Globodera pallida (white potato cyst nematode)
- Summary of Invasiveness
- Taxonomic Tree
- Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature
- Distribution Table
- History of Introduction and Spread
- Risk of Introduction
- Habitat List
- Hosts/Species Affected
- Host Plants and Other Plants Affected
- Growth Stages
- List of Symptoms/Signs
- Biology and Ecology
- Latitude/Altitude Ranges
- Air Temperature
- Natural enemies
- Means of Movement and Dispersal
- Pathway Causes
- Pathway Vectors
- Plant Trade
- Impact Summary
- Economic Impact
- Risk and Impact Factors
- Uses List
- Detection and Inspection
- Similarities to Other Species/Conditions
- Prevention and Control
- Links to Websites
- Distribution Maps
Don't need the entire report?
Generate a print friendly version containing only the sections you need.Generate report
PicturesTop of page
IdentityTop of page
Preferred Scientific Name
- Globodera pallida Stone 1973
Preferred Common Name
- white potato cyst nematode
Other Scientific Names
- Globodera pallida (Stone, 1973) Behrens, 1975
- Heterodera pallida Stone, 1973
International Common Names
- English: pale potato cyst nematode; potato cyst nematode; potato root eelworm
- Spanish: nematodo quiste blanco de la papa
- French: nématode blanc de la pomme de terre
Local Common Names
- Germany: Aelchen, Cremefarbenes Kartoffelzysten-; Nematode, Weisser Kartoffel-
- HETDPA (Globodera pallida)
Summary of InvasivenessTop of page
G. pallida originates from the Andes and is known to be present in 55 countries. It is found predominantly in temperate regions as is the related species, Globodera rostochiensis. It is possibly more difficult to manage than G. rostochiensis because there is currently less resistance available in commercially-grown potato cultivars.
Egg-laden cysts are the most environmentally resistant and easily transportable stage in the parasites life cycle, and are found in soil particles, on host roots, stolons or tubers. The microscopic size of the cyst makes it difficult to detect, and it can successfully establish new infestations when an appropriate climate and host plant are available.
Machinery used on infested land followed by use in otherwise uninfested areas is a common method of spread, for example, fumigation equipment that has not been cleaned before use in another area. Disinfection of farming tools, transport and clothing helps to keep uninfested land free from G. pallida. Wind, rain and flood water are also capable of redistributing viable cysts to create new infestations.
Taxonomic TreeTop of page
- Domain: Eukaryota
- Kingdom: Metazoa
- Phylum: Nematoda
- Class: Secernentea
- Order: Tylenchida
- Family: Heteroderidae
- Genus: Globodera
- Species: Globodera pallida
Notes on Taxonomy and NomenclatureTop of page
Heterodera pallida was first described by Stone in 1972 (published in 1973), originally considered to be a pathotype of Heterodera rostochiensis Wollenweber 1923, and has only white or cream, not yellow, females. Other workers had also noted this difference (Guile, 1966, 1967, 1970) and that many of the distinguishing features of the cream and white pathotypes were generally larger than those of the yellow (Evans and Webley, 1970). H. pallida was described from two localities: Epworth in Lincolnshire, England, representing the Pa3 pathotype, and Duddingston, Scotland, representing the Pa1 pathotype. H. pallida is thought to have originated in the Andes mountains of South America and has been detected growing on Solanum acaule on the pre-Columbian agricultural terraces of Peru (Jatala and Garzon, 1987).
To accommodate the potato cyst nematodes and related species having round cysts, Skarbilovich (1959) erected the subgenus Globodera which was later elevated to generic status by Behrens (1975).
Most literature, records and data referring to Heterodera rostochiensis before 1972 could also have been referring to H. pallida.
DescriptionTop of page
The eggs of G. pallida are retained within the cyst and no egg sac is produced. The surface of the eggshell is smooth; no microvilli are present.
Measurements of the egg fall within the range: 108.3 ± 2.0 µm × 43.2 ± 3.2 µm.
Female measurements: stylet length = 27.4 ± 1.1 µm; head width at base = 5.2 ± 0.5 µm; stylet base to dorsal gland duct = 5.4 ± 1.1 µm; head tip to median bulb valve = 67.2 ± 18.7 µm; median bulb valve to excretory pore = 71.2 ± 22 µm; head tip to excretory pore = 139.7 ± 15.5 µm; mean diameter of the vulval basin = 24.8 ± 3.7 µm; length of vulval slit = 11.5 ± 1.3 µm; anus to vulval basin = 44.6 ± 10.9 µm; number of ridges on the anal-vulval axis = 12.5 ± 3.1.
The female has an almost spherical body from which the neck and head protrude. G. pallida females are either white or cream, depending on pathotype, when they break through the cortical root cells, and this phase lasts for 4-6 weeks. There is never a golden or yellow stage as in Globodera rostochiensis. The head bears one to two annules and the neck is covered in ridges between which tubercles are found when viewed by SEM. The head skeleton is hexaradiate and weak. The stylet is equally proportioned (50% conus and 50% shaft), and the basal knobs reflex in an anterior direction. The median bulb is very well developed and has a large crescentic pump. The oesophageal gland lobes are often displaced into a forward position as the large paired ovaries expand in the body cavity. The excretory pore is located at the base of the neck. The vulval slit of the female is found in the vulval basin, a round depression at the opposite pole of the body to the neck. The vulval slit is surrounded by a translucent area of thin cuticle which bears papillae.
The tough, hardened cuticle of the dead female tans to a deep brown colour and acts as a protective bag around the embryonated eggs, which will form the next generation of G. pallida. The dimensions of the cyst are almost identical to those of the female, although the head is usually lost. The features of the cyst fenestrae are important in morphologically-based identification. The fenestrae have normally been lost by the mature cyst stage so that only a hole remains. The anus is generally conspicuous. New cysts may retain the remnants of a thin subcrystalline layer. All Globodera species are abullate, but occasionally small rounded brown pigmented bodies are found, and these are termed vulval bodies.
Cyst measurements: width = 534 ± 66 µm; length, excluding neck = 579 ± 70 µm; neck length = 188 ± 20 µm; mean fenestral diameter = 24.5 ± 5.0 µm; anus to fenestra distance = 50 ± 13.4 µm; Granek's ratio (Granek, 1955) = 2.2 ± 1.0.
The male is vermiform and usually assumes an open C shape upon death and fixation, the short rounded tail twisting through 90-180°. The body annules are regular along the body and there are three bands in the lateral field, which narrows both posteriorly and anteriorly. The head skeleton of the male is heavily sclerotised and hexaradiate, and the head is offset and bears 6 or 7 annules. The anterior cephalids are located at head annules 2 and 4 and posteriorly at annules 6 to 9. The stylet is strong with backward sloping knobs. The median bulb is rounded and the crescentic valve strong. The oesophagus is encircled by the nerve ring. The dorsal oesophageal gland nucleus is the most prominent of the three gland nuclei and the lobe itself extends almost to the excretory pore. The hemizonid is two body annules wide and two body annules behind the excretory pore. There is a single testis which extends for about 60% of the body length. The arcuate spicules have single points and some workers have separated the species G. pallida and G. rostochiensis using spicule measurements (Behrens, 1975). The gubernaculum is small and without ornamentation.
Male measurements: body length = 1200 ± 100 µm; body width at excretory pore = 28.4 ± 1.0 µm; head width at base = 12.3 ± 0.5µm; head length = 6 ± 0.3µm; stylet length = 27.5 ± 1.0 µm; stylet base to dorsal gland duct opening = 3.0 ± 1.0 µm; head tip to median bulb = 66 ± 7.1 µm; median bulb to excretory pore = 81.0 ± 11 µm; head tip to excretory pore = 176.4 ± 14.5 µm; tail length = 5.2 ± 1.4 µm; tail width at anus = 13.5 ± 2.1 µm; spicule length = 36.3 ± 4.1 µm; gubernaculum length = 11.3 ± 1.6µm.
The second-stage juvenile, the infective stage in the life cycle, hatches directly from the egg where it has already undergone a moult. The juveniles of G. pallida and G. rostochiensis are very alike, but G. pallida juveniles are generally larger: the body length is greater and the stylet is longer and more robust, with anteriorly facing stylet knobs as opposed to those of G. rostochiensis, which have smaller, backward-sloping knobs. The juvenile is folded four times within the egg and the tail tapers to a rounded point. The body cavity extends half way along the tail, ending at the anus. The hyaline tail region is about 20 µm in length. There are four incisures (i.e. 3 bands) along the body length. The head is offset, rounded and bears 4-6 annules. The head skeleton is strongly sclerotised and hexaradiate. The cephalids are located at body annules 2 and 3 and posteriorly at annules 6 to 8. The stylet is well developed as are its basal knobs, which project anteriorly in lateral view. The nerve ring encircles the oesophagus and the excretory pore is about 110 µm from the head. The hemizonid is found just before the excretory pore and is about 2 annule widths long. The hemizonion is 5-6 annules behind the excretory pore. The genital primordium is located 60% of the body length from the head tip.
Juvenile measurements: body length = 486 ± 2.8 µm; body width at excretory pore = 19.3 ± 0.9 µm; stylet length = 23.0 ± 1.0 µm; stylet base to dorsal gland duct = 5.3 ± 0.9 µm; head tip to median bulb valve = 68.7 ± 2.7 µm; head tip to excretory pore = 108.6 ± 4.1µm; tail length = 51.1 ± 2.8 µm; tail width at anus = 12.1 ± 0.4 µm; length of hyaline terminus = 26.6 ± 4.1µm.
Other measurements can be found in Granek (1955), Spears (1968), Green (1971), Greet (1972), Golden and Ellington (1972), Hesling (1973, 1974), Mulvey (1973), Behrens (1975), Mulvey and Golden (1983), Othman et al. (1988) and Baldwin and Mundo-Ocampo (1991).
DistributionTop of page
See also CABI/EPPO (1998, No. 161). The centre of origin of the species is in the Andes Mountains in South America, from where it has spread with the introduction of potatoes to other regions. The present distribution covers temperate zones down to sea level and in the tropics at higher altitudes. In these areas, distribution is linked with that of the potato crop.
Distribution TableTop of page
The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.Last updated: 23 Jun 2020
|Continent/Country/Region||Distribution||Last Reported||Origin||First Reported||Invasive||Reference||Notes|
|Algeria||Present, Localized||Introduced||CABI/EPPO (2011); EPPO (2020)|
|Kenya||Present||Mburu et al. (2018); EPPO (2020)|
|Libya||Absent, Unconfirmed presence record(s)||EPPO (2020)|
|South Africa||Absent, Invalid presence record(s)||EPPO (2020)|
|Tunisia||Present, Localized||Introduced||CABI/EPPO (2011); EPPO (2020)|
|India||Present, Localized||Introduced||Invasive||Prasad (1996); CABI/EPPO (2011); EPPO (2020)|
|-Himachal Pradesh||Absent, Invalid presence record(s)||EPPO (2020)|
|-Kerala||Present||Introduced||1988||Invasive||Ramana and Mohandas (1998); CABI/EPPO (2011); EPPO (2020)|
|-Tamil Nadu||Present, Localized||Introduced||Invasive||Amalraj and Rao (1997); CABI/EPPO (2011); EPPO (2020)|
|Japan||Present||Narabu et al. (2016); IPPC (2016); EPPO (2020)|
|-Hokkaido||Present||Narabu et al. (2016); IPPC (2016); EPPO (2020)|
|Malaysia||Absent, Unconfirmed presence record(s)||EPPO (2020)|
|Pakistan||Present, Localized||Introduced||Invasive||Zaheer (1998); CABI/EPPO (2011); EPPO (2020)|
|Turkey||Present, Few occurrences||Introduced||Invasive||CABI/EPPO (2011); EPPO (2020); CABI (Undated)|
|Austria||Present, Localized||Introduced||1970||CABI/EPPO (2011); EPPO (2020)|
|Belarus||Absent, Confirmed absent by survey||EPPO (2020)|
|Belgium||Present, Localized||Introduced||CABI/EPPO (2011); EPPO (2020)|
|Bosnia and Herzegovina||Present||Nježić et al. (2014); EPPO (2020)|
|Bulgaria||Present, Localized||Introduced||CABI/EPPO (2011); Trifonova (2003); EPPO (2020)|
|Croatia||Present, Few occurrences||Introduced||2003||Grubišić et al. (2007); CABI/EPPO (2011); EPPO (2020)|
|Cyprus||Present, Localized||Introduced||CABI/EPPO (2011); EPPO (2020)|
|Czechia||Present, Few occurrences||Introduced||Zouhar and Rysanek (2002); CABI/EPPO (2011); Douda et al. (2012); EPPO (2020)|
|Denmark||Present||IPPC (2013); CABI/EPPO (2011); EPPO (2020); CABI (Undated)||Present: under eradication.|
|Estonia||Present, Few occurrences||EPPO (2020)|
|Faroe Islands||Present||Introduced||Jakobsen (1973); CABI/EPPO (2011); EPPO (2020)|
|Finland||Present, Few occurrences||EPPO (2020); CABI/EPPO (2011)|
|France||Present, Localized||Introduced||Riel and Mulder (1998); CABI/EPPO (2011); EPPO (2020)|
|Germany||Present, Localized||Introduced||Lauenstein (1997); CABI/EPPO (2011); EPPO (2020)|
|Greece||Present, Localized||Introduced||Vlachopoulos (1994); CABI/EPPO (2011); EPPO (2020)|
|-Crete||Present||Introduced||Tzortzakakis et al. (2004); CABI/EPPO (2011); EPPO (2020)|
|Hungary||Present, Few occurrences||Introduced||2001||Elekes-Kaminszky et al. (2004); CABI/EPPO (2011); EPPO (2020)|
|Iceland||Present, Localized||Introduced||Riel and Mulder (1998); CABI/EPPO (2011); EPPO (2020)|
|Ireland||Present, Localized||Introduced||Riel and Mulder (1998); CABI/EPPO (2011); EPPO (2020)|
|Italy||Present, Few occurrences||Introduced||1977||CABI/EPPO (2011); Greco et al. (1994); Volvas (2004); EPPO (2020)|
|-Sicily||Present||Lombardo et al. (2011)|
|Latvia||Absent, Confirmed absent by survey||EPPO (2020)|
|Lithuania||Absent, Intercepted only||IPPC (2016); EPPO (2020)|
|Luxembourg||Present||Introduced||European Commission (2001); CABI/EPPO (2011); EPPO (2020)|
|Malta||Present, Localized||Introduced||CABI/EPPO (2011); EPPO (2020)|
|Netherlands||Present, Localized||Introduced||CABI/EPPO (2011); EPPO (2020); CABI (Undated)|
|Norway||Present, Localized||Introduced||1974||CABI/EPPO (2011); EPPO (2020)|
|Poland||Absent, Formerly present||EPPO (2020); Wolny (1992); CABI/EPPO (2011)|
|Portugal||Present, Few occurrences||Introduced||Santos et al. (1995); Cunha et al. (2004); CABI/EPPO (2011); EPPO (2020)|
|-Madeira||Present||Introduced||CABI/EPPO (2011); EPPO (2020)|
|Romania||Present, Localized||Introduced||Marks and Rojancovski (1998); CABI/EPPO (2011); EPPO (2020)|
|Russia||Absent, Unconfirmed presence record(s)||EPPO (2020)|
|-Russia (Europe)||Absent, Unconfirmed presence record(s)||EPPO (2020)|
|Serbia||Present||EPPO (2020); Krnnjac et al. (2002); CABI/EPPO (2011)|
|Serbia and Montenegro||Absent, Invalid presence record(s)||CABI (Undated a)|
|Slovakia||Absent, Formerly present||CABI/EPPO (2011); EPPO (2020)|
|Slovenia||Present, Transient under eradication||EPPO (2020)|
|Spain||Present, Localized||Introduced||Talavera et al. (1998); CABI/EPPO (2011); EPPO (2020)|
|-Balearic Islands||Present, Localized||Introduced||CABI/EPPO (2011); EPPO (2020)|
|-Canary Islands||Present||Introduced||CABI/EPPO (2011); EPPO (2020)|
|Sweden||Present, Few occurrences||Introduced||1960||Manduric and Andersson (2003); CABI/EPPO (2011); EPPO (2020)|
|Switzerland||Present, Localized||Introduced||CABI/EPPO (2011); EPPO (2020)|
|Ukraine||Absent, Formerly present||Pylypenko et al. (2005); CABI/EPPO (2011); EPPO (2020)|
|United Kingdom||Present, Localized||Introduced||Minnis et al. (2002); CABI/EPPO (2011); EPPO (2020)|
|-Channel Islands||Present||Introduced||CABI/EPPO (2011); EPPO (2020)|
|-England||Present, Localized||EPPO (2020)|
|-Northern Ireland||Present, Localized||Introduced||Turner (1996); CABI/EPPO (2011); EPPO (2020)|
|-Scotland||Present, Localized||Introduced||Trudgill et al. (2003); CABI/EPPO (2011); EPPO (2020)|
|Canada||Present, Few occurrences||Introduced||Invasive||Ebsary (1986); CABI/EPPO (2011); EPPO (2020)|
|-Newfoundland and Labrador||Present, Localized||Introduced||CABI/EPPO (2011); Stone et al. (1977); EPPO (2020)|
|Costa Rica||Present, Localized||IPPC (2008); EPPO (2020)|
|Mexico||Absent, Invalid presence record(s)||EPPO (2020)|
|Panama||Present, Localized||Introduced||Invasive||Brodie (1998); CABI/EPPO (2011); EPPO (2020)|
|United States||Present, Few occurrences||CABI/EPPO (2011); EPPO (2020)|
|-Idaho||Present, Localized||Introduced||2006||CABI/EPPO (2011); EPPO (2020); IPPC (2020); CABI (Undated)|
|New Zealand||Present, Widespread||Marshall (1998); CABI/EPPO (2011); EPPO (2020)|
|Argentina||Present, Few occurrences||CABI/EPPO (2011); EPPO (2020)|
|Bolivia||Present, Localized||Native||Franco et al. (1998); CABI/EPPO (2011); EPPO (2020)|
|Chile||Present, Few occurrences||Introduced||Franco et al. (1998); CABI/EPPO (2011); EPPO (2020)|
|Colombia||Present, Localized||Introduced||Franco et al. (1998); CABI/EPPO (2011); EPPO (2020)|
|Ecuador||Present, Localized||Introduced||Franco et al. (1998); CABI/EPPO (2011); EPPO (2020)|
|Falkland Islands||Present||Introduced||Zaheer et al. (1992); CABI/EPPO (2011); EPPO (2020)|
|Peru||Present, Widespread||Native||Picard et al. (2007); CABI/EPPO (2011); EPPO (2020)|
|Venezuela||Present||Introduced||Franco et al. (1998); CABI/EPPO (2011); EPPO (2020)|
History of Introduction and SpreadTop of page
Potato cyst nematodes are indigenous to the Andean regions of Peru and Bolivia. Their centre of origin is purported to be in the area surrounding Lake Titicaca. Most hosts of PCN are from the family Solanaceae as well as sources of resistance to it: these too are found usually in the same geographic areas, which would support this theory.
How the transfer of PCN to Europe and beyond was expedited is considered most likely to be from contaminated seed potatoes and soil adhering to them during the 1850s. Although potatoes had previously been imported to both England and to Spain in the mid sixteenth century by different routes, no records or reports exist of damage by PCN at that time. Potato became an important food source particularly in the warmer regions of Europe. Pre-seventeenth century the potato yield was smaller and the plants preferred a shorter day length, but by the eighteenth century potatoes had become commonly grown throughout Europe, parts of Asia and the British colonies. The potato famine caused by potato blight brought about a search for resistance to it and involved the revisiting of South America to search out new genetic stock resistance to blight, and it is thought most likely that with the new consignment of potato stocks came the potato cyst nematode.
In 1881, Kühn recorded finding cyst nematodes on potatoes, which he referred to as Heterodera schachtii; this is a time lag of about 30 years from the introduction of the new genetic material from South America to the distribution and damage of PCN reaching noticeable levels. In1923, Wollenweber diagnosed the potato cyst as a separate species Heterodera rostochiensis, and in 1972 Stone identified a second species of potato cyst nematode having a white female form and a significantly different biology and morphology, described as Heterodera pallida. Prior to this date all PCN were referred to as Heterodera rostochiensis.
With travel to all parts of the globe, various introductions at different points in time must have occurred, and are still happening to-day. For example a recent outbreak of Globodera pallida has been recorded from Idaho, USA (O’Dell and Hoffman, 2006).
Potato cyst nematodes are still being transferred from country to country. This most resistant pest takes time to build up, usually from one point in a field to a small patch, then if unnoticed by dispersal mechanisms such as wind, water, or soil movement usually by machinery or human intervention. This demonstrates that continued vigilance is required to keep this pest under control.
IntroductionsTop of page
|Introduced to||Introduced from||Year||Reason||Introduced by||Established in wild through||References||Notes|
|Natural reproduction||Continuous restocking|
|Idaho||2006||No||No||Hafez et al. (2007)|
Risk of IntroductionTop of page
Potato cyst nematodes are A2 quarantine pests for EPPO. They are also of quarantine significance for APPPC and NAPPO. Virtually all areas within the EPPO region that grow potatoes are already contaminated with potato cyst nematode. These areas are generally closely monitored. It is important to keep seed potato areas free of potato cyst nematode. Domestic measures and import controls are justified as they help to reduce spread and introduction of new pathotypes into already colonised areas. Globodera rostochiensis still seems to be the dominant species throughout Europe with the exception of England, UK, where G. pallida is common.
To prevent further spread of potato cyst nematode into uninfested areas, several methods are used. These include international and national legislation on the movement of seed potatoes, nursery stock, flower bulbs and soil (CEC, 1969).
The specific EPPO quarantine requirements (OEPP/EPPO, 1990) for these nematodes are that fields in which seed potatoes or rooted plants for export are grown are inspected by taking soil samples according to an EPPO-recommended method (OEPP/EPPO, 1991; EPPO, 2007) and must be found free from viable cysts of both species of potato cyst nematode. The sampling must be performed after harvest of the previous potato crop.
Habitat ListTop of page
|Soil||Present, no further details||Harmful (pest or invasive)|
|Stored products||Present, no further details||Harmful (pest or invasive)|
|Vector||Present, no further details||Harmful (pest or invasive)|
|Terrestrial – Managed||Cultivated / agricultural land||Present, no further details||Harmful (pest or invasive)|
Hosts/Species AffectedTop of page
The major hosts of G. pallida are restricted to the Solanaceae, in particular potato, tomato and aubergine (Ellenby, 1945; 1954; Mai, 1951; 1952; Winslow, 1954; Stelter, 1957; 1959; 1987; Roberts and Stone, 1981; Sullivan et al., 2007). Oxalis tuberosa has been extensively tested in host range tests by Sullivan et al. (2007) with constant negative results and has been declared a non-host on this basis.
Host Plants and Other Plants AffectedTop of page
|Datura stramonium (jimsonweed)||Solanaceae||Other|
|Hyoscyamus niger (black henbane)||Solanaceae||Other|
|Lycopersicon pimpinellifolium (currant tomato)||Solanaceae||Other|
|Solanum aviculare (kangaroo apple)||Solanaceae||Other|
|Solanum gilo (gilo)||Solanaceae||Other|
|Solanum lycopersicum (tomato)||Solanaceae||Main|
|Solanum marginatum (white-edged nightshade)||Solanaceae||Other|
|Solanum mauritianum (tobacco tree)||Solanaceae||Other|
|Solanum melongena (aubergine)||Solanaceae||Main|
|Solanum muricatum (melon pear)||Solanaceae||Other|
|Solanum nigrum (black nightshade)||Solanaceae||Other|
|Solanum quitoense (naranjilla)||Solanaceae||Other|
|Solanum sarrachoides (green nightshade)||Other|
|Solanum tuberosum (potato)||Solanaceae||Main|
Growth StagesTop of page Pre-emergence, Seedling stage, Vegetative growing stage
SymptomsTop of page Potato cyst nematodes, in common with other cyst nematodes, do not cause specific symptoms of infection. Initially, crops display patches of poor growth and affected plants may show chlorosis and wilting, with poor top growth. Good top growth is essential for photosynthesis and production of sufficient nutrients for the health of the plant and production of new tubers. Affected plants suffer yield loss and tubers are smaller. To be confident that these symptoms are caused by potato cyst nematode and to give an indication of population density, soil samples must be taken or the females or cysts must be observed directly on the host roots.
List of Symptoms/SignsTop of page
|Leaves / abnormal colours|
|Leaves / wilting|
|Roots / cysts on root surface|
|Roots / reduced root system|
|Vegetative organs / surface cracking|
|Whole plant / dwarfing|
|Whole plant / early senescence|
Biology and EcologyTop of page
A cyst of G. pallida (PCN) contains as many as 500 eggs, which will form the next generation. The eggs can remain viable for many years before gradually deteriorating. Factors affecting hatching are very similar to those that affect Globodera rostochiensis. Soil moisture content has an important effect on both the movement of the second-stage juveniles and, consequently, their use of lipids; adequate soil moisture and lipid levels are both necessary for root infection. Various hatching stimuli are known, for example, root diffusate (Perry and Beane, 1988) and certain organic and inorganic chemical compounds (Clarke and Hennessy, 1987). G. pallida hatches at around 10°C or less and is adapted to develop at cool temperatures between 10 and 18°C, whereas G. rostochiensis seems to be adapted to a temperature range of 15 to 25°C (Franco, 1979). Day length also influences egg hatching, which is faster where the host has continuous light rather than prolonged hours of darkness (Hominick, 1986).
As with other cyst nematodes, the second-stage juvenile is the infective stage and, upon hatching, invades the host just behind the root tip. The juveniles move up or down the root until they receive a specific signal, which is likely to be of a chemical nature, to set up a feeding site in the form of a syncytium. The ultrastructure of the feeding site and nematode interaction with the syncytium have been studied intensively (Wyss and Zunke, 1986; Golinowski et al., 1997; Endo, 1998). The life cycle takes around 45 days to complete, during which time the second-stage juvenile develops into a male or a female whose survival depends on environmental factors such as available nutrients. Juveniles that penetrate the pericycle cells of the plant are more likely to become males, whereas those that penetrate the procambial cells tend to become females (Golinowski et al., 1997). Studies of G. rostochiensis juveniles have shown that, after a few hours of inactivity, the juvenile probes the selected cell and inserts its stylet into it while remaining motionless for several hours; the stylet is withdrawn and re-inserted into the same cell. A secretory product from the oesophageal glands is injected via the stylet into the selected cell. The initial syncytial cell is altered to provide large amounts of nutrients to the developing nematode. The syncytium undergoes major changes, for example lysis of inner cell walls, formation of cell wall ingrowths next to plant conductive tissue, formation of numerous lipid bodies and enlarged amoeboid nuclei are present. Some of these events are still not fully understood. In resistant plants, the juvenile may try to form a syncytial feeding site but the walls of cells involved usually thicken and cells may die. This prevents the ready movement of nutrients to the juvenile (Rice et al., 1986; Robinson et al., 1988).
Males are relatively more abundant when environmental conditions are poor as they require less food than females and do not feed during the free-living stage (Evans, 1970). The vermiform male has a short life span of ten days or so and, during this time, it will mate with as many available females as possible. At this point in the life cycle, the white or cream females have become obese and broken through the root cortex, exposing their genitalia. The females secrete pheromones which attract males (Green and Miller, 1969; Green and Plumb, 1970; Mugniery, 1979; Mugniery et al., 1992).
Numerous studies on the biochemistry of both G. rostochiensis and G. pallida have been published since isoelectric focusing was first used to display different protein profiles for G. rostochiensis and G. pallida (Fleming and Marks, 1983). This is a quick, dependable and relatively inexpensive method of identification of the species of potato cyst nematodes. Other techniques are capable of greater discrimination, such as pathotypes within a population (Hinch et al., 1998). Monoclonal antibodies have also been used to develop diagnostic procedures based on ELISA (Curtis et al., 1998). DNA-based techniques are used routinely with a range of methods and species-specific primers (Mullholland et al., 1996; Fullaondo et al., 1999) now being used with diagnostics applications such as RAPD, RFLPS, AFLPS and multiplex PCR, which have become less expensive and more user friendly. With the many kits now designed to help with the methodology, even greater discrimination is possible. Sequencing of DNA is now undertaken in many laboratories not only to identify to species, but also in studying plant-nematode interactions with a view to developing better control methods (Perry and Jones, 1998).
Disruption of the nematode life cycle may be possible through the insertion of genetic constructs coding, for example, enzyme inhibitors into the plant by genetic engineering (Burrows, 1996; Burrows and De Waele, 1997). Studies have also been made of nematode secretions and their function and interaction within the host plant (Jones and Robertson, 1997; Jones and Harrower, 1998). The role of cuticular secretions in plant parasitic nematodes is not yet fully understood (Forrest et al., 1989; Jones et al., 1997). Changes occur in the cuticle of second-stage juveniles when they begin to feed: in addition to changes associated with natural growth patterns and the onset of moulting, changes occur that appear to be linked to interaction with the plant host (Jones and Robertson, 1997).
Molecular techniques have now advanced so far as to enable the functions of individual genes to be studied. Gp-FAR-1 has been identified from the surface of G. pallida and is considered to be involved in eluding the defence system of the host plant (Prior et al., 2001). More recent studies on other genes identified from G. rostochiensis have highlighted the complexity of host penetration and the function of pectate lyases utilised by PCN for parasitism (Kudla et al., 2007). RNA interference (RNAi) has been used in a range of studies and a recent review of progress in this area (Lilley et al., 2007) provides details of target genes in plant parasitic nematodes including PCN. Other biochemical studies have investigated the action of nematode proteinases and their possible involvement in extracellullar digestion (Koritsas and Atkinson, 1994; Lilley et al., 1996). Proteinase genes have been found in Caenorhabditis elegans (Sarkis et al., 1988) and Haemonchus contortus (Pratt et al., 1990). Proteinase inhibitors expressed in plants may have the potential to control nematodes (Hepher and Atkinson, 1992). There are marked differences in the secretions from the two species of potato cyst nematodes, namely G. pallida and G. rostochiensis (Duncan et al., 1997) and lectin blotting with WGA (wheat germ agglutinin) shows further differences: there were no differences between populations of G. rostochiensis, but there were between populations of G. pallida.
ClimateTop of page
|B - Dry (arid and semi-arid)||Tolerated||< 860mm precipitation annually|
|BS - Steppe climate||Tolerated||> 430mm and < 860mm annual precipitation|
|C - Temperate/Mesothermal climate||Preferred||Average temp. of coldest month > 0°C and < 18°C, mean warmest month > 10°C|
|Cs - Warm temperate climate with dry summer||Preferred||Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry summers|
|Cw - Warm temperate climate with dry winter||Preferred||Warm temperate climate with dry winter (Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry winters)|
|D - Continental/Microthermal climate||Preferred||Continental/Microthermal climate (Average temp. of coldest month < 0°C, mean warmest month > 10°C)|
|Ds - Continental climate with dry summer||Preferred||Continental climate with dry summer (Warm average temp. > 10°C, coldest month < 0°C, dry summers)|
|EF - Ice cap climate||Tolerated||Ice cap climate (Average temp. all months < 0°C)|
|ET - Tundra climate||Tolerated||Tundra climate (Average temp. of warmest month < 10°C and > 0°C)|
Latitude/Altitude RangesTop of page
|Latitude North (°N)||Latitude South (°S)||Altitude Lower (m)||Altitude Upper (m)|
Air TemperatureTop of page
|Parameter||Lower limit||Upper limit|
|Absolute minimum temperature (ºC)||-80|
|Mean maximum temperature of hottest month (ºC)||8||27|
Natural enemiesTop of page
|Natural enemy||Type||Life stages||Specificity||References||Biological control in||Biological control on|
Means of Movement and DispersalTop of page
Potato cyst nematodes are microscope in size and are most easily dispersed with the movement of seed potato and /or soil from one place to another, both locally and internationally. The distribution of this pest via contaminated machinery, animal movement from field to field or human means can have disastrous consequences. Phytosanitary measures are vital to integrated pest management schemes, and inspection of seed potato is particularly important to stop the spread of PCN to “clean” areas and countries.
Natural Dispersal (Non-Biotic)
Natural dispersal is generally slow as cyst nematodes tend to grow in patches and are only moved around by soil disturbance. The most common means of natural dispersal are via run-off from flooded fields, the water carrying the very resilient cysts to adjoining fields, where given favourable conditions and a host plant new infestations will occur. Wind during dust storms can lift soil and cysts and deposit them into new areas spreading infection.
Vector Transmission (Biotic)
Cysts can survive unfavourable conditions for some years due to the hard cuticle which protects the eggs. Cysts can pass through the gut of animals without damage and once excreted, provided conditions are favourable, they can begin a new infestation.
The unintentional infestation of new introductions was probably the way most PCN was and still is transferred. Potato has continued to be both a nutrionally and economically important crop. Potato tubers are still imported into many countries and without stringent regulations and personnel that are well trained to recognise potential pathogen problems there will always be a risk of new infestations arising.
Pathway CausesTop of page
|Crop production||Peru and Bolivia to Europe||Yes||Yes||Turner and Evans, 1998|
|Digestion and excretion||USA||Yes||Brodie, 1976|
|Escape from confinement or garden escape||Yes|
|Flooding and other natural disasters||Yes|
|Garden waste disposal||Yes|
|People sharing resources||Yes|
|Seed trade||Netherlands to Canada||Yes||Yes||Franco et al., 1998|
Pathway VectorsTop of page
|Bulk freight or cargo||cysts||Yes||Yes||Inagaki, 2004|
|Clothing, footwear and possessions||cysts||Yes||Yes|
|Land vehicles||Cysts||Yes||Yes||Been and Schomaker, 2006|
|Soil, sand and gravel||Cysts in water and dust storm||Yes||Yes||Been and Schomaker, 2006|
|Water||Yes||Been and Schomaker, 2006|
|Wind||Yes||Been and Schomaker, 2006|
Plant TradeTop of page
|Plant parts liable to carry the pest in trade/transport||Pest stages||Borne internally||Borne externally||Visibility of pest or symptoms|
|Bulbs/Tubers/Corms/Rhizomes||cysts; eggs||Yes||Yes||Pest or symptoms not visible to the naked eye but usually visible under light microscope|
|Growing medium accompanying plants||cysts; eggs; juveniles||Yes||Yes||Pest or symptoms usually invisible|
|Roots||adults; cysts; eggs; juveniles||Yes||Yes|
|Seedlings/Micropropagated plants||cysts; eggs; juveniles||Yes||Yes||Pest or symptoms not visible to the naked eye but usually visible under light microscope|
|Plant parts not known to carry the pest in trade/transport|
|Fruits (inc. pods)|
|Stems (above ground)/Shoots/Trunks/Branches|
|True seeds (inc. grain)|
Impact SummaryTop of page
Economic ImpactTop of page
For potato cyst nematodes (PCN) in the UK, loss is estimated at around £50 million per annum and for Europe, several times this amount. Potatoes are one of the top five important food and cash crops. PCN cause extensive damage, particularly in temperate areas and particularly when virulent pathotypes occur and any resistance has failed. The situation is worse with G. pallida, where commercial cultivars with good resistance are still few and often have undesirable characteristics. Damage is related to the number of viable eggs per unit of soil, and is reflected in the weight of tubers produced. One of the first models to describe this relationship was that of Seinhorst (1965). This model has subsequently been improved upon and adapted to take into consideration the various soil types, environments and population densities that occur in field situations (Been et al., 1995.) Studies by other workers (Elston et al., 1991; Phillips et al., 1991) have also provided information on how nematodes cause yield losses.
Direct and Indirect Losses
In the UK, losses due to G. pallida and Globodera rostochiensis were estimated by Brown and Sykes (1983). At densities of 0-24 eggs/g soil, losses were 6.25 t/ha per 20 eggs/g soil. At 40-160 eggs/g soil, losses were 1.67 t/ha per 20 eggs/g soil. The maximum crop loss was 22 t/ha.
In the Netherlands, potato yields decreased from 45 t/ha at pH 4.5 to 33 t/ha at pH 6.5. Nematode densities decreased from ca. 18 to 9 juveniles/g soil. In a container experiment, tuber yields were ca. 11% lower at pH 6.5 than at pH 4.5 in the absence of nematodes, but ca. 44% lower when an initial population of 27 juveniles/g soil was present (Haverkort et al., 1993).
In Norway, continuous cropping of susceptible potato cultivars on land heavily infested with G. pallida and G. rostochiensis resulted in an average yield loss of 50-60%. Yields were increased by the use of resistant crops even in the first year of cropping (Oeydvin, 1978).
In Germany, the use of nematicides reduced nematode populations and lead to increases in yield of nematode-susceptible cultivars. Combinations of nematicides, which cost ca. DM 1000/ha more than individual compounds, lead to further increases of ca 10% in tuber yields (Lauenstein, 1992).
In Italy, the relationship between numbers of G. pallida and yield of potato tubers was investigated in microplot trials in 1981. A tolerance limit of 1.7 eggs/g soil was derived (Greco et al., 1982).
In Southern Spain, G. pallida occurred at 48% of sites when 96 fields over an area of 2400 ha were sampled. Losses in potato yield of nearly 80% occurred as a result (Talavera et al., 1998).
In Russia, problems with Globodera species have been reported on a total area of 41,250 ha. The potential yield losses in areas of high infestation were 70-80% or more (Vasyutin and Yakoleva, 1998).
In Bulgaria, under experimental field conditions, the minimum initial population density affecting yield loss was 1 egg or juvenile/g soil (Samaliev and Andreev, 1998). Crop rotation was also shown to influence population density of G. pallida (Samaliev, 1998). When non-host crops were cultivated for 2 or 3 consecutive years, potato yield increased by 2.7 and 3.4 times. Nematode soil populations declined by 54 and 91%, respectively.
In India, losses due to nematode species including G. pallida are estimated to range between 5 and 10% (Misra and Agrawal, 1988). In Tamil Nadu, a 1987 survey showed that a mean level of G. pallida and G. rostochiensis on susceptible cultivars of 2.7 (3.8 females/2.5 cm root), resulted in about a 30% yield loss (Subramaniyam et al., 1989).
In Panama, average crop losses due to G. pallida, G. rostochiensis and Meloidogyne were estimated to be 10-30% (Pinochet, 1987).
In Canada, the discovery of G. pallida in 1977 followed that of G. rostochiensis in 1962 in Newfoundland. Since then, about $Can 800,000 a year has been spent on control measures and research (Miller, 1986).
In the USA, G. pallida was identified for the first time from several fields in Bonneville and Bingham Counties, Idaho, during the spring and summer of 2006. This finding has prompted an eradication programme that will be in place for 5 to 7 years to prevent the spread of PCN to other potato-growing areas. Some $11 million have been allocated to financing all the measures required to eradicate and control the nematode.
Risk and Impact FactorsTop of page Invasiveness
- Invasive in its native range
- Proved invasive outside its native range
- Has a broad native range
- Abundant in its native range
- Highly adaptable to different environments
- Tolerates, or benefits from, cultivation, browsing pressure, mutilation, fire etc
- Pioneering in disturbed areas
- Highly mobile locally
- Long lived
- Fast growing
- Has high reproductive potential
- Has propagules that can remain viable for more than one year
- Has high genetic variability
- Changed gene pool/ selective loss of genotypes
- Host damage
- Increases vulnerability to invasions
- Modification of nutrient regime
- Negatively impacts agriculture
- Negatively impacts cultural/traditional practices
- Negatively impacts human health
- Negatively impacts animal health
- Causes allergic responses
- Pest and disease transmission
- Interaction with other invasive species
- Parasitism (incl. parasitoid)
- Highly likely to be transported internationally accidentally
- Difficult to identify/detect as a commodity contaminant
- Difficult to identify/detect in the field
- Difficult/costly to control
Uses ListTop of page
- Laboratory use
- Research model
- Test organisms (for pests and diseases)
Detection and InspectionTop of page
Detection based on host plant symptoms and identification by morphological and molecular methods are detailed in OEPP/EPPO (2009).
Field samples are taken to check if potato cyst nematode is present or not, and to determine which species is present and in what quantities. This information is required in order to plan the management of any infestation. In the past, nematodes were thought to have a random distribution throughout a field, whereas it now seems likely that distribution is aggregated. Statistical models have been used to assess the existing and potential distribution of potato cyst nematode in fields, but geostatisical models and techniques may provide more definitive information on spatial distribution. See Been and Schomaker (2006).
Similarities to Other Species/ConditionsTop of page
G. pallida, a sibling species of G. rostochiensis, can be distinguished by the colour of the mature female: most other species of the genus have yellow to golden females, whereas G. pallida has white or cream females, depending on the pathotype. In general, the second-stage juveniles of G. pallida are longer, have a more robust-looking stylet with forward pointing basal knobs, and have longer true tail lengths than other species in the genus.
G. pallida, G. rostochiensis and the G. tabacum complex, which includes G. tabacum (Lownsbery and Lownsbery, 1954), G. solanacearum (Miller and Gray, 1972) and G. virginiae (Miller and Gray, 1968) plus the subspecies G. 'mexicana', incompletely described by Campos-Vela (1967), share an extensive host range mainly composed of solanaceous species, with the G. tabacum complex more commonly found on the spiny species whereas potato cyst nematodes have a preference for tuber-forming species. The G. tabacum complex is mainly confined to North, South and Central America. G. 'mexicana' appears to have greatest affinity with G. pallida and these species are able to interbreed (Mugniery, 1978).
Other Globodera species, such as G. artemisia (Eroshenko and Kazachenko, 1972), are found only on Compositae hosts. G. artemisia can be distinguished morphologically, having a very small Granek's ratio and second-stage juveniles with backward sloping stylet knobs. Globodera leptonepia (Cobb and Taylor, 1953), a species found just once in soil with a consignment of potatoes, has seven folds in the second-stage juvenile within the egg, whereas G. pallida has only four.
Prevention and ControlTop of page
Due to the variable regulations around (de)registration of pesticides, your national list of registered pesticides or relevant authority should be consulted to determine which products are legally allowed for use in your country when considering chemical control. Pesticides should always be used in a lawful manner, consistent with the product's label.
Legislation provides a definitive set of rules (MAFF, 2000) designed to prevent the spread of potato cyst nematodes. The movement of soil is a common factor in the spread of potato cyst nematode, whether this is between countries, between farms or between sites in one field. Potato cyst nematodes probably spread to Europe through trade and the movement of potato tubers and soil adhering to them from other continents. Most countries have quarantine organizations that inspect potato shipments to protect their own countries from inadvertent importation of pests and diseases.
Physical barriers also tend to isolate pests in local areas, for example, deserts and rivers may isolate pests. Trade is the most common probable simple cause of new infestations of plant parasitic nematodes (Parker, 2000). Farmers are made are made aware of the risk of moving contaminated matter from one site to another on machinery, and of the need for preventive measures such as not sharing machinery between farms without thorough washing, cleaning and disinfestation first. Some natural movement cannot be controlled, for instance topsoil blown by strong winds from field to field, or infected topsoil moved by flood water onto clean sites. Animal manure has also been shown to contain viable cysts; the ingestion of the cyst appears not to impair its reproductive ability so can provide the means for new infestations to arise.
The following prevention methods can be used:
1. Check that machinery is thoroughly clean and free from plant debris.
2. Do not return soil that may contain potato cyst nematode to fields.
3. Clean the soil from potato tubers and have the soil tested to be sure that potato cyst nematodes are not transferred.
4. Make sure that the agency that tests the soil is competent and tests 500 g of soil per sample.
5. Grow susceptible and resistant potato cultivars alternately, thus reducing the possibility of selecting a highly virulent or new pathotype.
Crop rotation is frequently used to reduce population densities of potato cyst nematode. The major commercial hosts of the two potato cyst nematode species are in the plant family Solanaceae, namely potato, tomato and aubergine, all important cash crops. Where these crops are grown in monoculture for several seasons in infested soil, nematode densities increase to extremely high levels and crop yields become uneconomic. To reduce nematode population densities, non-host crops such as barley are grown between host crops (Whitehead, 1995). The length of the rotation and the crops used can have variable effects on the yield and the potato cyst nematode density. In South American countries, slightly different regimes are used and may include fallow, with intervening crops of lima beans, maize, barley or wheat. The annual decline rate in soil of G. pallida is, in general, slower than that of Globodera rostochiensis. When the reduction of potato cyst nematode is too slow by rotation alone, other additional methods can be used; for example, trap cropping can hasten the reduction of population densities.
Trap cropping is a simple method that has been used successfully for the reduction of cyst nematode populations (Halford et al., 1999). Sufficient crop growth time is allowed for the nematodes to penetrate the roots and develop into young adults (5-6 weeks), but not enough time for them to form new eggs. Potato cyst nematode populations can be reduced very quickly as long as the grower removes and destroys the crop, including the nematodes in the roots. If left too late, the nematode density will increase but, if the crop is removed in time, the nematode density is reduced and there will be a significant yield benefit for any subsequent potato crop. G. pallida can be reduced by as much as 80% per annum and even greater reductions were found when ethopropos was used in the soil before the first of two potato trap crops; almost 100% control was achieved (Mugniery and Balandras, 1984). The use of other non-tuberous solanaceous plant species to stimulate hatching has proved very efficient in Dutch studies. Non-hosts that are well adapted to temperate conditions, in this case Solanum sisymbrifolium, proved capable of inducing large hatches of potato cyst nematode juveniles. Solanum sisymbrifolium is fully resistant to potato cyst nematode, therefore eliminating the risk of increasing potato cyst nematode density (Scholte, 2000).
The use of 10 potato clones as trap crops has been tested in field trials in Northern Ireland (Turner et al., 2006) and their potential for the organic market has also been shown. Non-hosts that are well adapted to temperate conditions, in this case S. sisymbriifolium, proved capable of inducing large hatches of potato cyst nematode juveniles. S. sisymbriifolium is fully resistant to potato cyst nematodes, thus eliminating the risk of increasing potato cyst nematode density (Scholte, 2000). A note of caution: it is important to use the correct seed accession number as Stelter (1987) recorded lines no.72 and 121 as poor hosts, although producing fewer than 5 cysts per pot.
Solarization is a good method of killing nematodes in hot climates. The soil is covered with two layers of polyethylene sheeting, allowing the soil underneath to heat up to temperatures of 60°C or more. In cooler climates solarization is much less effective.
Certain European cultivars of potato have resistance (often only partial) to European pathotypes of potato cyst nematode but some South American populations are more virulent than European populations and are able to overcome the resistance in European cultivars (Kort and Jaspers, 1973; Turner et al., 1995). Thus, strict quarantine measures remain essential. Studies at the International Potato Centre (CIP) in Lima, Peru, on 3000 accessions of potato, have focused on the two locally predominant pathotypes of G. pallida: P4A and P5A. A more virulent pathotype (P6A) has emerged and been selected in some areas. Variety of cultivars (tolerant, resistant and partially resistant) has an important part to play in maintaining an acceptable balance of pathotypes. For example, Maris Piper is a popular potato cultivar in the UK and has full resistance to UK populations of G. rostochiensis but no resistance to G. pallida. Its widespread cultivation has selected G. pallida and it is now recognized that other types of cultivars (e.g. tolerant ones) should be included in the rotation to avoid this problem. Some potato cultivars with high resistance to G. pallida are grown in Europe and others are currently being developed. For example, Karaka (Anderson et al., 1993) and Gladiator (Genet et al., 1995) both have high resistance to both species of potato cyst nematode. Other cultivars with desirable qualities are listed in Whitehead (1998). UK populations of G. pallida are genetically more diverse than UK populations of G. rostochiensis. Resistance to G. pallida is usually polygenic and only partial, as in the cultivars Santé and Morag. Another problem in introducing new cultivars of potato is persuading retailers and consumers of the value and desirability of those cultivars.
Biological control agents active against potato cyst nematode are currently the subject of intense study. Although several parasites of eggs and females have been identified, none has given consistent control (Crump, 1987). Soils suppressive to potato cyst nematode have been identified (Roessner, 1986; Crump, 1998) and the fungal causal agents isolated. Selected isolates of Verticillium chlamydosporium, Paecilomyces lilacinus and Acremonium sp. show considerable potential and methods for their production, formulation and application are being evaluated. Natural parasites and biological control are being studied in order to identify natural agents for potato cyst nematode control, without needing to use the toxic chemicals currently in use. These methods will integrate with a variety of strategies such as trap cropping and rotation in sustainable management systems. This work began in the late 1930s (Linford et al., 1938) and still continues (Crump and Flynn, 1995; Segers et al., 1996).
The majority of studies in the late 1990s have concentrated on the fungal control agents Verticillium, Hirsutella and Arthrobotrys, and the bacterium Pasteuria. Several workers (e.g. Roessner, 1986) have studied biological control of G. rostochiensis in pots and in vitro. This work is difficult to transfer to the field for several reasons. For example, the form and volume in which to apply the control agent must be decided, and how the inoculum reacts to the microbial population already present in the field must be determined. Verticillium chlamydosporium will infect young females in pots but is less effective when potatoes are grown in the presence of low nematode population densities.
Very few data are available on the effectiveness of biological control in the field. This is due in part to the logistics of such operations, such as producing sufficent inoculum. It is also known that some tests do not produce the expected results for reasons as yet undefined, but they are probably related in some way to the physiology and ecology of the host parasite relationship. Progress in the area of biological control requires a better understanding of the population dynamics of potato cyst nematode and their parasites (Davies, 1998; Davies et al., 1991). A number of factors interact, such as plant host, the action of root exudates, soil type and the mode of parasitism of the control micro-organism at any one point in time. Also, potato cyst nematode may be more susceptible to infection by any one fungus at different points in its life- cycle. For example, the three major fungal parasites V. chlamydosporium, Fusarium oxysporum and Cylindrocarpon destructans, have all been detected at different times in the nematode life cycle but the most active of the three depends on the life-stage present (Crump, 1987).
The fungi, Paecilomyces lilacinis, Pochonia chlamydosporia and Monographella cucumerina may be used to aid control in PCN infested areas, but not used as the only method of control as field data suggests that the reduction in PCN populations is only around 60%. M. cucumaria is available commercially (MeloCon WG and BioAct WG - approved in the USA).
Some isolates of the bacteria Pasteuria penetrans can reduce populations of PCN. Applications are made during rotation of non-potato crops or before sowing potato to trigger a reduction in population density. Pasteuria penetrans is commercially available for root-knot nematodes. (Nematech Ltd., Tokyo).
Integrated pest management schemes benefit from the inclusion of a biocontrol agent, but, to date, no biocontrol agent can offer full protection on its own. Mutualistic bacteria and fungal endophytes are probably common in the agroecosystem (Sikora, 2007) but, to exploit potential candidates, a necessary objective for the future, is to understand the complicated manner in which they interact. The need to identify the mechanisms of control, how they function and then to scale up the technology for use commercial use in the field will take time.
A novel biological nematicide DiTera®, produced by Valent Biosciences Corp., USA, which has already been shown to control other plant parasitic nematodes in the field such as Xiphinema spp. and Radopholus spp., seems to have the capability to prevent hatching of potato cyst nematode in a specific manner. The specificity is linked to the permeability of the eggshell membrane. After testing DiTera® in solutions of 1 to 10 %, all were found to inhibit the hatching of the eggs. Meloidogyne incognita was used as a control and hatching of its eggs was not inhibited by DiTera® (Twomey et al., 2000).
Kuhn first used chemicals as a nematode control method in 1881, but chemicals were not used extensively for this purpose until 1943 (Carter, 1943). The first attempts used D-D (1,2-dichloropropane - 1,3-dichloropropene mixtures). This led to other chemical control agents, such as chloropicrin.
The oximecarbamates are more effective in the early stages of plant growth, as the nematodes must hatch first. G. pallida is more difficult to manage than G. rostochiensis because it hatches over a longer period of time and can therefore escape as nematicidal activity is gradually lost (Whitehead,1975).
In 1991, Mazin suggested that chemical control is more effective where resistant cultivars are used. Nematicides do not prevent PCN build up, merely avoid yield loss (Tiilikkala, 1991). Fumigant nematicides are toxic and expensive, but their use is sometimes essential to keep PCN population densities low or beneath the damage threshold (ca 2 eggs/g of soil). Soil fumigants can kill large numbers of nematodes, especially in moist sandy soils under polythene sheeting. Soil fumigants are injected into the soil, usually in the autumn. The excessive use of all pesticides is currently discouraged on environmental grounds. It may be better to concentrate chemical applications on hot spots in a field in combination with other methods which, when combined, will lead to a lower population density of potato cyst nematode in the field (Been and Shomaker, 1998).
Non-fumigant nematicides are used in smaller amounts then fumigants but usually persist in the soil as long as fumigants. They are applied as granules in broadcast, row or narrow band treatments at the time of planting. In some cases a second application may be made at mid-season.
For further information, see Whitehead (1998) and Haydock et al. (2006).
ReferencesTop of page
Aihara T, Sumiya T, Suzuki K, 1998. Studies on the pathotype of the potato cyst nematode (Globodera rostochiensis) in Nagasaki prefecture. Research Bulletin of the Plant Protection Service, Japan, No. 34:71-79
Anderson JAD, Lewthwaite S L, Genet RA, Broam F, Gallagher D, 1993. " Karka": A new fresh market potato with high resistance to Globodera pallida and Globodera rostochiensis, New Zealand Journal of Crop and Horticultural Science 21, 95-97
APPPC, 1987. Insect pests of economic significance affecting major crops of the countries in Asia and the Pacific region. Technical Document No. 135. Bangkok, Thailand: Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific region (RAPA)
Baldwin JG, Mundo-Ocampo M, 1991. Heteroderinae, cyst and non-cyst forming nematodes. In: Nickle WR, ed. Manual of Agricultural Nematology. New York, USA: Marcel Dekker, 275-362
Been TH, Schomaker CH, 1998. Quantitative studies on the management of potato cyst nematodes (Globodera spp.) in the Netherlands. Quantitative studies on the management of potato cyst nematodes (^italic~Globodera^roman~ spp.) in the Netherlands., 319 pp.; many ref
Been TH, Schomaker CH, 2006. Distribution patterns and sampling. In: Plant nematology [ed. by Perry, R. N.\Moens, M.]. Wallingford, UK: CABI, 302-326. http://www.cabi.org/CABeBooks/default.aspx?site=107&page=45&LoadModule=PDFHier&BookID=292
Been TH, Schomaker CH, Seinhorst JW, 1995. An advisory system for the management of potato cyst nematodes (Globodera spp.). In: Haverkort AJ, MacKerron DKL, eds. Potato Ecology and Modelling of Crops under Conditions Limiting Growth. The Netherlands: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 305-522
Behrens E, 1975. Taxonomically useful characters for the differentiation of Heterodera species. Probleme der Phytonematologie. Vortrage anlasslich der 10 Tagung uber Probleme der Phytonematologie im Institut fur Pflanzenzuchtung Gross-Lusewitz der Deutschen Akademie der Landwirtschaftswissenschaften zu Berlin am 11 Juni 1971., 122-142
Bendezu IF, Evans K, Burrows PR, Pomerai Dde, Canto-Saenz M, 1998. Inter and intra-specific genomic variability of the potato cyst nematodes Globodera pallida and G. rostochiensis from Europe and South America using RAPD-PCR. Nematologica, 44(1):49-61
Bendezu IF, Russell MD, Evans K, 1998. Virulence of populations of potato cyst nematodes (Globodera spp.) from Europe and Bolivia towards differential potato clones frequently used for pathotype classification. Nematologica, 44(6):667-681
Brande J van den, Kips RH, D'Herde J, Mol L van, 1952. Onderzoek van aardappelvarieten en van Amerikanense Solanum-soorten in verband met het aardappelcysten aaltje Heterodera rostochiensis Wollenweber. Meded. Landbouwhogesch. OpzoekStns Gent, 17:51-60
Brodie BBJ, 1998. Potato cyst nematodes (Globodera species) in Central and North America. In: Potato cyst nematodes: biology and distribution and control [ed. by Marks Brodie, R. J. ;. B. B. J.]. Wallingford, UK: CAB International, 317-331
Buhr H, 1954. Untersuchungen uber den Kartoffelnematoden. I. Die (Papierstrifen- Methode), ein vereinfachtes Verfahren zur Utersuchung von Bodemproben auf ihren Besatz mit Nematodzysten. NachrBl, Dt. PflschDienst, Berl., 8:45-48
Burrows PR, 1996. Modifying resistance to plant parasitic nematodes. In: Pierpoint WS, Shewry P, eds. Genetic Engineering of Crop Plants for Resistance to Pests and Diseases. London, UK: British Crop Protection Council, 38-65
Burrows PR, de Waele D, 1997. Engineering resistance against plant parasitic nematodes using anti-nematode genes. In: Fenoll C, Grundler FMW, Ohl SA, eds. Cellular and Molecular Aspects of Plant-Nematode Interactions. Dordrecht, Netherlands: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 217-236
Campos-Vela A, 1967. Taxonomy, Life Cycle and Host Range of Heterodera mexicana n.sp. (Nematoda: Heteroderidae). PhD. Thesis. Wisconsin, USA: University of Wisconsin
Carter WW, 1943. A promising new soil amendment and disinfectant. Science, 97:383
CEC, 1969. Council Directive 69/465/EEC of 8 December 1969 on control of potato golden nematode. Official Journal of the European Communities No. L 323, 3-4
Clarke AJ, Hennessy J, 1987. Hatching agents as stimulants of movement of Globodera rostochiensis juveniles. Revue de Nématologie, 10:471-476
Cobb GS, Taylor AL, 1953. Heterodera leptonepia n. sp., a cyst forming nematode found in soil with stored potatoes. Proceedings of the Helminthological Society of Washington, 20:13-15
Curtis RHC, Dunn J, Yeung M, Robinson MP, Martins F, Evans K, 1998. Serological identification and quantification of potato cyst nematodes from clean cysts and processed soil samples. Annals of Applied Biology, 133(1):65-79; 13 ref
Davies KG, 1998. Natural parasites and biological control. In: Sharma SB, ed. The cyst nematodes. London, UK: Chapman and Hall
Davies KG, Laird V, Kerry BR, 1991. The motility, development and infection of Meloidogyne incognita encumbered with spores of the obligate hyperparasite Pasteuria penetrans. Revue de Ne^acute~matologie, 14(4):611-618; 24 ref
Douda O, Zouhar M, Urban J, Cermák V, Gaar V, 2012. Identification and characterization of pale potato cyst nematode (Globodera pallida) in Teplá, the Czech Republic. Plant Disease, 96(9):1386. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis
Eglitis V, 1973. ===. In: Materialy vsesoyuznogo simpoziuma po bor'be s Kartofel'noi nematode, Tartu, 3-5 iyulya 1973. Tartu, Estonia: Institut Zoolgii I Botaniki Akademii Nauk Estonskoi SSR, 26-28
Elekes-Kaminszky M, Feketé-Palkovics Â, Avar K, Baranyai-Tóth R, Bártfai J, Budai C, Cziklin M, Farkas I, Gál T, Gyo´´rffy-Molnár J, Gyulai P, Havasréti B, Herczig B, Hoffmann É, Jobbágy J, Kleineizel S, Komlósi É, Kováts Z, Lukács M, Mero´´ F, Simon A, Szendrey L, Szeo´´ke K, Tóth AC, Tóth B, To´´kés-Papp E(et al), 2004. Second nation-wide survey of the potato cyst nematodes (Globodera rostochiensis and G. pallida) between 1999-2002. (A burgonya cisztaképzo´´ fonálférgei (Globodera rostochiensis [Woll.] és G. pallida stone) elterjedésének: II. Országos felmérése (1999-2002).) Növényvédelem, 40(9):463-469
Ellenby C, 1945. Susceptibility of South American tuber-forming species of Solanum to the potato-root eelworm Heterodera rostochiensis Wollenweber. Epn. J. exp. Agric., 13:158-168
Ellenby C, 1954. Tuber forming species and varieties of the genus Solanum tested for resistance to the potato cyst eelworm Heterodera rostochiensis Wollenweber. Euphytica, 3:195-202
Elston DA, Phillips MS, Trudgill DL, 1991. The relationship between initial population density of potato cyst nematode Globodera pallida and the yield of partially resistant potatoes. Revue de Ne^acute~matologie, 14(2):221-229; 14 ref
Endo BY, 1998. Atlas on Ultrastructure of Infective Juveniles of the Soybean Cyst Nematode, Heterodera glycines. Agriculture Handbook No. 711. Washington, USA: USDA
Enneli S, Öztürk G, 1995. The important plant parasitic nematodes harmful on potatoes in central Anatolia. (Orta anadolu bölgesinde patateslerde zarar yapan önemli bitki paraziti nematodlar.) Zirai Mücadele Arastirma Yilligi, No. 30:35-36
EPPO, 1990. Specific quarantine requirements. EPPO Technical Documents, No. 1008. Paris, France: European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization
EPPO, 2011. EPPO Reporting Service. EPPO Reporting Service. Paris, France: EPPO. http://archives.eppo.org/EPPOReporting/Reporting_Archives.htm
EPPO, 2014. PQR database. Paris, France: European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization. http://www.eppo.int/DATABASES/pqr/pqr.htm
Eroshenko AS, Kazachenko IP, 1972. Heterodera artemisia n.sp. (Nematoda: Heteroderidae), a new species of cyst-forming nematode from the Primorsk Territory. Parasizitologia, 6:166-170
European Commission, 2001. Final Report on a mission carried out in Luxembourg from 2 to 4 May 2001 in order to audit the Plant Health system in the Potato sector. European Commission Health and Consumer Protection Directorate
Evans EB, Webley DP, 1970. A guide to morphological differences between pathotypes of Heterodera rostochiensis larvae. Plant Pathology, 19:171-172
Evans K, 1970. Longevity of males and fertilization of females of Heterodera rostochiensis. Nematologica, 16:369-374
Forrest JMS, Robertson WM, Milne EW, 1989. Observations on the cuticle surface of second stage juveniles of Globodera rostochiensis and Meloidogne incognita. Revue de Ne^acute~matologie, 12(4):337-341; 23 ref
Franco J, Oros R, Main G, Ortun~o N, 1998. Potato cyst nematodes (Globodera species) in South America. In: Marks RJ, Brodie BB, eds. Potato cyst nematodes biology, distribution and control. Wallingford, UK: CAB International, 239-270
Franklin MT, 1940. On the identification of strains of Heterodera schachtii. Journal of Helminthology, 18:63-84
Fullaondo A, Barrena E, Viribay M, Barrena I, Salazar A, Ritter E, 1999. Identification of potato cyst nematode species Globodera rostochiensis and G. pallida by PCR using specific primer combinations. Nematology, 1(2):157-163
Genet RA, Braam WF, Gallagher DTP, Anderson JAD, Lewthwaite SL, 1995. 'Gladiator': a new potato cultivar with high resistance to potato cyst nematode and powdery scab suitable for french fries and fresh market. New Zealand Journal of Crop and Horticultural Science, 23(1):105-107; 5 ref
Gheysen G, Jones JT, 2006. Molecular aspects of plant-nematode interactions. In: Plant nematology [ed. by Perry, R. N.\Moens, M.]. Wallingford, UK: CABI, 234-254. http://www.cabi.org/CABeBooks/default.aspx?site=107&page=45&LoadModule=PDFHier&BookID=292
Golden AM, Ellington DMS, 1972. Re-description of Heterodera rostochiensis (Nematoda: Heteroderidae), with a key and notes on closely related species. Proceedings of the Helminthological Society of Washington, 39:64-78
Golinowski W, Sobczak M, Kurek W, Grymaszewska, 1997. The structure of Syncytia. In: Fenoll C, Grundler FMW, Ohl SA, eds. Cellular and Molecular Aspects of Plant Nematode Interactions. Dordhecht, Netherlands: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 80-97
Gonzalez JA, Phillips MS, Trudgill DL, 1997. RFLP analysis in Canary Islands and north European populations of potato cyst nematodes (Globodera spp.): hybridization with cloned fragments. Nematologica, 43(2):157-172
Granek I, 1955. Additional morphological differences between the cysts of Heterodera rostochiensis and Heterodera tabacum. Plant Disease Reporter, 39:716 -718
Green CD, 1971. The morphology of the terminal area of the round-cyst nematodes S.G. Heterodera rostochiensis and allied species. Nematologica, 17:34-46
Green CD, Miller LI, 1969. Cyst nematodes: attraction of males to females. Report of Rothamsted Experimental Station for 1968. Part 1. Rothamsted, UK: Rothamsted Experimental Station, 153-158
Green CD, Plumb SC, 1970. The interrelationships of some Heterodera species indicated by the specificity of the male attractants emitted by their females. Nematologica, 16:39-46
Grubisic D, Ostrec L, Culjak TG, Blümel S, 2007. The occurrence and distribution of potato cyst nematodes in Croatia. Journal of Pest Science, 80(1):21-27. http://www.springerlink.com/content/u0884x7r10821475/?p=79709419b777459784f355b7b2fe8bbc&pi=3
Guile CT, 1966. Cyst chromogenesis in potato cyst eelworm pathotypes. Plant Pathology, 15:125-128
Guile CT, 1967. On cyst colour changes, bionomics and distribution of potato cyst-eelworm (Heterodera rostochiensis Woll.) pathotypes in the East Midlands. Annals of Applied Biology, 60:411-419
Guile CT, 1970. Further observations on cyst colour changes in potato cyst eelworm Pathotypes. Plant Pathology, 19:1-6
Gus'kova LA, Makovskaya SA, 1977. A study of the composition of the pathotypes of the cyst nematode in the north-west of the Nechernozem zone of the RSFSR. Svobodnozhivushchie, pochvennye, entomopatogennye i fitonematody. (Sbornik nauchnykh rabot). Leningrad, USSR: Akademiya Nauk SSSR, Zoologicheskii Institut., 57-60
Hafez SL, Sundararaj P, Handoo ZA, Skantar AM, Carta LK, Chitwood DJ, 2007. First report of the pale cyst nematode, Globodera pallida, in the United States. Plant Disease, 91(3):325. HTTP://www.apsnet.org
Halford PH, Russell MR, Evans K, 1999. Trap cropping for cyst nematode management. Annals of Applied Biology, 134:321-327
Hansen LM, 1988. Use of stylet measurements to distinguish between two species of potato nematode Globodera rostochiensis and G. pallida. (Avendelse af stiletmalinger til at skelne mellem kartoffelnematodens to arter Globodera rostochiensis og G. pallida.) In: Växtskyddsrapporter, Jordbruk, No. 53. S-750 77 Uppsala, Sweden: Sveriges Lantbruksuniversitet, 29-31
Haydock PPJ, Woods SR, Grove IG, Hare MC, 2006. Chemical control of nematodes. In: Plant nematology [ed. by Perry, R. N.\Moens, M.]. Wallingford, UK: CABI, 392-410. http://www.cabi.org/CABeBooks/default.aspx?site=107&page=45&LoadModule=PDFHier&BookID=292
Heikkilä J, Tilikkala K, 1992. Globodera rostochiensis (Woll.) Behrens (Tylenchida, Heteroderidae), the only potato cyst nematode species found in Finland. Agricultural Science in Finland, 1(5):519-524
Hepher A, Atkinson HJ, 1992. Nematode Control with Proteinase Inhibitors. European Patent Application Number, 92301890.7; Publication Number 0 502 730 A1
Hinch JM, Alberdi F, Smith SC, Woodward JR, Evans K, 1998. Discrimination of European and Australian Globodera rostochiensis and G. pallida pathotypes by high performance capillary electrophoresis. Fundamental and Applied Nematology, 21(2):123-128; 14 ref
Hominick WM, 1986. Photoperiod and diapause in the potato cyst-nematode Globodera rostochiensis. Nematologica, 32:408-418
Huijsman CA, 1959. Nature and inheritance of the resistance to the potato-eelworm Heterodera rostochiensis W. in Solanum kurtzianum. Meded. LandbHoogesch. OpzoekStns. Gent, 24:611-613
IPPC, 2013. Two minor outbreaks of Globodera pallida are under eradication in Denmark. IPPC Official Pest Report, No. DNK-11/2. Rome, Italy: FAO. https://www.ippc.int/
IPPC, 2016. Information on Pest Status in the Republic of Lithuania in 2015. IPPC Official Pest Report, No. LTU-01/2. Rome, Italy: FAO. https://www.ippc.int/
IPPC, 2016. Outbreak of Globodera pallida. IPPC Official Pest Report, No. JPN-05/4. Rome, Italy: FAO. https://www.ippc.int/
Jatala P, Garzon C, 1987. Detection of the potato cyst nematode in pre-Columbian agricultural terraces of Peru. Journal of Nematology, 19:532
Jogaite V, Cepulyte R, Stanelis A, Bu¯da V, 2007. Monitoring of Globodera spp. in Lithuania using diagnostic morphometric analysis and polymerase chain reaction. Acta Zoologica Lituanica, 17(2):184-186. http://www.ekoi.lt
Jones FGW, Pawelska K, 1963. The behaviour of populations of potato-root eelworm (Heterodera rostochiensis Woll.) towards some resistant tuberous and other Solanum species. Annals of Applied Biology, 51:277-294
Jones JT, Harrower BE, 1998. A comparison of the efficiency of differential display and cDNA-AFLPs as tools for the isolation of differentially expressed parasite genes. Fundamental and Applied Nematology, 21(1):81-88; 14 ref
Jones JT, Robertson L, Perry RN, Robertson WM, 1997. Changes in gene expression during stimulation and hatching of the potato cyst nematode Globodera rostochiensis. Parasitology, 114(3):309-315; 13 ref
Jones JT, Robertson WM, 1997. Nematode secretions In: Fenoll C, Grundler FMW, Ohl SA, eds. Cellular and Molecular Aspects of Plant Nematode Interactions. Dordrecht, Netherlands: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 98-106
Kleynhans KPN, 1998. Potato cyst nematodes (Globodera species) in Africa. In: Potato cyst nematodes, biology, distribution and control [ed. by Marks, R. J.\Brodie, B. B.]. Wallingford, UK: CAB INTERNATIONAL, 347-351
Koppel M, Tsahkna A, 1998. Potato cyst nematode (Globodera rostochiensis) resistance breeding in Estonia. In: Beiträge zur Züchtungsforschung - Bundesanstalt für Züchtungsforschung an Kulturpflanzen, 4(2) [ed. by Peter, K.]. 92-93
Krnnjac DJ, Oro V, Gladovic S, Trkulja N, Scekic D, Kecovic V, 2002. Zastita bilja ( Serbia and Montenegro). Plant Protection, 53(4):147-156
Kudla U, Milac AL, Qin Ling, Overmars H, Roze E, Holterman M, Petrescu AJ, Goverse A, Bakker J, Helder J, Smant G, 2007. Structural and functional characterization of a novel, host penetration-related pectate lyase from the potato cyst nematode Globodera rostochiensis. Molecular Plant Pathology, 8(3):293-305. http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/doi/pdf/10.1111/j.1364-3703.2007.00394.x
Kühn, 1881. Die Ergebnisse der Versuche zur Ermittelung der Ursache der Rübenmüdigkeit und zur Erforschung der Natur der Nematoden. Ber. physiol. Lab. landw. Inst. Univ. Halle, 3:1-153
Lauenstein G, 1997. Field-tests for screening selected starch-potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) cultivars for resistance and tolerance against potato cyst nematodes (Globodera pallida (Stone, 1973) Behrens), virulence-group Pa2/3. (Untersuchungen zur Resistenz und Toleranz ausgewählter Wirtschaftssorten von Kartoffeln (Solanum tuberosum L.) bei Befall mit Kartoffelnematoden (Globodera pallida (Stone, 1973) Behrens), Virulenzgruppe Pa2/3.) Zeitschrift für Pflanzenkrankheiten und Pflanzenschutz, 104(4):321-335
Lilley CJ, Bakhetia M, Charlton WL, Urwin PE, 2007. Recent progress in the development of RNA interference for plant parasitic nematodes. Molecular Plant Pathology, 8(5):701-711. http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/loi/mpp
Linford MB, Yap F, Olivera JM, 1938. Reduction of soil populations of the root knot nematode during decomposition of organic matter. Soil Science, 45:127-141
Lombardo S, Colombo A, Rapisarda C, 2011. Cyst nematodes of the genus Heterodera and Globodera in Sicily. Redia [X Congress of the Italian Society of Nematology (SIN), Naples, Italy, 28-30 October 2010.], 94:137-141. http://firstname.lastname@example.org
Lownsbery BF, Lownsbery JW, 1954. Heterodera tabacum new species a parasite of solanaceous plants in Connecticut. Proceedings of the Helminthological Society of Washington, 21:42-47
MAFF, 2000. Potato Cyst nematode: a management guide. London, UK: MAFF
Mai WF, 1951. Solanum xanti Gray and Solanum integrifolium Poir., new hosts of he golden nematode, Heterodera rostochiensis Wollenweber. American Potato Journal, 28:578-579
Mai WF, 1952. Susceptibilityof Lycopersicon species to the golden nematode. Phytopathology, 42:461
Mai WF, Spears JF, 1954. The golden nematode in the United States. American Potato Journal, 31:387-394
Male-Kayiwa BS, 1983. Screening wild potatoes for resistance to potato cyst nematode, Globodera pallida (Stone) Mulvey and Stone. MSC. Thesis, Department of Plant Biology University of Birmingham, September 1983, 9-14
Manduric S, Andersson S, 2003. Potato cyst nematodes (Globodera rostochiensis and G. pallida) from Swedish potato cultivation - an AFLP study of their genetic diversity and relationships to other European populations. Nematology, 5(6):851-858
Marks RJ, Rojancovski E, 1998. Potato cyst nematodes (Globodera species) in central Europe, the Balkans and the Baltic states. In: Potato cyst nematodes, biology, distribution and control [ed. by Marks, R. J.\Brodie, B. B.]. Wallingford, UK: CAB INTERNATIONAL, 299-315
Marshall JW, 1998. Potato cyst nematodes (Globodera) species New Zealand and Australia. In: Marks RJ, Brodie BB. Potato cyst nematodes biology, distribution and control. Wallingford, UK: CAB International, 359-394
Mburu, H., Cortada, L., Mwangi, G., Gitau, K., Kiriga, A., Kinyua, Z., Ngundo, G., Ronno, W., Coyne, D., Holgado, R., Haukeland, S., 2018. First report of potato cyst nematode Globodera pallida infecting potato (Solanum tuberosum) in Kenya. Plant Disease, 102(8), 1671. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis doi: 10.1094/pdis-11-17-1777-pdn
Miller LI, 1986. Economic importance of cyst nematodes in North America. In: Lamberti F, Taylor CE, eds. Cyst Nematodes. New York, USA: Plenum Press, 373-385
Miller LI, Gray BJ, 1968. Horsenettle cyst nematode, Heterodera virginiae n. sp., a parasite of solanaceous plants. Nematologica, 14:535-543
Miller LI, Gray BJ, 1972. Heterodera solanacearum n. sp., a parasite of solanaceous plants. Nematologica, 18:404-413
Morgan DO, 1925. Investigations on eelworm in potatoes in South Lincolnshire. Journal of Helminthology, 3:185-192
Mugniery D, Balandras C, 1984. Examen des possibilities d'eradication du nematode a kystes, Globodera pallida Stone. Agronomie, 4:773-778
MugniTry D, Bossis M, Pierre JS, 1992. Hybridization between Globodera rostochiensis (Wollenweber), G. pallida (Stone), G. virginiae (Miller & Gray), G. solanacearum (Miller & Gray) and Globodera "mexicana" (Campos-Vela). Description and future of the hybrids. Fundamental and Applied Nematology, 15(4):375-382; 19 ref
Mulvey RH, 1973. Morphology of the terminal areas of white females and cysts of the genus Heterodera (e.g. Globodera) Journal of Nematology, 5:303-311
Mulvey RH, Golden AM, 1983. An illustrated key to the cyst-forming genera and species of Heteroderidae in the Western Hemisphere with species morphometrics and distribution. Journal of Nematology, 15(1):1-59
Narabu T, Ohki T, Onodera K, Fujimoto T, Itou K, Maoka T, 2016. First report of the pale potato cyst nematode, Globodera pallida, on potato in Japan. Plant Disease, 100(8):1794. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis
Njezic B, Stare BG, Sirca S, Grujic N, 2014. First report of the pale potato cyst nematode Globodera pallida from Bosnia and Herzegovina. Plant Disease, 98(4):575. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis
O’Dell M, Hoffman W, 2006. APHIS News Release: Potato cyst nematode detected in Idaho, 2 pp
OEPP/EPPO, 1991. Quarantine procedure No. 30, Globodera pallida, G. rostochiensis, Soil sampling methods. Bulletin OEPP/EPPO Bulletin, 21:233-240
OEydvin J, 1978. Studies on potato cyst-nematodes, Globodera spp. (Skarbilovich), and the use of plant resistance against G. rostochiensis (Woll.) in Norway. Vaxtskyddsrapporter. Avhandlingar, No. 2:37 pp
Oostenbrink M, 1950. Het Aardappelaaltje (Heterodera rostochiensis Wollenweber), een gevaarlijke parasiet voor de eenzijdige aardappel-cultuur. Verslagen en Mededelingen von den Plantenziekten-Kundige Dienst te Wageningen: H. Veenman and Zonen, 115:230pp
Othman AA, Baldwin JG, Mundo-Ocampo M, 1988. Comparative morphology of Globodera, Cactodera, and Punctodera spp. (Heteroderidae) with scanning electron microscopy. Revue de Nematologie, 11:53-63
Parker B, 2000. Experts seek out reliable advice on PCN. Potato Review: 36-38
Perry RN, Beane J, 1988. Effects of activated charcoal on hatching and infectivity of Globodera rostochiensis in pot tests. Revue de Nématologie, 11:229-233
Phillips MS, Hackett CA, Trudgill DL, 1991. The relationship between the initial and final population densities of the potato cyst nematode Globodera pallida for partially resistant potatoes. Journal of Applied Ecology, 28(1):109-119; 20 ref
Picard D, Sempere T, Plantard O, 2007. A northward colonisation of the Andes by the potato cyst nematode during geological times suggests multiple host-shifts from wild to cultivated potatoes. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, 42(2):308-316. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/10557903
Pinochet J, 1987. Management of plant parasitic nematodes in central America: The Panama experience. In: Veetch JA, Dickson DW, eds. Vistas on Nematology. Hyattsville, Maryland, USA: Society of Nematologists, 105-113
Potocek J, Gaar V, Hnízdil M, Novák F, 1991, publ. 1992. Protection against the spread of potato wart disease and potato root nematode. (Ochrana proti sirení rakoviny brambor a hádhacek~átka bramborového.) Metodiky pro Zavádení Výsledku Výzkumu do Zemedelské Praxe, No.18. 88 pp
Pratt D, George NC, Micheal JM, Rudolph, 1990. A developmentally regulated Cysteine protease gene family in Haemonchus contortus. Molecular and Biochemical Parasitology, 43:181-192
Prior A, Jones JT, Blok VC, Beauchamp J, McDermott L, Cooper A, Kennedy MW, 2001. A surface-associated retinol- and fatty acid-binding protein (Gp-FAR-1) from the potato cyst nematode Globodera pallida: lipid binding activities, structural analysis and expression pattern. Biochemical Journal, 356(2):387-394
Pylypenko LA, Uehara T, Phillips MS, Sigareva DD, Blok VC, 2005. Identification of Globodera rostochiensis and G. pallida in the Ukraine by PCR. European Journal of Plant Pathology, 111(1): 39-46
Rice SL, Leadbeater BSA, Stone AR, 1986. Changes in roots of resistant potatoes parasitized by potato cyst-nematodes. I. Potatoes with resistance gene H1 derived from Solanum tuberosum ssp. andigena. Physiology and Plant Pathology, 27:219-234
Riel HRvan, Mulder A, 1998. Potato cyst nematodes (Globodera species) in western Europe. In: Potato cyst nematodes, biology, distribution and control [ed. by Marks, R. J.\Brodie, B. B.]. Wallingford, UK: CAB INTERNATIONAL, 271-298
Robinson MP, Atkinson HJ, Perry RN, 1988. The association and partial characterization of a fluorescent hypersensitive response of potato roots to the potato cyst nematode Globodera rostochiensis and G. pallida. Revue de Nématologie 11: 99-108
Roessner J, 1986. Parasitism of Globodera rostochiensis by nematophagous fungi. Revue de Nématologie, 9:307-308
Rothacker D, 1957. Beitrage zur Resistenzzuchtung gegen den Kartoffelnematoden. 1. Prufung von Primitiv-und Wildkartoffeln auf dos Verhalten gegenüber dem Kartoffelnematoden. Zuchter, 27:124-132
Samaliev H, Andreev R, 1998. Relationship between initial population density of potato cyst nematode Globodera pallida Thorne and the yield of partially resistant potato varieties. Bulgarian Journal of Agricultural Science, 4(4):421-427; 13 ref
Santos MSNAde, Evans K, Abreu CA, Martins FF, Abrantes IMOde, 1995. A review of potato cyst nematodes in Portugal. Nematologia Medditerreanea, 23:35-42
Santos MSNAde, Fernandes MFM, 1988. ===. Nematologia Medditerranea, 16:145
Scholte K, 2000. Screening of non-tuber bearing Solanceae for resistance to and induction of juvenile hatch of potato cyst nematodes and their potential for trap cropping. Annals of Applied Biology, 136:239-246
Seinhorst JW, 1965. The relationship between nematode density and damage to plants. Nematologica, 11:137-154
Seinhorst JW, 1986. Effects of nematode attack on growth and yield of crop plants. In: Lamberti F, Taylor CE, eds. Cyst Nematodes. New York, USA: Plenum Press, 191-209
Sembdner G, 1959. Uber das Eindringen der Kartoffelnematoden- Larven und ihre Weiterentwicklung in pflanzlichen Geweben. TagBer. Dt. Akad, LandwWiss. Berl. No. 20, 53-55
Sembdner G, 1963. Anatomie der Heterodera-rostochiensis-gallen an Tomatenwurzeln. Nematologica, 9:55-64
Sembdner G, Buhr H, Osske G, Schreiber K, 1960. Untersuchgen uber Wirt- Parasit-Beziehungen beim Kartoffelnematoden, Heterodera rostochiensis Woll. Wiss. PflSchKonf, Bpest, 339-342
Sikora RA, Schäfer K, Dababat AA, 2007. Modes of action associated with microbially induced in planta suppression of plant-parasitic nematodes. Australasian Plant Pathology, 36(2):124-134. http://www.publish.csiro.au/nid/39.htm
Sirca S, Urek G, 2004. Morphometrical and ribosomal DNA sequence analysis of Globodera rostochiensis and Globodera achilleae from Slovenia. Russian Journal of Nematology, 12(2):161-168. http://www.russjnematology.com
Skarbilovich TS, 1959. On the structure of the nematodes of the order Tylenchida Thorne, 1949. Acta Parasitologica Polonica, 15:117-132
Spears JF, 1968. The golden nematode handbook, survey, laboratory, control and quarantine procedures. U.S. Department of Agriculture Handbook, No. 353
Stare BG, Sirca S, Urek G, 2013. Are we ready for the new nematode species of the Globodera genus? In: Zbornik Predavanj in Referatov, 11. Slovenskega Posvetovanja o Varstvu Rastlin Z Mednarodno Udelezbo (in okrogle mize o zmanjsanju tveganja zaradi rabe FFS v okviru projekta CropSustaIn), Bled, Slovenia, 5.-6. Marec 2013 [ed. by Trdan, S.\Macek, J.]. Ljubljana, Slovenia: Plant Protection Society of Slovenia, 144-150
Stelter H, 1957. Untersuchungen über den Kartoffelnematoden Heterodera rostochiensis Wollenweber. III. Neue Wirtspflanzen des Kartoffelnematoden. Parasitica, 13:87-93
Stelter H, 1959. Einige Beobachtungen an nicht-Knollentragenden Solanaceen in bezug auf den Kartoffelnematoden (Heterodera rostochiensis Wr). Nachr. Bl. Dt. PflschutzDienst, Berl., 13(7):135
Stelter H, 1987. The host suitability of Solanum spp. for the three Globodera spp. Nematologica, 33:310-315
Stone AR, 1973. Heterodera pallida n.sp. (Nematoda: Heteroderidae), a second species of potato cyst nematode. Nematologica, 18:591-606
Subbotin SA, Halford PD, Perry RN, 1999. Identification of populations of potato cyst nematodes from Russia using protein electrophoresis, rDNA-RFLPs and RAPDs. Russian Journal of Nematology, 7(1):57-63
Subramaniyan S, Balasubramanian P, Sundarababur R, Naganathan TG, Lakshmanan PL, Rajendran G, Sivakumar CV, Vadivelu S, 1989. Present status of the potato cyst nematodes in Nilgris, Tamil Nadu. Current Science, 58(12):701-702; 5 ref
Talavera M, Andreu M, Valor H, Tobar A, 1998. Plant parasitic nematodes in potato growing areas of Motril and Salobrena. Investigacio^acute~n Agraria, Produccio^acute~n y Proteccio^acute~n Vegetales, 13(1/2):87-95; 25 ref
Tiilikkala K, 1991. Effect of crop rotation on Globodera rostochiensis and potato yield. EPPO Bulletin, 21:41-47
Turner SJ, Evans K, 1998. The origins, global distribution and biology of potato cyst nematodes (Globodera rostochiensis (Woll.) and Globodera pallida Stone). In: Potato cyst nematodes, biology, distribution and control [ed. by Marks, R. J.\Brodie, B. B.]. Wallingford, UK: CAB INTERNATIONAL, 7-26
Turner SJ, Fleming CC, Marks RJ, Watts PJ, 1994. A strategy for maintaining effective host-plant resistance to potato cyst nematodes. Proceedings - Brighton Crop Protection Conference, Pests and Diseases, 1994, vol. 2, No. 2:905-910; 10 ref
Turner SJ, Martin TJG, McAleavey PBW, Fleming CC, 2006. The management of potato cyst nematodes using resistant Solanaceae potato clones as trap crops. Annals of Applied Biology, 149(3):271-280. http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/doi/abs/10.1111/j.1744-7348.2006.00089.x
Tzortzakakis EA, Conceição ILPMda, Abrantes IMde O, Santos MSNde A, 2004. Characterisation and identification of potato cyst nematode populations from Crete, Greece, by isoelectric focusing of proteins. Nematology, 6(1):153-154. http://www.brill.nl
Webley D, 1970. A morphometric study of the three pathotypes of the potato cyst eelworm (Heterodera rostochiensis) recognised in Great Britain. Nematologica, 16:107-112
Wille JE, Segura CB de, 1952. La angulilula dorado, Heterodera rostochiensis. Una Plaga del cultivo de las papas, recien discubierta en el Peru. Lima, Peru: Boln Cent. Nac. Invest. Exp. Agric
Winslow RD, 1955. Provisional lists of host plants of some root eelworms (Heterodera species). Annals of Applied Biology, 41:591-605
Wollenweber HW, 1923. Krankheiten und BeschSdigungen der Kartoffel. Arb. Forsch. Inst. Kartof. Berlin, Heft 7, 1-56
Woods S, Haydock PPJ, Evans K, 1995. Can potato production be sustained in land infested with high population densities of the potato cyst nematode Globodera pallida?. Integrated crop protection: towards sustainability? Proceedings of a symposium, Edinburgh, UK, 11-14 September 1995 [chaired by McKinlay, R. G.; Atkinson, D.]., 107-114; [^italic~BCPC Monograph Series^roman~ No. 62, ^italic~BCPC Symposium Proceedings^roman~ No. 63]; 21 ref
Wyss U, Zunke U, 1986. Observations on the behaviour of second-stage juveniles of Heterodera schachtii inside host roots. Revue de Nématologie, 9:153-165
Zaheer K, Fleming C, Turner SJ, Kerr JA, McAdam J, 1992. Genetic variation and pathotype response in Globodera pallida (Nematoda: Heteroderidae) from the Falkland Islands. Nematologica, 38(2):175-189; 27 ref
Brodie BBJ, 1998. Potato cyst nematodes (Globodera species) in Central and North America. In: Potato cyst nematodes: biology and distribution and control, [ed. by Marks Brodie RJ, BBJ]. Wallingford, UK: CAB International. 317-331.
CABI, 2020. CABI Distribution Database: Status as determined by CABI editor. Wallingford, UK: CABI
CABI, Undated. Compendium record. Wallingford, UK: CABI
CABI, Undated a. CABI Compendium: Status as determined by CABI editor. Wallingford, UK: CABI
Cunha M J M da, Conceição I L P M da, Abrantes I M de O, Evans K, Santos M S N de A, 2004. Characterisation of potato cyst nematode populations from Portugal. Nematology. 6 (1), 55-58. http://www.brill.nl DOI:10.1163/156854104323072928
Douda O, Zouhar M, Urban J, Čermák V, Gaar V, 2012. Identification and characterization of pale potato cyst nematode (Globodera pallida) in Teplá, the Czech Republic. Plant Disease. 96 (9), 1386. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis DOI:10.1094/PDIS-03-12-0305-PDN
Elekes-Kaminszky M, Feketé-Palkovics Á, Avar K, Baranyai-Tóth R, Bártfai J, Budai C, Cziklin M, Farkas I, Gál T, Győrffy-Molnár J, Gyulai P, Havasréti B, Herczig B, Hoffmann É, Jobbágy J, Kleineizel S, Komlósi É, Kováts Z, Lukács M, Merő F, Simon A, Szendrey L, Szeőke K, Tóth A C, Tóth B, Tőkés-Papp E (et al), 2004. Second nation-wide survey of the potato cyst nematodes (Globodera rostochiensis and G. pallida) between 1999-2002. (A burgonya cisztaképző fonálférgei (Globodera rostochiensis [Woll.] és G. pallida stone) elterjedésének: II. Országos felmérése (1999-2002).). Növényvédelem. 40 (9), 463-469.
European Commission, 2001. Final Report on a mission carried out in Luxembourg from 2 to 4 May 2001 in order to audit the Plant Health system in the Potato sector., European Commission Health and Consumer Protection Directorate.
Franco J, Oros R, Main G, Ortuño N, 1998. Potato cyst nematodes (Globodera species) in South America. In: Potato cyst nematodes, biology, distribution and control. [ed. by Marks R J, Brodie B B]. Wallingford, UK: CAB INTERNATIONAL. 239-269.
Grubišić D, Oštrec L, Čuljak T G, Blümel S, 2007. The occurrence and distribution of potato cyst nematodes in Croatia. Journal of Pest Science. 80 (1), 21-27. http://www.springerlink.com/content/u0884x7r10821475/?p=79709419b777459784f355b7b2fe8bbc&pi=3 DOI:10.1007/s10340-006-0145-6
IPPC, 2013. Two minor outbreaks of Globodera pallida are under eradication in Denmark. In: IPPC Official Pest Report, No. DNK-11/2, Rome, Italy: FAO. https://www.ippc.int/
IPPC, 2016. IPPC Official Pest Report., Rome, Italy: FAO. https://www.ippc.int/en/
IPPC, 2020. Globodera pallida (Pale Cyst Nematode): APHIS Adds Infested Fields in the Regulated Area in Idaho. In: IPPC Official Pest Report, Rome, Italy: FAO. https://www.ippc.int/
Krnnjac DJ, Oro V, Gladovic S, Trkulja N, Scekic D, Kecovic V, 2002. (Zastita bilja (Serbia and Montenegro)). In: Plant Protection, 53 (4) 147-156.
Lauenstein G, 1997. Field-tests for screening selected starch-potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) cultivars for resistance and tolerance against potato cyst nematodes (Globodera pallida (Stone, 1973) Behrens), virulence-group Pa2/3. (Untersuchungen zur Resistenz und Toleranz ausgewählter Wirtschaftssorten von Kartoffeln (Solanum tuberosum L.) bei Befall mit Kartoffelnematoden (Globodera pallida (Stone, 1973) Behrens), Virulenzgruppe Pa2/3.). Zeitschrift für Pflanzenkrankheiten und Pflanzenschutz. 104 (4), 321-335.
Manduric S, Andersson S, 2003. Potato cyst nematodes (Globodera rostochiensis and G. pallida) from Swedish potato cultivation - an AFLP study of their genetic diversity and relationships to other European populations. Nematology. 5 (6), 851-858. DOI:10.1163/156854103773040754
Marks R J, Rojancovski E, 1998. Potato cyst nematodes (Globodera species) in central Europe, the Balkans and the Baltic states. In: Potato cyst nematodes, biology, distribution and control. [ed. by Marks R J, Brodie B B]. Wallingford, UK: CAB INTERNATIONAL. 299-315.
Marshall J W, 1998. Potato cyst nematodes (Globodera species) in New Zealand and Australia. In: Potato cyst nematodes, biology, distribution and control. [ed. by Marks R J, Brodie B B]. Wallingford, UK: CAB INTERNATIONAL. 353-394.
Mburu H, Cortada L, Mwangi G, Gitau K, Kiriga A, Kinyua Z, Ngundo G, Ronno W, Coyne D, Holgado R, Haukeland S, 2018. First report of potato cyst nematode Globodera pallida infecting potato (Solanum tuberosum) in Kenya. Plant Disease. 102 (8), 1671. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis DOI:10.1094/pdis-11-17-1777-pdn
Minnis S T, Haydock P P J, Ibrahim S K, Grove I G, Evans K, Russell M D, 2002. Potato cyst nematodes in England and Wales - occurrence and distribution. Annals of Applied Biology. 140 (2), 187-195. DOI:10.1111/j.1744-7348.2002.tb00172.x
Narabu T, Ohki T, Onodera K, Fujimoto T, Itou K, Maoka T, 2016. First report of the pale potato cyst nematode, Globodera pallida, on potato in Japan. Plant Disease. 100 (8), 1794. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis DOI:10.1094/PDIS-12-15-1515-PDN
Nježić B, Stare B G, Širca S, Grujić N, 2014. First report of the pale potato cyst nematode Globodera pallida from Bosnia and Herzegovina. Plant Disease. 98 (4), 575. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis DOI:10.1094/PDIS-07-13-0739-PDN
Picard D, Sempere T, Plantard O, 2007. A northward colonisation of the Andes by the potato cyst nematode during geological times suggests multiple host-shifts from wild to cultivated potatoes. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. 42 (2), 308-316. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/10557903 DOI:10.1016/j.ympev.2006.06.018
Pylypenko LA, Uehara T, Phillips MS, Sigareva DD, Blok VC, 2005. Identification of Globodera rostochiensis and G. pallida in the Ukraine by PCR. In: European Journal of Plant Pathology, 111 (1) 39-46.
Riel H R van, Mulder A, 1998. Potato cyst nematodes (Globodera species) in western Europe. In: Potato cyst nematodes, biology, distribution and control. [ed. by Marks R J, Brodie B B]. Wallingford, UK: CAB INTERNATIONAL. 271-298.
Santos MSNA de, Evans K, Abreu CA, Martins FF, Abrantes IMO de, 1995. A review of potato cyst nematodes in Portugal. In: Nematologia Medditerreanea, 23 35-42.
Talavera M, Andreu M, Valor H, Tobar A, 1998. Plant parasitic nematodes in potato growing areas of Motril and Salobreña. (Nematodos fitoparasitos en areas productoras de patata de motril y salobreña.). Investigación Agraria, Producción y Protección Vegetales. 13 (1/2), 87-95.
Trudgill D L, Elliott M J, Evans K, Phillips M S, 2003. The white potato cyst nematode (Globodera pallida) - a critical analysis of the threat in Britain. Annals of Applied Biology. 143 (1), 73-80. DOI:10.1111/j.1744-7348.2003.tb00271.x
Turner S J, 1996. Population decline of potato cyst nematodes (Globodera rostochiensis, G. pallida) in field soils in Northern Ireland. Annals of Applied Biology. 129 (2), 315-322. DOI:10.1111/j.1744-7348.1996.tb05754.x
Tzortzakakis E A, Conceição I L P M da, Abrantes I M de O, Santos M S N de A, 2004. Characterisation and identification of potato cyst nematode populations from Crete, Greece, by isoelectric focusing of proteins. Nematology. 6 (1), 153-154. http://www.brill.nl DOI:10.1163/156854104323073026
Zaheer K, 1998. Potato cyst nematodes (Globodera species) in Asia. In: Potato cyst nematodes, biology, distribution and control. [ed. by Marks R J, Brodie B B]. Wallingford, UK: CAB INTERNATIONAL. 333-345.
Zaheer K, Fleming C, Turner S J, Kerr J A, McAdam J, 1992. Genetic variation and pathotype response in Globodera pallida (Nematoda: Heteroderidae) from the Falkland Islands. Nematologica. 38 (2), 175-189.
ContributorsTop of page
18/03/2008 Updated by:
Janet Rowe, IACR-Rothamsted, Rothamsted Experimental Station, Harpenden, Hertfordshire, AL5 2JQ, UK
Distribution MapsTop of page
Unsupported Web Browser:
One or more of the features that are needed to show you the maps functionality are not available in the web browser that you are using.
Please consider upgrading your browser to the latest version or installing a new browser.
More information about modern web browsers can be found at http://browsehappy.com/