Invasive Species Compendium

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Limnocharis flava
(yellow bur-head)

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Datasheet

Limnocharis flava (yellow bur-head)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 22 November 2019
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Pest
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Limnocharis flava
  • Preferred Common Name
  • yellow bur-head
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Plantae
  •     Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •       Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •         Class: Monocotyledonae
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • L. flava, commonly known as yellow bur head, is a perennial broad-leaved weed which behaves as an annual in certain habitats. It spreads throughout South-East Asia especially in rice crops, and also in South America and the USA. It prefer...

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Close-up of L. flava flower.
TitleFlower
CaptionClose-up of L. flava flower.
CopyrightAzmi B. Man
Close-up of L. flava flower.
FlowerClose-up of L. flava flower.Azmi B. Man
Flowers and fruits of L. flava.
TitleFlowers
CaptionFlowers and fruits of L. flava.
CopyrightAzmi B. Man
Flowers and fruits of L. flava.
FlowersFlowers and fruits of L. flava.Azmi B. Man
L. flava, habit.
TitleHabit
CaptionL. flava, habit.
CopyrightAzmi B. Man
L. flava, habit.
HabitL. flava, habit.Azmi B. Man
a. stamens; b. staminode; c. compound ovary; d. compound fruit of many follicles (fruitlets); e. follicle; f. seed.
TitleLine artwork
Captiona. stamens; b. staminode; c. compound ovary; d. compound fruit of many follicles (fruitlets); e. follicle; f. seed.
CopyrightSEAMEO-BIOTROP
a. stamens; b. staminode; c. compound ovary; d. compound fruit of many follicles (fruitlets); e. follicle; f. seed.
Line artworka. stamens; b. staminode; c. compound ovary; d. compound fruit of many follicles (fruitlets); e. follicle; f. seed.SEAMEO-BIOTROP

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Limnocharis flava (L.) Buchenau

Preferred Common Name

  • yellow bur-head

Other Scientific Names

  • Alisma flava L.
  • Damasonium flavum (L.) Mill. Gard.
  • Limnocharis emarginata Humb. et Bonpl.
  • Limnocharis laforesti Duchas. Ex Griseb
  • Limnocharis mattogrossensis O. Ktze.
  • Limnocharis plumieri Rich., Mem.

International Common Names

  • English: hermit's waterlily; sawah lettuce; velvet leaf; yellow sawah lettuce; yellow velvetleaf
  • Spanish: cebolla de chucho
  • French: buchon

Local Common Names

  • Bangladesh: kalmi; kengkong
  • Brazil: barata
  • Cambodia: Trakiet
  • India: Manja payal
  • Indonesia: bangeng; eceng; Enceng, Berek, Gunda; genjer
  • Japan: Kibana omodaka
  • Laos: kaanz choong
  • Malaysia: jinjir; Paka Rawan; paku rawan
  • Malaysia/Sarawak: emparuk
  • Thailand: Bon cheen, Taalapat ruesee; bonchin; nangkwak; talapatrusi
  • Vietnam: k[ef]o n[ef]o; n[ee] th[ar]o

EPPO code

  • LMNFL (Limnocharis flava)

Summary of Invasiveness

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L. flava, commonly known as yellow bur head, is a perennial broad-leaved weed which behaves as an annual in certain habitats. It spreads throughout South-East Asia especially in rice crops, and also in South America and the USA. It prefers wet conditions such as lowland rice fields, shallow canals and ditches and reproduces both by seed and vegetatively. Heavy infestations of L. flava indicate a fertile soil. The effectiveness of drainage ditches and irrigation channels can be reduced through siltation caused by blockages of L. flava leaves and roots. Young leaves, petioles and flower stalks can be eaten as vegetables. Whole plants are used as fodder for pigs, cattle or fish and plant residues can be also be used for feed and as green manure. L. flava can be controlled by chemical such as 2,4-D herbicides and sulfonyl urea products such as bensulfuron and bensulfuron/metsulfuron. Bentazon/MCPA can be used to control multiple resistant biotype of L. flava.

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Plantae
  •         Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •             Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •                 Class: Monocotyledonae
  •                     Order: Hydrocharitales
  •                         Family: Limnocharitaceae
  •                             Genus: Limnocharis
  •                                 Species: Limnocharis flava

Description

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L. flava is a perennial, robust, erect, lactiferous, marsh herb, 20-100 cm tall, rooting in mud and strongly tillering. Leaves basal, rosulate, glabrous, long-petioled, orbicular or ovate, 5-30 x 4-25 cm, entire, yellowish-green, curvinerved, transversely latticed-veined, underneath at apex with a purple-rimmed water pore, folded lengthwise in bud; with numerous air chambers, 5-75 cm long. Inflorescence axillary, long-peduncled, umbelliform, glabrous, 5-15-flowered, erect, recurved after fruiting until it reaches the water or mud; peduncles 10-90 cm long. Flowers rather large, in the axils of membranous bracts; pedicels 3-7 cm long; sepal 3, enlarged and clasping the fruit after anthesis, yellow-green, ovate-elliptic, 7-25 x 5-15 mm; petals 3, pale yellow, obovate, very thin, 1.5-3 x 0.7 x 2 cm, becoming a slimy mass after anthesis; apex rounded, base darker coloured. Stamens more than 15, surrounded by a whorl of staminodes. Ovaries numerous in one whorl, superior, laterally much compressed, simulating a single, deeply incised ovary; stigmas narrowly linear, sessile. Compound fruit 1.5-2 cm in diameter, enclosed by the sepals. Seeds numerous, minute, horseshoe-shaped, dark brown, 1-15 mm long, testa spongy with thin tranverse ridges.

Plant Type

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Aquatic
Broadleaved
Herbaceous
Perennial
Seed propagated
Vegetatively propagated

Distribution

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L. flava is spread throughout South-East Asia (Malaysia, Indonesia, Thailand, South Myanmar, Sri Lanka, India and Vietnam), especially in rice-growing areas, and in South America and the USA. It has recently been reported in northern Queensland, Australia, where it is the target of an eradication campaign (Waterhouse et al., 2003).

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 17 Feb 2021
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

GhanaPresentIntroducedInvasiveIn Kumasi Metropolis, River Wiwi, Ejisu streams, Besease, Nobewam and Nkawkaw; Original citation: deGraft-Johnson and Akpabey (2015)

Asia

CambodiaPresent
IndiaPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-Andaman and Nicobar IslandsPresent
-KeralaPresentIntroduced1960
IndonesiaPresentIntroducedInvasiveRicefield weed
-SumatraPresent
LaosPresentRicefield weed
MalaysiaPresentIntroducedInvasive
-Peninsular MalaysiaPresent, LocalizedRicefield weed
-SarawakPresent
MyanmarPresentIntroducedInvasiveRicefield weed
Sri LankaPresentIntroduced
ThailandPresentIntroducedInvasiveRicefield weed
VietnamPresentRicefield weed

North America

Costa RicaPresentNative
MexicoPresentNative
NicaraguaPresentNative
PanamaPresentNative
United StatesPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-FloridaPresent

Oceania

AustraliaPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-QueenslandPresent, LocalizedIntroduced2001Invasive

South America

EcuadorPresentNative
ParaguayPresent
PeruPresentNative

History of Introduction and Spread

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L. flava is native to tropical and subtropical America (i.e. northwestern Mexico, Nicaragua, Costa Rica, Panama, Cuba, Haiti, Dominican Republic, Windward Islands, Colombia, Venezuela, Ecuador, West Indies, Peru and Brazil) and has been introduced to southern USA and parts of Asia. Abhilash et al. (2008) report that the earliest record of its introduction to Asia is as an ornamental in the Botanic Garders, Bogor, Indonesia in 1866, and that by 1870 it was mentioned as 'a newly introduced alien' on the banks of the river flowing through the Botanic Gardens. It now occurs throughout Indonesia and the rest of South-East Asia. Abhilash et al. (2008) describe its spread in Asia. In Sri Lanka it was introduced as an ornamental in 1998 and subsequently became naturalized and a serious weed in rice fields.

It propagates mainly by seeds. Sometimes they are also carried with the mud sticking to the feet of birds, by man and agricultural implements (Kotalawala, 1976). L. flava seeds throughout the year. A single fruit produces about 1,000 seeds and a single plant may produce as 1,000,000 seeds per year. Human agency is also responsible for the spread of this plant due to the popular belief that the leaves of this plant, when eaten as a partly cooked salad, cures rheumatism. Some have deliberately planted this weed without realizing the danger to rice fields when it gets out of control.

 

Habitat

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L. flava is a perennial herb that prefers wet conditions such as lowland ricefields, and shallow waters in canals, swamps, pools and ditches. In Kerala, India, the weed density decreases as water depth increases, as L. flava is a rooted emergent preferring shallow water bodies and marshy areas (Abhilash et al., 2008). Abandoned paddy fields and reclaimed coconut fields with marshy areas are the main habitat in Kerala. The soil is generally fertile in areas where the weed occurs.


 

Habitat List

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CategorySub-CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Terrestrial ManagedCultivated / agricultural land Present, no further details
Terrestrial ManagedProtected agriculture (e.g. glasshouse production) Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial ManagedManaged forests, plantations and orchards Present, no further details
Terrestrial ManagedManaged forests, plantations and orchards Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial ManagedManaged grasslands (grazing systems) Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial ManagedDisturbed areas Present, no further details
Terrestrial ManagedRail / roadsides Present, no further details
Terrestrial ManagedUrban / peri-urban areas Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalNatural forests Present, no further details
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalNatural grasslands Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalRiverbanks Present, no further details
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalWetlands Present, no further details Natural
LittoralCoastal areas Present, no further details
Freshwater Present, no further details
FreshwaterIrrigation channels Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
FreshwaterLakes Present, no further details Natural
FreshwaterReservoirs Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
FreshwaterRivers / streams Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
FreshwaterPonds Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
BrackishEstuaries Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Marine Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)

Hosts/Species Affected

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In South and South-East Asia, L. flava is a serious weed in ricefields, where it thrives on the fertilizers applied for crop (rice) growth and multiplies rapidly.

Host Plants and Other Plants Affected

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Plant nameFamilyContextReferences
Oryza sativa (rice)PoaceaeOther

    Growth Stages

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    Flowering stage, Fruiting stage, Seedling stage, Vegetative growing stage

    Biology and Ecology

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    L. flava is perennial but behaves as an annual in certain habitats. It reproduces by seed and vegetatively (by stolons). It is hydrochorous, and is a prolific seed-producing plant, with individual plants capable of yielding up to 1,000,000 seeds per year. The mechanism of seed dispersal is discussed in Nayar and Sworupanandan (1978).

    L. flava flowers the whole year round. The flowers open in the morning and close after a few hours. There is no record of any pollinating agent. After anthesis, the sepals enlarge and surround the fruit whereas the petals become a slimy mass. When ripe, the fruit carpels fall into the water where they release the seeds, which sink to the bottom. The downturned inflorescence which rests on the water surface often produces a new plant (van den Bergh, 1993).

    Climate

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    ClimateStatusDescriptionRemark
    A - Tropical/Megathermal climate Preferred Average temp. of coolest month > 18°C, > 1500mm precipitation annually
    Af - Tropical rainforest climate Preferred > 60mm precipitation per month
    Am - Tropical monsoon climate Preferred Tropical monsoon climate ( < 60mm precipitation driest month but > (100 - [total annual precipitation(mm}/25]))
    C - Temperate/Mesothermal climate Tolerated Average temp. of coldest month > 0°C and < 18°C, mean warmest month > 10°C

    Latitude/Altitude Ranges

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    Latitude North (°N)Latitude South (°S)Altitude Lower (m)Altitude Upper (m)
    1300

    Soil Tolerances

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    Soil drainage

    • seasonally waterlogged

    Soil reaction

    • acid
    • alkaline
    • neutral

    Soil texture

    • heavy

    Water Tolerances

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    ParameterMinimum ValueMaximum ValueTypical ValueStatusLife StageNotes
    Water pH (pH) 4 6 Optimum
    Water temperature (ºC temperature) 25 30 Optimum 30-35 tolerated

    Means of Movement and Dispersal

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    L. flavus produces large numbers of seeds, with a single plant capable of producing over 1,000,000 seeds a year. The fruitlets are carried by water, floating to new locations and dispersing seeds along the way. Seeds are also carried with the mud sticking to the feet of birds, by man and agricultural implements (Kotalawala, 1976), or with cereals from an infested field transported to an uninfected area.

    Plant Trade

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    Plant parts not known to carry the pest in trade/transport
    Bark
    Bulbs/Tubers/Corms/Rhizomes
    Flowers/Inflorescences/Cones/Calyx
    Fruits (inc. pods)
    Growing medium accompanying plants
    Leaves
    Roots
    Seedlings/Micropropagated plants
    Stems (above ground)/Shoots/Trunks/Branches
    True seeds (inc. grain)
    Wood

    Impact Summary

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    CategoryImpact
    Animal/plant collections Positive
    Animal/plant products Negative
    Biodiversity (generally) Positive
    Crop production Negative
    Environment (generally) Negative
    Fisheries / aquaculture Positive
    Forestry production Negative
    Human health Positive
    Livestock production Positive
    Native fauna Positive
    Native flora Positive
    Rare/protected species Negative
    Tourism Positive
    Trade/international relations Negative
    Transport/travel Negative

    Economic Impact

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    L. flava chokes irrigation and drainage channels, promotes silting, and reduces water discharge capacity (Kotalawala, 1976). The effectiveness of drainage ditches and irrigation channels can be reduced through siltation caused by blockage of water flow by L. flava leaves and root systems. In some situations, infestations of the weed are so severe that they have forced the abandonment of ricefields.

    Environmental Impact

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    Impact on Habitats

    If allowed to grow unchecked, L. flava may become a very invasive weed of streams and wetlands. L. flava colonizes shallow wetlands and the margins of deeper waterways, where it can quickly grow to dominate native aquatic plants.  The natural ecological balance may thus be altered to seriously impact native water-dwelling creatures.

    It is thought that the introduction of L. flava into India may have been due to contaminated imports of rice from South-East Asia infested with the weed. As well as unintentional spread of the seed via agricultural imports its use and cultivation as a food source may result in intentional spread of the plant into new countries. The latter is thought to be the cause its spread from Java to Papua (Waterhouse et al., 2003).
     
    Impact on Biodiversity
     
    In the USA, L. flava is a threat to the biodiversity of a number of unique wetland areas including the Florida everglades. It could have similar impacts on Australia's wetlands, and has the potential to rapidly establish in suitable habitats.

    Risk and Impact Factors

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    Invasiveness
    • Invasive in its native range
    • Abundant in its native range
    • Tolerates, or benefits from, cultivation, browsing pressure, mutilation, fire etc
    • Pioneering in disturbed areas
    • Tolerant of shade
    • Highly mobile locally
    • Benefits from human association (i.e. it is a human commensal)
    • Fast growing
    • Has high reproductive potential
    • Gregarious
    • Has propagules that can remain viable for more than one year
    • Reproduces asexually
    Impact outcomes
    • Damaged ecosystem services
    • Ecosystem change/ habitat alteration
    • Host damage
    • Increases vulnerability to invasions
    • Infrastructure damage
    • Modification of hydrology
    • Modification of successional patterns
    • Monoculture formation
    • Negatively impacts agriculture
    • Negatively impacts cultural/traditional practices
    • Negatively impacts human health
    • Negatively impacts livelihoods
    • Negatively impacts aquaculture/fisheries
    • Negatively impacts tourism
    • Reduced amenity values
    • Reduced native biodiversity
    • Soil accretion
    • Threat to/ loss of endangered species
    • Threat to/ loss of native species
    • Transportation disruption
    Impact mechanisms
    • Causes allergic responses
    • Competition - monopolizing resources
    • Competition - shading
    • Competition - smothering
    • Competition - strangling
    • Pest and disease transmission
    • Filtration
    • Fouling
    • Herbivory/grazing/browsing
    • Induces hypersensitivity
    • Interaction with other invasive species
    • Parasitism (incl. parasitoid)
    • Pathogenic
    • Rapid growth
    • Rooting
    • Trampling
    Likelihood of entry/control
    • Highly likely to be transported internationally accidentally
    • Highly likely to be transported internationally deliberately
    • Highly likely to be transported internationally illegally
    • Difficult to identify/detect as a commodity contaminant
    • Difficult/costly to control

    Uses

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    Heavy infestations of L. flava indicate a fertile soil. Young leaves, petioles and flower stalks are eaten as a vegetable in Thailand, Indonesia, Malaysia, Vietnam and Bangladesh. Whole plants are given as fodder to pigs, cattle or fish and plant residues can be used for feed and as green manure. Slime from the plant can be used as soap. L. flava often serves as an ornamental plant in ponds and was introduced to the USA for use in water gardens. Abhilash et al. (2009) report that the plant has potential for phytofiltration of cadmium for low-level Cd-contaminated water.

     

    Uses List

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    Animal feed, fodder, forage

    • Fodder/animal feed
    • Forage

    Environmental

    • Agroforestry
    • Host of pest
    • Ornamental

    General

    • Botanical garden/zoo
    • Laboratory use
    • Pet/aquarium trade
    • Research model

    Human food and beverage

    • Vegetable

    Materials

    • Green manure
    • Manure

    Medicinal, pharmaceutical

    • Traditional/folklore

    Ornamental

    • Potted plant

    Prevention and Control

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    Due to the variable regulations around (de)registration of pesticides, your national list of registered pesticides or relevant authority should be consulted to determine which products are legally allowed for use in your country when considering chemical control. Pesticides should always be used in a lawful manner, consistent with the product's label.

    Control

    Cultural control

    L. flava may be controlled by frequent tillage (wet) during land preparation and manual weeding during the rice-growing period (Azmi, 2003).

    Mechanical control


    Hand-pushed rotary weeders may be used to control the weed in transplanted rice.

    Chemical control

    Chemicals such as 2,4-D amine and metsulfuron are effective against L. flava. Biotypes resistant to 2,4-D and ALS-inhibiting herbicide have been found in Indonesia (Edison, 1996) and Malaysia (Nakayama et al., 1999), respectively. A combination of bentazon and MCPA can be used to control the herbicide-resistant biotype (R biotype) (Azmi, 2003). Bentazon sodium/MCPA dimethyl at 0.74 kg a.i./ha can be used to control the R biotype in L. flava resistant areas (Erwan et al., 2006).

    References

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    Abhilash PC, Nandita Singh, Sylas VP, Kumar BA, Mathew JC, Satheesh R, Thomas AP, 2008. Eco-distribution mapping of invasive weed Limnocharis flava (L.) Buchenau using Geographical Information System: implications for containment and integrated weed management for ecosystem conservation. Taiwania, 53(1):30-41. http://tai2.ntu.edu.tw/taiwania

    Abhilash PC, Pandey VC, Pankaj Srivastava, Rakesh PS, Smitha Chandran, Nandita Singh, Thomas AP, 2009. Phytofiltration of cadmium from water by Limnocharis flava (L.) Buchenau grown in free-floating culture system. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 170(2/3):791-797. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?_ob=ArticleURL&_udi=B6TGF-4W9XBHJ-C&_user=10&_coverDate=10%2F30%2F2009&_rdoc=38&_fmt=high&_orig=browse&_srch=doc-info(%23toc%235253%232009%23998299997%231468097%23FLA%23display%23Volume)&_cdi=5253&_sort=d&_docanchor=&_ct=105&_acct=C000050221&_version=1&_urlVersion=0&_userid=10&md5=1e79d45f7969eb165ba045e3e92ec690

    AICAF, 1996. Weeds in the Tropics. Tokyo, Japan: Association for International Cooperation of Agriculture and Forestry, 304 pp

    Anning AK, Yeboah-Gyan K, 2007. Diversity and distribution of invasive weeds in Ashanti Region, Ghana. African Journal of Ecology, 45(3):355-360. http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/cgi-bin/fulltext/118510994/PDFSTART

    Anwar AI, Azmi M, 1988. Rice field weeds (in Malay). Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia: Malaysian Agricultural Research and Development Institute (MARDI), 168 pp

    Azmi M, 1988. Weed competition in rice production. Proceedings of the National Seminar and Workshop on Rice Field Weed Management, 141-152

    Azmi M, 2003. Control of herbicide resistance biotype of Limnocharis flava in direct-seeded rice. Paper presented at the 6th International Conference on Plant Protection in the Tropics. 11-14 th August, 2003, Pan Pacific Hotel, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia

    Azmi M, Baki BB, Mashor M, 1992. Weed communities in rice granary areas in Peninsular Malaysia. Proceedings of the 1st International Weed Control Congress. Melbourne, Australia: Weed Science Society of Victoria, Vol. 2:57-60

    deGraft-Johnson KAA, Akpabey FJ, 2015. Aquatic plant management in Ghana. Accra, Ghana: Council for Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR) and Water Research Institute.

    Edison P, 1996. A biotype of Limnocharis flava resistant to 2,4-D. Paper presented to IMTGT Conference on Environment, Penang, Malaysia, 3 pp

    Ernest A, 2015. Diversity, distribution and control of aquatic macrophytes of southern Ghana with particular reference to the alien invasives. MPhil Thesis. Legon, Ghana: University of Ghana.

    Erwan S, Abdul Shukur J, Azmi M, 2006. Limnocharis flava (L.) Buchenau control with herbicide mixtures of bensulfuron-methyl and bentazon sodium/MCPA dimethyl. In: Agriculture Congress 2006. 261-263

    Gall S, Wilson C, 2000. Yellow sawah lettuce: (Limnocharis flava). Agnote - Northern Territory of Australia, No. 609:2 pp

    Hare CJ, Chong WC, Ooi GT, Bhandhufalck A, Nawsaran S, Chanprasit P, 1989. Sofit Super: broad spectrum weed management for wet sown rice in S.E. Asia. Proceedings, 12th Asian-Pacific Weed Science Society Conference Taipei, Taiwan; Asian-Pacific Weed Science Society, No. 1:165-170

    Haynes RR, Holm-Nielsen LB, 1992. Flora neotropica: the Limnocharitaceae. Flora neotropica: the Limnocharitaceae., 34 pp.; [Monography 56 of ISSN 0071-5794]

    Holm LG, Pancho JV, Herberger JP, Plucknett DL, 1991. A Geographical Atlas of World Weeds. New York, USA: John Wiley and Sons

    Ingold CT, 1995. An unusual smut fungus: Doassansiopsis limnocharidis. Mycologist, 9(2):58-59

    IPPC, 2010. Limnocharis flava in northern Queensland. IPPC Official Pest Report, No. AUS-35/1. Rome, Italy: FAO. https://www.ippc

    Karthigeyan K, Sumathi R, Jayanthi J, Diwakar PG, Lakra GS, 2004.

    Kotalawala J, 1976. Noxious water vegetation in Sri Lanka: the extent and impact of existing infestations. Aquatic weeds in S.E. Asia. Proceedings of a Regional Seminar on Noxious Aquatic Vegetation, New Delhi, 1973. The Hague, Netherlands: W. Junk, 51-58

    Labrada R, Fornasari L, 2002. Management of problematic aquatic weeds in Africa: FAO efforts and achievements during the period 1991-2001. Rome, Italy: FAO. ftp://ftp.fao.org/docrep/fao/005/y4270E/y4270E00.pdf

    Mangoensoekarjo S, Pancho JV, 1975. Current status of weed problems in rubber, oil palm, cocoa, tea and rice and their control. Bulletin Balai Penelitian Perkebunan Medan, 6(1):3, 13-27

    Mansor P, 1988. Traditional salad vegetables of Malaysia. Ulam-ulam tradisional Malaysia. Teknologi Sayur Sayuran, 4:1-5

    Miller JW, 1997. Plant pathology section. Tri-ology Technical Report, 36(1):12-13

    Moody K, 1989. Weeds reported in Rice in South and Southeast Asia. Manila, Philippines: International Rice Research Institute

    Nakayama S, Azmi M, Ruslan AG, 1999. Limnocharis flava resistant to 2,4-D and bensulfuron methyl. The Management of Biotic Agents in Direct Seeded Rice Culture in Malaysia - Some experience in the Muda area. MARDI/MADA/JIRCAS Integrated Study Report (1992-1999), 129-140

    Nayar BK, Sworupanandan K, 1978. Morphology of the fruit and mechanism of seed dispersal of the freshwater weed Limnocharis flava. Proceedings of the Indian Academy of Sciences, Section B, 87(2):49-53

    Noda K, 1979. Present status and future challenge of weed problems in southeast Asian countries - based on a survey carried out in Thailand, Malaysia and Indonesia. Nekken Shiryo, No. 41:60 pp

    Noda K, Teerawatsakul M, Prakongvongs C, Chaiwiratnukul L, 1985. Major Weeds in Thailand. Bangkok, Thailand: Department of Agriculture

    Pancho JV, Soerjani M, 1978. Aquatic weeds of Southeast Asia. A systematic account of common Southeast Asian aquatic weeds. Aquatic weeds of Southeast Asia. A systematic account of common Southeast Asian aquatic weeds., 130 pp.; [260 X 180 mm]

    Saupi N, Zakaria MH, Bujang JS, 2009. Analytic chemical composition and mineral content of yellow velvetleaf (Limnocharis flava L. Buchenau)'s edible parts. Journal of Applied Sciences, 9(16):2969-2974. http://scialert.net/qredirect.php?doi=jas.2009.2969.2974&linkid=pdf

    Soerjani M, Kostermans AJGH, Tjitrosoepomo G, 1987. Weeds of Indonesia. Jakarta, Indonesia: Balai Pustaka, 716 pp

    USDA-ARS, 2007. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Online Database. Beltsville, Maryland, USA: National Germplasm Resources Laboratory. https://npgsweb.ars-grin.gov/gringlobal/taxon/taxonomysearch.aspx

    Van den Bergh MH, 1993. Limnocharis flava (L.) Buchenau. In: Siemonsma JS, Piluek K, eds. Plant Resources of South-East Asia 8. Vegetables. Wageningen, Netherlands: Pudoc Scientific Publishers, 192-194

    Vera PA, Aldama JR, 1983. Rice production in Paraguay. Arroz, 32(322):26-28

    Waterhouse BM, Everett-J, Wilson PG, 2003. Know your enemy: recent records of potentially serious weeds in northern Australia, Papua New Guinea and Papua (Indonesia). Proceedings of the 5th International Flora Malesiana Symposium, Sydney, Australia, September 2001. Telopea, 10(1):477-485

    Waterhouse BM, Mitchell AA, 1998. Northern Australia Quarantine Strategy: weeds target list. Australian Quarantine & Inspection Service, 110 pp. [Miscellaneous Publication No. 6/98.]

    Distribution References

    Abhilash P C, Nandita Singh, Sylas V P, Kumar B A, Mathew J C, Satheesh R, Thomas A P, 2008. Eco-distribution mapping of invasive weed Limnocharis flava (L.) Buchenau using Geographical Information System: implications for containment and integrated weed management for ecosystem conservation. Taiwania. 53 (1), 30-41. http://tai2.ntu.edu.tw/taiwania

    Anning A K, Yeboah-Gyan K, 2007. Diversity and distribution of invasive weeds in Ashanti Region, Ghana. African Journal of Ecology. 45 (3), 355-360. http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/cgi-bin/fulltext/118510994/PDFSTART

    Anon, 1987. Weeds of rice in Indonesia. [ed. by Soerjani M, Kostermans A J G H, Tjitrosoepomo G]. Jakarta, Indonesia: Balai Pustaka. xvi + 716pp.

    Anon, 1997. Plant pathology section. Tri-ology Technical Report. 36 (1), 12-13.

    Anwar AI, Azmi M, 1988. Rice field weeds (in Malay)., Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia: Malaysian Agricultural Research and Development Institute (MARDI). 168 pp.

    CABI, Undated. Compendium record. Wallingford, UK: CABI

    CABI, Undated a. CABI Compendium: Status inferred from regional distribution. Wallingford, UK: CABI

    CABI, Undated b. CABI Compendium: Status as determined by CABI editor. Wallingford, UK: CABI

    Ernest A, 2015. Diversity, distribution and control of aquatic macrophytes of southern Ghana with particular reference to the alien invasives. MPhil Thesis., Legon, Ghana: University of Ghana.

    Hakim M A, Juraimi A S, Ismail M R, Hanafi M M, Selamat A, 2013. A survey on weed diversity in coastal rice fields of Sebarang Perak in Peninsular Malaysia. JAPS, Journal of Animal and Plant Sciences. 23 (2), 534-542. http://www.thejaps.org.pk/docs/v-23-2/33.pdf

    Holm L G, Pancho J V, Herberger J P, Plucknett D L, 1991. A Geographical Atlas of World Weeds. New York, USA: John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

    Ingold C T, 1995. An unusual smut fungus: Doassansiopsis limnocharidis. Mycologist. 9 (2), 58-59. DOI:10.1016/S0269-915X(09)80209-7

    International Plant Protection Convention (IPPC), 2010. Limnocharis flava in northern Queensland. In: IPPC Official Pest Report, Rome, Italy: FAO. https://www.ippc.int/

    Karthigeyan K, Sumathi R, Jayanthi J, Diwakar P G, Lakra G S, 2004. Limnocharis flava (L.) Buchenau (Alismataceae) - a little known and troublesome weed in Andaman Islands. Current Science, 87 (2), 140-141.

    Kotalawala J, 1976. Noxious water vegetation in Sri Lanka: the extent and impact of existing infestations. In: Aquatic weeds in S.E. Asia. Proceedings of a Regional Seminar on Noxious Aquatic Vegetation, New Delhi, 1973. [Aquatic weeds in S.E. Asia. Proceedings of a Regional Seminar on Noxious Aquatic Vegetation, New Delhi, 1973.], The Hague, Netherlands: W. Junk. 51-58.

    Labrada R, Fornasari L, 2002. Management of problematic aquatic weeds in Africa: FAO efforts and achievements during the period 1991-2001. In: Management of problematic aquatic weeds in Africa: FAO efforts and achievements during the period 1991-2001, Rome, Italy: FAO. ftp://ftp.fao.org/docrep/fao/005/y4270E/y4270E00.pdf

    Mangoensoekarjo S, Pancho J V, 1975. Current status of weed problems in rubber, oil palm, cocoa, tea and rice and their control. Bulletin Balai Penelitian Perkebunan Medan. 6 (1), 3, 13-27.

    Moody K, 1989. Weeds reported in rice in South and Southeast Asia. Manila, Philippines: International Rice Research Institute. 442 pp.

    Nayar B K, Sworupanandan K, 1978. Morphology of the fruit and mechanism of seed dispersal of the freshwater weed Limnocharis flava. Proceedings of the Indian Academy of Sciences, Section B. 87 (2), 49-53.

    Saupi N, Zakaria M H, Bujang J S, 2009. Analytic chemical composition and mineral content of yellow velvetleaf (Limnocharis flava L. Buchenau)'s edible parts. Journal of Applied Sciences. 9 (16), 2969-2974. http://scialert.net/qredirect.php?doi=jas.2009.2969.2974&linkid=pdf

    USDA-ARS, 2007. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Online Database. In: Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Online Database, Beltsville, USA: National Germplasm Resources Laboratory. http://www.ars-grin.gov/cgi-bin/npgs/html/tax_search.pl

    Vera P A, Aldama J R, 1983. Rice production in Paraguay. (Production de arroz en Paraguay.). Arroz. 32 (322), 26-28.

    Waterhouse B M, 2003. Know your enemy: recent records of potentially serious weeds in northern Australia, Papua New Guinea and Papua (Indonesia). Telopea. 10 (1), 477-485.

    Waterhouse B M, Mitchell A A, 1998. Northern Australia Quarantine Strategy: weeds target list. In: Northern Australia Quarantine Strategy: weeds target list, Australia: Australian Quarantine & Inspection Service. 110 pp.

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    Contributors

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    20/05/2008 Updated by:

    Azmi Man, MARDI Food and Industrial Crop Research Centre, Seberang Perai, PO Box 203, 13200 Kepala Batas, Penang, Malaysia

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