Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Helianthus annuus
(sunflower)

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Datasheet

Helianthus annuus (sunflower)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 25 November 2019
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Host Plant
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Helianthus annuus
  • Preferred Common Name
  • sunflower
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Plantae
  •     Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •       Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •         Class: Dicotyledonae
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • The following summary is from Witt and Luke (2017):

    Description

    An annual plant [(25–) 50–300 (–450) cm tall] wi...

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Helianthus annuus (sunflower); roadside habit. Bozeman, Montana, USA. September 2008.
TitleHabit
CaptionHelianthus annuus (sunflower); roadside habit. Bozeman, Montana, USA. September 2008.
Copyright©Prof Matt Lavin-2008/Bozeman, Montana, USA - CC BY-SA 2.0
Helianthus annuus (sunflower); roadside habit. Bozeman, Montana, USA. September 2008.
HabitHelianthus annuus (sunflower); roadside habit. Bozeman, Montana, USA. September 2008.©Prof Matt Lavin-2008/Bozeman, Montana, USA - CC BY-SA 2.0
Helianthus annuus (sunflower); flower. The disk flowers are typically darker yellow compared to the ray flowers. Bozeman, Montana, USA. September 2008.
TitleFlower head
CaptionHelianthus annuus (sunflower); flower. The disk flowers are typically darker yellow compared to the ray flowers. Bozeman, Montana, USA. September 2008.
Copyright©Prof Matt Lavin-2016/Bozeman, Montana, USA - CC BY-SA 2.0
Helianthus annuus (sunflower); flower. The disk flowers are typically darker yellow compared to the ray flowers. Bozeman, Montana, USA. September 2008.
Flower headHelianthus annuus (sunflower); flower. The disk flowers are typically darker yellow compared to the ray flowers. Bozeman, Montana, USA. September 2008.©Prof Matt Lavin-2016/Bozeman, Montana, USA - CC BY-SA 2.0
Helianthus annuus (sunflower); *SEM image of sunflower pollen grains. Note scale. (*Zeiss DSM 962 SEM)
TitlePollen grains
CaptionHelianthus annuus (sunflower); *SEM image of sunflower pollen grains. Note scale. (*Zeiss DSM 962 SEM)
CopyrightPublic Domain - Released by /via wikipedia
Helianthus annuus (sunflower); *SEM image of sunflower pollen grains. Note scale. (*Zeiss DSM 962 SEM)
Pollen grainsHelianthus annuus (sunflower); *SEM image of sunflower pollen grains. Note scale. (*Zeiss DSM 962 SEM)Public Domain - Released by /via wikipedia
Helianthus annuus (sunflower); seeds.
TitleSeeds
CaptionHelianthus annuus (sunflower); seeds.
Copyright©McLeod/via wikipedia - CC BY-SA 3.0
Helianthus annuus (sunflower); seeds.
SeedsHelianthus annuus (sunflower); seeds.©McLeod/via wikipedia - CC BY-SA 3.0
Helianthus annuus (sunflower); close-up of seeds, hulled, achene (a) and dehulled (b).
TitleSeeds
CaptionHelianthus annuus (sunflower); close-up of seeds, hulled, achene (a) and dehulled (b).
CopyrightPublic Domain - Released by Ryan Kaldari (Kaldari)/via wikipedia
Helianthus annuus (sunflower); close-up of seeds, hulled, achene (a) and dehulled (b).
SeedsHelianthus annuus (sunflower); close-up of seeds, hulled, achene (a) and dehulled (b).Public Domain - Released by Ryan Kaldari (Kaldari)/via wikipedia

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Helianthus annuus L.

Preferred Common Name

  • sunflower

International Common Names

  • English: common sunflower
  • Spanish: girasol
  • French: tournesol
  • Portuguese: girassol; mirasol

Local Common Names

  • Germany: Gemeine Sonnenblume
  • Italy: girasole
  • Netherlands: zonnebloem
  • Sweden: vanlig solros

EPPO code

  • HELAN (Helianthus annuus)

Summary of Invasiveness

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The following summary is from Witt and Luke (2017):

Description

An annual plant [(25–) 50–300 (–450) cm tall] with erect, usually rough to hairy stems and a relatively deep taproot; this weedy variety is highly variable, hybridizing with several other cultivated forms.

Origin

Mexico and USA.

Reason for Introduction

Accidentally as a contaminant.

Invades

Roadsides, disturbed areas, wastelands, urban open spaces, fallow land and croplands.

Impacts

Establishes readily in disturbed areas, displacing plants of other species.

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Plantae
  •         Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •             Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •                 Class: Dicotyledonae
  •                     Order: Asterales
  •                         Family: Asteraceae
  •                             Genus: Helianthus
  •                                 Species: Helianthus annuus

Description

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The cultivated sunflower is an erect, hardy, often unbranched, coarse, stout-stemmed annual herb, with a varying height up to 4 m. The stem is robust, circular in section, 3-6 cm in diameter, curved below the head, and woody when mature. It is filled with white pith that often becomes hollow with age. The root is a taproot, which can penetrate the soil to a depth of about 3 m, with a large lateral spread of surface roots; however, most of the roots generally remain in the first 50 cm. 

Leaves are usually alternate (lower leaves opposite), ovate, cordate, with three main veins, 10-30 cm long, 5-20 cm wide, margin serrate, and carried on long petioles. The colour of the leaves is usually dark green. Lower leaves are larger, broadly ovate or heart-shaped, and attach individually or in pairs. The base of the leaf blade is recurved as it joins a prominent petiole. Teeth on leaf margins range from inconspicuous to clearly present. Upper leaves are smaller, broadly lance-shaped or ovate, and attach individually to the stem. 

The flowering head is heliotropic (rotating to face the sun). Flowering heads have 16-30, yellow to gold, ray flowers surrounding a large central disc, and may reach up to 3.5 cm in diameter. Tall, ornamental cultivars have more numerous smaller flowers, whereas cultivars for oil extraction are shorter and have a single flower head. Disc flowers are dark brown to purple. Involucral bracts are broadly ovate, with tips drawn out to a fine point. The disc-shaped flowering head is borne terminally on the main stem, 10-50 cm in diameter, sometimes drooping, and containing 800-8000 bisexual florets. Around the margin of the head there are individual ray flowers, which are sterile, brightly coloured, usually yellow, but varying from deep yellow to red. The brown or purplish disc florets are spirally arranged, flowering from the outer to the centre. 

The ovary is inferior with a single basal ovule. Fruits are dry, indehiscent achenes, variable in colour (white, brown, black, or often dark with white stripes). Seed is compressed, flattened oblong, the top truncated and base pointed, 10-25 mm long, 7-15 mm wide. The 1000-kernel weight varies from 50 g to many times this. 

Distribution

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More than 100 species of sunflowers grow in the wild, all from the New World and most of them in North America. Helianthus annuus, the common annual sunflower, is widespread in the USA and especially abundant west of the Mississippi River. Wild sunflower seeds were an important source of food for Indians living in prehistoric times. At least one group of Indians in the Midwest of USA started to cultivate sunflowers more than 3000 years ago, the practice spreading to other Native Americans living in the Southwest and in Mexico. The sunflower has the distinction of being the only important crop plant to have been domesticated in the USA.

More than half the world's cultivated sunflowers are grown in Russia and Eastern Europe, where plant breeders in the 1930-1950s developed sunflower varieties with seeds containing nearly 50% oil and flower heads exceeding 30 cm in diameter.

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 25 Feb 2021
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

AlgeriaPresentSunflower seed production (2008) 50 MT (F)
AngolaPresentSunflower seed production (2008) 11,000 MT (F)
BotswanaPresentSunflower seed production (2008) 7,000 MT (F)
EgyptPresentSunflower seed production (2008) 21,483 MT
KenyaPresentIntroducedInvasive
MalawiPresentIntroducedNaturalizedNaturalized
MoroccoPresentSunflower seed production (2008) 32,310 MT
MozambiquePresentSunflower seed production (2008) 5,128 MT
NamibiaPresentSunflower seed production (2008) 50 MT (F)
South AfricaPresentSunflower seed production (2008) 885,560 MT
SudanPresentSunflower seed production (2008) 100,000 MT
TanzaniaPresent
TunisiaPresentSunflower seed production (2008) 10,000 MT (F)
UgandaPresentSunflower seed production (2008) 190,000 MT
ZambiaPresentSunflower seed production (2008) 8,000 MT (F)
ZimbabwePresentSunflower seed production (2008) 23,000 MT (*)

Asia

AfghanistanPresentSunflower seed production (2008) 16,000 MT (F)
AzerbaijanPresentSunflower seed production (2008) 16,537 MT
ChinaPresentSunflower seed production (2008) 1,850,000 MT (*)
-BeijingPresent
-GansuPresent
-GuangxiPresent
-HebeiPresent
-ShanxiPresent
IndiaPresentSunflower seed production (2008) 1,112,000 MT
-ChhattisgarhPresent
IraqPresentSunflower seed production (2008) 19,000 MT (F)
IsraelPresentSunflower seed production (2008) 25,300 MT
JapanPresent
JordanPresentSunflower seed production (2008) 0 MT (F)
KazakhstanPresentSunflower seed production (2008) 185,750 MT
KyrgyzstanPresentSunflower seed production (2008) 53,000 MT
LebanonPresentSunflower seed production (2008) 0 MT (F)
MyanmarPresentSunflower seed production (2008) 350,000 MT (F)
PakistanPresentSunflower seed production (2008) 603,894 MT
Sri LankaPresent
SyriaPresentSunflower seed production (2008) 21,643 MT (F)
TajikistanPresentSunflower seed production (2008) 3,274 MT
ThailandPresentSunflower seed production (2008) 23,764 MT
TurkeyPresentSunflower seed production (2008) 992,000 MT
UzbekistanPresentSunflower seed production (2008) 12,000 MT (*)

Europe

AlbaniaPresentSunflower seed production (2008) 2,500 MT
AustriaPresentSunflower seed production (2008) 79,658 MT
BelarusPresentSunflower seed production (2008) 22,000 MT (*)
BulgariaPresentSunflower seed production (2008) 1,300,710 MT
CroatiaPresentSunflower seed production (2008) 119,900 MT
CzechiaPresentSunflower seed production (2008) 60,993 MT
FrancePresentSunflower seed production (2008) 1,607,977 MT
GermanyPresentSunflower seed production (2008) 48,900 MT
GreecePresentSunflower seed production (2008) 15,600 MT
HungaryPresentSunflower seed production (2008) 1,468,100 MT
ItalyPresentSunflower seed production (2008) 260,927 MT
MoldovaPresentSunflower seed production (2008) 371,935 MT
North MacedoniaPresent
PolandPresentSunflower seed production (2008) 4,669 MT
PortugalPresentSunflower seed production (2008) 16,200 MT
RomaniaPresentSunflower seed production (2008) 1,169,940 MT
RussiaPresentSunflower seed production (2008) 7,350,240 MT
SerbiaPresentSunflower seed production (2008) 454,282 MT
SlovakiaPresentSunflower seed production (2008) 192,346 MT
SloveniaPresentSunflower seed production (2008) 414 MT
SpainPresentSunflower seed production (2008) 873,800 MT
SwitzerlandPresentSunflower seed production (2008) 12,300 MT
UkrainePresentSunflower seed production (2008) 6,526,000 MT

North America

CanadaPresentSunflower seed production (2008) 112,200 MT
-ManitobaPresent
MexicoPresentSunflower seed production (2008) 5 MT
United StatesPresentSunflower seed production (2008) 1,552,570 MT
-NebraskaPresent
-New MexicoPresent
-North DakotaPresent
-South DakotaPresent

Oceania

AustraliaPresentSunflower seed production (2008) 73,000 MT

South America

ArgentinaPresentSunflower seed production (2008) 4,646,065 MT
BoliviaPresentSunflower seed production (2008) 191,317 MT (F)
BrazilPresentSunflower seed production (2008) 145,659 MT
-Sao PauloPresent
ChilePresentSunflower seed production (2008) 7,607 MT
ColombiaPresentSunflower seed production (2008) 0 MT (F)
EcuadorPresentSunflower seed production (2008) 270 MT (F)
ParaguayPresentSunflower seed production (2008) 200,000 MT (*)
UruguayPresentSunflower seed production (2008) 54,200 MT

Biology and Ecology

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Sunflower prefers the warm temperate regions, but is cultivated from 40°S to 55°N. Sunflower is unsuitable for humid climates. New cultivars are adapted to a wide range of environments. The plant grows well at temperatures of 20-30°C, although a range of 8–34°C is tolerated. A frost-free period of 120 days is usually necessary for commercial crops. Good yields can be obtained with 500 mm of rainfall or irrigation water. The plants are quite drought-resistant, except during the flowering period. Sunflowers grow well in any well-drained, neutral to slightly alkaline sandy soil. Seed should normally be planted 3-8 cm deep, depending on cultivar. A seedbed temperature of 25-30°C is best but should not be below 15°C. Seed rate, spacing and number of plants per hectare vary widely, depending (among other things) on seed size: for example, the number of plants per hectare varies from 28,000 to 75,000. To obtain high seed yields, application of fertilizer is necessary. It was found that 1000 kg seed removed 60 kg N, 10 kg P and 180 kg K. Sunflower seedlings are poor competitors to weeds, and young plants are easily damaged by mechanical weed control. Moreover, the period of effective machinery use is limited. Several herbicides are registered for use with sunflower. The growth cycle is usually about 4 months, but ranges from 60 to 180 days depending on the environment and genotype. 

Uses

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Sunflower oil has become the world's second most important vegetable oil and is used for cooking and to make margarine, salad dressing, lubricants, paints and soaps. Sunflower oil is considered a premium oil due to its light colour, low level of saturated fats, mild flavour, good taste and ability to be used at high cooking temperatures. Oil content of the seed varies from 25 to 65%. Oil composition depends on temperature and can be 20-60% linoleic acid and 25-65% oleic acid, protein content is 15-20%. Sunflower oil is mainly used for food purposes. Inferior grades of oil are used for the production of paint, varnish and soap. The remaining material after oil extraction has a protein content of 28-45% and is used as cattle feed.

Sunflower is sometimes grown as a silage crop as feed for livestock, when the crop has to be harvested when half of the flowering head of the plant has mature seeds. Seeds contain 20-40% protein and 40-65% oil, comprising up to 80% linoleic acid (C18:2). As well as extraction of edible oil, seeds can be eaten raw or as salted or toasted snacks, and ground into a meal for using in bread and cakes, or they can be used as birdseed. Sunflowers are also used as an industrial raw material (oil, cellulose), or for poultry and animal feeds (seeds, pressing residues, green material).

Native Americans used sunflower plants for treating a variety of ailments. Dakota Indians made a broth of sunflower heads for a drink to relieve chest pains. Pueblo Indians of the Southwest USA used plant parts to cure rattlesnake and spider bites as well as for healing cuts and other wounds. More recent folk and herbal medicine uses include the control of pain, inflammation, coughs and a host of other remedies. Hopi Indians in the USA still grow a particular variety of single-headed sunflower that is tall, slender with dark leaves, and has a thin, dark purple seed that requires a longer growing season to mature than other local varieties. This sunflower is prized for the brilliant blue, purple, black or red dye that is made from the hulls and used to dye wool, cotton and baskets, as well as for making ceremonial body paint.
 

Uses List

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Animal feed, fodder, forage

  • Fodder/animal feed

Human food and beverage

  • Food
  • Oil/fat
  • Seeds

Materials

  • Dye/tanning
  • Oils

Medicinal, pharmaceutical

  • Cosmetic
  • Source of medicine/pharmaceutical

References

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Elzebroek, T., Wind, K., 2008. Guide to cultivated plants, CABI.vii-xi + 516 pp.

Witt, A., Luke, Q., 2017. Guide to the naturalized and invasive plants of Eastern Africa, [ed. by Witt, A., Luke, Q.]. Wallingford, UK: CABI.vi + 601 pp. http://www.cabi.org/cabebooks/ebook/20173158959 doi:10.1079/9781786392145.0000

Distribution References

Abbas G, Arif M J, Muhammad Ashfaq, Muhammad Aslam, Shafqat Saeed, 2010. Host plants distribution and overwintering of cotton mealybug (Phenacoccus solenopsis; Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae). International Journal of Agriculture and Biology. 12 (3), 421-425. http://www.fspublishers.org/ijab/past-issues/IJABVOL_12_NO_3/20.pdf

Abkhoo J, 2015. Powdery mildews causing fungi in Iran. Mycopath. 13 (1), 51-55. http://111.68.103.26/journals/index.php/mycopath/article/viewFile/673/354

Achbani E H, Lamrhari A, Laamaraf N, Bahsine M, Serrhini M N, Douira A, Labrouche D T de, 2000. Downy mildew (Plasmopara halstedii): importance and geographical distribution on sunflower in Morocco. Phytopathologia Mediterranea. 39 (2), 283-288.

Arun Gupta, Chattopadhyay M, Gupta S K, 2014. On a collection of mites infesting herbs used as spices and oil seeds in India with special reference to Western Ghat Areas. Records of the Zoological Survey of India. 114 (2), 251-262.

Arzanlou M, Khodaei S, Babai-Ahari A, 2012. Helianthus annuus as a natural host for Stemphylium vesicarium in Iran. Australasian Plant Disease Notes. 7 (1), 167-170. http://rd.springer.com/article/10.1007/s13314-012-0076-4/fulltext.html DOI:10.1007/s13314-012-0076-4

Bán R, Kovács A, Körösi K, Perczel M, Turóczi G, 2014a. First report on the occurrence of a new pathotype, 714, of Plasmopara halstedii (sunflower downy mildew) in Hungary. Plant Disease. 98 (11), 1580-1581. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis DOI:10.1094/PDIS-02-14-0142-PDN

Bán R, Kovács A, Körösi K, Perczel M, Turóczi G, Zalai M, Pálinkás Z, Égei M, 2018. First report on the occurrence of a globally new pathotype, 724, of Plasmopara halstedii causing sunflower downy mildew in Hungary. Plant Disease. 102 (9), 1861-1862. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis

Bán R, Kovács A, Perczel M, Körösi K, Turóczi G, 2014. First report on the increased distribution of pathotype 704 of Plasmopara halstedii in Hungary. Plant Disease. 98 (6), 844. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis DOI:10.1094/PDIS-09-13-0920-PDN

Baștaș K K, Hekİmhan H, Maden S, Tör M, 2009. First report of bacterial stalk and head rot disease caused by Pectobacterium atrosepticum on sunflower in Turkey. Plant Disease. 93 (12), 1352. DOI:10.1094/PDIS-93-12-1352B

Beshr S M, Badr S A, Ahmad A A, Mohamed G H, 2016. New record of host plants of invasive mealybug Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley (Tinsley, 1898), (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) in Alexandria and Behaira governorates. Journal of Entomology. 13 (4), 155-160. http://scialert.net/fulltext/?doi=je.2016.155.160&org=10

Bhat A I, Jain R K, Kumar A, Ramiah M, Varma A, 2002. Serological and coat protein sequence studies suggest that necrosis disease on sunflower in India is caused by a strain of Tobacco streak ilarvirus. Archives of Virology. 147 (3), 651-658. DOI:10.1007/s007050200015

Bhat B N, Reddy D R R, Singh T V K, 2012. Occurrence and distribution of sunflower necrosis virus disease in major sunflower growing areas of Andhra Pradsh. Journal of Research ANGRAU. 40 (4), 6-10. http://www.angrau.net

Chu Dong, Zhang YouJun, Brown J K, Cong Bin, Xu BaoYun, Wu QingJun, Zhu GuoRen, 2006. The introduction of the exotic Q biotype of Bemisia tabaci from the Mediterranean region into China on ornamental crops. Florida Entomologist. 89 (2), 168-174. http://www.fcla.edu/FlaEnt/fe89p168.pdf DOI:10.1653/0015-4040(2006)89[168:TIOTEQ]2.0.CO;2

Duffield S J, Steer A P, 2006. The ecology of Helicoverpa spp. (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in the Riverina region of south-eastern Australia and the implications for tactical and strategic management. Bulletin of Entomological Research. 96 (6), 583-596. DOI:10.1017/BER2006462

Ekins M G, Aitken E A B, Goulter K C, 2002. Carpogenic germination of Sclerotinia minor and potential distribution in Australia. Australasian Plant Pathology. 31 (3), 259-265. DOI:10.1071/AP02022

FAO, 2009. FAOSTAT Database., Rome, Italy: FAO. http://www.fao.org/faostat/en/#home

Fazal Said, Fazal Jalal, Muhammad Imtiaz, Khan M A, Sayed Hussain, 2018. General distribution of different arthropods species associated with sunflower in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa: (a survey of Peshawar, Mardan and Swabi District:). Pure and Applied Biology. 7 (3), 1144-1160. https://thepab.org/index.php/journal/article/view/580/371

French J M, Randall J J, Stamler R A, Segura A C, Goldberg N P, 2013. First report of anthracnose of sunflower sprouts caused by Colletotrichum acutatum in New Mexico. Plant Disease. 97 (6), 838-839. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis DOI:10.1094/PDIS-08-12-0805-PDN

Galanihe L D, Jayasundera M U P, Vithana A, Asselaarachchi N, Watson G W, 2010. Occurrence, distribution and control of papaya mealybug, Paracoccus marginatus (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae), an invasive alien pest in Sri Lanka. Tropical Agricultural Research and Extension. 13 (3), 81-86. http://www.sljol.info/index.php/TARE/article/view/3143/2522

García-Carneros A B, Molinero-Ruiz L, 2017. First report of the highly virulent race 705 of Plasmopara halstedii (downy mildew of sunflower) in Portugal and in Spain. Plant Disease. 101 (8), 1555. DOI:10.1094/pdis-02-17-0289-pdn

García-Ruiz R, García-Carneros A B, Molinero-Ruiz L, 2014. A new race of Verticillium dahliae causing leaf mottle of sunflower in Europe. Plant Disease. 98 (10), 1435. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis DOI:10.1094/PDIS-04-14-0360-PDN

Gobatto D, Oliveira L A de, Franco D A de S, Velásquez N, Daròs J A, Eiras M, 2019. Surveys in the chrysanthemum production areas of Brazil and Colombia reveal that weeds are potential reservoirs of chrysanthemum stunt viroid. Viruses. 11 (4), 355. DOI:10.3390/v11040355

Gulya T J, Krupinsky J, Draper M, Charlet L D, 2002. First report of charcoal rot (Macrophomina phaseolina) on sunflower in North and South Dakota. Plant Disease. 86 (8), 923. DOI:10.1094/PDIS.2002.86.8.923A

Harveson R M, Nelson A, Mathew F M, Seiler G J, 2015. First report of Orobanche ludoviciana parasitizing sunflowers. Plant Health Progress. PHP-BR-15-0043. http://www.plantmanagementnetwork.org/php/elements/sum2.aspx?id=10874

Hosseini S, Habibi M K, Mosahebi G, Motamedi M, Winter S, 2012. First report on the occurrence of Tobacco streak virus in sunflower in Iran. Journal of Plant Pathology. 94 (3), 585-589. http://sipav.org/main/jpp/index.php/jpp/issue/view/124

Ignatov A N, Khodykina M V, Polityko V A, Sukhacheva M V, 2016. First report of Serratia marcescens causing yellow wilt disease on sunflower in Russia. New Disease Reports. 8. http://www.ndrs.org.uk/pdfs/033/NDR_033008.pdf

Jagadish K S, Shadakshari Y G, Gowda C C, Srinivasa N, 2013. New record of spider mite, Tetranychus ludeni Zacher (Acari: Tetranychidae) on sunflower and reaction of few CMS lines to mite infestation. Insect Environment. 19 (2), 106-107. http://www.currentbiotica.com/Insect/Volume19-2/IE-V19(2)-12.pdf

Jeong YeonHwa, Kim JinWoo, Kang YongSung, Lee SeungDon, Hwang IngYu, 2007. Genetic diversity and distribution of Korean isolates of Ralstonia solanacearum. Plant Disease. 91 (10), 1277-1287. DOI:10.1094/PDIS-91-10-1277

Kajita H, 2000. Geographical distribution and species composition of parasitoids (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea) of Trialeurodes vaporariorum and Bemisia tabaci-complex (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae) in Japan. Applied Entomology and Zoology. 35 (1), 155-162. DOI:10.1303/aez.2000.155

Karimi E, Safaie N, Shams-Bakhsh M, 2012. Molecular genotyping of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum isolates from different regions and host plants in Iran. Archives of Phytopathology and Plant Protection. 45 (8), 942-954. DOI:10.1080/03235408.2012.655144

Karov I, Mitrev S, Maširević S, Kovacevik B, 2011. First appearance of white mould on sunflower caused by Sclerotinia minor in the Republic of Macedonia. Helia. 34 (54), 19-26. http://www.doiserbia.nb.rs/img/doi/1018-1806/2011/1018-18061154019K.pdf DOI:10.2298/HEL1154019K

Khan R U, Wazir S M, Muhammad Subhan, Saad Ullah, Hidayat Ullah, Aysha Farooq, Farheen Jaffar, Shazia, Shah I A, Mustafa Kamal, 2012. Weed flora of sugarcane in district Bannu, Khyber Pakhtunkhawa, Pakistan. Pakistan Journal of Weed Science Research. 18 (4), 541-552. http://www.wssp.org.pk/article.htm

Kiss B, Rédei D, Koczor S, 2008. Occurrence and feeding of hemipterans on common ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia) in Hungary. Bulletin of Insectology. 61 (1), 195-196. http://www.bulletinofinsectology.org/

Kök Ș, Kasap İ, Özdemİr I, 2016. Aphid (Hemiptera: Aphididae) species determined in Çanakkale Province with a new record for the aphid fauna of Turkey. Türkiye Entomoloji Dergisi. 40 (4), 397-412. http://dergipark.ulakbim.gov.tr/entoted/article/view/5000199653/5000176936

Kondaiah R H, Sreeramulu A, 2014. Survey on fungal diseased crops in Cuddapah District of Andhra Pradesh. Indian Journal of Fundamental and Applied Life Sciences. 4 (1), 244-251. http://www.cibtech.org/J%20LIFE%20SCIENCES/PUBLICATIONS/2014/Vol-4-No-1/JLS-040-078-SREERAMULU-SURVEY-PRADESH.pdf

Konstantinović B, Meseldžija M, Samardžić N, Konstantinović B, 2012. Distribution of invasive weeds on the territory of AP Vojvodina. In: Proceedings of the International Symposium on Current Trends in Plant Protection, Belgrade, Serbia, 25-28th September, 2012. [ed. by Marisavljević D]. Belgrade, Serbia: Institute for Plant Protection and Environment. 44-48.

Korayem A M, Youssef M M A, Mohamed M M M, Lashein A M S, 2015. Plant-parasitic nematodes associated with different plants grown in newly reclaimed area in North West Egypt. Egyptian Journal of Agronematology. 14 (1), 127-136. http://nemasociety.com/en/wp-content/uploads/Plant-parasitic-nematodes16.pdf

Kritzman A, Lampel M, Raccah B, Gera A, 2001. Distribution and transmission of Iris yellow spot virus. Plant Disease. 85 (8), 838-842. DOI:10.1094/PDIS.2001.85.8.838

Li M, Zhang Y Y, Wang K, Hou Y G, Zhou H Y, Jin L, Zhao J, Chen W D, 2016. First report of sunflower white mold caused by Sclerotinia minor jagger in Inner Mongolia region, China. Plant Disease. 100 (1), 211. DOI:10.1094/PDIS-01-15-0027-PDN

Lokeshwari D, Kumar N K K, Manjunatha H, 2015. Molecular diversity of the Aphis gossypii (Hemiptera: Aphididae): a potential vector of potyviruses (Potyviridae). Annals of the Entomological Society of America. 108 (4), 621-633. DOI:10.1093/aesa/sav034

Mahdizadeh V, Safaie N, Goltapeh E M, Mayek-Perez N, 2012. Intraspecies diversity of Macrophomina phaseolina in Iran. Archives of Phytopathology and Plant Protection. 45 (8), 963-976. DOI:10.1080/03235408.2012.655146

Mahmoud A, Budak H, 2011. First report of charcoal rot caused by Macrophomina phaseolina in sunflower in Turkey. Plant Disease. 95 (2), 223. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis DOI:10.1094/PDIS-09-10-0631

Marić I, Marčić D, Petanović R, Auger P, 2018. Biodiversity of spider mites (Acari: Tetranychidae) in Serbia: a review, new records and key to all known species. Acarologia. 58 (1), 3-14. http://www1.montpellier.inra.fr/CBGP/acarologia/article.php?id=4223

Martín-Sanz A, Rueda S, García-Carneros A B, Molinero-Ruiz L, 2018. Cadophora malorum: a new pathogen of sunflower causing wilting, yellowing, and leaf necrosis in Russia. Plant Disease. 102 (4), 823. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis DOI:10.1094/PDIS-08-17-1182-PDN

Mathew F M, Rashid K Y, Gulya T J, Markell S G, 2015. First report of phomopsis stem canker of sunflower (Helianthus annuus) caused by Diaporthe gulyae in Canada. Plant Disease. 99 (1), 160. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis DOI:10.1094/PDIS-08-14-0858-PDN

Mathew F, Kirkeide B, Gulya T, Markell S, 2010. First report of pathogenicity of Fusarium sporotrichioides and Fusarium acuminatum on sunflowers in the United States. Plant Health Progress. PHP-2010-0915-02-BR. http://www.plantmanagementnetwork.org/php/elements/sum.aspx?id=9196&photo=5068

Meyer M D, Zhang G R, Pedersen D K, Bradley C A, 2009. First report of phomopsis stem canker of sunflower in Illinois caused by Phomopsis helianthi. Plant Disease. 93 (7), 760. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis DOI:10.1094/PDIS-93-7-0760A

Milanova S, Boneva P, Grigorova P, Valkova M, 2007. Weed survey in central north Bulgaria. In: European Weed Research Society, 14th EWRS Symposium, Hamar, Norway, 17-21 June 2007 [European Weed Research Society, 14th EWRS Symposium, Hamar, Norway, 17-21 June 2007.], [ed. by Fløistad E]. Doorwerth, Netherlands: European Weed Research Society. 217. http://www.ewrs-symposium2007.com

Molinero-Ruiz M L, Melero-Vara J M, Gulya T J, Dominguez J, 2003. First report of resistance to metalaxyl in downy mildew of sunflower caused by Plasmopara halstedii in Spain. Plant Disease. 87 (6), 749. DOI:10.1094/PDIS.2003.87.6.749C

Moparthi S, Bradshaw M J, Grove G G, 2018. First report of powdery mildew caused by Golovinomyces spadiceus on Helianthus annuus. Plant Disease. 102 (6), 1176-1177. DOI:10.1094/PDIS-09-17-1434-PDN

Moskova T, Dimitrov G, Tityanov M, 2018. Distribution and degree of weed growth of amaranth and other weeds in sunflower crops in Plovdiv and Stara Zagora regions. Journal of Mountain Agriculture on the Balkans. 21 (1), 158-168. http://www.rimsa.eu/images/forage_production_vol_21-1_part_2_2018.pdf

Nabloussi A, Velasco L, Assissel N, 2018. First report of sunflower broomrape, Orobanche cumana Wallr., in Morocco. Plant Disease. 102 (2), 457. DOI:10.1094/PDIS-06-17-0858-PDN

Olson T R, Kontz B, Markell S G, Gulya T J, Mathew F M, 2017. First report of Diaporthe stewartii causing phomopsis stem canker of sunflower (Helianthus annuus) in Minnesota. Plant Disease. 101 (2), 382. DOI:10.1094/PDIS-08-16-1122-PDN

Park M J, Kim B S, Choi I Y, Cho S E, Shin H D, 2015. First report of powdery mildew caused by Golovinomyces ambrosiae on sunflower in Korea. Plant Disease. 99 (4), 557. DOI:10.1094/PDIS-09-14-0996-PDN

Patil K P, Awadhiya G K, Pandey S R, 2017. Occurrence of powdery mildew on some plants from Raipur of Chhattisgarh state. Trends in Biosciences. 10 (32), 6818-6829. http://trendsinbiosciencesjournal.com/upload/23-8868_(K_P__Patila).pdf

Rabiee S, Hosseini S, Hosseini A, 2015. Occurrence and distribution of some sunflower viruses from sunflower fields in Kerman and Isfahan provinces, Iran. Archives of Phytopathology and Plant Protection. 48 (3), 223-228. DOI:10.1080/03235408.2014.884827

Rajender J, Pushpavathi B, Prasad M S L, 2016. Molecular characterization of isolates of Alternariaster helianthi causing sunflower blight. Indian Phytopathology. 69 (4s), 134-137. http://epubs.icar.org.in/ejournal/index.php/IPPJ/article/view/71254/30135

Rathod P K, Mane P N, Lande G K, Sable Y R, 2008. First record of mealy bug Maconellicoccus hirsutus (Green) on sunflower in Western Vidarbha (MS). Insect Environment. 14 (1), 25.

Rathod P K, Mane P N, Lande G K, Sable Y R, 2008a. First record of mealy bug Maconellicoccus hirsutus (green on sunflower in Western Vidarbha (MS)). Insect Environment. 14 (3), 138-139.

Ren J, Zhang G, Zhang Y Y, Zhang J, Zheng H L, Jing L, Zhou H Y, Zhao J, 2015. First report of sunflower wilt caused by Fusarium proliferatum in Inner Mongolia, China. Plant Disease. 99 (9), 1275. DOI:10.1094/PDIS-10-14-1081-PDN

Sakthivel P, Karuppuchamy P, Kalyanasundaram M, Srinivasan T, 2012. Host plants of invasive papaya mealybug, Paracoccus marginatus (Williams and Granara de Willink) in Tamil Nadu. Madras Agricultural Journal. 99 (7/9), 615-619. https://doc-00-7g-docsviewer.googleusercontent.com/viewer/securedownload/dsn1aovipa7l846lsfcf94nedj8q2p4u/qo3phtufamvk9q39umu888pbj4t4kkc6/1348647300000/c2l0ZXM=/AGZ5hq8BgbJY1gwaOYx83cPOdNw6/WkdWbVlYVnNkR1J2YldGcGJud3hNWFJvWlcxaFpISmhjMkZuY21samRXeDBkWEpoYkdwdmRYSnVZV3g4WjNnNk56WmpPREk1WXpBd01XWTNZelZrWkE=?a=gp&filename=99-7-9-615-619.pdf&chan=EQAAAOqeu1nfMdjbyOfMSElqQCfRbAOx1kCMBqnRUfeLUnjy&docid=0508176bd4abbdc3e7017b1a89751bc3%7C9c9df36583445f1fe402a841b5e1963b&sec=AHSqidZmGWqJKVKwfKsaqtFstCH

Salehi M, Esmailzadeh S A, Salehi E, 2015. Characterisation of a phytoplasma associated with sunflower phyllody in Fars, Isfahan and Yazd provinces of Iran. New Disease Reports. 6. DOI:10.5197/j.2044-0588.2015.031.006

Sedlářová M, Pospíchalová R, Trojanová Z D, Bartůšek T, Slobodianová L, Lebeda A, 2016. First report of Plasmopara halstedii new races 705 and 715 on sunflower from the Czech Republic - short communication. Plant Protection Science. 52 (3), 182-187. http://www.agriculturejournals.cz/publicFiles/187988.pdf

Sedlářová M, Trojanová Z, Lebeda A, 2013. Distribution and harmfulness of Plasmopara halstedii on sunflower in the Czech Republic. Plant Protection Science. 49 (1), 1-10. http://www.agriculturejournals.cz/web/PPS.htm

Shah S M, Asad Ullah, Fazal Hadi, 2014. Ecological characteristics of weed flora in the wheat crop of Mastuj valley, district Chitral, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. Pakistan Journal of Weed Science Research. 20 (4), 479-487. http://www.wssp.org.pk/vol-20-4-2014/6.%20PJWSR-22-2014.pdf

Shahzad Asad, Anjum Munir, Ayub Khan, Ishaq Ahmad, Muhammad Arshad, 2017. First report of bacterial head rot disease caused by Pectobacterium atrosepticum on sunflower in Pakistan. Pakistan Journal of Phytopathology. 29 (1), 167-169. http://pjp.pakps.com/index.php/PJP/article/view/306/206

Sharman M, Thomas J E, Persley D M, 2008. First report of Tobacco streak virus in sunflower (Helianthus annuus), cotton (Gossypium hirsutum), chickpea (Cicer arietinum) and mung bean (Vigna radiata) in Australia. Australasian Plant Disease Notes. 3 (1), 27-29. http://www.publish.csiro.au/view/journals/dsp_journal_fulltext.cfm?nid=208&f=DN08012

Shi B X, Chen G H, Zhang Z J, Hao J J, Jing L, Zhou H Y, Zhao J, 2015. First report of race composition and distribution of sunflower broomrape, Orobanche cumana, in China. Plant Disease. 99 (2), 291-292. DOI:10.1094/PDIS-07-14-0721-PDN

Shindrova P, 2010. Investigation on the race composition of downy mildew (Plasmopara halstedii Farl. Berlese et de Tony) in Bulgaria during 2007-2008. Helia. 33 (52), 19-24. DOI:10.2298/HEL1052019S

Shoaib Ali, Panhwar W A, Mehmood S A, Shabir Ahmed, Mangi N M, 2019. Taxonomy and distribution of Calliptamus barbarus barbarus (Costa, 1836) (Orthoptera: Calliptaminae). Abasyn Journal of Life Sciences. 2 (2), 49-55. http://ajlifesciences.com/admineditor/papers/18.pdf

Šimala M, Milek T M, Korić B, 2009. Whitefly species (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) recorded on imported ornamental plants in Croatia from 2005-2008. In: Zbornik predavanj in referatov 9. Slovenskega Posvetovanja o Varstvu Rastlin, Nova Gorica, Slovenije, 4-5 marec 2009 [Zbornik predavanj in referatov 9. Slovenskega Posvetovanja o Varstvu Rastlin, Nova Gorica, Slovenije, 4-5 marec 2009.], [ed. by Maček J]. Ljubljana, Slovenia: Društvo za Varstvo Rastlin Slovenije. 389-396.

Srinivasan K, Visalakchi S, 2010. First report of Rhizoctonia solani causing a disease of sunflower in India. Plant Disease. 94 (4), 488. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis DOI:10.1094/PDIS-94-4-0488C

Sun H Y, Liang Y, 2018. First report of anthracnose on sunflower caused by Colletotrichum destructivum in China. Plant Disease. 102 (1), 245. DOI:10.1094/PDIS-06-17-0910-PDN

Suresh S, Jothimani R, Sivasubrmanian P, Karuppuchamy P, Samiyappan R, Jonathan E I, 2010. Invasive mealybugs of Tamil Nadu and their management. Karnataka Journal of Agricultural Sciences. 23 (1), 6-9.

Swamy L, Pramod Katti, Patil B V, Prabhuraj A, Chandranath H T, 2010. Survey for the occurrence of thrips fauna on sunflower and necrosis virus disease. Karnataka Journal of Agricultural Sciences. 23 (3), 519-520.

Tajebe L S, Boni S B, Guastella D, Cavalieri V, Lund O S, Rugumamu C P, Rapisarda C, Legg J P, 2015. Abundance, diversity and geographic distribution of cassava mosaic disease pandemic-associated Bemisia tabaci in Tanzania. Journal of Applied Entomology. 139 (8), 627-637. DOI:10.1111/jen.12197

Tosi L, Beccari G, 2007. A new race, 704, of Plasmopara helianthi pathogen of sunflower downy mildew in Italy. Plant Disease. 91 (4), 463. DOI:10.1094/PDIS-91-4-0463B

Tosi L, Zazzerini A, 2004. First report of downy mildew caused by Plasmopara helianthi races 700 and 703 of sunflowers (Helianthus annuus) in Italy. Plant Disease. 88 (11), 1284. DOI:10.1094/PDIS.2004.88.11.1284B

Týr Š, Vereš T, 2012. Distribution of invasive weed species in agroecosystems. In: Proceedings of the International Symposium on Current Trends in Plant Protection, Belgrade, Serbia, 25-28th September, 2012. [ed. by Marisavljević D]. Belgrade, Serbia: Institute for Plant Protection and Environment. 99.

Tzortzakakis E A, Anastasiadis A I, Simoglou K B, Cantalapiedra-Navarrete C, Palomares-Rius J E, Castillo P, 2014. First report of the rook-knot nematode, Meloidogyne hispanica, infecting sunflower in Greece. Plant Disease. 98 (5), 703. DOI:10.1094/PDIS-08-13-0833-PDN

Velásquez-Valle R, 2001. Geographic and host range of Meloidogyne spp. in north central Mexico. Plant Disease. 85 (4), 445. DOI:10.1094/PDIS.2001.85.4.445A

Velázquez-del Valle M G, Poudel B, Zhang S, 2017. First report of curvularia blight on sunflower caused by Curvularia aeria in Mexico. Plant Disease. 101 (11), 1955. DOI:10.1094/PDIS-05-17-0704-PDN

Velichi E, 2017. Sunflower white rust - Albugo tragopogonis, a new disease for the North-East Baragan area. Lucrări Științifice, Universitatea de Stiinte Agricole Și Medicină Veterinară "Ion Ionescu de la Brad" Iași, Seria Agronomie. 60 (2), 223-226. http://www.uaiasi.ro/revagrois/index.php?lang=en&pagina=pagini/revista_2017_2.html

Vrandecic K, Cosic J, Jurkovic D, Duvnjak T, Riccioni L, 2009. First report of Diaporthe phaseolorum on sunflower (Helianthus annuus) in Croatia. Plant Disease. 93 (10), 1074. DOI:10.1094/PDIS-93-10-1074C

Weems J D, Ebelhar S A, Chapara V, Pedersen D K, Zhang G R, Bradley C A, 2011. First report of charcoal rot caused by Macrophomina phaseolina on sunflower in Illinois. Plant Disease. 95 (10), 1318. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis DOI:10.1094/PDIS-02-11-0102

Witt A, Luke Q, 2017. Guide to the naturalized and invasive plants of Eastern Africa. [ed. by Witt A, Luke Q]. Wallingford, UK: CABI. vi + 601 pp. http://www.cabi.org/cabebooks/ebook/20173158959 DOI:10.1079/9781786392145.0000

Wu Y G, Fu G, Kang D X, Li W J, Li Y, Wang Y K, 2016. First report of Phytophthora drechsleri causing black stem rot and crown decay of sunflower in China. Plant Disease. 100 (3), 654-655. DOI:10.1094/PDIS-09-15-1089-PDN

Xia B, Hu J Y, Zhu X F, Liang Y, Ren X, Wu Y H, Chen D X, 2018. First report of sunflower broomrape wilt caused by Fusarium brachygibbosum in China. Plant Disease. 102 (11), 2372. DOI:10.1094/PDIS-12-17-1939-PDN

Xu D S, Zhang Y Y, Zhao J X, Zhao J, 2016. First report of broomrape wilt caused by Plectosphaerella cucumerina in Inner Mongolia, China. Plant Disease. 100 (12), 2538. DOI:10.1094/PDIS-03-16-0296-PDN

Zhang J, Jia R, Zhang Y, Li M, Zhou H, Zhao J, 2018. First report of stem rot of sunflower broomrape (Orobanche cumana) caused by Sclerotinia minor jagger in Inner Mongolia, China. Plant Disease. 102 (3), 683. DOI:10.1094/pdis-08-17-1173-pdn

Zhang S H, Guo Q Y, Yang H, Cao Z, Song J G, Xu B, 2018a. First report of white blister rust caused by Albugo lepidii on broad leaf pepperwort (Lepidium affine) in China. Plant Disease. 102 (7), 1463. DOI:10.1094/pdis-11-17-1698-pdn

Zhang Y Y, Li M, Liang Y, Zhou H Y, Zhao J, 2015. First report of sunflower wilt caused by Plectosphaerella cucumerina in China. Plant Disease. 99 (11), 1646. DOI:10.1094/PDIS-02-15-0135-PDN

Zhang Y Y, Yu Y, Wang K, Li M, Xu D S, Zhao J, 2016. First report of sunflower charcoal rot caused by Macrophomina phaseolina in Jilin and Inner Mongolia, China. Plant Disease. 100 (7), 1494. DOI:10.1094/PDIS-10-15-1152-PDN

Zhou H, Wang D, Zhao J, Dong B, Zhang X, Wen C, Zhang J, 2018. First report of rhizopus head rot of sunflower caused by Rhizopus arrhizus (syn. R. oryzae) in Xinjiang and Gansu Provinces of China. Plant Disease. 102 (6), 1173. DOI:10.1094/PDIS-10-17-1528-PDN

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