Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Hedychium coronarium
(white butterfly ginger lily)

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Datasheet

Hedychium coronarium (white butterfly ginger lily)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 19 November 2019
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Pest
  • Host Plant
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Hedychium coronarium
  • Preferred Common Name
  • white butterfly ginger lily
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Plantae
  •     Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •       Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •         Class: Monocotyledonae
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • H. coronarium is invasive in shallow water systems, along streams and in waterlogged areas in the tropics and subtropics. Once established, it is difficult to control because it reproduces vegetatively. Its attractive flowers make it a de...

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Growth habit.
TitleHabit
CaptionGrowth habit.
Copyright©Sheldon Navie
Growth habit.
HabitGrowth habit.©Sheldon Navie
Leaves and stems.
TitleLeaves
CaptionLeaves and stems.
Copyright©Sheldon Navie
Leaves and stems.
LeavesLeaves and stems.©Sheldon Navie
Flowering spike of H. coronarium.
TitleFlowers
CaptionFlowering spike of H. coronarium.
CopyrightDjamila Djeddour/CABI Bioscience
Flowering spike of H. coronarium.
FlowersFlowering spike of H. coronarium.Djamila Djeddour/CABI Bioscience
Flowers.
TitleFlowers
CaptionFlowers.
Copyright©Sheldon Navie
Flowers.
FlowersFlowers.©Sheldon Navie
H. coronarium: individual flower.
TitleFlower
CaptionH. coronarium: individual flower.
Copyright©Kurt G. Kissmann
H. coronarium: individual flower.
FlowerH. coronarium: individual flower.©Kurt G. Kissmann
H. coronarium: close-up of leaves and flowers.
TitleLeaves and flowers
CaptionH. coronarium: close-up of leaves and flowers.
CopyrightKurt G. Kissmann
H. coronarium: close-up of leaves and flowers.
Leaves and flowersH. coronarium: close-up of leaves and flowers.Kurt G. Kissmann
H. coronarium: leaves and flowers.
TitleLeaves
CaptionH. coronarium: leaves and flowers.
CopyrightKurt G. Kissmann
H. coronarium: leaves and flowers.
LeavesH. coronarium: leaves and flowers.Kurt G. Kissmann
H. coronarium: open capsule showing seeds covered by aril.
TitleCapsule
CaptionH. coronarium: open capsule showing seeds covered by aril.
CopyrightKurt G. Kissmann
H. coronarium: open capsule showing seeds covered by aril.
CapsuleH. coronarium: open capsule showing seeds covered by aril.Kurt G. Kissmann
Seeds from various angles.
TitleSeeds
CaptionSeeds from various angles.
CopyrightKurt G. Kissmann
Seeds from various angles.
SeedsSeeds from various angles.Kurt G. Kissmann
H. coronarium invasion in Brazil.
TitleInvasive habit
CaptionH. coronarium invasion in Brazil.
Copyright©CABI/Harry C. Evans
H. coronarium invasion in Brazil.
Invasive habitH. coronarium invasion in Brazil.©CABI/Harry C. Evans

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Hedychium coronarium J. König (1783)

Preferred Common Name

  • white butterfly ginger lily

Other Scientific Names

  • Amomum filiformed Hunter ex Ridl.
  • Gandasulium coronarium (J. König) Kuntze
  • Gandasulium lingulatum (Hassk.) Kuntze
  • Hedychium chrysoleucum Hook.
  • Hedychium coronarium var. baimao Z.Y. Zhu
  • Hedychium coronarium var. chrysoleucum (Hook.) Baker
  • Hedychium coronarium var. maximum (Roscoe) Eichler
  • Hedychium gandasulium Buch. Ham. ex Wall.
  • Hedychium lingulatum Hassk.
  • Hedychium maximum Roscoe
  • Hedychium prophetae Buch. Ham. ex Wall.
  • Hedychium sulphureum Wall.

International Common Names

  • English: butterfly ginger; butterfly lily; cinnamon jasmine; garland flower; ginger lily; white butterfly ginger; white garland lily; white garland-lily; white ginger; wild ginger
  • Spanish: blanca mariposa; caña de ambar; dulce nieve (Mexico); flor de San Juan; heliotropo; jazmin cimarrón (Mexico); jazmin del rio (Mexico); lirio blanco; lirio de arroyo; mariposa; narciso; nardo; palomita; perlas de Orient (Guatemala)
  • French: canne d’ eau; canne rivière; gingembre douleur; longouze, hédychie couronnée; narcisse
  • Portuguese: açucena; borboleta; jasmim; lírio-do-brejo

Local Common Names

  • American Samoa: teuila paepae
  • Brazil: borboleta-amarela; cardomomo-do-mato; jasmine-borboleta; lágrima-de-moça; lírio do brejo; lírio-branco; olímpia
  • Cook Islands: kopi teatea, re‘a teatea
  • Cuba: flor de mariposa; mariposa blanca
  • El Salvador: mariposa
  • Fiji: ndrove, cevuga vula, dalasika/ thevunga
  • Germany: Kranzblume
  • Haiti: narcisse
  • India: dolan champa; sontaka; suruli sugandhi; takhellei angouba
  • Madagascar: longoza
  • Mexico: palomitas
  • Micronesia, Federated states of: sinter pwetepwet, sinser; tolon
  • Nepal: dudh kewara
  • Netherlands: vlindergember
  • Philippines: kamia
  • Puerto Rico: dulce nieve; jazmín cimarrón; jazmín de río; mariposa blance
  • Saint Lucia: lavann; lavender
  • Samoa: teuila paepae tunun
  • Seychelles: mon ame
  • Tonga: ndrove, cevuga vula, dalasika/ thevunga
  • USA/Hawaii: ‘awapuhi ke‘oke‘o

EPPO code

  • HEYCO (Hedychium coronarium)
  • HEYFL (Hedychium flavum)
  • HEYFV (Hedychium flavescens)

Summary of Invasiveness

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H. coronarium is invasive in shallow water systems, along streams and in waterlogged areas in the tropics and subtropics. Once established, it is difficult to control because it reproduces vegetatively. Its attractive flowers make it a desirable ornamental plant.

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Plantae
  •         Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •             Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •                 Class: Monocotyledonae
  •                     Order: Zingiberales
  •                         Family: Zingiberaceae
  •                             Genus: Hedychium
  •                                 Species: Hedychium coronarium

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

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Hedychium coronarium belongs to the Zingiberaceae (ginger) family of the class Monocotyledonae. It is the type species for the genus and was described by Johann Koenig in 1783.

Description

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Herbaceous upright plants, growing 1-2.5 m high. Fleshy perennial rhizomes are 2.5-5 cm in diameter and strongly aromatic. Several culms can arise from the rhizome to form clones. Culms are circular in cross section, vigorous, unbranched, reddish at the base and otherwise totally covered by leaf sheets, one for each internode. Leaves 2-ranked, alternately disposed. Ligules membranaceous, 2-3 cm long. Blades 30-60 cm long and 10-15 cm wide, oblong to lanceolate narrowed to a slender point. Margins entire, midrib prominent on dorsal face. Smooth and glabrous on both surfaces, intense green, glossy. Inflorescence terminal and singular, presenting a series of bracts partially overlapping. Bracts ovate with acute apex, 4-5 cm long. Flowers emerge from between the bracts, 2-3 flowers per bract. Flowers zygomorphic, hermaphrodite. Calyx glabrous, less than half the length of the corolla tube, tubular ca. 4 cm long, hidden between the bracts, opening obliquely. Corolla tubular at the lower part, forming three lobes at the apex. Within are four petaloid staminodes, two of which are united to form a bilobed labellum; the other two are elliptic-lanceolate and remain separate. The petaloid staminodes are 4-5 cm long, white, sometimes with yellow stains. A long white filament arises through the corolla and bears a single anther at its apex. The fruit is an oblong capsule, 2.5-3.5 cm long, that dehisces loculicidally by three valves, bright orange inside. Each of the three loculi contains numerous seeds attached to an axil placenta. Seeds are ovoid, 6 mm long and 4 mm wide, red in colour. Seeds are covered by a bright red aril. The flowers are intensely fragranced, reminiscent of jasmines.

Plant Type

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Aquatic
Herbaceous
Perennial
Seed propagated
Succulent
Vegetatively propagated

Distribution

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H. coronarium is a native of the Himalayas and southern China (van Valkenburg and Bunyapraphatsara, 2001). It was cultivated in English glasshouses in the late 18th  century and in 1803 was noted as being “very rare” in Curtis’s Botanical Magazine (Csurhes and Hannan-Jones, 2008). It has been taken to many parts of the world and is a popular landscape and ornamental plant throughout Florida, the Gulf Coast, California, the Caribbean and tropical and subtropical areas worldwide. It is also grown in mild winter temperate regions of North America and Europe where it dies back in winter but re-emerges in spring.

Naturalised and invasive in Brazil, the species occurs in swamps in large areas of the country, along roadsides in the municipality of Teresópolis, Rio de Janeiro (Souza and Correia, 2007). The plant is thought to have been brought there by African slaves who used the leaves of this plant as mattresses. It is also found all along the coastline with high concentrations in the cocoa plantation areas of the states of Bahia and Espirito Santo (Kissmann, 1997).

This species was first recorded in Hawaii in 1888, introduced by Chinese immigrants as an ornamental and is now widely distributed and a serious invader in the wet habitats of the archipelago. There are major infestations above Nahiku and Wailau Valley (Maui), as well as Puna and Kohala Mountains (Big Island). It is not clear why white ginger infestations are confined to Maui and Big Island, as suitable habitat exists on other islands (Smith, 1998). It occurs in the mesic to wet areas of Kauai, Maui, Lanai and Oahu and Molakai (Motooka et al., 2003).

In Cuba, the plant has gone wild in the cool rainy mountains in Sierra del Rosario, Pinar del Rio Province in the west, Escambray Mountains in the centre of the island and in Sierra Maestra in the very west of it.

In Nairobi, Kenya, H. coronarium is invasive along streams.

In South Africa, it is a declared weed of forests, plantations, riverbanks and moist, shaded sites (Category 1 plants): “These are prohibited plants that will no longer be tolerated, neither in rural nor urban areas, except with the written permission of the executive officer or in an approved biocontrol reserve. These plants may no longer be planted or propagated, and all trade in their seeds, cuttings or other propagative material is prohibited. They may not be transported or be allowed to disperse”. First recorded from Kruger National Park in 1999 (Foxcroft et al., 2008).

It is ironic that whilst awareness of invasive Hedychium spp. including H. coronarium, is on the rise worldwide, the humid submontane forest ecosystems from which they originate are fast becoming the most threatened ecosystems in the world and a number of wild gingers are listed as endangered by the Botanical Survey of India (Soares and Barreto, 2008).

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 10 Jan 2020
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

GuineaPresentIntroduced
KenyaPresentIntroducedInvasive
MadagascarPresentIntroduced
MauritiusPresentIntroducedInvasive
-RodriguesPresentIntroducedInvasive
RéunionPresentIntroducedInvasive
Saint HelenaPresentIntroduced
SeychellesPresentIntroduced
South AfricaPresentIntroducedInvasive
TanzaniaPresentIntroducedNaturalizedNaturalized

Asia

BangladeshPresent
ChinaPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-GuangdongPresentNative
-GuangxiPresentNative
-HunanPresentNative
-SichuanPresentNative
-YunnanPresentNative
IndiaPresentNative
-AssamPresentNative
-BiharPresent
-ChhattisgarhPresent
-KarnatakaPresentNative
-Madhya PradeshPresent
-SikkimPresentNative
-UttarakhandPresent
IndonesiaPresentIntroduced
JapanPresentIntroducedInvasive
-Bonin IslandsPresentIntroducedInvasive
MyanmarPresentNative
NepalPresentNative
PakistanPresent
PhilippinesPresentIntroducedInvasive
Sri LankaPresent
TaiwanPresentNative
ThailandPresentNative
VietnamPresent

Europe

PortugalPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-AzoresPresentIntroduced

North America

BelizePresentIntroduced
BermudaPresentIntroduced
Costa RicaPresentIntroducedInvasive
CubaPresentIntroducedInvasiveSierra del Rosario, Pinar del Rio Province, central Escambray Mountains and west of Sierra Maestra
DominicaPresent, WidespreadIntroducedPotentially invasive
Dominican RepublicPresentIntroduced
El SalvadorPresentIntroduced
GuadeloupePresent, WidespreadIntroducedPotentially invasive
GuatemalaPresent
HaitiPresentIntroduced
HondurasPresentIntroduced
JamaicaPresentIntroducedInvasiveOriginal citation: Jamaica (2004)
MartiniquePresent, WidespreadIntroducedPotentially invasive
MexicoPresentIntroducedInvasive
NicaraguaPresentIntroduced
PanamaPresentIntroducedInvasive
Puerto RicoPresentIntroducedInvasive
Saint LuciaPresent, WidespreadIntroducedInvasivePreference for very wet semi-open spots, especially roadsides and forest rivers
Saint Vincent and the GrenadinesPresent, WidespreadIntroducedPotentially invasive
United StatesPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-FloridaPresentIntroduced
-GeorgiaPresentIntroduced
-HawaiiPresentIntroducedInvasivePresent in Maui, Moloka'i, O'ahu, Lana'i. Introduced and cultivated.
-LouisianaPresentIntroduced

Oceania

American SamoaPresentIntroducedInvasive
AustraliaPresentIntroduced
Cook IslandsPresentIntroducedInvasiveIntroduced and cultivated.
Federated States of MicronesiaPresentIntroducedInvasiveIntroduced and cultivated.
FijiPresentIntroducedInvasive
French PolynesiaPresentIntroducedInvasiveIntroduced and cultivated.
GuamPresentIntroducedIntroduced and cultivated.
Marshall IslandsPresentIntroducedIntroduced and cultivated.
NauruPresentIntroducedIntroduced and cultivated.
New CaledoniaPresentIntroducedInvasive
PalauPresentIntroduced
Papua New GuineaPresentIntroduced
SamoaPresentIntroducedInvasive
TongaPresentIntroducedInvasiveIntroduced and cultivated.
Wallis and FutunaPresentIntroduced

South America

ArgentinaPresent, LocalizedIntroducedInvasive
BrazilPresent, LocalizedIntroducedInvasive
-AlagoasPresentIntroducedInvasive
-BahiaPresent, WidespreadIntroducedInvasive
-CearaPresentIntroduced
-Espirito SantoPresent, WidespreadIntroducedInvasive
-MaranhaoPresentIntroducedInvasive
-Mato Grosso do SulPresentIntroducedInvasive
-Minas GeraisPresentIntroducedInvasive
-ParaPresentIntroducedInvasive
-ParaibaPresent, LocalizedIntroducedInvasive
-ParanaPresent, LocalizedIntroducedInvasive
-PernambucoPresent, LocalizedIntroducedInvasive
-PiauiPresentIntroducedInvasive
-Rio de JaneiroPresent, WidespreadIntroducedInvasive
-Rio Grande do NortePresentIntroducedInvasive
-Rio Grande do SulPresentIntroducedInvasive
-Santa CatarinaPresent, LocalizedIntroducedInvasive
-Sao PauloPresent, LocalizedIntroducedInvasive
-SergipePresent, LocalizedIntroducedInvasive
EcuadorPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-Galapagos IslandsPresentIntroducedInvasiveIntroduced and cultivated.
French GuianaPresentIntroduced
GuyanaPresentIntroduced
ParaguayPresent, LocalizedIntroducedNaturalizedNaturalised.
PeruPresent
SurinamePresentIntroduced
VenezuelaPresentIntroduced

History of Introduction and Spread

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H. coronarium has been widely distributed by man because of its attractive flowers, fragrance and the possibility of other economic uses.

Habitat

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H. coronarium grows in humus-rich, shaded or semi-shaded areas subjected to waterlogging. It is usually found along water margins and in shallow water but is never totally submerged (Joly and Brandle, 1995). It can also occur on the edges of shaded secondary forests. It is found at altitudes from sea level to 2500 m (van Valkenburg and Bunyapraphatsara, 2001).

Habitat List

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CategorySub-CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Terrestrial ManagedCultivated / agricultural land Secondary/tolerated habitat Productive/non-natural
Terrestrial ManagedManaged forests, plantations and orchards Secondary/tolerated habitat Productive/non-natural
Terrestrial ManagedRail / roadsides Secondary/tolerated habitat Productive/non-natural
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalNatural forests Principal habitat Natural
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalRiverbanks Principal habitat Natural
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalWetlands Principal habitat Natural
FreshwaterIrrigation channels Secondary/tolerated habitat Productive/non-natural
FreshwaterRivers / streams Principal habitat Natural

Hosts/Species Affected

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Under ideal growing conditions, H. coronarium can choke most other vegetation by forming dense colonies. In Brazil it is a weed in banana and cocoa plantations (Kissmann, 1997).

Host Plants and Other Plants Affected

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Plant nameFamilyContextReferences
Musa x paradisiaca (plantain)MusaceaeMain
    Theobroma cacao (cocoa)MalvaceaeMain

      Growth Stages

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      Flowering stage, Fruiting stage, Seedling stage, Vegetative growing stage

      Biology and Ecology

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      Physiology and Phenology

      H. coronarium is a perennial plant which forms clones from rhizome buds. Flower development has been studied by Kirchoff (1997). The success of colonization and rapid proliferation of the species is partly due to its foliar architecture. H. coronarium can thrive in waterlogged soil and high light habitats. Only the youngest leaves are vertical and the number of stomata is higher on the abaxial face, with hypoderm, asymmetrical mesophyll and folding of the margins all of which appear to act as preventative measures against photoinhibition (Boeger et al., 2007).

      Reproductive Biology

      Reproduction is mainly vegetative, from parts of rhizomes, but also sexual. Spread by seeds is generally localized because the seeds are not produced in large numbers and are rarely displayed conspicuously (HEAR, 2004). However, the red aril that covers the seeds attracts a number of insects that may carry the seeds a short distance. H. coronarium does naturalize by seed in Hawaii and a recent survey showed it at altitudes as high as 2500 feet on east Maui. A spontaneous naturalizing hybrid between H. coronarium and H. gardnerianum has been found in Medeiros, Haleakala National Park Maui, Hawaii, which favours the simultaneous seed production of H. gardnerianum (P Bily, The Nature Conservancy, USA, personal communication, 2008). The flowers are zygomorphic, hermaphroditic and nectariferous and exhibit nocturnal anthesis, emitting a strong odour that can spread long distances. The staminodes attract floral visitors and the androecium is composed of a sole fertile stamen with pollen grains. The stigma is green, wet, concave and surrounded by uniform hairs. The species is self-incompatible, presenting low rates of fruit set and the flowering follows an annual pattern, showing asynchrony in the population level (Souza and Correia, 2007).

      Environmental Requirements

      H. coronarium can be found in tropical and subtropical regions. It favours waterlogged habitats with high temperatures all year round. The plants are susceptible to severe frost. As a cultivated plant it can live in upland gardens and even indoors. Partial sun to light shade is ideal but plants will tolerate considerable shade and even full sun if adequate moisture is available. Once established, it will tolerate seasonal droughts as well as more or less boggy conditions.

      Climate

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      ClimateStatusDescriptionRemark
      A - Tropical/Megathermal climate Tolerated Average temp. of coolest month > 18°C, > 1500mm precipitation annually
      Af - Tropical rainforest climate Preferred > 60mm precipitation per month
      Am - Tropical monsoon climate Preferred Tropical monsoon climate ( < 60mm precipitation driest month but > (100 - [total annual precipitation(mm}/25]))
      C - Temperate/Mesothermal climate Tolerated Average temp. of coldest month > 0°C and < 18°C, mean warmest month > 10°C
      Cf - Warm temperate climate, wet all year Preferred Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, wet all year
      Cs - Warm temperate climate with dry summer Tolerated Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry summers
      Cw - Warm temperate climate with dry winter Tolerated Warm temperate climate with dry winter (Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry winters)

      Soil Tolerances

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      Soil drainage

      • seasonally waterlogged

      Soil reaction

      • neutral

      Soil texture

      • medium

      Notes on Natural Enemies

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      In Hawaii, the soilborne plant pathogenic bacterium Ralstonia solanacearum was isolated from a number of ginger species including H. coronarium. It causes a significant bacterial wilt disease and is spread naturally via soil water and root-root transmission, as well as artificially through wounds and agricultural practices.

      A number of fungi have been recorded from Hedychium spp. and more than 20 fungi have been recorded from H. coronarium worldwide (Bussaban et al., 2002). A search of herbarium and fungal databases as well as recent National surveys in New Zealand and Brazil list the following:

      Leafspots (Colletotrichum sp., Leptosphaeria sp., Mycosphaerella hedychii, Pestalotiopsis sp., Phoma sp.) from American Samoa; Cercospora apii, Mycosphaerella sp. from Venezuela; Alternaria sp., Cladosporium sp., Leptosphaeria sp. from the Caribbean and Cuba; Pestalotia microspora from Cuba; Cercospora hedychii from Hong Kong and Myanmar; Chalara aurea, Curvularia lunata var. aeria, Gonatophragmium mori, Pseudocercospora hedychii, Veronaea hedychii from Brazil; Macrophoma hedychii, Pestalotia funerea var. hedychii from Portugal; Pestalotia guepinii from the USA; Marasmius pseudobambusinus var. hawaiiensis, Rhizoctonia sp., Mycosphaerella hedychii, Hobsonia gigaspora, Phyllosticta sp. from Hawaii; as well as Bartalinia robillardoides, Fusarium oxyspermum, Drechlsera and a stem ascomycete from India.

      Soares and Barreto (2008) also give a comprehensive review of the fungal pathogens found on H. coronarium in Brazil and evaluate their potential as biocontrol agents.

      H. coronarium is listed as the host plant of a number of lepidopterans (Natural History Museum database, UK) including: several Caligo spp. (Nymphalidae) and Calpodes ethlius (Noctuid) from Brazil, Spodoptera litura (Noctuid) and Udaspes folus (Hesperiidae) from Hong Kong, and Jamides alecto from Japan and Taiwan.

      H. coronarium is reported to be an alternative host to banana bunchy-top virus (BBTV) in Taiwan (Csurhes and Hannan-Jones, 2008). In Queensland, the BBTV vector banana black aphid, Pentalonia nigronervosa, is reported from H. coronarium (Geering and Thomas, 1997). However, attempts by DPI&F to inoculate H. coronarium with an Australian isolate of BBTV (BBTV-482) failed (Geering and Thomas, 1997), as did an attempt in India with an Indian isolate (Csurhes and Hannan-Jones, 2008). Geering and Thomas (1997) suggested that the difference in susceptibility of H. coronarium to BBTV could be explained by strains with different biological properties. Australian and Indian strains belong to South Pacific sequence group while those in Taiwan to the Asian Group (Karan et al., 1994). An alternative hypothesis put forward by Geering and Thomas was that there was variation in the presence of resistance genes to the virus in the populations of H. coronarium. Whatever the susceptibility of H. coronarium to BBTV in Queensland, it can still play a part in the epidemiology of BBTV by acting as a reservoir of the virus vector P. nigronervosa.

      Means of Movement and Dispersal

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      Natural Dispersal (non-biotic)

      Parts of rhizomes and capsules can float to new locations in water systems.

      Vector Transmission (biotic)

      Insects carry seeds over short distances, attracted by the brightly coloured aril.

      Accidental Introduction

      When cutting and removing plants, pieces of rhizome can become detached, drop to the ground and start a new infestation.

      Intentional introduction

      Man is responsible for the long-distance dispersal of H. coronarium by planting rhizomes for the ornamental value of the flowers. It has been noted to escape from gardens (van Valkenburg and Bunyapraphatsara, 2001).

      Pathway Vectors

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      VectorNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
      Floating vegetation and debris Yes
      Germplasm Yes
      Machinery and equipment Yes
      Mail Yes
      Plants or parts of plants Yes
      Water Yes

      Plant Trade

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      Plant parts liable to carry the pest in trade/transportPest stagesBorne internallyBorne externallyVisibility of pest or symptoms
      Bulbs/Tubers/Corms/Rhizomes

      Impact Summary

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      CategoryImpact
      Animal/plant collections None
      Animal/plant products None
      Biodiversity (generally) Negative
      Crop production Negative
      Economic/livelihood Negative
      Environment (generally) Negative
      Fisheries / aquaculture None
      Forestry production None
      Human health None
      Livestock production None
      Native fauna None
      Native flora Negative
      Rare/protected species None
      Tourism None
      Trade/international relations None
      Transport/travel Negative

      Impact

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      Activities related to the use of water (e.g. hydroelectric plants) in infested areas may be affected and there will be costs associated with its control in banana and cocoa plantations.

      Environmental Impact

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      Impact on Habitats

      Under favourable growing conditions, H. coronarium can disturb water flow in channels. It can invade canals, streams and other shallow water areas.

      Impact on Biodiversity

      H. coronarium can dominate other species in waterlogged areas. Under favourable conditions, the plant can form extensive thickets which may suppress the regeneration of native wetland plants. In Minas Gerais, Brazil, it is a serious invader in the Estação Ecológica do Tripuí, a nature reserve created to protect the habitat of Peripatus acacioi (Onychophora), a rare and evolutionarily interesting invertebrate, which has now been dislodged to the lower plain areas by the occurrence of H. coronarium (Soares and Barreto, 2008).

      H. coronarium is a threat to Clermontia samuelii on Maui in Hawaii, whereas on Lanai Labordia tinifolia var. lanaiensis is threatened by H. coronarium (US Fish and Wildlife Service, 1999). In Saint Lucia it may be replacing the rare indigenous orchid Habenaria monorrhiza (Krauss, 2012).

      Threatened Species

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      Threatened SpeciesConservation StatusWhere ThreatenedMechanismReferencesNotes
      Clermontia samueliiCR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered)HawaiiCompetition - monopolizing resources
      Habenaria monorrhizaNational list(s)Saint LuciaCompetition - monopolizing resourcesKrauss, 2012
      Labordia tinifolia var. lanaiensisNational list(s)HawaiiCompetition - monopolizing resources
      Peripatus acacioiNational list(s)Minas GeraisCompetition - monopolizing resources

      Risk and Impact Factors

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      Invasiveness
      • Proved invasive outside its native range
      • Has a broad native range
      • Highly adaptable to different environments
      • Tolerates, or benefits from, cultivation, browsing pressure, mutilation, fire etc
      • Tolerant of shade
      • Long lived
      • Fast growing
      • Has high reproductive potential
      • Reproduces asexually
      • Has high genetic variability
      Impact outcomes
      • Altered trophic level
      • Damaged ecosystem services
      • Ecosystem change/ habitat alteration
      • Monoculture formation
      • Negatively impacts agriculture
      • Negatively impacts cultural/traditional practices
      • Negatively impacts forestry
      • Reduced native biodiversity
      • Threat to/ loss of endangered species
      • Threat to/ loss of native species
      Impact mechanisms
      • Competition - monopolizing resources
      • Competition - shading
      • Competition - smothering
      • Competition (unspecified)
      • Hybridization
      Likelihood of entry/control
      • Highly likely to be transported internationally deliberately
      • Highly likely to be transported internationally illegally
      • Difficult/costly to control

      Uses

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      H. coronarium is mainly used for ornamental purposes, in gardens and as cut flowers. The fragrant flowers are used extensively in garlands (or leis) in India, Japan and Hawaii. It is the national flower of Cuba where it is known as the white butterfly because of the shape of its flower. It is used in bouquets for brides, on altars and as offerings for the dead (Finlay, 2004). Essential oils from the flowers are used to make high grade perfumes in Hawaii, China and Brazil (van Valkenburg and Bunyapraphatsara, 2001). The Gulbakawali Ark (extract) sold in the Chhattisgarh region of India, is an extract from the flower. The flowers are collected and Ark (extract) is collected through an indigenous method of steam distillation. In Spanish colonial times, women used to adorn themselves with the flowers because of their incredible fragrance and the intricate structure of the inflorescence was used by women to hide and carry secret messages important to the independence cause. It is said that a guajiro's (farmer's) house is not complete without a white ginger in its garden.

      The rhizomes are edible and have been used for starch extraction. They have also been used a source of cellulose for paper manufacture and fibre for textiles (Macedo, 1997). The flowers are also eaten, lightly steamed and served with a chilli sauce in Thailand (PIER, 2007).

      Native Hawaiians refer to white ginger as ‘awapuhi’, using the juice of mature seed as a hair and skin treatment. The species is said to have been introduced by settlers in Hawaii.

      Several medicinal uses of the rhizome and stem bases are also reported in the literature and include diuretic, hypertensive, antidiabetic, antisyphilitic and antifungal properties (Lechat Vahirua et al., 1993; Bhandary et al., 1995; Macedo, 1997). The rhizomes are also the source of essential oil that is used in perfumery and pharmaceutical preparations. The rhizome of gulbakawali is used in Chinese natural medicine and has been prescribed and used in the treatment of headache, lancinating pain, inflammatory and intense pain due to rheumatism, etc. It also has uses as a tonic, excitant and anti-rheumatic in the Ayurvedic system.

      Uses List

      Top of page

      Environmental

      • Amenity
      • Landscape improvement

      Fuels

      • Fuelwood

      General

      • Botanical garden/zoo
      • Capital accumulation
      • Ritual uses
      • Sociocultural value
      • Souvenirs

      Human food and beverage

      • Flour/starch

      Materials

      • Oils

      Medicinal, pharmaceutical

      • Source of medicine/pharmaceutical
      • Traditional/folklore

      Ornamental

      • Cut flower
      • Propagation material
      • Seed trade

      Similarities to Other Species/Conditions

      Top of page
      The epidermal morphology of the leaves of 12 species of Zingiberaceae has been studied by Gogoi et al. (2002) and a key produced.

      Prevention and Control

      Top of page

      Due to the variable regulations around (de)registration of pesticides, your national list of registered pesticides or relevant authority should be consulted to determine which products are legally allowed for use in your country when considering chemical control. Pesticides should always be used in a lawful manner, consistent with the product's label.

      Mechanical Control

      Because this plant can regenerate from rhizomes, mechanical removal is often unsuccessful. Its adaptation to fire is unknown but unless the fire is intense enough to harm the rhizomes it will recover.

      Chemical Control

      Research in Panama showed that picloram combined with 2,4-D and sprayed onto plants 22 and 60 days after sprouting resulted in over 90% control of H. coronarium compared with 36% control using the cheaper farmers' practice of diesel plus 2,4-D (Hertentains et al., 1998). Single applications are not suitable because of regrowth from the rhizomes. In Hawaii, H. coronarium was found to be sensitive to foliar applications of picloram, very sensitive to metsulfuron and moderately susceptible to triclopyr (Motooka et al., 2003).

      Biological control

      A research project has been ongoing since 2008 to investigate the potential for classical biological control of invasive Hedychium species for a consortium of sponsors from New Zealand and Hawaii. Surveys to the native range in 2008-2010 revealed a large suite of natural enemies associated with H. coronarium, but the focus of the research will be on H. gardnerianum, which is the most pernicious of the invasive Hedychium complex. (D Djeddour, CABI E- UK, personal communication, 2011).

      References

      Top of page

      Acevedo-Rodríguez P, Strong MT, 2005. Monocots and Gymnosperms of Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands. Contributions from the United States National Herbarium, volume 52:415 pp

      Acevedo-Rodríguez P, Strong MT, 2012. Catalogue of the Seed Plants of the West Indies. Smithsonian Contributions to Botany, 98:1192 pp. Washington DC, USA: Smithsonian Institution. http://botany.si.edu/Antilles/WestIndies/catalog.htm

      Anderson RC, Gardner DE, 1999. An evaluation of the wilt-causing bacterium Ralstonia solanacearum as a potential biological control agent for the alien kahili ginger (Hedychium gardnerianum) in Hawaiian forests. Biological Control, 15(2):89-96; 27 ref

      Bhandary MJ, Chandrashekar, KR, Kaveriappa KM, 1995. Medical ethnobotany of the Siddis of Uttara Kannada district, Karnataka, India. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 47(3):149-158

      Boeger MRT, Pil MWBde O, Belém Filho N, 2007. Comparative leaf architecture of Hedychium coronarium J. Koenig (Zingiberaceae) and Typha domingensis Pers (Typhaceae). (Arquitetura foliar comparativa de Hedychium coronanum J. Koenig (Zingiberaceae) e de Typha domingensis Pers (Typhaceae).) Iheringia, Série Botânica, 62(1/2):113-120

      Britton NL, 1918. Flora of Bermuda. New York, USA: Charles Scribner's Sons. 585 pp

      Brooks F, 2000. List of Plant Diseases in American Samoa 2000. ASCC Landgrant Program Technical Report, No. 31. http://www2.ctahr.hawaii.edu/adap2/ascc_landgrant/Dr_Brooks/TechRepNo.31.pdf

      Broome R, Sabir K, Carrington S, 2007. Plants of the Eastern Caribbean. Online database. Barbados: University of the West Indies. http://ecflora.cavehill.uwi.edu/index.html

      Bussaban B, Lumyong P, McKenzie EHC, Hyde KD, Lumyong S, 2002. Index of fungi described from the Zingiberaceae. Mycotaxon, 83:165-182

      Csurhes S, Hannan-Jones M, 2008. Pest plant risk assessment. Kahili ginger Hedychium gardnerianum, white ginger Hedychium coronarium, yellow ginger Hedychium flavescens. Brisbane, Australia: Department of Primary Industries and Fisheries, The State of Queensland, 18pp. http://www.au/documents/Biosecurity_EnvironmentalPests/IPA-Kahili-Ginger-Risk-Assessment

      Finlay C, 2004. The white butterfly: Cuba's national flower. Las Tunas, Cuba. http://www.periodico26.cu/english/symbols/symbols.htm

      Foxcroft CL, Richardson DM, Wilson JRU, 2008. Ornamental plants as Invasive Aliens: Problems and Solutions in Kruger National Park, South Africa. Environmental Management, 41:32-51

      Foxcroft LC, Richardson DM, 2003. Managing alien plant invasions in the Kruger National Park, South Africa. In: Child LE, Brock JH, Brundu G, Prach K, Pysek P, Wade PM, Williamson M, eds. Plant Invasions: Ecological Threats and Management Solutions. Leiden, Netherlands: Backhuys Publishers, 385-403

      Geering ADW, Thomas JE, 1997. Search for alternative hosts of banana bunchy top virus in Australia. Australasian Plant Pathology, 26(4):250-254; 17 ref

      Gogoi R, Bokolial D, Das DS, 2002. Leaf epidermal morphology of some species of Zingiberaceae. Plant Archives, 2(2):257-262

      Govaerts R, 2013. World Checklist of Zingiberaceae. Richmond, London: Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/

      Graveson RS, 2012. Survey of invasive alien plant species on Gros Piton, Saint Lucia. Project No. GFL / 2328- 2713-4A86, GF-1030-09-03. Project No. GFL / 2328- 2713-4A86, GF-1030-09-03, GFL / 2328- 2713-4A86, GF-1030-09-03. Catsries, Saint Lucia: Department of Forestry

      Guimaraes EF, Mautone L, Brandao M, 1988. Weeds as textile plants. Informe Agropecuario, 13(150):43-48

      Gurib Fakim A, Maudarbaccus N, Leach D, Doimo L, Wohlmuth H, 2002. Essential oil composition of Zingiberaceae species from Mauritius. Journal of Essential Oil Research, 14(4):271-273

      HEAR, 2004. Alien species in Hawaii. Hawaii Ecosystems at Risk, University of Hawaii, Honolulu, USA. http://www.hear.org/AlienSpeciesInHawaii/index.html

      Hertentains LA, Lezcano F, Santiago Ríos A, 1998. Effect of herbicide dose on the chemical control of the heliotrope (Hedichium coronarium) in Cordillera, Chiriqui, Panama. 1993. Ciencia Agropecuaria - Instituto de Investigación Agropecuaria de Panama, No. 9:117-126; 8 ref

      Jamaica-CHM, 2004. Alien invasive plant species of Jamaica. Jamaica Clearing-House Mechanism. http://www.jamaicachm.org.jm/aliens_i_pl.htm

      Joly CA, Brandle R, 1995. Fermentation and adenylate metabolism of Hedychium coronarium J. G. Koenig (Zingiberaceae) and Acorus calamus L. (Araceae) under hypoxia and anoxia. Functional Ecology, 9(3):505-510

      Karan M, Harding RM, Dale JL, 1994. Evidence for two groups of banana bunchy top virus isolates. Journal of General Virology, 75(12):3541-3546

      Kirchoff BK, 1997. Inflorescence and flower development in the Hedychieae (Zingiberaceae): Hedychium. Canadian Journal of Botany, 75(4):581-594

      Kissmann KG, 1997. Plantas Infestantes e Nocivas. Tomo 1, edition 2. Brazil: BASF, 256-258

      Kotani S, 1994. Disease cycle of blast of ginger and mioga caused by Pyricularia zingiberi Nishikado. Annals of the Phytopathological Society of Japan, 60(5):644-647

      Krauss U, 2012. 161 Invasive Alien Species present in Saint Lucia and their current status. Caribbean Alien Invasive Species Network (CIASNET), 12 pp. http://www.ciasnet.org/wp-content/uploads/2010/08/IAS-present-in-SLU-May-2012-revision.pdf

      Lechat Vahirua I, Francois P, Menut C, Lamaty G, Bessiere JM, 1993. Aromatic plants of French Polynesia. I. Constituents of the essential oils of rhizomes of three Zingiberaceae: Zingiber zerumbet Smith, Hedychium coronarium Koenig and Etlingera cevuga Smith. Journal of Essential Oil Research 5(1):55-59

      Lorenzi H, 1982. Plantas Daninhas do Brasil. Author's edition. Nova Odessa, San Paulo, Brazil: H. Lorenzi, 400 pp

      Macedo JF, 1997. The genus Hedychium Koening (Zingiberaceae) in Minas Gerais State. Daphne, Revista do Herbário PAMG da EPAMIG, 7(2):27-31; 40 ref

      Matsumoto F, Idetsuki H, Harada K, Nohara I, Toyoda T, 1993. Volatile components of Hedychium coronarium Koenig flowers. Journal of Essential Oil Research, 5(2):123-133

      Medina FR, Woodbury R, 1979. Terrestrial plants molluscicidal to lymnaeid hosts of fascioliasis hepatica in Puerto Rico. Journal of Agriculture of the University of Puerto Rico, 63(3):366-376

      Motooka P, Castro L, Nelson D, Nagai G, Ching L, 2003. Weeds of Hawaii's Pastures and Natural Areas; an identification and management guide. Manoa, Hawaii, USA: College of Tropical Agriculture and Human Resources, University of Hawaii

      Nakatani N, Kikuzaki H, Yamaji H, Yoshio K, Kitora C, Okada K, Padolina WG, 1994. Labdane diterpenes from rhizomes of Hedychium coronarium. Phytochemistry, 37(5):1383-1388

      Ochoa JG, Andrade GI, 2003. The introduced flora to Machu Picchu Sanctuary: an inventory and management priorities for biodiversity conservation. (Flora introducida en el Santuario Histórico de Machu Picchu: inventario y prioridades de manejo para la conservación de la biodiversidad.) Ecología en Bolivia, 38(2):141-160

      Om Prakash, Anjum Zafar, Pant AK, Hore SK, Mathela CS, 2005. Effect of aqueous extracts of Hedychium coronarium Koen. rhizome and Zingiber roseum Rosc. seed and rhizome on rat duodenal smooth muscle. Journal of Veterinary Pharmcology & Toxicology, 4(1/2):50-51. http://www.jvpt-online.com

      Omata A, Yomogida K, Teshima Y, Nakamura S, Hashimoto S, Arai T, Furukawa K, 1991. Volatile components of ginger flowers (Hedychium coronarium Koenig). Flavour and Fragrance Journal, 6(3):217-220

      Oviedo Prieto R, Herrera Oliver P, Caluff MG, et al. , 2012. National list of invasive and potentially invasive plants in the Republic of Cuba - 2011. (Lista nacional de especies de plantas invasoras y potencialmente invasoras en la República de Cuba - 2011). Bissea: Boletín sobre Conservación de Plantas del Jardín Botánico Nacional de Cuba, 6(Special Issue 1):22-96

      PIER, 2007. Pacific Islands Ecosystems at Risk. USA: Institute of Pacific Islands Forestry. http://www.hear.org/pier/index.html

      PIER, 2013. Pacific Islands Ecosystems at Risk. Honolulu, Hawaii, USA: HEAR, University of Hawaii. http://www.hear.org/pier/index.html

      Puangpen S, 1998. Thai Zingiberaceae: species diversity and their uses. Pure and Applied Chemistry, 70(11): 2111

      Rahman MA, Yosuf M, 1997. New records of Zingiberaceae for Bangladesh. Bangladesh Journal of Botany, 26(1):37-42

      Rasoanaivo P, Gorce P de la, 1998. Essential oils of economic value in Madagascar: present state of knowledge. HerbalGram, No. 43:31-39, 58-59

      Robertson SA, 1989. Flowering Plants of Seychelles. Kew, UK: Royal Botanic Gardens

      Sadaquat A, Sotheeswaran S, Tuiwawa M, Smith RM, Subramaniam S, 2002. Comparison of the composition of the essential oils of Alpinia and Hedychium species - essential oils of Fijian plants. Part 1. Journal of Essential Oil Research, 14(6): 409-411

      Saroj Chadha, 2005. Vulnerable and threatened plants of economic value: Hedychium coronarium Koering. MFP News, 15(1):19-20. http://www.angelfire.com/ma/MinorForestProducts

      Smith CW, 1998. Impact of Alien Plants on Hawai'i's Native Biota. Manoa, Hawaii: University of Hawaii Botany Department. http://www.botany.hawaii.edu/faculty/cw_smith/impact.htm

      Soares DJ, Barreto RW, 2008. Fungal pathogens of the invasive riparian weed Hedychium coronarium from Brazil and their potential for biological control. Fungal Diversity, 28:85-96

      Souza JAde, Correia MCR, 2007. Floral biology of Hedychium coronarium Koen. (Zingiberaceae). (Biologia floral de Hedychium coronarium Koen. (Zingiberaceae).) Revista Brasileira de Horticultura Ornamental, 13(1):21-30. http://www.sbfpo.com.br

      Space JC, Flynn T, 2000. Observations on invasive plant species in Samoa. Honolulu, USA: USDA Forest Service, 50pp. http://www.hear.org/pier/reports/asreport

      Stewart A, 1972. Cat. Vasc. Pl. W. Pak. and Kashm. Madagascar, 66. Edinburgh, UK: Royal Botanic Garden Herbarium Edinburgh Herbarium (RBGE)

      Tiwari RKS, Shambharkar VB, Vinay Singh, Ojha BM, 2004. Studies on the distribution pattern of medicinal plants of Chhattisgarh forest division. Indian Journal of Agroforestry, 6(2):79-88

      Universiteit Utrecht, 2003. Flora of La Palma (Chalatenango, El Salvador). http://www.bio.uu.nl/promabos/flora/index.html

      US Fish and Wildlife Service, 1999. Species List for the Navajo Reservoir Resource Management Plan, Colorado and New Mexico. Memorandum: Species List for the Navajo Reservoir Resource Management Plan, Colorado and New Mexico. Albuquerque, USA: US Fish and Wildlife Service

      USDA Forest Service, 2011. Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER). Online resource, Version 20110501. USDA Forest Service. http://www.hear.org/pier/

      USDA-ARS, 2003. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Online Database. Beltsville, Maryland, USA: National Germplasm Resources Laboratory. https://npgsweb.ars-grin.gov/gringlobal/taxon/taxonomysearch.aspx

      USDA-ARS, 2013. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Online Database. Beltsville, Maryland, USA: National Germplasm Resources Laboratory. https://npgsweb.ars-grin.gov/gringlobal/taxon/taxonomysearch.aspx

      USDA-NRCS, 2003. The PLANTS Database, Version 3.5. National Plant Data Center, Baton Rouge, USA. http://plants.usda.gov

      van Valkenburg JLCH, Bunyapraphatsara N, eds, 2001. Medicinal and Poisonous Plants 2. Plant Reources of South-East Asia, No. 12(2). Leiden, Netherlands: Backhuys Publishers

      Vargas O, 2009. Invasive alien plant species of La Selva, Costa Rica., Costa Rica: Organization for Tropical Studies, 49 pp. http://sura.ots.ac.cr/local/ias/docs/Exoticas_ingles_mayo_2009.pdf

      Villaseñor JL, Espinosa-Garcia FJ, 2004. The alien flowering plants of Mexico. Diversity and Distributions, 10(2):113-123

      Witt, A., Luke, Q., 2017. Guide to the naturalized and invasive plants of Eastern Africa, [ed. by Witt, A., Luke, Q.]. Wallingford, UK: CABI.vi + 601 pp. http://www.cabi.org/cabebooks/ebook/20173158959 doi:10.1079/9781786392145.0000

      Wu ZY, Raven PH, 2000. Hedychium. In: Flora of China, 24. 370-377. http://flora.huh.harvard.edu/china/PDF/PDF24/hedychium.pdf

      Distribution References

      Acevedo-Rodríguez P, Strong M T, 2012. Catalogue of the Seed Plants of the West Indies. Washington, DC, USA: Smithsonian Institution. 1192 pp. http://botany.si.edu/Antilles/WestIndies/catalog.htm

      Anon, 2000. 18. Hedychium. In: Flora of China. Vol. 24 (Flagellariaceae through Marantaceae). [ed. by Wu Z Y, Raven P H]. Beijing, China: Science Press. 370-377. http://flora.huh.harvard.edu/china/PDF/PDF24/hedychium.pdf

      Anon, 2005. Monocots and Gymnosperms of Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands. In: Monocots and Gymnosperms of Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands, [ed. by Acevedo-Rodríguez P, Strong M T]. Washington DC, USA: Smithsonian Institution, Department of Botany National Museum of Natural History. 415 pp.

      Bhandary M J, Chandrashekar K R, Kaveriappa K M, 1995. Medical ethnobotany of the Siddis of Uttara Kannada district, Karnataka, India. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 47 (3), 149-158. DOI:10.1016/0378-8741(95)01274-H

      Britton N L, 1918. Flora of Bermuda. New York, USA: C. Scribner's Sons.

      Brooks F, 2000. List of Plant Diseases in American Samoa 2000. In: ASCC Landgrant Program Technical Report, No. 31, http://www2.ctahr.hawaii.edu/adap2/ascc_landgrant/Dr_Brooks/TechRepNo.31.pdf

      Broome R, Sabir K, Carrington S, 2007. Plants of the Eastern Caribbean. Online database., Barbados: University of the West Indies. http://ecflora.cavehill.uwi.edu/index.htm

      CABI, Undated. Compendium record. Wallingford, UK: CABI

      CABI, Undated a. CABI Compendium: Status inferred from regional distribution. Wallingford, UK: CABI

      CABI, Undated b. CABI Compendium: Status as determined by CABI editor. Wallingford, UK: CABI

      Finlay C, 2004. The white butterfly: Cuba's national flower., Las Tunas, Cuba: http://www.periodico26.cu/english/symbols/symbols.htm

      Foxcroft L C, Richardson D M, 2003. Managing alien plant invasions in the Kruger National Park, South Africa. In: Plant invasions: ecological threats and management solutions. [ed. by Child L, Brock J H, Brundu G, Prach K, Pysĕk K, Wade P M, Williamson M]. Leiden, Netherlands: Backhuys Publishers. 385-403.

      Geering A D W, Thomas J E, 1997. Search for alternative hosts of banana bunchy top virus in Australia. Australasian Plant Pathology. 26 (4), 250-254. DOI:10.1071/AP97040

      Gogoi R, Bokolial D, Das D S, 2002. Leaf epidermal morphology of some species of Zingiberaceae. Plant Archives. 2 (2), 257-262.

      Govaerts R, 2013. World Checklist of Zingiberaceae., Richmond, London, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/

      Graveson RS, 2012. Survey of invasive alien plant species on Gros Piton, Saint Lucia. Project No. GFL / 2328- 2713-4A86, GF-1030-09-03. Project No. GFL / 2328- 2713-4A86, GF-1030-09-03, GFL / 2328- 2713-4A86, GF-1030-09-03., Castries, St. Lucia: Department of Forestry.

      Gurib-Fakim A, Maudarbaccus N, Leach D, Doimo L, Wohlmuth H, 2002. Essential oil composition of Zingiberaceae species from Mauritius. Journal of Essential Oil Research. 14 (4), 271-273.

      HEAR, 2004. Alien species in Hawaii., Honolulu, USA: Hawaii Ecosystems at Risk, University of Hawaii. http://www.hear.org/AlienSpeciesInHawaii/index.html

      Hertentains L A, Lezcano F, Santiago Ríos A, 1998. Effect of herbicide dose on the chemical control of the heliotrope (Hedichium coronarium) in Cordillera, Chiriqui, Panama. 1993. (Efecto de dosis de herbicidas en el control químico del heliotropo Hedichium coronarium, en Cordillera, Chiriquí, Panamá. 1993.). Ciencia Agropecuaria - Instituto de Investigación Agropecuaria de Panamá. 117-126.

      Kissmann KG, 1997. (Plantas Infestantes e Nocivas)., 1 (2) Brazil: BASF. 256-258.

      Lechat-Vahirua I, François P, Menut C, Lamaty G, Bessière J M, 1993. Aromatic plants of French Polynesia. I. Constituents of the essential oils of rhizomes of three Zingiberaceae: Zingiber zerumbet Smith, Hedychium coronarium Koenig and Etlingera cevuga Smith. Journal of Essential Oil Research. 5 (1), 55-59.

      Lorenzi H, 1982. (Plantas Daninhas do Brasil)., Nova Odessa San Paulo, Brazil: H. Lorenzi. 400 pp.

      Macedo J F, 1997. The genus Hedychium Koening (Zingiberaceae) in Minas Gerais State. (O gênero Hedychium Koening (Zingiberaceae) no estado de Minas Gerais.). Daphne, Revista do Herbário PAMG da EPAMIG. 7 (2), 27-31.

      Medina F R, Woodbury R, 1979. Terrestrial plants molluscicidal to lymnaeid hosts of fascioliasis hepatica in Puerto Rico. Journal of Agriculture of the University of Puerto Rico. 63 (3), 366-376.

      Nakatani N, Kikuzaki H, Yamaji H, Yoshio K, Kitora C, Okada K, Padolina W G, 1994. Labdane diterpenes from rhizomes of Hedychium coronarium. Phytochemistry. 37 (5), 1383-1388. DOI:10.1016/S0031-9422(00)90417-5

      Ochoa J G, Andrade G I, 2003. The introduced flora to Machu Picchu Sanctuary: an inventory and management priorities for biodiversity conservation. (Flora introducida en el Santuario Histórico de Machu Picchu: inventario y prioridades de manejo para la conservación de la biodiversidad.). Ecología en Bolivia. 38 (2), 141-160.

      Om Prakash, Anjum Zafar, Pant A K, Hore S K, Mathela C S, 2005. Effect of aqueous extracts of Hedychium coronarium Koen. rhizome and Zingiber roseum Rosc. seed and rhizome on rat duodenal smooth muscle. Journal of Veterinary Pharmcology & Toxicology. 4 (1/2), 50-51.

      Oviedo Prieto R, Herrera Oliver P, Caluff M G, et al, 2012. National list of invasive and potentially invasive plants in the Republic of Cuba - 2011. (Lista nacional de especies de plantas invasoras y potencialmente invasoras en la República de Cuba - 2011). Bissea: Boletín sobre Conservación de Plantas del Jardín Botánico Nacional de Cuba. 6 (Special Issue No. 1), 22-96.

      PIER, 2007. Pacific Islands Ecosystems at Risk. In: Pacific Islands Ecosystems at Risk, USA: Institute of Pacific Islands Forestry. http://www.hear.org/pier/index.html

      PIER, 2013. Pacific Islands Ecosystems at Risk., Honolulu, Hawaii, USA: HEAR, University of Hawaii. http://www.hear.org/pier/index.html

      Puangpen S, 1998. Thai Zingiberaceae: species diversity and their uses. In: Pure and Applied Chemistry, 70 (11) 2111.

      Rahman M A, Yosuf M, 1997. New records of Zingiberaceae for Bangladesh. Bangladesh Journal of Botany. 26 (1), 37-42.

      Rasoanaivo P, Gorce P de la, 1998. Essential oils of economic value in Madagascar: present state of knowledge. HerbalGram. 31-39, 58-59.

      Robertson S A, 1989. Flowering plants of Seychelles. Richmond, UK: Royal Botanic Gardens. xvi + 327 pp.

      Sadaquat Ali, Sotheeswaran S, Tuiwawa M, Smith R M, 2002. Comparison of the composition of the essential oils of Alpinia and Hedychium species - essential oils of Fijian plants. Part 1. Journal of Essential Oil Research. 14 (6), 409-411.

      Saroj Chadha, 2005. Vulnerable and threatened plants of economic value: Hedychium coronarium Koering. MFP News. 15 (1), 19-20.

      Space JC, Flynn T, 2000. Observations on invasive plant species in American Samoa., Honolulu, Hawaii, USA: USDA Forest Service. http://www.hear.org/pier/reports/asreport.htm#m-native

      Stewart R, 1972. An annotated catalogue of the vascular plants of West Pakistan and Kashmir. In: Flora of West Pakistan. [ed. by Nasir E, Ali S I]. Karachi, Pakistan: Fakhri Printing Press.

      Tiwari R K S, Shambharkar V B, Vinay Singh, Ojha B M, 2004. Studies on the distribution pattern of medicinal plants of Chhattisgarh forest division. Indian Journal of Agroforestry. 6 (2), 79-88.

      Universiteit Utrecht, 2003. Flora of La Palma (Chalatenango, El Salvador)., http://www.bio.uu.nl/promabos/flora/index.html

      USDA Forest Service, 2011. Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)., USDA Forest Service. http://www.hear.org/pier/

      USDA-ARS, 2003. Hedychium flavescens. In: Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Online Database, Beltsville, USA: National Germplasm Resources Laboratory. http://www.ars-grin.gov/cgi-bin/npgs/html/tax_search.pl

      USDA-ARS, 2013. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Online Database. Beltsville, Maryland, USA: National Germplasm Resources Laboratory. https://npgsweb.ars-grin.gov/gringlobal/taxon/taxonomysimple.aspx

      USDA-NRCS, 2003. The PLANTS Database. Greensboro, North Carolina, USA: National Plant Data Team. https://plants.sc.egov.usda.gov

      Vargas O, 2009. Invasive alien plant species of La Selva, Costa Rica., Costa Rica: Organization for Tropical Studies. 49 pp. http://sura.ots.ac.cr/local/ias/docs/Exoticas_ingles_mayo_2009.pdf

      Villaseñor J L, Espinosa-Garcia F J, 2004. The alien flowering plants of Mexico. Diversity and Distributions. 10 (2), 113-123. DOI:10.1111/j.1366-9516.2004.00059.x

      Witt A, Luke Q, 2017. Guide to the naturalized and invasive plants of Eastern Africa. [ed. by Witt A, Luke Q]. Wallingford, UK: CABI. vi + 601 pp. http://www.cabi.org/cabebooks/ebook/20173158959 DOI:10.1079/9781786392145.0000

      Links to Websites

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      WebsiteURLComment
      GISD/IASPMR: Invasive Alien Species Pathway Management Resource and DAISIE European Invasive Alien Species Gatewayhttps://doi.org/10.5061/dryad.m93f6Data source for updated system data added to species habitat list.
      Instituto Horushttp://institutohorus.org.br/download/fichas/Hedychium_coronarium.htmBrazilian invasives database

      Contributors

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      01/08/2008 Updated by:

      Djamila Djeddour, CAB Europe - UK, Bakeham Lane, Egham, Surrey TW20 9TY, UK

      07/07/13 Updated by:

      Julissa Rojas-Sandoval, Department of Botany-Smithsonian NMNH, Washington DC, USA

      Pedro Acevedo-Rodríguez, Department of Botany-Smithsonian NMNH, Washington DC, USA

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