Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Heterobasidion annosum

Toolbox

Datasheet

Heterobasidion annosum

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 18 November 2019
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Pest
  • Natural Enemy
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Heterobasidion annosum
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Fungi
  •     Phylum: Basidiomycota
  •       Subphylum: Agaricomycotina
  •         Class: Agaricomycetes

Don't need the entire report?

Generate a print friendly version containing only the sections you need.

Generate report

Pictures

Top of page
PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Basidiocarp on ground under Norway spruce (Picea abies), Estonia.
TitleBasidiocarp
CaptionBasidiocarp on ground under Norway spruce (Picea abies), Estonia.
CopyrightKari Korhonen
Basidiocarp on ground under Norway spruce (Picea abies), Estonia.
BasidiocarpBasidiocarp on ground under Norway spruce (Picea abies), Estonia.Kari Korhonen
Basidiocarp on Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) stump, Belarus.
TitleBasidiocarp
CaptionBasidiocarp on Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) stump, Belarus.
CopyrightKari Korhonen
Basidiocarp on Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) stump, Belarus.
BasidiocarpBasidiocarp on Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) stump, Belarus.Kari Korhonen
Basidiocarp at the base of birch (Betula pendula).
TitleBasidiocarp
CaptionBasidiocarp at the base of birch (Betula pendula).
CopyrightKari Korhonen
Basidiocarp at the base of birch (Betula pendula).
BasidiocarpBasidiocarp at the base of birch (Betula pendula).Kari Korhonen
Basidiocarp on a Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) sapling, Finland.
TitleBasidiocarp
CaptionBasidiocarp on a Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) sapling, Finland.
CopyrightKari Korhonen
Basidiocarp on a Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) sapling, Finland.
BasidiocarpBasidiocarp on a Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) sapling, Finland.Kari Korhonen
Small basidiocarp on a Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) sapling, Finland.
TitleBasidiocarp
CaptionSmall basidiocarp on a Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) sapling, Finland.
CopyrightKari Korhonen
Small basidiocarp on a Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) sapling, Finland.
BasidiocarpSmall basidiocarp on a Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) sapling, Finland.Kari Korhonen
Typical white pustules (small basidiocarp primordia) at the base of a Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) sapling, Finland.
TitleBasidiocarp primordia
CaptionTypical white pustules (small basidiocarp primordia) at the base of a Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) sapling, Finland.
CopyrightKari Korhonen
Typical white pustules (small basidiocarp primordia) at the base of a Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) sapling, Finland.
Basidiocarp primordiaTypical white pustules (small basidiocarp primordia) at the base of a Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) sapling, Finland.Kari Korhonen
Heterobasidion root rot and Peridermium pini in a Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) stand in Finland. The whole crown dies simultaneously in the trees attacked by Heterobasidion, whereas only the top is dying in the tree attacked by Peridermium.
TitleField symptoms
CaptionHeterobasidion root rot and Peridermium pini in a Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) stand in Finland. The whole crown dies simultaneously in the trees attacked by Heterobasidion, whereas only the top is dying in the tree attacked by Peridermium.
CopyrightKari Korhonen
Heterobasidion root rot and Peridermium pini in a Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) stand in Finland. The whole crown dies simultaneously in the trees attacked by Heterobasidion, whereas only the top is dying in the tree attacked by Peridermium.
Field symptomsHeterobasidion root rot and Peridermium pini in a Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) stand in Finland. The whole crown dies simultaneously in the trees attacked by Heterobasidion, whereas only the top is dying in the tree attacked by Peridermium.Kari Korhonen
Difference in pore size between H. parviporum (a) and Heterobasidion annosum (b). |Difference in pore size between Heterobasidion parviporum (a) and H. annosum (b).
TitlePore size
CaptionDifference in pore size between H. parviporum (a) and Heterobasidion annosum (b). |Difference in pore size between Heterobasidion parviporum (a) and H. annosum (b).
CopyrightKari Korhonen
Difference in pore size between H. parviporum (a) and Heterobasidion annosum (b). |Difference in pore size between Heterobasidion parviporum (a) and H. annosum (b).
Pore sizeDifference in pore size between H. parviporum (a) and Heterobasidion annosum (b). |Difference in pore size between Heterobasidion parviporum (a) and H. annosum (b). Kari Korhonen
Section of basidiocarp margin: H. parviporum (a) has tomentum on the upper side, Heterobasidion annosum (b) has not. |Section of basidiocarp margin: Heterobasidion parviporum (a) has tomentum on the upper side, H. annosum (b) has not.
TitleSection of basidiocarp
CaptionSection of basidiocarp margin: H. parviporum (a) has tomentum on the upper side, Heterobasidion annosum (b) has not. |Section of basidiocarp margin: Heterobasidion parviporum (a) has tomentum on the upper side, H. annosum (b) has not.
CopyrightKari Korhonen
Section of basidiocarp margin: H. parviporum (a) has tomentum on the upper side, Heterobasidion annosum (b) has not. |Section of basidiocarp margin: Heterobasidion parviporum (a) has tomentum on the upper side, H. annosum (b) has not.
Section of basidiocarpSection of basidiocarp margin: H. parviporum (a) has tomentum on the upper side, Heterobasidion annosum (b) has not. |Section of basidiocarp margin: Heterobasidion parviporum (a) has tomentum on the upper side, H. annosum (b) has not. Kari Korhonen
Typical pure cultures of H. parviporum (a) and Heterobasidion annosum (b) on malt extract agar. Age of cultures ca 4 weeks.|Typical pure cultures of Heterobasidion parviporum (a) and H. annosum (b) on malt extract agar. Age of cultures ca 4 weeks.
TitleCulture media
CaptionTypical pure cultures of H. parviporum (a) and Heterobasidion annosum (b) on malt extract agar. Age of cultures ca 4 weeks.|Typical pure cultures of Heterobasidion parviporum (a) and H. annosum (b) on malt extract agar. Age of cultures ca 4 weeks.
CopyrightKari Korhonen
Typical pure cultures of H. parviporum (a) and Heterobasidion annosum (b) on malt extract agar. Age of cultures ca 4 weeks.|Typical pure cultures of Heterobasidion parviporum (a) and H. annosum (b) on malt extract agar. Age of cultures ca 4 weeks.
Culture mediaTypical pure cultures of H. parviporum (a) and Heterobasidion annosum (b) on malt extract agar. Age of cultures ca 4 weeks.|Typical pure cultures of Heterobasidion parviporum (a) and H. annosum (b) on malt extract agar. Age of cultures ca 4 weeks.Kari Korhonen
Heterobasidion root rot in a young Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) stand, Finland.
TitleField symptoms
CaptionHeterobasidion root rot in a young Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) stand, Finland.
CopyrightKari Korhonen
Heterobasidion root rot in a young Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) stand, Finland.
Field symptomsHeterobasidion root rot in a young Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) stand, Finland.Kari Korhonen
Heterobasidion disease centre in a Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) plantation on former agricultural soil in Belarus.
TitleField symptoms
CaptionHeterobasidion disease centre in a Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) plantation on former agricultural soil in Belarus.
CopyrightKari Korhonen
Heterobasidion disease centre in a Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) plantation on former agricultural soil in Belarus.
Field symptomsHeterobasidion disease centre in a Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) plantation on former agricultural soil in Belarus.Kari Korhonen
Heterobasidion root rot in a Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) plantation on former agricultural soil in Belarus.
TitleField symptoms
CaptionHeterobasidion root rot in a Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) plantation on former agricultural soil in Belarus.
CopyrightKari Korhonen
Heterobasidion root rot in a Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) plantation on former agricultural soil in Belarus.
Field symptomsHeterobasidion root rot in a Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) plantation on former agricultural soil in Belarus.Kari Korhonen
Heterobasidion root rot in a Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) plantation on former agricultural soil in Belarus.
TitleField symptoms
CaptionHeterobasidion root rot in a Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) plantation on former agricultural soil in Belarus.
CopyrightKari Korhonen
Heterobasidion root rot in a Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) plantation on former agricultural soil in Belarus.
Field symptomsHeterobasidion root rot in a Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) plantation on former agricultural soil in Belarus.Kari Korhonen
Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) saplings killed by Heterobasidion annosum s.str. Finland.
TitleField symptoms
CaptionScots pine (Pinus sylvestris) saplings killed by Heterobasidion annosum s.str. Finland.
CopyrightKari Korhonen
Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) saplings killed by Heterobasidion annosum s.str. Finland.
Field symptomsScots pine (Pinus sylvestris) saplings killed by Heterobasidion annosum s.str. Finland.Kari Korhonen
A Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) sapling killed by Heterobasidion annosum s.str. Finland.
TitleField symptoms
CaptionA Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) sapling killed by Heterobasidion annosum s.str. Finland.
CopyrightKari Korhonen
A Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) sapling killed by Heterobasidion annosum s.str. Finland.
Field symptomsA Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) sapling killed by Heterobasidion annosum s.str. Finland.Kari Korhonen
Symptoms (resinosis) of Heterobasidion root rot in a fresh Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) stump, Finland.
TitleSymptoms
CaptionSymptoms (resinosis) of Heterobasidion root rot in a fresh Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) stump, Finland.
CopyrightKari Korhonen
Symptoms (resinosis) of Heterobasidion root rot in a fresh Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) stump, Finland.
SymptomsSymptoms (resinosis) of Heterobasidion root rot in a fresh Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) stump, Finland.Kari Korhonen
Symptoms (resinosis) of Heterobasidion root rot in a Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) stump, Finland.
TitleSymptoms
CaptionSymptoms (resinosis) of Heterobasidion root rot in a Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) stump, Finland.
CopyrightKari Korhonen
Symptoms (resinosis) of Heterobasidion root rot in a Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) stump, Finland.
SymptomsSymptoms (resinosis) of Heterobasidion root rot in a Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) stump, Finland.Kari Korhonen

Identity

Top of page

Preferred Scientific Name

  • Heterobasidion annosum (Fr.) Bref. sensu stricto

Taxonomic Tree

Top of page
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Fungi
  •         Phylum: Basidiomycota
  •             Subphylum: Agaricomycotina
  •                 Class: Agaricomycetes
  •                     Subclass: Agaricomycetidae
  •                         Order: Russulales
  •                             Family: Bondarzewiaceae
  •                                 Genus: Heterobasidion
  •                                     Species: Heterobasidion annosum

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

Top of page
Heterobasidion annosum sensu stricto was separated from the Northern Hemisphere species complex H. annosum sensu lato by Niemelä and Korhonen (1998) and corresponds to the European intersterility group 'P' (Korhonen, 1978). The taxonomic position of its North American counterpart, the 'North American intersterility group P' or 'pine group', is not clear. In the Compendium, this group is considered as a population of H. annosum sensu stricto.

Description

Top of page
H. annosum sensu stricto, H. parviporum and H. abietinum are close relatives and show only small differences in morphology, although they have not yet been thoroughly investigated. It is usually relatively easy to distinguish between H. annosum and H. parviporum on the basis of basidiocarp morphology: H. annosum has large pores and the brown upper surface is hard, whereas H. parviporum has small pores and the brown upper surface near the margin looks soft and velvety (tomentose) when viewed under a magnifying glass. Identification of H. abietinum is more difficult as these characteristics are somewhere between those of H. annosum and H. parviporum (Mugnai and Capretti, 1989). Accurate identification of these three species is often only possible in the laboratory.

A detailed description of morphology exists only for H. annosum sensu lato.

Distribution

Top of page
Although precise identifications are lacking, H. annosum sensu stricto probably exists everywhere in Europe where Heterobasidion occurs in pine forests, i.e. in almost all European countries. The northern limit of distribution in Scandinavia is ca 63°N. In the east, the distribution of H. annosum sensu stricto probably extends over southern Siberia, but it has not yet been found in eastern Asia.

North American records in the distribution list refer to the 'North American intersterility group P' or 'pine group' of H. annosum sensu stricto. The North American P group probably occurs in all states where H. annosum sensu lato has been recorded, excluding perhaps Alaska, and appears to be the only intersterility group of H. annosum occurring in eastern parts of the continent.

Distribution Table

Top of page

The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 25 Feb 2021
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Asia

JapanPresent
KazakhstanPresent
NepalPresent
TurkeyPresent2005

Europe

AustriaPresent, WidespreadNative
BelarusPresent, WidespreadNative
BulgariaPresent, LocalizedNative
CyprusPresent2003
CzechiaPresent
CzechoslovakiaPresent
Union of Soviet Socialist RepublicsPresent
DenmarkPresent, WidespreadNative
EstoniaPresent, LocalizedNative
FinlandPresent, WidespreadNative
FrancePresent, WidespreadNative
GermanyPresent, WidespreadNative
GreecePresent, WidespreadNative
HungaryPresent, WidespreadNative
IrelandPresent
ItalyPresent, WidespreadNative
LatviaPresent, WidespreadNative
LithuaniaPresent, WidespreadNative
NetherlandsPresent, WidespreadNative
NorwayPresent, WidespreadNative
PolandPresent, WidespreadNative
PortugalPresentNative
-MadeiraPresent
RussiaPresent
-Russia (Europe)Present, WidespreadNativeOriginal citation: Dai et al. (2003)
-SiberiaPresent, LocalizedNativeOriginal citation: Dai et al. (2003)
Serbia and MontenegroPresent, WidespreadNative
SloveniaPresent, WidespreadNative
SpainPresent
SwedenPresent, WidespreadNative
SwitzerlandPresent, LocalizedNative
UkrainePresentNative
United KingdomPresent, WidespreadNative
-ScotlandPresent, WidespreadNative

North America

CanadaPresent
-British ColumbiaPresent
-OntarioPresent, LocalizedNative
-QuebecPresent, LocalizedNative
MexicoPresent
United StatesPresent, WidespreadNative
-AlaskaPresent
-ArizonaPresent
-CaliforniaPresent, WidespreadNative
-ColoradoPresent
-FloridaPresent
-GeorgiaPresent, WidespreadNative
-MontanaPresent, WidespreadNative
-NebraskaPresent
-New HampshirePresent, WidespreadNative
-New MexicoPresent
-North CarolinaPresent, WidespreadNative
-OregonPresent, WidespreadNative
-VermontPresent, WidespreadNative
-VirginiaPresent
-WashingtonPresent
-WisconsinPresent

Oceania

AustraliaPresent
New ZealandPresent

History of Introduction and Spread

Top of page
There are no proven cases of introduction of H. annosum sensu stricto.

Hosts/Species Affected

Top of page
H. annosum sensu stricto mainly affects species of Pinus, but it also affects a wide range of other conifers in Europe. It is found relatively often on dicotyledonous hosts when they grow in mixture with a susceptible conifer species. It primarily inhabits pine forests and plantations of other conifers established on sites with pine history. It is rare or absent in eastern Asia. Many of the hosts listed have been recorded in the UK, where only H. annosum sensu stricto has been found.

The North American P group affects mostly species of Pinus in North America. The following hosts have only been recorded for the North American P group: Libocedrus decurrens, Arctostaphylos sp., Calocedrus decurrens, Juniperus occidentalis, Picea engelmannii, P. rubens, Pinus coulteri, P. elliottii, P. jeffreyi, P. lambertiana, P. monophylla, P. ponderosa, P. resinosa and P. taeda.

Host Plants and Other Plants Affected

Top of page
Plant nameFamilyContextReferences
Abies alba (silver fir)PinaceaeOther
    Abies amabilis (Pacific silver fir)PinaceaeOther
      Abies balsamea (balsam fir)PinaceaeOther
        Abies cephalonica (Greek fir)PinaceaeOther
          Abies concolor (Rocky Mountain white fir)PinaceaeMain
            Abies firma (momi fir)PinaceaeOther
              Abies grandis (grand fir)PinaceaeOther
                Abies homolepis (Nikko fir)PinaceaeOther
                  Abies nordmanniana (Nordmann fir)PinaceaeOther
                    Abies procera (noble fir)PinaceaeOther
                      Abies sachalinensis (Sakhalin fir)PinaceaeMain
                        Acer platanoides (Norway maple)AceraceaeOther
                          Acer pseudoplatanus (sycamore)AceraceaeOther
                            Alnus glutinosa (European alder)BetulaceaeOther
                              Alnus incana (grey alder)BetulaceaeOther
                                Araucaria araucana (monkey puzzle)AraucariaceaeOther
                                  Arctostaphylos (bearberry)EricaceaeOther
                                    Betula pendula (common silver birch)BetulaceaeOther
                                      Betula pubescens (Downy birch)BetulaceaeOther
                                        Calluna vulgaris (heather)EricaceaeOther
                                          Calocedrus decurrens (bastard cedar)CupressaceaeMain
                                            Carpinus betulus (hornbeam)BetulaceaeOther
                                              Castanea sativa (chestnut)FagaceaeOther
                                                Cedrus deodara (Himalayan cedar)PinaceaeOther
                                                  Chamaecyparis lawsoniana (Port Orford cedar)CupressaceaeOther
                                                    Corylus avellana (hazel)BetulaceaeOther
                                                      Crataegus monogyna (hawthorn)RosaceaeOther
                                                        Crataegus rhipidophylla (Midland hawthorn)RosaceaeOther
                                                          Cupressocyparis leylandii (Leyland cypress)CupressaceaeOther
                                                            Cupressus arizonica (Arizona cypress)CupressaceaeOther
                                                              Cupressus lusitanica (Mexican cypress)CupressaceaeOther
                                                                Cupressus macrocarpa (Monterey cypress)CupressaceaeOther
                                                                  Cupressus sempervirens (Mediterranean cypress)CupressaceaeOther
                                                                    Cytisus scoparius (Scotch broom)FabaceaeOther
                                                                      Erica scoparia (green heather)EricaceaeOther
                                                                        Fagus sylvatica (common beech)FagaceaeOther
                                                                          Fraxinus excelsior (ash)OleaceaeOther
                                                                            Fraxinus ornus (flowering ash)OleaceaeOther
                                                                              Juniperus communis (common juniper)CupressaceaeOther
                                                                                Juniperus occidentalis (western Juniper)CupressaceaeOther
                                                                                  Larix decidua (common larch)PinaceaeMain
                                                                                    Larix kaempferi (Japanese larch)PinaceaeOther
                                                                                      Larix marschlinsii (hybrid larch)PinaceaeOther
                                                                                        Larix sibirica (Siberian larch)PinaceaeOther
                                                                                          Laurus nobilis (sweet bay)LauraceaeOther
                                                                                            Ligustrum vulgare (common privet)OleaceaeOther
                                                                                              Malus sylvestris (crab-apple tree)RosaceaeOther
                                                                                                Metasequoia glyptostroboides (water fir)TaxodiaceaeOther
                                                                                                  Nothofagus alpina (rauli beech)NothofagaceaeOther
                                                                                                    Nothofagus obliqua (roble)NothofagaceaeOther
                                                                                                      Picea abies (common spruce)PinaceaeMain
                                                                                                        Picea asperata (dragon spruce)PinaceaeOther
                                                                                                          Picea engelmannii (Engelmann spruce)PinaceaeOther
                                                                                                            Picea omorika (Pancic spruce)PinaceaeOther
                                                                                                              Picea retroflexaPinaceaeOther
                                                                                                                Picea rubens (red spruce)PinaceaeOther
                                                                                                                  Picea sitchensis (Sitka spruce)PinaceaeMain
                                                                                                                    Pinus armandii (armand's pine)PinaceaeOther
                                                                                                                      Pinus banksiana (jack pine)PinaceaeOther
                                                                                                                        Pinus contorta (lodgepole pine)PinaceaeOther
                                                                                                                          Pinus coulteri (big-cone pine)PinaceaeOther
                                                                                                                            Pinus elliottii (slash pine)PinaceaeOther
                                                                                                                              Pinus jeffreyi (Jeffrey pine)PinaceaeOther
                                                                                                                                Pinus lambertiana (big pine)PinaceaeOther
                                                                                                                                  Pinus monophylla (single-leaf pinyon pine)PinaceaeOther
                                                                                                                                    Pinus mugo (mountain pine)PinaceaeOther
                                                                                                                                      Pinus nigra (black pine)PinaceaeOther
                                                                                                                                        Pinus peuce (macedonian pine)PinaceaeOther
                                                                                                                                          Pinus pinaster (maritime pine)PinaceaeMain
                                                                                                                                            Pinus pinea (stone pine)PinaceaeMain
                                                                                                                                              Pinus ponderosa (ponderosa pine)PinaceaeOther
                                                                                                                                                Pinus radiata (radiata pine)PinaceaeOther
                                                                                                                                                  Pinus resinosa (red pine)PinaceaeOther
                                                                                                                                                    Pinus strobus (eastern white pine)PinaceaeOther
                                                                                                                                                      Pinus sylvestris (Scots pine)PinaceaeMain
                                                                                                                                                        Pinus taeda (loblolly pine)PinaceaeOther
                                                                                                                                                          Pinus virginiana (scrub pine)PinaceaeOther
                                                                                                                                                            Pinus wallichiana (blue pine)PinaceaeOther
                                                                                                                                                              Populus nigra (black poplar)SalicaceaeOther
                                                                                                                                                                Populus tremula (aspen (European))SalicaceaeOther
                                                                                                                                                                  Prunus cerasifera (myrobalan plum)RosaceaeOther
                                                                                                                                                                    Prunus domestica (plum)RosaceaeOther
                                                                                                                                                                      Prunus padus (bird cherry)RosaceaeOther
                                                                                                                                                                        Prunus persica (peach)RosaceaeOther
                                                                                                                                                                          Prunus salicina (Japanese plum)RosaceaeOther
                                                                                                                                                                            Prunus spinosa (blackthorn)RosaceaeOther
                                                                                                                                                                              Pseudotsuga menziesii (Douglas-fir)PinaceaeMain
                                                                                                                                                                                Pteridium aquilinum (bracken)DennstaedtiaceaeOther
                                                                                                                                                                                  Quercus cerris (European Turkey oak)FagaceaeOther
                                                                                                                                                                                    Quercus ilex (holm oak)FagaceaeOther
                                                                                                                                                                                      Quercus petraea (durmast oak)FagaceaeOther
                                                                                                                                                                                        Quercus robur (common oak)FagaceaeOther
                                                                                                                                                                                          Quercus rubra (northern red oak)FagaceaeOther
                                                                                                                                                                                            Rhododendron ponticum (rhododendron)EricaceaeOther
                                                                                                                                                                                              Rubus fruticosus (blackberry)RosaceaeOther
                                                                                                                                                                                                Sorbus aria (whitebeam)RosaceaeOther
                                                                                                                                                                                                  Sorbus aucuparia (mountain ash)RosaceaeOther
                                                                                                                                                                                                    Taxus baccata (English yew)TaxaceaeOther
                                                                                                                                                                                                      Thuja plicata (western redcedar)CupressaceaeOther
                                                                                                                                                                                                        Tsuga heterophylla (western hemlock)PinaceaeOther
                                                                                                                                                                                                          Ulex europaeus (gorse)FabaceaeOther

                                                                                                                                                                                                            Growth Stages

                                                                                                                                                                                                            Top of page
                                                                                                                                                                                                            Vegetative growing stage

                                                                                                                                                                                                            Symptoms

                                                                                                                                                                                                            Top of page
                                                                                                                                                                                                            Symptoms on pine species are those described for H. annosum sensu lato. On spruce, the symptoms of H. annosum sensu stricto and H. parviporum are similar. However, the former species is not so well adapted to the spruce host; for example, the extension of the decay column in the stem is generally smaller (Vasiliauskas and Stenlid, 1998).

                                                                                                                                                                                                            List of Symptoms/Signs

                                                                                                                                                                                                            Top of page
                                                                                                                                                                                                            SignLife StagesType
                                                                                                                                                                                                            Roots / rot of wood
                                                                                                                                                                                                            Stems / dead heart
                                                                                                                                                                                                            Stems / gummosis or resinosis
                                                                                                                                                                                                            Stems / rot

                                                                                                                                                                                                            Biology and Ecology

                                                                                                                                                                                                            Top of page
                                                                                                                                                                                                            H. annosum sensu stricto and the North American P group are inhabitants of pine forests or forests with pine history. The former has caused major damage in pine afforestations of central and eastern Europe (Fiodorov, 1998). The damage is generally slight on old forest soils. However, in the UK this fungus causes heavy damage to pine on soils with a high pH (Redfern and Ward, 1998). The North American P group is most harmful in pine cultures growing on high-hazard sites in south-eastern USA (Filip and Morrison, 1998).

                                                                                                                                                                                                            In the natural distribution area of Norway spruce (Picea abies), H. annosum sensu stricto is generally much less frequent than H. parviporum on spruce; however, outside this area in western Europe it is the dominating Heterobasidion species attacking Norway spruce and Sitka spruce stands (Korhonen et al., 1998).

                                                                                                                                                                                                            For further information on general biology and transmission, see datasheet on H. annosum sensu lato.

                                                                                                                                                                                                            Physiological Specialization

                                                                                                                                                                                                            Although the European H. annosum sensu stricto and the North American P group are highly interfertile, they show quite a high degree of differentiation in DNA structure (Garbelotto et al., 1993, Johannesson and Stenlid, 2003) and enzymatic properties (Otrosina et al., 1993; Maijala et al., 2003). Some differentiation has been reported between the western and eastern P group populations in North America (Garbelotto et al., 1993).

                                                                                                                                                                                                            Natural enemies

                                                                                                                                                                                                            Top of page
                                                                                                                                                                                                            Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
                                                                                                                                                                                                            Armillaria mellea Pathogen
                                                                                                                                                                                                            Fomitopsis pinicola Pathogen
                                                                                                                                                                                                            Gloeophyllum saepiarium Pathogen
                                                                                                                                                                                                            Hirschioporus abietinus Pathogen
                                                                                                                                                                                                            Hypholoma capnoides Pathogen
                                                                                                                                                                                                            Hypocrea rufa Mycoparasite Italy
                                                                                                                                                                                                            Macrolepiota procera Pathogen
                                                                                                                                                                                                            Macrolepiota rachodes Pathogen
                                                                                                                                                                                                            Oidiodendron maius Pathogen
                                                                                                                                                                                                            Phlebia gigantea Pathogen Poland; UK
                                                                                                                                                                                                            Phlebiopsis gigantea Antagonist Italy; Poland Pinus sylvestris
                                                                                                                                                                                                            Resinicium bicolor Pathogen
                                                                                                                                                                                                            Scytalidium album Pathogen
                                                                                                                                                                                                            Scytalidium lignicola Pathogen
                                                                                                                                                                                                            Sistotrema brinckmannii Pathogen
                                                                                                                                                                                                            Tolypocladium niveum Pathogen

                                                                                                                                                                                                            Means of Movement and Dispersal

                                                                                                                                                                                                            Top of page
                                                                                                                                                                                                            See datasheet on H. annosum sensu lato.

                                                                                                                                                                                                            Plant Trade

                                                                                                                                                                                                            Top of page
                                                                                                                                                                                                            Plant parts liable to carry the pest in trade/transportPest stagesBorne internallyBorne externallyVisibility of pest or symptoms
                                                                                                                                                                                                            Bark hyphae; spores Yes Yes Pest or symptoms usually invisible
                                                                                                                                                                                                            Growing medium accompanying plants spores Yes Pest or symptoms usually invisible
                                                                                                                                                                                                            Roots hyphae Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
                                                                                                                                                                                                            Seedlings/Micropropagated plants spores Yes Yes Pest or symptoms usually invisible
                                                                                                                                                                                                            Stems (above ground)/Shoots/Trunks/Branches hyphae Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
                                                                                                                                                                                                            Wood hyphae Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
                                                                                                                                                                                                            Plant parts not known to carry the pest in trade/transport
                                                                                                                                                                                                            Bulbs/Tubers/Corms/Rhizomes
                                                                                                                                                                                                            Flowers/Inflorescences/Cones/Calyx
                                                                                                                                                                                                            Fruits (inc. pods)
                                                                                                                                                                                                            Leaves
                                                                                                                                                                                                            True seeds (inc. grain)

                                                                                                                                                                                                            Wood Packaging

                                                                                                                                                                                                            Top of page
                                                                                                                                                                                                            Wood Packaging not known to carry the pest in trade/transport
                                                                                                                                                                                                            Loose wood packing material
                                                                                                                                                                                                            Non-wood
                                                                                                                                                                                                            Processed or treated wood
                                                                                                                                                                                                            Solid wood packing material with bark
                                                                                                                                                                                                            Solid wood packing material without bark

                                                                                                                                                                                                            Prevention and Control

                                                                                                                                                                                                            Top of page

                                                                                                                                                                                                            Due to the variable regulations around (de)registration of pesticides, your national list of registered pesticides or relevant authority should be consulted to determine which products are legally allowed for use in your country when considering chemical control. Pesticides should always be used in a lawful manner, consistent with the product's label.

                                                                                                                                                                                                            See datasheet on H. annosum sensu lato for information on control.

                                                                                                                                                                                                            References

                                                                                                                                                                                                            Top of page

                                                                                                                                                                                                            Adhikari MK, 1988. Polypores (wood-rotting fungi) of Nepal. Banko Janakari Kathmandu, Nepal; Forest Research and Information Centre, Forest Survey and Research Office, Department of Forests, 2(1):9-20

                                                                                                                                                                                                            Anderson RL; Ritter W; Witmer RC, 1976. Fomes annosus found on eastern white pine in Iowa. Plant Disease Reporter, 60:981-984.

                                                                                                                                                                                                            Anon., 1959. Reports on forest research for the years ended March, 1957, March, 1958. London, UK: HMSO.

                                                                                                                                                                                                            Anon., 1985. Taxonomy and ecology of wood-destroying fungi. Rep. For. Prod. Aust. 1965/66, 1966 (39).

                                                                                                                                                                                                            Anon., 2004. Cylindroselloides dybasi, Hall in Nova Scotia. World Wide Web page at http://www.chebucto.ns.ca/Environment/NHR/cylindroselloides.html.

                                                                                                                                                                                                            Applegate HW, 1971. Annosus root rot mortality in once-thinned loblolly pine plantations in Tennessee. Plant Disease Reporter, 55:625-627.

                                                                                                                                                                                                            Bakshi BK, 1950. Fungi associated with ambrosia beetles in Great Britain. Transactions of the British Mycological Society, 33(1-2):111-120.

                                                                                                                                                                                                            Bakshi BK; Sen M; Singh B, 1970. Cultural diagnosis of Indian Polyporaceae. II. Genera Fomes and Trametes. Indian Forest Records, 2:245-276.

                                                                                                                                                                                                            Barnard EL; Gilly SP; Dixon WN, 1991. Incidence of Heterobasidion annosum and other root-infecting fungi in residual stumps and roots in thinned slash pine plantations in Florida. Plant Disease, 75(8):823-828

                                                                                                                                                                                                            Berry FH, 1968. Spread of Fomes annosus root rot in thinned shortleaf pine plantations. USDA Forest Service, Res. Note NE-87, 4 pp.

                                                                                                                                                                                                            Berry FH; Bretz TW, 1964. Urea and other chemicals effective against colonization of Shortleaf Pine stumps by Fomes annosus in Missouri. Plant Disease Reporter, 48(11):886-887.

                                                                                                                                                                                                            Berry FH; Dooling OJ, 1962. Fomes annosus on shortleaf pine in Missouri. Plant Disease Reporter, 46:521-522.

                                                                                                                                                                                                            Binyamini N, 1982. Host index for Israeli wood-rotting fungi. Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv, 30 pp.

                                                                                                                                                                                                            Buchanan PK, 1988. A new species of Heterobasidion (Polyporaceae) from Australasia. Mycotaxon, 32:325-337

                                                                                                                                                                                                            Campbell WA, 1938. The cultural characteristics of the species of Fomes. Bulletin Torrey botanical Club, 65(1):31-69.

                                                                                                                                                                                                            Capretti P; Barzanti GP; Cech T; Tomiczek C, 1998. Intersterility groups (ISG) of Heterobasidion annosum in the Italian Alpine region and Austria. In: Delatour C, Guillaumin J-J, Lung-Escarmant B, Marçais B, eds. Root and Butt Rots of Forest Trees. 9th International Conference on Root and Butt Rots. Carcans-Maubuisson, France. INRA Editions, Les Colloques, no. 89: 437. (Abstr.).

                                                                                                                                                                                                            Capretti P; Barzanti GP; Luisi N; Puddu A, 1998. Group dying of Silver fir (Abies alba) by Heterobasidion annosum in Central and Southern Italy. In: Delatour C, Guillaumin J-J, Lung-Escarmant B, Marçais B, eds. Root and Butt Rots of Forest Trees. 9th International Conference on Root and Butt Rots. Carcans-Maubuisson, France. INRA Editions, Les Colloques, no. 89: 440. (Abstr.).

                                                                                                                                                                                                            Capretti P; Goggioli V; Mugnai L, 1994. Intersterility groups of Heterobasidion annosum in Italy: Distribution, hosts and pathogenicity tests. In: Johansson M, Stenlid J, ed. Proceedings of the Eighth International Conference on Root and Butt Rots. Wik, Sweden and Haikko, Finland. Swedish Univ. of Agric. Sci., Uppsala, Sweden, 218-226.

                                                                                                                                                                                                            Capretti P; Korhonen K; Mugnai L; Romagnoli C, 1990. An intersterility group of Heterobasidion annosum specialized to Abies alba. European Journal of Forest Pathology, 20(4):231-240

                                                                                                                                                                                                            Capretti P; Tegli S; Lakomy P; Zamponi L, 2003. Genetic variation in Heterobasidion abietinum (H. annosum F group) population. In: Laflamme G, Bérubé JA, Bussières G, eds. Root and butt rots of forest trees. 10th International Conference on Root and Butt Rots, Québec City, Canada. Canadian Forest Service, Laurentian Forestry Centre, Information Report LAU-X-126:293-295.

                                                                                                                                                                                                            Cartwright K St G; Findlay WPK, 1946. Decay of Timber and its Prevention. London, UK: HMSO.

                                                                                                                                                                                                            Certini G; Corti G; Ugolini FC, 2000. Influence of soil properties on the mortality of silver fir in Tuscany, Italy. Forstwissenschaftliches Centralblatt, 119(6):323-331; 25 ref.

                                                                                                                                                                                                            Chang TT; Hsieh HJ; Chang RJ; Fu CS, 1999. Common tree diseases in Taiwan. Taiwan Forestry Research Institute. (In Chinese).

                                                                                                                                                                                                            Chase TE; Ullrich RC, 1983. Sexuality, distribution, and dispersal of Heterobasidion annosum in pine plantations of Vermont. Mycologia, 75(5):825-831

                                                                                                                                                                                                            Chase TE; Ullrich RC, 1990. Genetic basis of biological species in Heterobasidion annosum: Mendelian determinants. Mycologia, 82(1):67-72

                                                                                                                                                                                                            Chase TE; Ullrich RC; Korhonen K, 1985. Homothallic isolates of Heterobasidion annosum. Mycologia, 77(6):975-977

                                                                                                                                                                                                            CMI, 1980. Distribution Maps of Plant Diseases, No. 271, edition 3. Wallingford, UK: CAB International.

                                                                                                                                                                                                            Cowling EB; Kelman A, 1964. Influence of temperature on growth of Fomes annosus isolates. Phytopathology, 54(4):373-378.

                                                                                                                                                                                                            Dai Y-C; Korhonen K, 2003. First report of Heterobasidion parviporum (S Group of H. annosum sensu lato) on Tsuga spp. in Asia. Plant Disease, 87:1007.

                                                                                                                                                                                                            Dai YC; Vainio EJ; Hantula J; Niemelä T; Korhonen K, 2003. Investigations on Heterobasidion annosum s.lat. in central and eastern Asia with the aid of mating tests and DNA fingerprinting. Forest Pathology, 33(5):269-286.

                                                                                                                                                                                                            Dai YuCheng; Vainio EJ; Hantula J; Niemelä T; Korhonen K, 2002. Sexuality and intersterility within the Heterobasidion insulare complex. Mycological Research, 106(12):1435-1448.

                                                                                                                                                                                                            Daniel G; Asiegbu F; Johansson M, 1998. The saprotrophic wood-degrading abilities of Heterobasidium annosum intersterility groups P and S. Mycological Research, 102(8):991-997; 38 ref.

                                                                                                                                                                                                            Driver CH, Ginns JH Jr. , 1969. Ecology of slash pine stumps: fungal colonization and infection by Fomes annosus. Forest Science, 15:2-10.

                                                                                                                                                                                                            Eusebio MA, 1977. Occurrence of heart rot in virgin forests and decay in logged-over areas. Sylvatrop Philippine Forest Research Journal, 2(3):195-208

                                                                                                                                                                                                            Froelich RC; Kuhlman EG; Hodges CS; Weiss MJ; Nichols JD, 1977. Fomes annosus root rot in the South. Guidelines for prevention. USDA Forest Service, Southeastern Forest Experiment Station, August 1977.

                                                                                                                                                                                                            Garbelotto M; Bruns TD; Cobb FW; Otrosina WJ, 1993. Differentiation of intersterility groups and geographic provenances among isolates of Heterobasidion annosum detected by random amplified polymorphic DNA assays. Canadian Journal of Botany, 71(4):565-569

                                                                                                                                                                                                            Garbelotto M; Chapela I, 2000. First report of Heterobasidion annosum on the endemic Abies hickeli of Southern Mexico. Plant Disease, 84(9):1047; 2 ref.

                                                                                                                                                                                                            Garbelotto M; Otrosina WJ; Cobb FW; Bruns TD, 1998. Habitat preference and the evolution of sympatric intersterility groups in the Heterobasidion annosum species complex. Root and butt rots of forest trees: 9th International Conference on Root and Butt Rots, Carcans-Maubuisson, (France), 1-7 September, 1997., 85-102; [^italic~Les Colloques^roman~ No. 89]; 46 ref.

                                                                                                                                                                                                            Garbelotto M; Ratcliff A; Bruns TD; Cobb FW; Otrosina WJ, 1996. Use of taxon-specific competitive-priming PCR to study host specificity, hybridization, and intergroup gene flow in intersterility groups of Heterobasidion annosum. Phytopathology, 86(5):543-551; 34 ref.

                                                                                                                                                                                                            Gilbertson RL; Burdsall HH Jr; Larsen MJ, 1975. Notes on wood-rotting Hymenomycetes in New Mexico. Southwestern Naturalist, 19(4):347-360

                                                                                                                                                                                                            Gilbertson RL; Lombard FF, 1976. Wood-rotting basidiomycetes - Itasca State Park annotated list. Journal of the Minnesota Academy of Science, 42:25-31

                                                                                                                                                                                                            Gilbertson RL; Martin KJ; Lindsey JP, 1974. Annotated check list and host index for Arizona wood-rotting fungi. Agric. Exp. Sta, Univ. of Arizona, Tucson. Tecnical Bulletin 209, 48 pp.

                                                                                                                                                                                                            Gilmour JW, 1966. The pathology of forest trees in New Zealand. The fungal, bacterial, and algal pathogens. New Zealand Forest Service, Technical Paper, 48:1-82.

                                                                                                                                                                                                            Ginns JH Jr., Gillespie WH, 1962. Fomes root rot found in five thinned, native white pine stands in West Wirginia. Plant Disease Reporter, 46:734.

                                                                                                                                                                                                            Gonthier P; Garbelotto M; Varese GC; Nicolotti G, 2001. Relative abundance and potential dispersal range of intersterility groups of Heterobasidion annosum in pure and mixed forests. Canadian Journal of Botany, 79(9):1057-1065; many ref.

                                                                                                                                                                                                            Gonthier P; Warner R; Nicolotti G; Mazzaglia A; Garbelotto MM, 2004. Pathogen introduction as a collateral effect of military activity. Mycological Research News in Mycological Research, 108(3).

                                                                                                                                                                                                            Gorova TL, 1980. Macromycetes of secondary spruce forests in the Ukrainian Carpathians. Ukrains'kii Botanichnii Zhurnal, 37(1):44-50

                                                                                                                                                                                                            Grantina L; Sica L; Matjuskova N; Muiznieks I, 2000. The identification of the intersterility groups of Heterobasidion annosum with different methods using material collected in Latvia. Metsanduslikud Uurimused, 34:35-43; 21 ref.

                                                                                                                                                                                                            Greig BJW; Foster LEP, 1982. Fomes annosus in the pine plantations of Jamaica. Commonwealth Forestry Review, 61(4):269-275

                                                                                                                                                                                                            Hadfield JS, 1970. Color infrared photography effectively detects pines killed by Fomes annosus. In: Hodges CS, Rishbeth J, Yde-Andersen A, eds. Proceedings of the Third International Conference on Fomes annosus, Aarhus, Denmark. Asherville, North Carolina, 37-42.

                                                                                                                                                                                                            Halambek M; Harapin M; Novak-Agbaba S; Liovic B, 1996. Influence of biotic factors on health of forest tree species. Zas^hacek~tita s^hacek~uma i pridobivanje drva. Hrvatsko s^hacek~umarsko drus^hacek~tvo. Skrb za hrvatske s^hacek~ume od 1846. do 1996: knjiga 2., 19-28; 13 ref.

                                                                                                                                                                                                            Hanso M; Hanso S, 2003. Heterobasidion root rot, a threat to the forests in Estonia. In: Laflamme G, Bérubé JA, Bussières G, eds. Root and butt rots of forest trees. 10th International Conference on Root and Butt Rots, Québec City, Canada. Canadian Forest Service, Laurentian Forestry Centre, Information Report LAU-X-126:351-355.

                                                                                                                                                                                                            Hanson JB; Lautz W, 1971. Photography as an aid in estimating annosus root rot-caused tree mortality. Plant Disease Reporter, 55:761-763.

                                                                                                                                                                                                            Harrington TC; Worrall JJ; Rizzo DM, 1989. Compatibility among host-specialized isolates of Heterobasidion annosum from western North America. Phytopathology, 79(3):290-296

                                                                                                                                                                                                            Hartley C, 1910. Fomes annosus and two species of Gymnosporangium on Juniperus virginiana. Science (N.S.), 31: 639.

                                                                                                                                                                                                            Hodges CS Jr., 1969. The impact of Fomes annosus on forest management in the Southeast. Alabama Forest Products Directory, 12(7):79-80, 83-84.

                                                                                                                                                                                                            Holdenrieder O; Langenegger K; Sieber TN, 1998. Occurrence of Heterobasidion annosum intersterility groups in Switzerland. In: Delatour C, Guillaumin J-J, Lung-Escarmant B, Marçais B, eds. Root and Butt Rots of Forest Trees. 9th International Conference on Root and Butt Rots. Carcans-Maubuisson, France. INRA Editions, Les Colloques, no. 89: 437. (Abstr.).

                                                                                                                                                                                                            Hood IA, 1985. Pore width in Heterobasidion annosum (Fries) Brefeld. New Zealand Journal of Botany, 23(3):495-498

                                                                                                                                                                                                            Hsiang T; Edmonds RL; Driver CH, 1989. Conidia of Heterobasidion annosum from Tsuga heterophylla forests in western Washington. Canadian Journal of Botany, 67(4):1262-1266

                                                                                                                                                                                                            Hussain SM, 1952. Fomes annosus (Fr.) Cke. a common root rot. Pakistan Journal of Forestry, 2:216-220.

                                                                                                                                                                                                            Ivory MH, 1987. Diseases and disorders of pines in the tropics: a field and laboratory manual. Overseas Research Publication Series, Overseas Development Administration, UK, No. 31:92 pp.

                                                                                                                                                                                                            Jacobi WR; Cowling EB; Cost ND; McClure JP, 1980. Disease losses in North Carolina forests: I. Losses in softwoods, 1973-1974. Plant Disease, 64(6):573-576

                                                                                                                                                                                                            James RL; Goheen DJ, 1981. Conifer mortality associated with root disease and insects in Colorado. Plant Disease, 65(6):506-507

                                                                                                                                                                                                            Johannesson H; Stenlid J, 2003. Molecular markers reveal genetic isolation and phylogeography of the S and F intersterility groups of the wood-decay fungus Heterobasidion annosum. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, 29:94-101.

                                                                                                                                                                                                            Johnson DW; Cowling EB, 1965. Role of pinosylvins and borax in control of Fomes annosus by stump treatments. Phytopathology, 55(12):1341-1346.

                                                                                                                                                                                                            Jorgensen E, 1961. On the spread of Fomes annosus (Fr.) Cke. Canadian Journal of Botany, 39(6):1437-1445.

                                                                                                                                                                                                            Kentucky Division of Forestry, 2003. Major tree diseases in Kentucky. World Wide Web page at http://www.forestry.ky.gov/programs/health/Disease.htm.

                                                                                                                                                                                                            Kobayashi T; Aoshima K; Hayashi Y; Abe Y, 1981. Possible antagonistic behavior of Heterobasidion insulare to H. annosum. XVII IUFRO World Congr., Kyoto, Japan, Sept. 6-17, 1981. Poster session.

                                                                                                                                                                                                            Koenigs JW, 1960. Fomes annosus: a bibliography with subject index. Occ. Pap. sth. Forest Exp. Stn 181.

                                                                                                                                                                                                            Korhonen K, 1978. Intersterility groups of Heterobasidion annosum. Metsantutkimuslaitoksen Julkaisuja, 94(6):25 pp.

                                                                                                                                                                                                            Korhonen K; Bobko I; Hanso S; Piri T; Vasiliauskas A, 1992. Intersterility groups of Heterobasidion annosum in some spruce and pine stands in Byelorussia, Lithuania and Estonia. European Journal of Forest Pathology, 22(6-7):384-391

                                                                                                                                                                                                            Korhonen K; Piri T, 1994. The main hosts and distribution of the S and P groups of Heterobasidion annosum in Finland. In: Johansson M, Stenlid J, ed. Proceedings of the Eighth International Conference on Root and Butt Rots. Wik, Sweden and Haikko, Finland. Swedish Univ. of Agric. Sci., Uppsala, Sweden, 260-267.

                                                                                                                                                                                                            Kotlaba F, 1984. Zemepisne rozsireni a ekologie chorosu (Polyporales s.l.) v Ceskoslovensku. [Geographical distribution and ecology of polypores (Polyporales s.l.) in Czechoslovakia]. Academia, Praha, 194 pp. (In Czech, English summary).

                                                                                                                                                                                                            Kuhlman EC, 1966. Recovery of Fomes annosus spores from soil. In: Proceedings of the fifty-eighth Annual Meeting of the American Phytopathological Society, Denver, USA. Abstracted in Phytopathology, 56(8):869-907.

                                                                                                                                                                                                            Kuhlman EG, 1970. Seedling inoculations with Fomes annosus show variation in virulence and in host susceptibility. Phytopathology, 60:1743-1746.

                                                                                                                                                                                                            La Porta N; Apostolov K; Korhonen K, 1998. Intersterility groups of Heterobasidion annosum and their host specificity in Bulgaria. European Journal of Forest Pathology, 28:1-9.

                                                                                                                                                                                                            Laflamme G; Blais R, 1995. Detection of Heterobasidion annosum in Quebec. Phytoprotection, 76(1):39-43

                                                                                                                                                                                                            Lakomy P; Werner A, 2003. Distribution of Heterobasidion annosum intersterility groups in Poland. Forest Pathology, 33(2):105-112; 25 ref.

                                                                                                                                                                                                            Little S; Mohr JJ; Mook PV, 1968. Ten-year effects from row thinnings in loblolly pine plantations of eastern Maryland. USDA Forest Service, Res. Note NE-77, 8 pp.

                                                                                                                                                                                                            Lushaj BM, 2001. Phytosanitary situation in forests of Albania. "Kristalina - K.H.", Tirana, 57 pp.

                                                                                                                                                                                                            Lyubarskii LV; Vasilyeva LN, 1975. Wood-destroying fungi of the Far East. Izdatelstvo "Nauka", Novosibirsk. 164 pp.

                                                                                                                                                                                                            Maijala P; Harrington TC; Raudaskoski M, 2003. A peroxidase gene family and gene trees in Heterobasidion and related genera. Mycologia, 95(2):209-221; many ref.

                                                                                                                                                                                                            Malençon G; Bertault R, 1967. Champignons du Maroc. Bulletin de la Société des Sciences Naturelles et Physiques du Maroc, 47:237-281. (publ. 1968).

                                                                                                                                                                                                            Mao XL, 1993. Economic macrofungi of Tibet. Beijing: Beijing Sci. Tech. Press, 651 pp.

                                                                                                                                                                                                            Marinkovic P, 1980. Fomes annosus in southern Europe. In: Dimitri L, ed. Proceedings of the Fifth International Conference on Problems of Root and Butt Rot in Conifers, Kassel, FRG. Hessische Forstliche Versuchsanstalt, Hann. Münden, FRG, 27-34.

                                                                                                                                                                                                            Mason GN, 1969. An evaluation of the incidence of Fomes annosus in East Texas. Plant Disease Reporter, 53:936-939.

                                                                                                                                                                                                            Miller OK Jr., 1960. The distribution of Fomes annosus (Fries) Karst. in New Hampshire red pine plantations and some observations on its biology. Fox Forest Bulletin, No. 12, 25 pp.

                                                                                                                                                                                                            Morozova TI; Tkacz B, 1997. Diseases in the forest. Eastern Siberia and the Russian Far East. In: Hansen EM, Lewis KJ, ed. Compendium of conifer diseases. The American Phytopathological Society, St. Paul, MN, USA: APS Press, 77-79.

                                                                                                                                                                                                            Mugnai L; Capretti P, 1989. Intersterility groups of Heterobasidion annosum (Fr.) Bref.: some morphological differences in the basidiocarps. / Gruppi interstrili di Heterobasidion annosum (Fr.) Bref.: alcune differenze morfologiche dei carpofori. Micologia Italiana, 18(3):87-94. (in Italian, English summary).

                                                                                                                                                                                                            Munda A; Macek J; Javornik B, 1998. Distribution, ecology and genetic variability of Heterobasidion annosum (Fr.) Bref. in Slovenia. Root and butt rots of forest trees: 9th International Conference on Root and Butt Rots, Carcans-Maubuisson, (France), 1-7 September, 1997., 103-111; [^italic~Les Colloques^roman~ No. 89]; 15 ref.

                                                                                                                                                                                                            Murrill WA, 1908. Additional Philippine Polyporaceae. Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club, 35:391-416.

                                                                                                                                                                                                            Möykkynen T, 1997. Liberation of Heterobasidion annosum conidia by airflow. European Journal of Forest Pathology, 27(5):283-289; 28 ref.

                                                                                                                                                                                                            Möykkynen T; Weissenberg Kvon; Pappinen A, 1997. Estimation of dispersal gradients of S- and P-type basidiospores of Heterobasidion annosum. European Journal of Forest Pathology, 27(5):291-300; 23 ref.

                                                                                                                                                                                                            Negrutskii SF, 1986. Heterobasidion annosum. Moscow, USSR; Agropromizdat, Ed. 2:196 pp.

                                                                                                                                                                                                            Negrutskii SF; Zaporozhchenko EV; Sukhomlin MN, 1993. Taxonomical studies of Heterobasidion annosum (Fr.:Fr.) Bref. III. Identity of two non-crossing groups with P- and S-groups. Mikologiya i Fitopatologiya, 27(4):30-33

                                                                                                                                                                                                            Nobles MK, 1965. Identification of cultures of wood-inhabiting Hymenomycetes. Canadian Journal of Botany, 43(9):1097-1139.

                                                                                                                                                                                                            Otrosina WJ, Cobb FW Jr. , 1989. Biology, Ecology, and epidemiology of Heterobasidion annosum. In: Otrosina WJ, Scharpf RF, ed. Research and management of annosus root disease (Heterobasidion annosum) in western North America. Proc. of the Symposium, April 18-21, 1989, Monterey, California. USDA Forest Service, General Techn. Report PSW-116:26-33.

                                                                                                                                                                                                            Otrosina WJ; Chase TE; Cobb FW Jr, 1992. Allozyme differentiation of intersterility groups of Heterobasidion annosum isolated from conifers in the western United States. Phytopathology, 82(5):540-545

                                                                                                                                                                                                            Otrosina WJ; Chase TE; Cobb FW Jr; Korhonen K, 1993. Population structure of Heterobasidion annosum from North America and Europe. Canadian Journal of Botany, 71(8):1064-1071

                                                                                                                                                                                                            Pagony H; Szanto M, 1998. Biotypes of Heterobasidion annosum in Hungary. In: Delatour C, Guillaumin J-J, Lung-Escarmant B, Marçais B, eds. Root and Butt Rots of Forest Trees. 9th International Conference on Root and Butt Rots. Carcans-Maubuisson, France. INRA Editions, Les Colloques, no. 89: 437. (Abstr.).

                                                                                                                                                                                                            Parmasto E, 1986. Preliminary list of Vietnamese Aphyllophorales and Polyporaceae s. str. Scripta Mycol. (Tallinn, Estonia), 14:1-88. (in Vietnamese, Russian and English).

                                                                                                                                                                                                            Pearce, 1962. Pathology of Trees and Shrubs (biology, infection and disease, ecology).

                                                                                                                                                                                                            Piri T, 1996. The spreading of the S type of Heterobasidion annosum from Norway spruce stumps to the subsequent tree stand. European Journal of Forest Pathology, 26(4):193-204; 28 ref.

                                                                                                                                                                                                            Piri T, 2003. Early development of root rot in young Norway spruce planted on sites infected by Heterobasidion in southern Finland. Canadian Journal of Forest Research, 33(4):604-611; 46 ref.

                                                                                                                                                                                                            Platt WD; Cowling EB; Hodges CS, 1965. Comparative resistance of coniferous root wood and stem wood to decasy by isolates of fomes annosus. Phytopathology, 55(12):1347-1353.

                                                                                                                                                                                                            Powers HR Jr., Boyce JS Jr., 1961. Fomes annosus on slash pine in the Southeast. Plant Disease Reporter, 45:306-307.

                                                                                                                                                                                                            Prieto-Recio C; Romeralo C; Bezos D; Martín-García J; Martínez-Âlvarez P; Botella L; Diez JJ, 2012. First report of Heterobasidion annosum on Pinus pinaster in Spain. Plant Disease, 96(5):770. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis

                                                                                                                                                                                                            Punter D, 1970. Fomes annosus in eastern Canada. In: Tousson TA, Bega RV, Nelson PE, ed. Root diseases and soil-borne plant pathogens. Berkeley, USA: Univ. of Calif. Press, 156-160.

                                                                                                                                                                                                            Redfern DB; van Sickle GA, 1968. Fomes annosus in Eastern Canada. Plant Disease Reporter, 52(8):638.

                                                                                                                                                                                                            Rishbeth J, 1951. Ann. Bot. N.S., 15:1-21, 221-246.

                                                                                                                                                                                                            Rishbeth J, 1952. Control of Fomes annosus Fr. Forestry, 25(1):41-50.

                                                                                                                                                                                                            Rishbeth J, 1957. Some further observations on Fomes annosus. Forestry, 30(1):69-89.

                                                                                                                                                                                                            Rishbeth J, 1959. Dispersal of Fomes annosus Fr. and Peniophora gigantea (Fr.) Massee. Transactions of the British Mycological Society, 42:243-260.

                                                                                                                                                                                                            Rishbeth J, 1963. Stump protection against Fomes annosus. III. Inoculation with Peniophora gigantea. Annals of applied Biology, 52(1):63-77.

                                                                                                                                                                                                            Roll-Hansen F, 1940. Studies in Polyporus annosus Fr., especially in respect of its occurrence in Norway south of the Dovre Fell. Medd. norske Skogsforsoksv., 24(1): 100pp.

                                                                                                                                                                                                            Rosnev B; Petkov P, 1986. Pathological causes of the deteriorating condition of some conifer plantations in Bulgaria. Gorskostopanska Nauka 23:74-82. (in Bulgarian, English summary).

                                                                                                                                                                                                            Roy G; Laflamme G; Bussières G; Dessureault M, 2003. Field tests on biological control of Heterobasidion annosum by Phaeotheca dimorphospora in comparison with Phlebiopsis gigantea. Forest Pathology, 33(2):127-140; 36 ref.

                                                                                                                                                                                                            Schulze S, 1999. Rapid detection of European Heterobasidion annosum intersterility groups and intergroup gene flow using taxon-specific competitive-priming PCR (TSCP-PCR). Journal of Phytopathology, 147(2):125-127; 15 ref.

                                                                                                                                                                                                            Schulze S, 2000. Rapid silica matrix binding-based isolation of DNA from various wood-rotting and mycorrhizal basidiomycete fungi suitable for their detection by multiplex PCR. Zeitschrift fu^umlaut~r Pflanzenkrankheiten und Pflanzenschutz, 107(6):664-671; 37 ref.

                                                                                                                                                                                                            Schuring W, 1999. The occurrence of intersterile groups of root rot fungus in the Netherlands. Nederlands Bosbouwtijdschrift, 71(3):144-147; 9 ref.

                                                                                                                                                                                                            Shigo AL, 1975. Compartmentalization of decay associated with Fomes annosus in trunks of Pinus resinosa. Phytopathology, 65(9):1038-1039

                                                                                                                                                                                                            Sinclair WA, 1964. Root- and butt-rot of conifers caused by Fomes annosus, with special reference to inoculum dispersal and control of the disease in New York. Cornell University Agricultural Experiment Station, Memoir 391, 54 pp. Ithaca, N.Y.

                                                                                                                                                                                                            Solov'ev AM, 1963. Bioecology of the fungus Fomitopsis annosa (Fr.) Karst. in the fir forests of the Altai. Trudy Kazakhskogo Nauchno-Issledovatel'skogo Instituta, 4:296-319. (in Russian. Translation in English: Israel Program for Scientific Translations, Jerusalem 1971.).

                                                                                                                                                                                                            Stalpers JA, 1974. Spiniger, a new genus for imperfect states of basidiomycetes. Proceedings of the Koninklijke Nederlandse Akademie van Wetenschappen, C, 77(4):402-407

                                                                                                                                                                                                            Stambaugh WJ, Cobb FW Jr. , Schmidt RA, Krieger FC, 1962. Effects of season and environment on inoculum dispersal of Fomes annosus and stump invasion of planted white pine. Phytopathology, 52:28. (Abstr.).

                                                                                                                                                                                                            Stanosz GR; Guthmiller MA, 1995. Root rot of red pine caused by Heterobasidion annosum in Wisconsin. Canadian Journal of Botany, 65:2124-2127.

                                                                                                                                                                                                            Stewart JL, 1965. Fomes annosus found in Nebraska. Plant Disease Reporter, 49:456.

                                                                                                                                                                                                            Stoddard EM; McDonnell AD; Hicock HW, 1939. Fomes annosus on conifers in Connecticut. Plant Disease Reporter, 23:385-386.

                                                                                                                                                                                                            Strong FC; Lemmien WA, 1964. Fomes annosus in southwestern Michigan. Plant Disease Reporter, 48:110.

                                                                                                                                                                                                            Sullivan KF; Filip GM; Arena JV; Fitzgerald SA; Tesch SD, 2001. Incidence of infection and decay caused by Heterobasidion annosum in managed noble fir on the Warm Springs Indian Reservation, Oregon. Western Journal of Applied Forestry, 16(3):106-113; 35 ref.

                                                                                                                                                                                                            Tegethoff AC, 1973. Known distribution of Fomes annosus in the Intermountain Region. Plant Disease Reporter, 57(5):407-410

                                                                                                                                                                                                            Thapa M, 1990. New fungal records from Nepal. Banko Janakari, 2(3):282; 2 ref.

                                                                                                                                                                                                            Thomsen IM, 1994. Occurrence of S and P types of Heterobasidion annosum in Denmark. In: Johansson M, Stenlid J, ed. Proceedings of the Eighth International Conference on Root and Butt Rots. Wik, Sweden and Haikko, Finland. Swedish Univ. of Agric. Sci., Uppsala, Sweden, 268-271.

                                                                                                                                                                                                            Tomanic L; Vilotic D; Filipovic M, 2000. The state of spruce natural stands in the Kopaonik National Park. EFI Proceedings, No. 33:155-160; 2 ref.

                                                                                                                                                                                                            Tsopelas P; Korhonen K, 1996. Hosts and distribution of the intersterility groups of Heterobasidion annosum in the highlands of Greece. European Journal of Forest Pathology, 26(1):4-11; [14 ref].

                                                                                                                                                                                                            USDA Forest Service, 1997. Annual Northeastern Area forest health protection insect and disease conditions report. World Wide Web page at http://www.fs.fed.us/na/morgantown/fhp/pcond/pcond87.html.

                                                                                                                                                                                                            USDA Forest Service, 2003. Forest insect and disease conditions in the United States 2002. USDA Forest Service, Forest Health Protection, June 2003, 136 pp. http://www.fs.fed.us/foresthealth/publications/annual_I_d_conditions/ConditionsReport_02_final.pdf.

                                                                                                                                                                                                            Vasiliauskas R; Juska E; Vasiliauskas A; Stenlid J, 2002. Community of Aphyllophorales and root rot in stumps of Picea abies on clear-felled forest sites in Lithuania. Scandinavian Journal of Forest Research, 17(5):398-407; many ref.

                                                                                                                                                                                                            Vasiliauskas R; Stenlid J, 1998. Spread of S and P group isolates of Heterobasidion annosum within and among Picea abies trees in central Lithuania. Canadian Journal of Forest Research, 28(7):961-966; 45 ref.

                                                                                                                                                                                                            Webb RS; Alexander SA; Skelly JM, 1981. Incidence, severity, and growth effects of Heterobasidion annosum in unthinned loblolly pine plantations. Phytopathology, 71(6):661-662

                                                                                                                                                                                                            Williams RD, 1959. Growth and yield of a thinned Shortleaf Pine plantation. Tech. Pap. Cent. St. For. Exp. Sta., 169, 12 pp.

                                                                                                                                                                                                            Williams RE, 1989. Distribution and impacts of annosus root disease in forests of the northern Rocky Mountains. In: Otrosina WJ, Scharpf RF, ed. Research and management of annosus root disease (Heterobasidion annosum) in western North America. Proc. of the Symposium, April 18-21, 1989, Monterey, California. USDA Forest Service, General Techn. Report PSW-116:51-56.

                                                                                                                                                                                                            Willis JC, 1973. A dictionary of the flowering plants and ferns. 8th edn. Cambridge, UK: University Press.

                                                                                                                                                                                                            Wilson CL, 1963. Fomes annosus root rot on shortleaf, loblolly and slash pine in Arkansas. Plant Disease Reporter, 47:328.

                                                                                                                                                                                                            Yen PiChao; Chang TunTschu; Kuo ShingRong, 2002. Root and butt rot of Pinus luchuensis caused by Heterobasidion insulare and its nutrient physiology. Taiwan Journal of Forest Science, 17(1):31-39; 6 ref.

                                                                                                                                                                                                            Distribution References

                                                                                                                                                                                                            CABI, Undated. Compendium record. Wallingford, UK: CABI

                                                                                                                                                                                                            CABI, Undated a. CABI Compendium: Status as determined by CABI editor. Wallingford, UK: CABI

                                                                                                                                                                                                            Capretti P, Barzanti GP, Cech T, Tomiczek C, 1998. Intersterility groups (ISG) of Heterobasidion annosum in the Italian Alpine region and Austria. In: Root and Butt Rots of Forest Trees. 9th International Conference on Root and Butt Rots, 89 [ed. by Delatour C, Guillaumin J-J, Lung-Escarmant B, Marçais B]. Carcans-Maubuisson, France: INRA Editions, Les Colloques. 437.

                                                                                                                                                                                                            Capretti P, Goggioli V, Mugnai L, 1994. Intersterility groups of Heterobasidion annosum in Italy: Distribution, hosts and pathogenicity tests. [Proceedings of the Eighth International Conference on Root and Butt Rots], [ed. by Johansson M, Stenlid J]. Uppsala, Sweden: Swedish Univ of Agric Sci. 218-226.

                                                                                                                                                                                                            Chase T E, Ullrich R C, 1990. Genetic basis of biological species in Heterobasidion annosum: Mendelian determinants. Mycologia. 82 (1), 67-72. DOI:10.2307/3759964

                                                                                                                                                                                                            Doğmuș-Lehtijärvi H T, Lehtijärvi A, Korhonen K, 2007. Heterobasidion on Abies nordmanniana in north-eastern Turkey. Forest Pathology. 37 (6), 387-390. DOI:10.1111/j.1439-0329.2007.00512.x

                                                                                                                                                                                                            Garbelotto M, Bruns T D, Cobb F W, Otrosina W J, 1993. Differentiation of intersterility groups and geographic provenances among isolates of Heterobasidion annosum detected by random amplified polymorphic DNA assays. Canadian Journal of Botany. 71 (4), 565-569. DOI:10.1139/b93-063

                                                                                                                                                                                                            Garbelotto M, Chapela I, 2000. First report of Heterobasidion annosum on the endemic Abies hickeli of Southern Mexico. Plant Disease. 84 (9), 1047. DOI:10.1094/PDIS.2000.84.9.1047B

                                                                                                                                                                                                            Garbelotto M, Ratcliff A, Bruns T D, Cobb F W, Otrosina W J, 1996. Use of taxon-specific competitive-priming PCR to study host specificity, hybridization, and intergroup gene flow in intersterility groups of Heterobasidion annosum. Phytopathology. 86 (5), 543-551. DOI:10.1094/Phyto-86-543

                                                                                                                                                                                                            Gonthier P, Garbelotto M, Nicolotti G, 2002. European pines may be simultaneously infected by more than one species of Heterobasidion. Plant Disease. 86 (7), 814. DOI:10.1094/PDIS.2002.86.7.814C

                                                                                                                                                                                                            Grantiņa L, Šica L, Matjuškova N, Muizbreve˜nieks I, 2000. The identification of the intersterility groups of Heterobasidion annosum with different methods using material collected in Latvia. In: Metsanduslikud Uurimused. 34 Tartu, Estonia: Eesti Põllumajandusülikool, Metsanduslik Uurimisinstituut. 35-43.

                                                                                                                                                                                                            Hanso M, Hanso S, 2003. Heterobasidion root rot - a threat to the forests in Estonia. In: Information Report - Laurentian Forestry Centre, Quebec Region, Canadian Forest Service. [ed. by Laflamme G, Bérubé J A, Bussières G]. Sainte-Foy, Canada: Laurentian Forestry Centre, Canadian Forest Service. 351-355.

                                                                                                                                                                                                            Holdenrieder O, Langenegger K, Sieber TN, 1998. Occurrence of Heterobasidion annosum intersterility groups in Switzerland. In: Root and Butt Rots of Forest Trees. 9th International Conference on Root and Butt Rots, 89 [ed. by Delatour C, Guillaumin J-J, Lung-Escarmant B, Marçais B]. Carcans-Maubuisson, France: INRA Editions, Les Colloques. 437.

                                                                                                                                                                                                            Korhonen K, 1978. Intersterility groups of Heterobasidion annosum. In: Metsantutkimuslaitoksen Julkaisuja, 94 (6) 25 pp.

                                                                                                                                                                                                            Korhonen K, Bobko I, Hanso S, Piri T, Vasiliauskas A, 1992. Intersterility groups of Heterobasidion annosum in some spruce and pine stands in Byelorussia, Lithuania and Estonia. European Journal of Forest Pathology. 22 (6-7), 384-391.

                                                                                                                                                                                                            Korhonen K, Piri T, 1994. The main hosts and distribution of the S and P groups of Heterobasidion annosum in Finland. [Proceedings of the Eighth International Conference on Root and Butt Rots. Wik, Sweden and Haikko, Finland], [ed. by Johansson M, Stenlid J]. Uppsala, Sweden: Swedish Univ of Agric Sci. 260-267.

                                                                                                                                                                                                            Łakomy P, Werner A, 2003. Distribution of Heterobasidion annosum intersterility groups in Poland. Forest Pathology. 33 (2), 105-112. DOI:10.1046/j.1439-0329.2003.00309.x

                                                                                                                                                                                                            Mesanza N, Iturritxa E, 2012. Root and butt rot caused by Heterobasidion annosum in Atlantic coniferous ecosystems of Spain. Forest Pathology. 42 (6), 514-520. DOI:10.1111/j.1439-0329.2012.00786.x

                                                                                                                                                                                                            Munda A, Macek J, Javornik B, 1998. Distribution, ecology and genetic variability of Heterobasidion annosum (Fr.) Bref. In: in Slovenia. Root and butt rots of forest trees: 9th International Conference on Root and Butt Rots, Carcans-Maubuisson, (France), 1-7 September, 1997, 89 103-111.

                                                                                                                                                                                                            Negrutskiĭ S F, Zaporozhchenko E V, Sukhomlin M N, 1993. Taxonomical studies of Heterobasidion annosum (Fr.:Fr.) Bref. III. Identity of two non-crossing groups with P- and S-groups. Mikologiya i Fitopatologiya. 27 (4), 30-33.

                                                                                                                                                                                                            Otrosina W J, Chase T E, Cobb F W Jr, 1992. Allozyme differentiation of intersterility groups of Heterobasidion annosum isolated from conifers in the western United States. Phytopathology. 82 (5), 540-545. DOI:10.1094/Phyto-82-540

                                                                                                                                                                                                            Pagony H, Szanto M, 1998. Biotypes of Heterobasidion annosum in Hungary. In: Root and Butt Rots of Forest Trees. 9th International Conference on Root and Butt Rots, 89 [ed. by Delatour C, Guillaumin J-J, Lung-Escarmant B, Marçais B]. Carcans-Maubuisson, France: INRA Editions, Les Colloques. 437.

                                                                                                                                                                                                            Porta N la, Apostolov K, Korhonen K, 1998. Intersterility groups of Heterobasidion annosum and their host specificity in Bulgaria. European Journal of Forest Pathology. 28 (1), 1-9.

                                                                                                                                                                                                            Prieto-Recio C, Romeralo C, Bezos D, Martín-García J, Martínez-Álvarez P, Botella L, Diez J J, 2012. First report of Heterobasidion annosum on Pinus pinaster in Spain. Plant Disease. 96 (5), 770. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis DOI:10.1094/PDIS-10-11-0890-PDN

                                                                                                                                                                                                            Roy G, Laflamme G, Bussières G, Dessureault M, 2003. Field tests on biological control of Heterobasidion annosum by Phaeotheca dimorphospora in comparison with Phlebiopsis gigantea. Forest Pathology. 33 (2), 127-140. DOI:10.1046/j.1439-0329.2003.00319.x

                                                                                                                                                                                                            Schulze S, 1999. Rapid detection of European Heterobasidion annosum intersterility groups and intergroup gene flow using taxon-specific competitive-priming PCR (TSCP-PCR). Journal of Phytopathology. 147 (2), 125-127. DOI:10.1111/j.1439-0434.1999.tb03818.x

                                                                                                                                                                                                            Schuring W, 1999. The occurrence of intersterile groups of root rot fungus in the Netherlands. (Het voorkomen van intersteriele groepen van de wortelzwam in Nederland.). Nederlands Bosbouwtijdschrift. 71 (3), 144-147.

                                                                                                                                                                                                            Sedlák P, Tomšovský M, 2014. Species distribution, host affinity and genetic variability of Heterobasidion annosum sensu lato in the Czech Republic. Forest Pathology. 44 (4), 310-319. DOI:10.1111/efp.12102

                                                                                                                                                                                                            Thomsen IM, 1994. Occurrence of S and P types of Heterobasidion annosum in Denmark. [Proceedings of the Eighth International Conference on Root and Butt Rots. Wik, Sweden and Haikko, Finland], [ed. by Johansson M, Stenlid J]. Uppsala, Sweden: Swedish Univ. of Agric. Sci. 268-271.

                                                                                                                                                                                                            Tokuda S, Ota Y, Hattori T, 2007. Root and butt rot of Todo fir (Abies sachalinensis) caused by Heterobasidion annosum s.l. in Hokkaido, Japan. Forest Pathology. 37 (3), 155-166. DOI:10.1111/j.1439-0329.2007.00492.x

                                                                                                                                                                                                            Tomanic L, Vilotic D, Filipovic M, 2000. The state of spruce natural stands in the Kopaonik National Park. In: EFI Proceedings. [ed. by Klimo E, Hager H, Kulhavý J]. Joensuu, Finland: European Forest Institute (EFI). 155-160. http://www.efi.int/portal/virtual_library/publications/proceedings/

                                                                                                                                                                                                            Tsopelas P, Korhonen K, 1996. Hosts and distribution of the intersterility groups of Heterobasidion annosum in the highlands of Greece. European Journal of Forest Pathology. 26 (1), 4-11.

                                                                                                                                                                                                            Tsopelas P, Nikolaou K, 2005. First report of Heterobasidion annosum in Cyprus. Plant Pathology. 54 (4), 583. DOI:10.1111/j.1365-3059.2005.01202.x

                                                                                                                                                                                                            UK, CAB International, 1980. Heterobasidion annosum. [Distribution map]. In: Distribution Maps of Plant Diseases, Wallingford, UK: CAB International. Map 271. DOI:10.1079/DMPD/20056500271

                                                                                                                                                                                                            Vasiliauskas R, Stenlid J, 1998. Spread of S and P group isolates of Heterobasidion annosum within and among Picea abies trees in central Lithuania. Canadian Journal of Forest Research. 28 (7), 961-966. DOI:10.1139/cjfr-28-7-961

                                                                                                                                                                                                            Worrall J J, Harrington T C, Blodgett J T, Conklin D A, Fairweather M L, 2010. Heterobasidion annosum and H. parviporum in the southern Rocky Mountains and adjoining states. Plant Disease. 94 (1), 115-118. DOI:10.1094/PDIS-94-1-0115

                                                                                                                                                                                                            Distribution Maps

                                                                                                                                                                                                            Top of page
                                                                                                                                                                                                            You can pan and zoom the map
                                                                                                                                                                                                            Save map
                                                                                                                                                                                                            Select a dataset
                                                                                                                                                                                                            Map Legends
                                                                                                                                                                                                            • CABI Summary Records
                                                                                                                                                                                                            Map Filters
                                                                                                                                                                                                            Extent
                                                                                                                                                                                                            Invasive
                                                                                                                                                                                                            Origin
                                                                                                                                                                                                            Third party data sources: