Invasive Species Compendium

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Holmskioldia sanguinea
(Chinese hat plant)

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Datasheet

Holmskioldia sanguinea (Chinese hat plant)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 19 November 2019
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Documented Species
  • Host Plant
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Holmskioldia sanguinea
  • Preferred Common Name
  • Chinese hat plant
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Plantae
  •     Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •       Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •         Class: Dicotyledonae
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • H. sanguinea is a climbing shrub currently considered a low risk species according to a risk assessment prepared by PIER (2014) and is not yet...

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Holmskioldia sanguinea (Chinese hat plant, cup and saucer plant, parasol flower); flowering habit. Makawao, Maui, Hawaii, USA. January, 2007.
TitleFlowering habit
CaptionHolmskioldia sanguinea (Chinese hat plant, cup and saucer plant, parasol flower); flowering habit. Makawao, Maui, Hawaii, USA. January, 2007.
Copyright©Forest & Kim Starr-2007 - CC BY 3.0
Holmskioldia sanguinea (Chinese hat plant, cup and saucer plant, parasol flower); flowering habit. Makawao, Maui, Hawaii, USA. January, 2007.
Flowering habitHolmskioldia sanguinea (Chinese hat plant, cup and saucer plant, parasol flower); flowering habit. Makawao, Maui, Hawaii, USA. January, 2007.©Forest & Kim Starr-2007 - CC BY 3.0
Holmskioldia sanguinea (Chinese hat plant, cup and saucer plant, parasol flower); flowering habit. Makawao, Maui, Hawaii, USA. January, 2007.
TitleFlowering habit
CaptionHolmskioldia sanguinea (Chinese hat plant, cup and saucer plant, parasol flower); flowering habit. Makawao, Maui, Hawaii, USA. January, 2007.
Copyright©Forest & Kim Starr-2007 - CC BY 3.0
Holmskioldia sanguinea (Chinese hat plant, cup and saucer plant, parasol flower); flowering habit. Makawao, Maui, Hawaii, USA. January, 2007.
Flowering habitHolmskioldia sanguinea (Chinese hat plant, cup and saucer plant, parasol flower); flowering habit. Makawao, Maui, Hawaii, USA. January, 2007.©Forest & Kim Starr-2007 - CC BY 3.0
Holmskioldia sanguinea (Chinese hat plant, cup and saucer plant, parasol flower); orange flowers. Enchanting Floral Gardens of Kula, Maui, Hawaii, usa. October, 2007.
TitleFlowers
CaptionHolmskioldia sanguinea (Chinese hat plant, cup and saucer plant, parasol flower); orange flowers. Enchanting Floral Gardens of Kula, Maui, Hawaii, usa. October, 2007.
Copyright©Forest & Kim Starr-2007 - CC BY 3.0
Holmskioldia sanguinea (Chinese hat plant, cup and saucer plant, parasol flower); orange flowers. Enchanting Floral Gardens of Kula, Maui, Hawaii, usa. October, 2007.
FlowersHolmskioldia sanguinea (Chinese hat plant, cup and saucer plant, parasol flower); orange flowers. Enchanting Floral Gardens of Kula, Maui, Hawaii, usa. October, 2007.©Forest & Kim Starr-2007 - CC BY 3.0
Holmskioldia sanguinea (Chinese hat plant, cup and saucer plant, parasol flower); close view of orange flowers. Enchanting Floral Gardens of Kula, Maui, Hawaii, usa. October, 2007.
TitleFlowers
CaptionHolmskioldia sanguinea (Chinese hat plant, cup and saucer plant, parasol flower); close view of orange flowers. Enchanting Floral Gardens of Kula, Maui, Hawaii, usa. October, 2007.
Copyright©Forest & Kim Starr-2007 - CC BY 3.0
Holmskioldia sanguinea (Chinese hat plant, cup and saucer plant, parasol flower); close view of orange flowers. Enchanting Floral Gardens of Kula, Maui, Hawaii, usa. October, 2007.
FlowersHolmskioldia sanguinea (Chinese hat plant, cup and saucer plant, parasol flower); close view of orange flowers. Enchanting Floral Gardens of Kula, Maui, Hawaii, usa. October, 2007.©Forest & Kim Starr-2007 - CC BY 3.0
Holmskioldia sanguinea (Chinese hat plant, cup and saucer plant, parasol flower); leaves. Kula Botanical Garden, Maui, Hawaii, USA. March, 2011.
TitleLeaves
CaptionHolmskioldia sanguinea (Chinese hat plant, cup and saucer plant, parasol flower); leaves. Kula Botanical Garden, Maui, Hawaii, USA. March, 2011.
Copyright©Forest & Kim Starr-2011 - CC BY 3.0
Holmskioldia sanguinea (Chinese hat plant, cup and saucer plant, parasol flower); leaves. Kula Botanical Garden, Maui, Hawaii, USA. March, 2011.
LeavesHolmskioldia sanguinea (Chinese hat plant, cup and saucer plant, parasol flower); leaves. Kula Botanical Garden, Maui, Hawaii, USA. March, 2011.©Forest & Kim Starr-2011 - CC BY 3.0
Holmskioldia sanguinea (Chinese hat plant, cup and saucer plant, parasol flower); flowering habit, form citrina.  Kihei, Maui, Hawaii. January, 2007.
TitleFlowering habit
CaptionHolmskioldia sanguinea (Chinese hat plant, cup and saucer plant, parasol flower); flowering habit, form citrina. Kihei, Maui, Hawaii. January, 2007.
Copyright©Forest & Kim Starr-2007 - CC BY 3.0
Holmskioldia sanguinea (Chinese hat plant, cup and saucer plant, parasol flower); flowering habit, form citrina.  Kihei, Maui, Hawaii. January, 2007.
Flowering habitHolmskioldia sanguinea (Chinese hat plant, cup and saucer plant, parasol flower); flowering habit, form citrina. Kihei, Maui, Hawaii. January, 2007.©Forest & Kim Starr-2007 - CC BY 3.0
Holmskioldia sanguinea (Chinese hat plant, cup and saucer plant, parasol flower); flowering habit, form citrina. Kihei, Maui, Hawaii. January, 2007.
TitleFlowering habit
CaptionHolmskioldia sanguinea (Chinese hat plant, cup and saucer plant, parasol flower); flowering habit, form citrina. Kihei, Maui, Hawaii. January, 2007.
Copyright©Forest & Kim Starr-2007 - CC BY 3.0
Holmskioldia sanguinea (Chinese hat plant, cup and saucer plant, parasol flower); flowering habit, form citrina. Kihei, Maui, Hawaii. January, 2007.
Flowering habitHolmskioldia sanguinea (Chinese hat plant, cup and saucer plant, parasol flower); flowering habit, form citrina. Kihei, Maui, Hawaii. January, 2007.©Forest & Kim Starr-2007 - CC BY 3.0
Holmskioldia sanguinea (Chinese hat plant, cup and saucer plant, parasol flower); yellow flowers. Enchanting Floral Gardens of Kula, Maui, Hawaii, usa. October, 2007.
TitleFlowers
CaptionHolmskioldia sanguinea (Chinese hat plant, cup and saucer plant, parasol flower); yellow flowers. Enchanting Floral Gardens of Kula, Maui, Hawaii, usa. October, 2007.
Copyright©Forest & Kim Starr-2007 - CC BY 3.0
Holmskioldia sanguinea (Chinese hat plant, cup and saucer plant, parasol flower); yellow flowers. Enchanting Floral Gardens of Kula, Maui, Hawaii, usa. October, 2007.
FlowersHolmskioldia sanguinea (Chinese hat plant, cup and saucer plant, parasol flower); yellow flowers. Enchanting Floral Gardens of Kula, Maui, Hawaii, usa. October, 2007.©Forest & Kim Starr-2007 - CC BY 3.0

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Holmskioldia sanguinea Retz.

Preferred Common Name

  • Chinese hat plant

Other Scientific Names

  • Hastingia coccinea Sm.
  • Hastingia scandens Roxb.
  • Holmskioldia rubra Pers.
  • Holmskioldia sanguinea f. aurantica Yin Yin Kyi & DeFilipps
  • Holmskioldia sanguinea f. citrina Moldenke
  • Platunum rubrum A.Juss.

International Common Names

  • English: cup-and-saucer-plant; mandarin hat

Local Common Names

  • Cuba: farolito japonés; paragüita chino
  • Dominican Republic: paragüita chino
  • Haiti: bonnet chinois; chapeau chinois
  • India: arnam-amir; harelahara; harmuli; kharam leishok; wau-sau-laungi-araung
  • Jamaica: Chinese hat
  • Myanmar: hti-pan; parasol flower; saucer plant
  • Nepal: jhule phool
  • Puerto Rico: platillo
  • Sweden: mandarinhatt

Summary of Invasiveness

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H. sanguinea is a climbing shrub currently considered a low risk species according to a risk assessment prepared by PIER (2014) and is not yet known to be invasive (Gilman, 1999). The species is woody and persistent, reproduces by cuttings, air layering, or seeds which are viable and can survive passage through the gut, and can tolerate a wide range of soil conditions (Gilman, 1999; Whistler, 2000; Govaerts, 2014; PIER, 2014). However it is unlikely to spread as a contaminant of produce or soil, and its seeds are not adapted for wind dispersal and do not have thorns or burs to increase movement by hitchhiking (PIER, 2014). Monitoring, prevention and control of H. sanguinea is unnecessary at this time, but the species may pose a threat in the future as it continues to be intentionally spread for use as an ornamental.

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Plantae
  •         Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •             Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •                 Class: Dicotyledonae
  •                     Order: Lamiales
  •                         Family: Lamiaceae
  •                             Genus: Holmskioldia
  •                                 Species: Holmskioldia sanguinea

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

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The Lamiaceae, or mint family, is a family of herbs, shrubs, and trees comprising about 200 genera and 3,200 species, many with a long history of medicinal and food use, and characterized by their aromatic herbage, quadrangular stems, and verticillate inflorescences (University of Hawaii, 2014). This family includes some of the most well-known herbs including lavender, sage, basil, mint and oregano.

Holmskioldia currently includes only one accepted species, H. sanguinea (The Plant List, 2013). The genus is named for Danish scientist Theodor Holmskiold (Holm; Holmskjold) (1732-1794), a nobleman, botanist and physician (Stearn, 1992; Quattrocchi, 2012). H. sanguinea is an often cultivated ornamental plant and is named for its red, showy flowers. Its common names, Chinese hat plant and cup-and-saucer plant, are due to the shape of its flowers, a saucer-shaped calyx under a two-lipped funnel-shaped corolla.

Several species previously included in the genus Holmskioldia have been transferred to Karomia, a genus first described in 1932.

Description

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Scandent or erect shrub, with numerous basal branches, attaining 2 m in length. Stems obtusely quadrangular or cylindrical, puberulent, grayish; stipules absent. Leaves opposite, 3-12 × 1.5-8.5 cm, ovate or ovate-lanceolate, chartaceous, the apex acuminate or acute, the base cuneate or truncate, the margins serrate; upper surface puberulent, dark green, dull; lower surface puberulent, pale green, with numerous dots, the venation prominent; petioles 8-30 mm long, puberulent. Inflorescences of racemes or less frequently panicles, axillary or terminal, up to 5cm long; bracts minute; pedicels 2.5-8 mm long, slender, glandular-pubescent. Calyx acetabuliform, orange, 1.6-2.2 cm in diameter, with minute dots; corolla hypocrateriform, crimson, 1.5-2.5 cm long; stamens slightly exserted, the filaments pink; ovary glabrous, the style as long as the filaments. Fruit globose, brown, verrucose. [Acevedo-Rodriguez, 2005].

Plant Type

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Perennial
Seed propagated
Shrub
Vegetatively propagated
Vine / climber
Woody

Distribution

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H. sanguinea is native to the Eastern and Western Himalayan regions including Nepal, Myanmar, Bhutan, Bangladesh and India,, and has been distributed around the world as an ornamental, with records of its cultivation in the Americas, Europe, Indo-China, Asia-Pacific, and southern Africa (Whistler, 2000; Glen, 2002; Govaerts, 2014; PIER, 2014; USDA-ARS, 2014). The species has been introduced to the West Indies including the Leeward and Windward Islands (Govaerts, 2014). 

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 10 Jan 2020
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

MalawiPresentIntroducedNaturalizedNaturalized
MauritiusPresentIntroducedNaturalizedNaturalized

Asia

BangladeshPresentNative
BhutanPresentNative
BruneiPresentIntroducedNaturalizedNaturalized
ChinaPresentIntroduced
IndiaPresentNative
-AssamPresentNative
-BiharPresentNative
-GujaratPresentNative
-KarnatakaPresentNative
-Madhya PradeshPresentNative
-MaharashtraPresentNative
-ManipurPresentNative
-SikkimPresentNative
-Tamil NaduPresentNative
-Uttar PradeshPresentNative
-West BengalPresentNative
IndonesiaPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-JavaPresentIntroducedNaturalizedNaturalized
-Maluku IslandsPresentIntroducedNaturalizedNaturalized
-SumatraPresentIntroducedNaturalizedNaturalized
MalaysiaPresentIntroducedNaturalizedNaturalized
-Peninsular MalaysiaPresentNativePenang
MyanmarPresentNative
NepalPresent
PakistanPresent, Only in captivity/cultivation
PhilippinesPresentIntroducedNaturalizedNaturalized
SingaporePresentIntroducedNaturalizedNaturalized
Sri LankaPresentIntroducedNaturalizedNaturalized

Europe

United KingdomPresent, Only in captivity/cultivationIntroduced1796

North America

BarbadosPresent, Only in captivity/cultivation
Cayman IslandsPresent, Only in captivity/cultivation
Costa RicaPresentIntroducedNaturalizedNaturalized
CubaPresent, Only in captivity/cultivation
Dominican RepublicPresent, Only in captivity/cultivation
El SalvadorPresent
GuadeloupePresent, Only in captivity/cultivation
GuatemalaPresent
HaitiPresent, Only in captivity/cultivation
HondurasPresentIntroducedNaturalizedNaturalized
JamaicaPresent, Only in captivity/cultivation
MartiniquePresent, Only in captivity/cultivation
MexicoPresentIntroducedNaturalizedNaturalized in Gulf and southeast regions
MontserratPresent, Only in captivity/cultivation
NicaraguaPresentIntroducedNaturalizedNaturalized
PanamaPresentIntroducedNaturalizedNaturalized; Coclé, Panamá
Puerto RicoPresent, Only in captivity/cultivation
U.S. Virgin IslandsPresent, Only in captivity/cultivation
United StatesPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-FloridaPresentIntroduced
-HawaiiPresentIntroducedNaturalizedNaturalized

Oceania

New CaledoniaPresentIntroducedNaturalizedNaturalized

South America

BoliviaPresentIntroducedSanta Cruz; Original citation: Bolivia Checklist (2014)
ColombiaPresentIntroducedMedellín
EcuadorPresentIntroducedLos Rios
VenezuelaPresentIntroducedNaturalizedNaturalized

History of Introduction and Spread

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H. sanguinea is native to the Eastern and Western Himalayan regions but has been widely cultivated and naturalized throughout southern Asia, Mauritius, Indonesia and the West Indies (Whistler, 2000; PIER, 2014). The species was apparently imported to the UK around 1796 from China by way of Calcutta (Botanical Register, 1823; Jacques, 1833). In 1804 it was being promoted as an exotic, new, rare, and cultivation-worthy plant in Britain (Smith, 1804); in 1823 the Botanical Register credited the species’ introduction to the UK to Peter Good, and cited Retzius that the species was brought originally from China into the Botanic Garden at Calcutta, though it was “native of the interior parts of Bengal” (Botanical Register, 1823). Despite the early date of introduction to England, the species was not introduced to Parisian botanical gardens until years later (Jacques, 1833).

Date of the species’ introduction to the West Indies is uncertain. It may have occurred much later than its introduction to Europe, sometime in the early 1900s. Specimens were collected in Jamaica and Haiti in the 1920s (US Herbarium collections), but the species does not seem to be a well-known plant from this region and was not included in some major works around this time including Bello’s work on Puerto Rico (1881; 1883), Urban’s flora on the Antilles (Urban, 1898-1928), and Britton and Millspaugh’s work on the Bahamas (1920). Today the species is widely known as a cultivated garden plant or curiosity. 

Risk of Introduction

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Risk of introduction for this species is currently low. In a risk assessment prepared for Hawaii, H. sanguinea received a low score of -1 (score greater than 6 = reject for import; likely to be major pest) (PIER, 2014). The species is woody and persistent and possesses several invasive traits, including its intentional and repeated introduction outside of its native range, propagation by cuttings, air layering, or seeds which are viable and can survive passage through the gut, and tolerance of a wide range of soil conditions (Gilman, 1999; Whistler, 2000; Govaerts, 2014; PIER, 2014). However, the species has a minimum regenerative time of 3 years, requires specialist pollinators, and is unlikely to spread as a contaminant of produce or soil. Its seeds are not adapted for wind dispersal and do not have thorns or burs to increase movement by hitchhiking (PIER, 2014). Considering these factors, although H. sanguinea is not known to be invasive (Gilman, 1999) and is not considered a high risk species, the species could pose a threat in the future.

Habitat

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H. sanguinea is a popular ornamental and is native to subtropical, submontane habitats (USDA-ARS, 2014). It occurs in the sub-Himalayan tracts of India, Nepal, Bhutan, Sikkim, and Bangladesh (Flora of Pakistan, 2014). In the Himalayas, from Kumaun to Bhutan, the species has reportedly grown at elevations between 300-1500 m (Nepal Checklist, 2014). In Bolivia the species is found in lowlands, 0-500 m, and has been reported in rainforests (Bolivia Checklist, 2014). In Panama the species has been observed between 0-1000 m (Panama Checklist, 2014) and in Antioquia, Colombia the species occurs in submontane humid forests (Vascular Plants of Antioquia, 2014). It has also been reported growing in coastal areas in Ecuador (Vascular Plants of Ecuador, 2014).

Habitat List

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CategorySub-CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Terrestrial
Terrestrial ManagedCultivated / agricultural land Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Terrestrial ManagedProtected agriculture (e.g. glasshouse production) Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalNatural forests Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalNatural forests Present, no further details Natural
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalNatural forests Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
LittoralCoastal areas Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
LittoralCoastal areas Present, no further details Natural
LittoralCoastal areas Present, no further details Productive/non-natural

Biology and Ecology

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Genetics

Gametophytic count = 16, 18; sporophytic count = 36 (IPCN chromosome Reports, 2014).

Environmental Requirements

H. sanguinea grows in part-shade/part sun in sand, loam, or clay-type soils, and has a soil tolerance range from acidic to slightly alkaline (Gilman, 1999). 

Climate

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ClimateStatusDescriptionRemark
Af - Tropical rainforest climate Preferred > 60mm precipitation per month
Am - Tropical monsoon climate Preferred Tropical monsoon climate ( < 60mm precipitation driest month but > (100 - [total annual precipitation(mm}/25]))
As - Tropical savanna climate with dry summer Preferred < 60mm precipitation driest month (in summer) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
Aw - Tropical wet and dry savanna climate Preferred < 60mm precipitation driest month (in winter) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
Cs - Warm temperate climate with dry summer Tolerated Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry summers
Cw - Warm temperate climate with dry winter Tolerated Warm temperate climate with dry winter (Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry winters)

Soil Tolerances

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Soil reaction

  • acid
  • alkaline
  • neutral

Soil texture

  • heavy
  • light
  • medium

Means of Movement and Dispersal

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The seeds of this species have no means of attachment and are unlikely to be dispersed externally by animals, but they are encased in berries and can survive passage through the gut, as they are known to be dispersed by birds (PIER, 2014). Seeds are not adapted for wind dispersal.

H. sanguinea has been transported beyond its native range for use as an ornamental, and in the USA is used as a border and hedge plant (Gilman, 1999; USDA-ARS, 2014). H. sanguinea can regenerate by cuttings, trimmings and in garden waste which might result in the species’ escape from cultivation.

Pathway Causes

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CauseNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Botanical gardens and zoosIntentionally spread as an ornamental and botanical curiosity Yes
Garden waste disposalCapable of regenerating by cuttings Yes Yes Gilman (1999)
Hedges and windbreaksUsed as a border and hedge plant Yes Yes Gilman (1999)
Landscape improvement Yes Yes Gilman (1999)
Medicinal use Yes Quattrocchi (2012)
Ornamental purposes Yes Yes Gilman (1999)

Pathway Vectors

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VectorNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Debris and waste associated with human activitiesGrown as an ornamental: capable of regenerating from cuttings Yes Yes Gilman (1999)
Host and vector organismsSeeds reportedly dispersed by birds Yes Yes PIER (2014)
Machinery and equipment Yes Yes Gilman (1999)

Impact: Economic

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Although H. sanguinea poses a low risk of introduction and is not known to be invasive, it is grown as an ornamental and used as a hedge and border plant in cultivated areas. Its invasive characteristics, which include its woodiness and persistence, tolerance of various soil conditions, and ability to reproduce by cuttings, could cause minor disruption to agriculture or unwanted growth within home gardens (Gilman, 1999; Govaerts, 2014; PIER, 2014). The species could possibly be a fire hazard if allowed to grow unpruned, as it can accumulate dry canes (PIER, 2014).

Risk and Impact Factors

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Invasiveness
  • Tolerates, or benefits from, cultivation, browsing pressure, mutilation, fire etc
  • Tolerant of shade
  • Has propagules that can remain viable for more than one year
  • Reproduces asexually
Impact outcomes
  • Modification of fire regime
  • Negatively impacts agriculture
Likelihood of entry/control
  • Highly likely to be transported internationally deliberately

Uses

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H. sanguinea is cultivated as an ornamental and used as a border and hedge plant (Gilman, 1999; USDA-ARS, 2014). It is also reportedly used in traditional medicine. Crushed fresh leaves and shoots are applied in rheumatism and rheumatoid arthritis; extracts of leaves and stembark are taken for dysentery, headaches, and high blood pressure, while leaves are boiled as part of a blood purifying concoction. Leaves and flowers are also believed to have magico-ritual significance, especially in treating children’s diseases (Quattrocchi, 2012).

Uses List

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Environmental

  • Boundary, barrier or support
  • Landscape improvement

General

  • Ornamental

Medicinal, pharmaceutical

  • Traditional/folklore

Ornamental

  • Potted plant

Prevention and Control

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Due to the variable regulations around (de)registration of pesticides, your national list of registered pesticides or relevant authority should be consulted to determine which products are legally allowed for use in your country when considering chemical control. Pesticides should always be used in a lawful manner, consistent with the product's label.

H. sanguinea is not considered a high-risk or potential invasive species, but increased cultivation and introduction as a hedge plant could allow for accidental escape. Considering its lack of widespread popularity as an ornamental, however, monitoring of this particular species is not necessary at this time. A re-evaluation of the species’ distribution and risk is recommended in the future.

References

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Acevedo-Rodríguez P; Strong MT, 2005. Monocots and Gymnosperms of Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands. Contributions from the United States National Herbarium, volume 52:415 pp.

Acevedo-Rodríguez P; Strong MT, 2012. Catalogue of the Seed Plants of the West Indies. Smithsonian Contributions to Botany, 98:1192 pp. Washington DC, USA: Smithsonian Institution. http://botany.si.edu/Antilles/WestIndies/catalog.htm

Bello D, 1883. [English title not available]. (Apuntes para la flora de Puerto Rico. Segunda parte. Monoclamídeas.) Anales de la Sociedad Española de Historia Natural, 12:103-130.

Bello Espinosa D, 1881. [English title not available]. (Apuntes para la flora de Puerto Rico. Primera parte.) Anal. Soc. Española de Hist. Nat, 10:231-304.

Bolivia Checklist, 2014. Catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Bolivia, Tropicos website. St. Louis, Missouri and Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden and Harvard University Herbaria. http://tropicos.org/NameSearch.aspx?projectid=13

Botanical Register, 1823. Botanical Register, Volume 9.

Britton NL, 1918. Flora of Bermuda. New York, USA: Charles Scribner's Sons. 585 pp.

Britton NL; Millspaugh CF, 1920. The Bahama Flora. New York, USA: NL Britton & CF Millspaugh.

Flora Mesoamericana, 2014. Flora Mesoamericana. St. Louis, Missouri, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden. http://www.tropicos.org/Project/FM

Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2014. Flora of China. St. Louis, Missouri and Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden and Harvard University Herbaria. http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2

Flora of Pakistan, 2014. Flora of Pakistan/Pakistan Plant Database (PPD). Tropicos website St. Louis, Missouri and Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden and Harvard University Herbaria. http://www.tropicos.org/Project/Pakistan

Gilman EF, 1999. Holmskioldia sanguinea Fact Sheet FPS-256. http://hort.ifas.ufl.edu/database/documents/pdf/shrub_fact_sheets/holsana.pdf

Glen HF, 2002. Cultivated plants of Southern Africa: botanical names, common names, origins, literature. Johannesburg, South Africa: Jacana Education, 435 pp.

Govaerts R, 2014. World Checklist of Lamiaceae. Richmond, London, UK: Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/

IPCN Chromosome Reports, 2014. Index to Plant Chromosome Numbers (IPCN), Tropicos website. St. Louis, Missouri, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden. http://tropicos.org/Project/IPCN

Jacques, 1833. Homlskioldea Retz. (Homlskioldea Retz.) In: Annales de flore et de pomone: ou journal des jardins et des champs. 1832-1833. 221-223. http://books.google.com/books?id=zeRIAAAAMAAJ&printsec=frontcover&source=gbs_ge_summary_r&cad=0#v=onepage&q&f=false

Kress WJ; Defilipps RA; Farr E; Kyi DYY, 2003. A checklist of the trees, shrubs, herbs, and climbers of Myanmar. Contributions from the United States National Herbarium, 45:1-590.

Nepal Checklist, 2014. Annotated Checklist of the Flowering Plants of Nepal. St. Louis, Missouri and Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden and Harvard University Herbaria. http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=110

Panama Checklist, 2014. Flora of Panama Checklist, Tropicos website. St. Louis, Missouri and Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden and Harvard University Herbaria. http://tropicos.org/Project/PAC

PIER, 2014. Pacific Islands Ecosystems at Risk. Honolulu, USA: HEAR, University of Hawaii. http://www.hear.org/pier/index.html

Quattrocchi U, 2012. CRC world dictionary of medicinal and poisonous plants: common names, scientific names, eponyms, synonyms, and etymology [ed. by Quattrocchi, U.]. London, UK: CRC Press Inc., 3960 pp.

Smith JE, 1804. Exotic Botany: Consisting of Coloured Figures, and Scientific Descriptions, of Such New, Beautiful, or Rare Plants As Are Worthy of Cultivation in the Gardens of Britain. London, UK: R. Taylor and Co.

Stearn WT, 1992. Stearns dictionary of plant names for gardeners: A handbok on the origin and meaning of the botanical names of some cultivated plants. London, UK: Cassell.

The Plant List, 2013. The Plant List: a working list of all plant species. Version 1.1. London, UK: Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. http://www.theplantlist.org

University of Hawaii, 2014. Department of Botany Vascular Plant Family Access Page: Lamiaceae (Labiatae). Honolulu, USA: University of Hawaii. http://www.botany.hawaii.edu/faculty/carr/lami.htm

Urban I, 1898-1928. Symbolae Antillanae: Seu fundamenta florae Indiae Occidentalis. Berolini, Germany: Fratres Borntraeger.

USDA-ARS, 2014. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Online Database. Beltsville, Maryland, USA: National Germplasm Resources Laboratory. https://npgsweb.ars-grin.gov/gringlobal/taxon/taxonomysearch.aspx

USDA-NRCS, 2014. The PLANTS Database. Baton Rouge, USA: National Plant Data Center. http://plants.usda.gov/

Vascular Plants of Antioquia, 2014. Catalogue of the Vascular Plants of the Department of Antioquia (Colombia), Tropicos website. St. Louis, Missouri and Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden and Harvard University Herbaria. http://tropicos.org/Project/CV

Vascular Plants of Ecuador, 2014. Catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Ecuador, Tropicos website. St. Louis, Missouri and Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden and Harvard University Herbaria. http://tropicos.org/Project/CE

Whistler WA, 2000. Tropical ornamentals. Portland, Oregon, USA: Timber Press.

Wunderlin RP; Hansen BF, 2014. Atlas of Florida Vascular Plants. http://florida.plantatlas.usf.edu/

Distribution References

Acevedo-Rodríguez P, Strong M T, 2012. Catalogue of the Seed Plants of the West Indies. Washington, DC, USA: Smithsonian Institution. 1192 pp. http://botany.si.edu/Antilles/WestIndies/catalog.htm

Botanical Register, 1823. Botanical Register., 9

CABI, Undated. Compendium record. Wallingford, UK: CABI

CABI, Undated a. CABI Compendium: Status inferred from regional distribution. Wallingford, UK: CABI

CABI, Undated b. CABI Compendium: Status as determined by CABI editor. Wallingford, UK: CABI

Flora Mesoamericana, 2014. Flora Mesoamericana., St. Louis, Missouri, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden. http://www.tropicos.org/Project/FM

Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2014. Flora of China., St. Louis, Missouri and Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden and Harvard University Herbaria. http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2

Flora of Pakistan, 2014. Flora of Pakistan/Pakistan Plant Database (PPD)., St. Louis, Missouri and Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden and Harvard University Herbaria. http://www.tropicos.org/Project/Pakistan

Govaerts R, 2014. World Checklist of Lamiaceae., Richmond, London, UK: Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/

USDA-ARS, 2014. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Online Database. Beltsville, Maryland, USA: National Germplasm Resources Laboratory. https://npgsweb.ars-grin.gov/gringlobal/taxon/taxonomysimple.aspx

USDA-NRCS, 2014. The PLANTS Database. Greensboro, North Carolina, USA: National Plant Data Team. https://plants.sc.egov.usda.gov

Vascular Plants of Antioquia, 2014. Catalogue of the Vascular Plants of the Department of Antioquia (Colombia)., St. Louis, Missouri and Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden and Harvard University Herbaria. http://tropicos.org/Project/CV

Vascular Plants of Ecuador, 2014. Catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Ecuador, Tropicos website., St. Louis, Missouri and Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden and Harvard University Herbaria. http://tropicos.org/Project/CE

Wunderlin RP, Hansen BF, 2014. Atlas of Florida Vascular Plants., http://florida.plantatlas.usf.edu/

Links to Websites

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WebsiteURLComment
Check list of Myanmar Plantshttp://botany.si.edu/myanmar/
GISD/IASPMR: Invasive Alien Species Pathway Management Resource and DAISIE European Invasive Alien Species Gatewayhttps://doi.org/10.5061/dryad.m93f6Data source for updated system data added to species habitat list.

Contributors

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28/8/2014 Original text by:

Marianne Jennifer Datiles, Department of Botany-Smithsonian NMNH, Washington DC, USA

Pedro Acevedo-Rodríguez, Department of Botany-Smithsonian NMNH, Washington DC, USA

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