/tolerated habitat Harmful (pest or invasive)
Wetlands Secondary/tolerated habitat Natural
Rocky areas / lava flows Secondary/tolerated habitat Natural
Scrub / shrublands Principal habitat Harmful (pest or invasive)
Scrub / shrublands Principal habitat Natural

Hosts/Species Affected

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Under experimental conditions, extract of L. maackii showed allelopathic affects against seeds in the Brassicaceae family, but no crop species were tested (Cippolini et al., 2012).

Biology and Ecology

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Genetics

L. maackii is diploid (Janaki and Saunders, 1952) with a chromosome count of 2n=18 (Missouri Botanical Garden, 2014). Plants are self-incompatible (Deering and Vankat, 1999).

Reproductive biology

Shrubs begin to reproduce at 3 to 8 years old (Deering and Vankat, 1999). Plants are self-incompatible (Deering and Vankat, 1999). Flowers are pollinated by honey bees and small native bees in the USA (Goodell et al., 2010). Seeds have underdeveloped embryos, but can mature rapidly. Some seeds require a brief period of warm or cold stratification to overcome dormancy (Hidayati et al., 2000). Seeds germinate best in warm, humid, light conditions and are inhibited by dark (Luken and Goessling, 1995). Seeds do not survive long in the seed bank, but large quantities of seeds are produced by plants (Luken and Goessling, 1995).

Physiology and phenology

In North America, L. maackii produces leaves very early in spring, before most native species, and retains its leaves longer than most in autumn (McEwan et al., 2009). Although it will grow in full shade, L. maackii prefers woodland edges and open areas. Plants have higher photosynthetic efficiency under higher light levels (Luken et al., 1995). Shrubs grown in shade that are then exposed to high light are able to produce new leaves which are better adapted to photosynthesizing under high light (Luken et al., 1995).

L. maackii has greater freezing tolerance in spring than Lindera benzoin (wild allspice) or Asimina triloba (pawpaw) (McEwan et al., 2009).

Leaves contain phenolic compounds including apigenin and chlorogenic acid (Cipollini et al., 2008).

Longevity

Shrubs are relatively long-lived with a documented age of at least 17 years (Deering and Vankat, 1999).

Population size and structure

In a study in Ohio, USA, populations began to increase rapidly about 10 years after initial establishment. The population growth rate had not declined after another 19 years (Deering and Vankat, 1999). After 5 years of growth, growth allocation changes from producing more stems to producing greater basal area. Seedling density in one field study in northern Kentucky, USA, was found to be as high as 328 seedlings/m2 (Luken and Goessling, 1995).

Associations

L. maackii tends to grow in early to mid-successional communities (Swearingen et al., 2010). Flowers are pollinated by insects and fruits are dispersed by birds (Bartuszevige and Gorchov, 2006; McKinney and Goodell, 2011).

Environmental requirements

L. maackii will grow in alkaline to slightly acidic soils. It does particularly well on calcareous soils. It prefers well-drained soils, but grows along lakes and rivers and can tolerate occasional flooding. It is drought tolerant (Swearingen et al., 2010).

L. maackii is tolerant of freezing to at least -30°C and it grows in hardiness zones 3-8 (Herman et. al., 2013). It prefers temperate climates with year-round moisture (Swearingen et al., 2010).

Climate

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ClimateStatusDescriptionRemark
BS - Steppe climate Tolerated > 430mm and < 860mm annual precipitation
Cf - Warm temperate climate, wet all year Preferred Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, wet all year
Df - Continental climate, wet all year Preferred Continental climate, wet all year (Warm average temp. > 10°C, coldest month < 0°C, wet all year)
Dw - Continental climate with dry winter Preferred Continental climate with dry winter (Warm average temp. > 10°C, coldest month < 0°C, dry winters)

Latitude/Altitude Ranges

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Latitude North (°N)Latitude South (°S)Altitude Lower (m)Altitude Upper (m)
60 30

Air Temperature

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Parameter Lower limit Upper limit
Absolute minimum temperature (ºC) 0.33
Mean annual temperature (ºC) 7.6 19
Mean maximum temperature of hottest month (ºC) 21 36
Mean minimum temperature of coldest month (ºC) -6 0

Rainfall

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ParameterLower limitUpper limitDescription
Dry season duration02number of consecutive months with <40 mm rainfall
Mean annual rainfall7001000mm; lower/upper limits

Rainfall Regime

Top of page Bimodal
Uniform

Soil Tolerances

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Soil drainage

  • free
  • impeded
  • seasonally waterlogged

Soil reaction

  • acid
  • alkaline
  • neutral

Soil texture

  • heavy
  • light
  • medium

Special soil tolerances

  • shallow

Natural enemies

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Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Hyphantria cunea Herbivore not specific
Puccinia festucae Pathogen to genus

Notes on Natural Enemies

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Several fungi and arthropod species attack L. maackii in its native China (Zheng et al., 2006), but very few insects feed on L. maackii in the USA (Lieurance and Cippolini, 2012).

Means of Movement and Dispersal

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Vector transmission (biotic)

Birds including the American robin (Turdus migratorius), hermit thrush (Catharus guttatus) and European starling (Sturnus vulgaris) consume and disperse seeds (Bartuszevige and Gorchov, 2006). White tail deer (Odocoileus virginianus) also disperse seeds in eastern USA (Castellano and Gorchov, 2013).

Intentional introduction

Plants are sold in nurseries and seeds are sold worldwide (Luken and Thieret, 1996).

Pathway Causes

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CauseNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Botanical gardens and zoosIntroduction to Dominion Arboretum in Ottawa, Canada from Germany and to New York Botanical Garden i Yes Luken and Thieret, 1997
Escape from confinement or garden escapeSeeds spread by birds and mammals Yes Swearingen et al., 2010
Habitat restoration and improvementPromoted by US Soil Conservation Service 1960s-1980s Yes Luken and Thieret, 1997
Hedges and windbreaksSeeds spread by birds and mammals Yes Swearingen et al., 2010
HorticultureCommonly sold 1900s-1980s in US, Europe Yes Luken and Thieret, 1997
Internet salesAvailable for sale on numerous sites Yes
Landscape improvement Yes Yes Swearingen et al., 2010
Nursery trade Yes Yes Swearingen et al., 2010
Ornamental purposesEbay, Amazon, Sheffields.com Yes Yes

Impact Summary

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CategoryImpact
Cultural/amenity Positive and negative
Environment (generally) Positive and negative

Environmental Impact

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Impact on habitats

L. maackii shrubs produce leaves early in the year and shade the forest floor. Its dense growth competes with woody and herbaceous plants (Swearingen et al., 2010).

Transpiration by L. maackii in wetland sites could reduce water in ephemeral ponds and streams, adversely affecting amphibians and other organisms that depend on ephemeral wetlands (Boyce et al., 2011).

Impact on biodiversity

Studies in southern Ohio, USA, have shown that plant species richness is greatly reduced under a canopy of L. maackii, and that L. maackii reduced survival and fecundity of three annual herbaceous plants (Gould and Gorchov, 2000; Collier et al., 2002). Growth and reproduction of three perennial herbs was also reduced (Miller and Gorchov, 2004).

L. maackii appeared to facilitate pollination of an understory forest herb by flowering at the same time and attracting more pollinators. However, at a site where the two species flowered at different times, the increased shade from L. maackii reduced pollinator visits (McKinney and Goodell, 2011).

Tree seedling mortality increased when L. maackii invaded forest, despite some protection that L. maackii provided against deer browsing (Gorchov and Trisel, 2003). Radial and basal growth of existing trees declined in forests invaded by L. maackii (Hartman and McCarthy, 2007). L. maackii was shown to indirectly affect trees by increasing seed predation of tree seeds by white-footed mice (Peromyscus leucopus) compared to plots where L. maackii had been removed (Meiners, 2007).

American robins (Turdus migratorius) were found to have higher nest predation when they nested in L. maackii shrubs versus native shrubs because of a difference in shrub architecture (Schmidt and Whelan, 1999). L. maackii was found to have little effect on arthropod communities in leaf litter (Christopher and Cameron, 2012).

Extracts of phenolic compounds in the leaves of L. maackii affect the growth of other plants, the feeding behavior of insects and the survival and behavior of amphibians in several experiments (Cipollini et. al., 2008; Watling et. al., 2011).

No studies on  the impact of L. maackii on threatened or endangered species were found.

Risk and Impact Factors

Top of page Invasiveness
  • Proved invasive outside its native range
  • Has a broad native range
  • Highly adaptable to different environments
  • Is a habitat generalist
  • Tolerates, or benefits from, cultivation, browsing pressure, mutilation, fire etc
  • Pioneering in disturbed areas
  • Tolerant of shade
  • Highly mobile locally
  • Benefits from human association (i.e. it is a human commensal)
  • Has high reproductive potential
Impact outcomes
  • Ecosystem change/ habitat alteration
  • Modification of successional patterns
  • Monoculture formation
  • Reduced native biodiversity
  • Threat to/ loss of native species
Impact mechanisms
  • Allelopathic
  • Competition - monopolizing resources
  • Competition - shading
  • Poisoning
  • Rapid growth
Likelihood of entry/control
  • Highly likely to be transported internationally deliberately
  • Difficult/costly to control

Uses

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Economic value

Essential oils are extracted from the flowers in China and artificial cotton is made from the stems (Zheng et al., 2006). In the USA and Europe, the plant is sold as an ornamental species (Swearingen et al., 2010). The USDA Soil Conservation Service promoted several cultivars of L. maackii from the 1960s to the 1980s for use in soil stabilization, reclamation and wildlife habitat improvement projects across the USA (Luken and Thieret, 1996).

Environmental services

L. maackii provides a food source for some birds and mammals (Luken and Thieret, 1996).

Uses List

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Environmental

  • Amenity
  • Boundary, barrier or support
  • Erosion control or dune stabilization
  • Landscape improvement
  • Soil conservation
  • Wildlife habitat

General

  • Botanical garden/zoo

Materials

  • Essential oils
  • Fibre

Ornamental

  • Propagation material
  • Seed trade

Wood Products

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Textiles

Similarities to Other Species/Conditions

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L. maackii looks very similar to several other introduced shrub honeysuckles, particularly L. morrowii and L. tartarica (Kaufman and Kaufman, 2013). L. maackii can be distinguished from most native shrub honeysuckles by its bright red fruits and hairy styles of the flowers. It produces leaves earlier in the year and retains its leaves longer than native North American honeysuckles (Batcher and Stiles, 2000).

L. quinquelocularis Hardwicke is similar to L. maackii except for having translucent fruits with dark seeds (eFloras, 2013).

Prevention and Control

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Containment/zoning

Hutchinson and Vankat (1998) found that large agricultural fields provided a barrier to the spread of L. maackii on a landscape scale.

Physical/mechanical control

Repeated clipping can be used to control mature L. maackii in forest settings, but plants should be clipped more than once a year or increased fruiting may occur (Luken and Mattimiro, 1991). In an open area, cutting shrubs in spring resulted in the best recovery of native vegetation (Love and Anderson, 2009). Young plants can be removed by hand pulling, hoeing or digging. It is important to remove or kill the crown of the plant (McCullough, 2009).

Fire has been considered for control of L. maackii, but plants can resprout after fire from buds on the crown below the soil surface. Seedlings can be killed by fire (Munger, 2005). Annual prescribed burnings will top-kill plants and inhibit resprouting (Batcher, 2000).

Movement control

The US states of Vermont, Massachusetts and Connecticut have regulations on movement of L. maackii within their borders.

Biological control

No known biological controls exist (Batcher, 2000). A study of fungi and arthropods on in China identified several species that live or feed on L. maackii (Zheng et al., 2006). Few North American insects feed on L. maackii enough to impact its growth (Lieurance and Cippolini, 2012; 2013).

Chemical control

Stems can be cut and herbicide applied to the cut stem, or plants can be sprayed with a foliar spray of herbicide (Love and Anderson, 2009). Stem cutting in spring followed by spraying the regrowth with herbicide resulted in good control (Shulz et al., 2009). Cutting stems and painting the cut stems with herbicide in a residential Illinois neighbourhood, USA, resulted in increased native species diversity (Owen et al., 2005).

Monitoring and surveillance (incl. remote sensing)

Landsat and Enhanced Thematic Mapper (ETM+) imaging have been used in late autumn to determine areas with high and low cover of L. maackii (Resasco et al., 2007).

Ecosystem restoration

Cutting or spraying plants in spring provided the best recovery of native vegetation in an open area (Love and Anderson, 2009). Native tree species perform better after the removal of L. maackii, but success depends on microclimates and the particular tree species (Hartman and McCarthy, 2004). Creating gaps by removing L. maackii shrubs can increase native generalist species establishment, but can also increase establishment of some other invasive species (Luken et al., 1997).

Gaps in Knowledge/Research Needs

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No studies were found on the impact of L. maackii on threatened or endangered species. Little information is available on possible biological control agents for L. maackii. It is unclear why L. maackii has established so successfully in North America but not in Europe, where it has also been planted as an ornamental.

References

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Bartuszevige AM, Gorchov DL, 2006. Avian seed dispersal of an invasive shrub. Biological Invasions, 8(5):1013-1022. http://www.springerlink.com/content/779374p5w59850ln/?p=c7eccd56f86e4678b947e73fe12ed688&pi=3

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Links to Websites

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WebsiteURLComment
Centre for Invasive Species and Ecosystem Healthhttp://www.invasive.org/browse/subinfo.cfm?sub=3040
Encyclopedia of Lifehttp://eol.org/
GISD/IASPMR: Invasive Alien Species Pathway Management Resource and DAISIE European Invasive Alien Species Gatewayhttps://doi.org/10.5061/dryad.m93f6Data source for updated system data added to species habitat list.
Global Invasive Species Databasehttp://www.issg.org/database/welcome
NatureServehttp://www.natureserve.org/

Contributors

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25/06/13 Original text by:

Sylvan Kaufman, consultant, USA

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