Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Acrocarpus fraxinifolius
(shingle tree)

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Datasheet

Acrocarpus fraxinifolius (shingle tree)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 19 November 2019
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Host Plant
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Acrocarpus fraxinifolius
  • Preferred Common Name
  • shingle tree
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Plantae
  •     Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •       Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •         Class: Dicotyledonae
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • The following summary is from Witt and Luke (2017):

    Description
    Large deciduous tree (shedding most or all of its leaves a...

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Acrocarpus fraxinifolius (shingle tree); foliage. Panchgani, Satara district  Maharashtra, India. August 2010.
TitleHabit
CaptionAcrocarpus fraxinifolius (shingle tree); foliage. Panchgani, Satara district Maharashtra, India. August 2010.
Copyright©Dinesh Valke/via flickr - CC BY-SA 2.0
Acrocarpus fraxinifolius (shingle tree); foliage. Panchgani, Satara district  Maharashtra, India. August 2010.
HabitAcrocarpus fraxinifolius (shingle tree); foliage. Panchgani, Satara district Maharashtra, India. August 2010.©Dinesh Valke/via flickr - CC BY-SA 2.0
Acrocarpus fraxinifolius (shingle tree); foliage. Panchgani, Satara district  Maharashtra, India. August 2010.
TitleFoliage
CaptionAcrocarpus fraxinifolius (shingle tree); foliage. Panchgani, Satara district Maharashtra, India. August 2010.
Copyright©Dinesh Valke/via flickr - CC BY-SA 2.0
Acrocarpus fraxinifolius (shingle tree); foliage. Panchgani, Satara district  Maharashtra, India. August 2010.
FoliageAcrocarpus fraxinifolius (shingle tree); foliage. Panchgani, Satara district Maharashtra, India. August 2010.©Dinesh Valke/via flickr - CC BY-SA 2.0
Acrocarpus fraxinifolius (shingle tree); branches and foliage. Panchgani, Satara district  Maharashtra, India. August 2010.
TitleBranches and foliage
CaptionAcrocarpus fraxinifolius (shingle tree); branches and foliage. Panchgani, Satara district Maharashtra, India. August 2010.
Copyright©Dinesh Valke/via flickr - CC BY-SA 2.0
Acrocarpus fraxinifolius (shingle tree); branches and foliage. Panchgani, Satara district  Maharashtra, India. August 2010.
Branches and foliageAcrocarpus fraxinifolius (shingle tree); branches and foliage. Panchgani, Satara district Maharashtra, India. August 2010.©Dinesh Valke/via flickr - CC BY-SA 2.0
Acrocarpus fraxinifolius (shingle tree); trunk and bark. Panchgani, Satara district  Maharashtra, India. August 2010.
TitleTrunk and bark
CaptionAcrocarpus fraxinifolius (shingle tree); trunk and bark. Panchgani, Satara district Maharashtra, India. August 2010.
Copyright©Dinesh Valke/via flickr - CC BY-SA 2.0
Acrocarpus fraxinifolius (shingle tree); trunk and bark. Panchgani, Satara district  Maharashtra, India. August 2010.
Trunk and barkAcrocarpus fraxinifolius (shingle tree); trunk and bark. Panchgani, Satara district Maharashtra, India. August 2010.©Dinesh Valke/via flickr - CC BY-SA 2.0
Acrocarpus fraxinifolius (shingle tree); flowering habit. Shivanahalli, Bangalore, Karnataka, India.  February 2013.
TitleFlowering habit
CaptionAcrocarpus fraxinifolius (shingle tree); flowering habit. Shivanahalli, Bangalore, Karnataka, India. February 2013.
Copyright©Forestowlet/via wikipedia - CC BY-SA 3.0
Acrocarpus fraxinifolius (shingle tree); flowering habit. Shivanahalli, Bangalore, Karnataka, India.  February 2013.
Flowering habitAcrocarpus fraxinifolius (shingle tree); flowering habit. Shivanahalli, Bangalore, Karnataka, India. February 2013.©Forestowlet/via wikipedia - CC BY-SA 3.0
Acrocarpus fraxinifolius (shingle tree); flowering habit. India. January 2008.
TitleFlowering habit
CaptionAcrocarpus fraxinifolius (shingle tree); flowering habit. India. January 2008.
Copyright©Dinesh Valke/via flickr - CC BY-SA 2.0
Acrocarpus fraxinifolius (shingle tree); flowering habit. India. January 2008.
Flowering habitAcrocarpus fraxinifolius (shingle tree); flowering habit. India. January 2008.©Dinesh Valke/via flickr - CC BY-SA 2.0
Acrocarpus fraxinifolius (shingle tree) 1. tree habit. 2. leaf. 3. dehisced pod. 4. inflorescence
5. flower.
TitleLine artwork
CaptionAcrocarpus fraxinifolius (shingle tree) 1. tree habit. 2. leaf. 3. dehisced pod. 4. inflorescence 5. flower.
Copyright©PROSEA Foundation
Acrocarpus fraxinifolius (shingle tree) 1. tree habit. 2. leaf. 3. dehisced pod. 4. inflorescence
5. flower.
Line artworkAcrocarpus fraxinifolius (shingle tree) 1. tree habit. 2. leaf. 3. dehisced pod. 4. inflorescence 5. flower.©PROSEA Foundation

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Acrocarpus fraxinifolius Wight ex Arn.

Preferred Common Name

  • shingle tree

Other Scientific Names

  • Acrocarpus combretiflorus Teijsm. & Binnend.
  • Mezoneurum grande Miq.

International Common Names

  • English: Indian ash; Kenya coffeeshade; pink cedar; red cedar

Local Common Names

  • India: belanji; hantige; hevulige; kurangadi; kurangan; malankommao; malaveppu; mandane; narivenga; nelrai; silchhal
  • Indonesia/Java: delimas
  • Indonesia/Sumatra: madang pariek
  • Laos: ket 'hoy; khan khak
  • Myanmar: mayahnin; yetama
  • Rwanda: kuranjan
  • Thailand: kang khimot; khang chang; sadao chang

EPPO code

  • AOCFR (Acrocarpus fraxinifolius)

Trade name

  • mundani

Summary of Invasiveness

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The following summary is from Witt and Luke (2017):

Description
Large deciduous tree (shedding most or all of its leaves at the end of the growing season); 30–60 m tall, with a round, straight stem [90 (–200) cm in diameter], free of branches over most of its elevation, having large, thick buttresses and deep roots.

Origin
Bangladesh, Borneo, Myanmar, China, India, Indonesia, Sumatra and Vietnam.

Reason for introduction

Fuelwood, timber, fodder, bee forage, erosion control, shade and ornament.

Invades

Roadsides, disturbed land, urban open spaces, forest edges/gaps, woodlands and riparian vegetation.

Impacts

Forms dense stands, shading out native species. It is a pioneer species in its native range, regenerating rapidly in burnt areas and where the soil has recently been exposed. Coppices readily and grows extremely rapidly (1.3–3 m annually), producing large numbers of seeds, many of which germinate under parent canopies forming large monospecific stands to the detriment of native plant and animal species. The winged seeds can also be dispersal over long distances and germinate readily. Young plants often behave as climbers and stranglers of other trees.

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Plantae
  •         Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •             Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •                 Class: Dicotyledonae
  •                     Order: Fabales
  •                         Family: Fabaceae
  •                             Subfamily: Caesalpinioideae
  •                                 Genus: Acrocarpus
  •                                     Species: Acrocarpus fraxinifolius

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 10 Jan 2020
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Planted Reference Notes

Africa

BurundiPresentPlanted
KenyaPresentIntroducedInvasive
LiberiaPresentPlanted
MadagascarPresentPlanted
MalawiPresentPlanted
NigeriaPresentPlanted
RwandaPresentPlanted
TanzaniaPresentIntroducedInvasive
UgandaPresentPlanted
ZambiaPresentPlanted
ZimbabwePresentPlanted

Asia

BangladeshPresentPlanted
BhutanPresent
ChinaPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-GuangxiPresent
-YunnanPresent
IndiaPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-Andhra PradeshPresent
-Arunachal PradeshPresent
-AssamPresent
-Himachal PradeshPresentPlanted
-KarnatakaPresentPlanted
-KeralaPresent
-MaharashtraPresentPlanted
-ManipurPresent
-MeghalayaPresent
-MizoramPresent
-NagalandPresent
-SikkimPresent
-Tamil NaduPresent
-Uttar PradeshPresentPlanted
-West BengalPresent
IndonesiaPresentBorneo
-JavaPresent
-SumatraPresent
LaosPresent
MalaysiaPresentIntroducedInvasiveBorneo
MyanmarPresent
NepalPresentPlanted
ThailandPresent
VietnamPresentIntroducedInvasive

Oceania

FijiPresentPlanted

Latitude/Altitude Ranges

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Latitude North (°N)Latitude South (°S)Altitude Lower (m)Altitude Upper (m)
27 -23 0 1800

Air Temperature

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Parameter Lower limit Upper limit
Absolute minimum temperature (ºC) 2 17
Mean annual temperature (ºC) 23 27
Mean maximum temperature of hottest month (ºC) 23 35
Mean minimum temperature of coldest month (ºC) 16 22

Rainfall

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ParameterLower limitUpper limitDescription
Dry season duration04number of consecutive months with <40 mm rainfall
Mean annual rainfall19005000mm; lower/upper limits

Rainfall Regime

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Summer

Soil Tolerances

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Soil drainage

  • free

Soil reaction

  • acid
  • neutral

Soil texture

  • light
  • medium

Uses List

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Animal feed, fodder, forage

  • Fodder/animal feed

Environmental

  • Agroforestry

Fuels

  • Charcoal
  • Fuelwood

General

  • Ornamental

Human food and beverage

  • Honey/honey flora

Materials

  • Carved material
  • Miscellaneous materials
  • Wood/timber

Wood Products

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Charcoal

Containers

  • Boxes
  • Cases
  • Crates

Furniture

Roundwood

  • Posts

Sawn or hewn building timbers

  • Flooring
  • For light construction
  • Shingles

Wood-based materials

  • Plywood

Woodware

  • Tool handles

References

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Akyeampong E, Hitimana L, Franzel S, Munyemana PC, 1995. The agronomic and economic performance of banana, bean and tree intercropping in the highlands of Burundi: an interim assessment. Agroforestry Systems, 31(3):199-210

Bhat KM, 1985. Properties of selected less-known tropical hardwood. Journal of the Indian Academy of Wood Science, 16(1):26-35; 28 ref

Dimri MP, Shukla KS, 1991. Study on the effect of wood preservatives on the glue bond strength of plywood. Van Vigyan, 29(1):35-39; 6 ref

Egli A, Kalinganire A, 1988. Trees and shrubs for agroforestry in Rwanda. [Les arbres et arbustes agroforestiers au Rwanda.]. Butare, Rwanda: Institut de Sciences Agronomiques du Rwanda

Egli AE, 1994. Einfluss ausgewahlter Standortsfaktoren in Abhangigkeit von zehn nicht Stickstoff fixierenden Baumarten auf die Ertragsbildung wichtiger Feldfruchte unter agroforstlichen Anbaubedingungen. Ein Beispiel aus Butare/Rwanda (Ost-/Zentralafrika) [Effect of selected site factors with ten tree species not fixing nitrogen on the yield of important field crops under agroforestry conditions of cultivation. An example from Butare, Rwanda (East/Central Africa)]. Forstwissenschaftliche Beitrage, ETH Zurich, 13

Ghildyal BN, 1989. Introduction of Acrocarpus fraxinifolius - a fast growing species for social forestry in Himachal Pradesh. Indian Forester, 115(7):455-458; 2 ref

Lahiri AK, 1983. Results of trial of some leguminous plants in the Himalayan foothill region of West Bengal. Leucaena Research Reports, 4: 29-30

Lamprecht H, 1986. Waldbau in den Tropen [Silviculture in the Tropics]. Hamburg: Paul Parey

Luna RK, 1996. Plantation trees. Delhi, India: International Book Distributors

Maghembe JA, Prins H, 1994. Performance of multipurpose trees for agroforestry two years after planting at Makoka, Malawi. In: Special Issue: Agroforestry Research in the African Miombo Ecozone. Proceedings of a Regional Conference on Agroforestry Research in the African Miombo Ecozone, held in Lilongwe, Malawi, 16-22 June 1991. Forest Ecology and Management, 64(2-3):171-182

Moller K, 1990. Note technique sur le comportement initial de quatre espèces d'arbres vulgarisées par la PARV dans son action agroforestière [Technical note on the early performance of four tree species popularized by the PARV in its agroforestry programme]. Akon'ny Ala, No. 6, 14-27; 9 ref

Moller K, 1992. Note technique sur le comportement de quatre espèces d'arbres vulgarisées par le Centre FAFIALA dans son action agroforestière [Technical note on the performance of four tree species popularized by the FAFIALA Centre in its agroforestry programme]. Akon'ny Ala, No. 9, 18-26; 6 ref

National Academy of Sciences, 1979. Tropical legumes: resources for the future. Washington, DC: National Academy of Sciences

Neil PE, 1990. Notes on Acrocarpus fraxinifolius. Banko Janakari, 2(4):391-394; 12 ref

Ogigirigi MA, Igboanugo ABI, 1985. Root growth characteristics of some exotic and indigenous tree species in the Nigerian savanna. Pakistan Journal of Forestry, 35(3):97-103; 4 ref

Pandey CN, Rao PVK, 1995. Wood softening and bending with ammonia. Wood News, 5(1):29-31; 9 ref

Rai SN, 1976. Pre-treatment of Acrocarpus fraxinifolius seeds. Indian Forester, 102(8):488-491; 2 ref

Rai SN, 1990. Restoration of degraded tropical rain forests of Western Ghats. Indian Forester, 116(3):179-188; 6 ref

Rao RV, Dayal R, Bisen SS, Sharma B, 1983. SEM studies on the seasoning defects of mundani (Acrocarpus fraxinifolius Wight). Journal of the Timber Development Association of India, 29(4):19-23; 2 pl.; 6 ref

Rawat BS, Rajput SS, Pant BC, 1974. Studies on working qualities of Indian timbers. II. Holzforschung und Holzverwertung, 26(2):37-41; 6 ref

Shakya R, 1990. Plantation establishment pattern for community forestry plantations in the bhabar terai. Banko Janakari, 2(4):407-409; 2 ref

Sharma SN, Pandey CN, Kanojia HC, Mani Ram, 1988. Wood bending by vapour phase ammonia plasticization. Indian Forester, 114(11):752-760; 7 ref

Shukla KS, Pandey KN, Pant BC, Badoni SP, 1990. Carving behaviour of some Indian timbers - a quantitative approach. Journal of the Indian Academy of Wood Science, 21(2):27-32; 5 ref

Shukla KS, Sharma RC, Anil Negi, 1993. Suitability of Acrocarpus fraxinifolius (mundani) for plywood. Journal of the Timber Development Association of India, 39(4):39-45; 8 ref

Sosef MSM, Hong LT, Prawirohatmodjo S, eds, 1998. Plant resources of southeast Asia. Timber trees: lesser-known timbers. Leiden, The Netherlands: Backhuys Publishers, 5(3)

Streets RJ, 1962. Exotic forest trees in the British Commonwealth. Oxford, UK: Clarendon Press

Tewari DN, 1992. Tropical forestry in India. Dehra Dun, India; International Book Distributors, vii + 387 pp

Troup RS, Joshi HB, 1983. The Silviculture of Indian Trees. Vol IV. Leguminosae. Delhi, India; Controller of Publications

Witt, A., Luke, Q., 2017. Guide to the naturalized and invasive plants of Eastern Africa, [ed. by Witt, A., Luke, Q.]. Wallingford, UK: CABI.vi + 601 pp. http://www.cabi.org/cabebooks/ebook/20173158959 doi:10.1079/9781786392145.0000

Zech W, Drechsel P, 1992. Multiple mineral deficiencies in forest plantations in Liberia. Forest Ecology and Management, 48(1-2):121-143; 31 ref

Distribution References

CABI, Undated. Compendium record. Wallingford, UK: CABI

CABI, Undated a. CABI Compendium: Status inferred from regional distribution. Wallingford, UK: CABI

CABI, Undated b. CABI Compendium: Status as determined by CABI editor. Wallingford, UK: CABI

Witt A, Luke Q, 2017. Guide to the naturalized and invasive plants of Eastern Africa. [ed. by Witt A, Luke Q]. Wallingford, UK: CABI. vi + 601 pp. http://www.cabi.org/cabebooks/ebook/20173158959 DOI:10.1079/9781786392145.0000

Distribution Maps

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