Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Achyranthes aspera
(devil's horsewhip)

Toolbox

Datasheet

Achyranthes aspera (devil's horsewhip)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 10 December 2019
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Pest
  • Host Plant
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Achyranthes aspera
  • Preferred Common Name
  • devil's horsewhip
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Plantae
  •     Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •       Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •         Class: Dicotyledonae
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • A. aspera can become aggressive outside of its native range and has naturalized widely. It appears to be kept under control in its native range by natural enemies.

Don't need the entire report?

Generate a print friendly version containing only the sections you need.

Generate report

Pictures

Top of page
PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Achyranthes aspera (devil's horsewhip); flower spike. Kadavoor, Kerala, India. November 2010.
TitleFlower spike
CaptionAchyranthes aspera (devil's horsewhip); flower spike. Kadavoor, Kerala, India. November 2010.
Copyright©Jeevan Jose-2010/Kadavoor, Kerala/via wikipedia - CC BY-SA 4.0
Achyranthes aspera (devil's horsewhip); flower spike. Kadavoor, Kerala, India. November 2010.
Flower spikeAchyranthes aspera (devil's horsewhip); flower spike. Kadavoor, Kerala, India. November 2010.©Jeevan Jose-2010/Kadavoor, Kerala/via wikipedia - CC BY-SA 4.0
Achyranthes aspera (devil's horsewhip); close-up of flower. Kadavoor, Kerala, India. November 2010.
TitleFlower
CaptionAchyranthes aspera (devil's horsewhip); close-up of flower. Kadavoor, Kerala, India. November 2010.
Copyright©Jeevan Jose-2010/Kadavoor, Kerala/via wikipedia - CC BY-SA 4.0
Achyranthes aspera (devil's horsewhip); close-up of flower. Kadavoor, Kerala, India. November 2010.
FlowerAchyranthes aspera (devil's horsewhip); close-up of flower. Kadavoor, Kerala, India. November 2010.©Jeevan Jose-2010/Kadavoor, Kerala/via wikipedia - CC BY-SA 4.0
Achyranthes aspera (devil's horsewhip); habit, showing dense patch of flower spikes. Kaohikaipu, Oahu, Hawaii, USA. February 2005.
TitleHabit
CaptionAchyranthes aspera (devil's horsewhip); habit, showing dense patch of flower spikes. Kaohikaipu, Oahu, Hawaii, USA. February 2005.
Copyright©Forest & Kim Starr-2005 - CC BY 3.0
Achyranthes aspera (devil's horsewhip); habit, showing dense patch of flower spikes. Kaohikaipu, Oahu, Hawaii, USA. February 2005.
HabitAchyranthes aspera (devil's horsewhip); habit, showing dense patch of flower spikes. Kaohikaipu, Oahu, Hawaii, USA. February 2005.©Forest & Kim Starr-2005 - CC BY 3.0
Achyranthes aspera (devil's horsewhip); spiny seeds adhering to gloved hand. Stable Rd, Spreckelsville, Maui, Hawaii, USA. January 2013.
TitleSeeds
CaptionAchyranthes aspera (devil's horsewhip); spiny seeds adhering to gloved hand. Stable Rd, Spreckelsville, Maui, Hawaii, USA. January 2013.
Copyright©Forest & Kim Starr-2013 - CC BY 3.0
Achyranthes aspera (devil's horsewhip); spiny seeds adhering to gloved hand. Stable Rd, Spreckelsville, Maui, Hawaii, USA. January 2013.
SeedsAchyranthes aspera (devil's horsewhip); spiny seeds adhering to gloved hand. Stable Rd, Spreckelsville, Maui, Hawaii, USA. January 2013.©Forest & Kim Starr-2013 - CC BY 3.0
Achyranthes aspera (devil's horsewhip); leaves.
TitleLeaves
CaptionAchyranthes aspera (devil's horsewhip); leaves.
Copyright©Sheldon Navie
Achyranthes aspera (devil's horsewhip); leaves.
LeavesAchyranthes aspera (devil's horsewhip); leaves.©Sheldon Navie
Achyranthes aspera (devil's horsewhip); small flowers on stems.
TitleFlowers
CaptionAchyranthes aspera (devil's horsewhip); small flowers on stems.
Copyright©Sheldon Navie
Achyranthes aspera (devil's horsewhip); small flowers on stems.
FlowersAchyranthes aspera (devil's horsewhip); small flowers on stems.©Sheldon Navie
Achyranthes aspera (devil's horsewhip); habit, showing leaves.
TitleHabit
CaptionAchyranthes aspera (devil's horsewhip); habit, showing leaves.
Copyright©Sheldon Navie
Achyranthes aspera (devil's horsewhip); habit, showing leaves.
HabitAchyranthes aspera (devil's horsewhip); habit, showing leaves.©Sheldon Navie
Achyranthes aspera (devil's horsewhip); habit.
TitleHabit
CaptionAchyranthes aspera (devil's horsewhip); habit.
Copyright©Sheldon Navie
Achyranthes aspera (devil's horsewhip); habit.
HabitAchyranthes aspera (devil's horsewhip); habit.©Sheldon Navie
Achyranthes aspera (devil's horsewhip); four-leaf seedling.
TitleSeedling
CaptionAchyranthes aspera (devil's horsewhip); four-leaf seedling.
Copyright©Sheldon Navie
Achyranthes aspera (devil's horsewhip); four-leaf seedling.
SeedlingAchyranthes aspera (devil's horsewhip); four-leaf seedling.©Sheldon Navie

Identity

Top of page

Preferred Scientific Name

  • Achyranthes aspera L.

Preferred Common Name

  • devil's horsewhip

Other Scientific Names

  • Achyranthes aspera var. indica L.
  • Achyranthes aspera var. obtusifolia Griseb.
  • Achyranthes indica (L.) Mill
  • Achyranthes obtusifolia Lam.
  • Achyranthes virgata Poir.
  • Centrostachys aspera (L.) Standl.
  • Centrostachys indica (L.) Standl.

International Common Names

  • English: burweed; prickly chaff flower; rough chaff flower
  • Spanish: abrojo (Mexico); anamu; chile de perro; chilillo (Honduras); mozote (Honduras); rabo de gato
  • French: achyranthe rude; cadelari; herbe de fievre; herbe d'Inde; herbe sergent; queue de rat

Local Common Names

  • Botswana: moxato
  • Costa Rica: mozotillo; rabo de chanco
  • Cuba: pinedo do gato; rabo de gato
  • Dominican Republic: cadillo de gato; huevo de gato; rabo de ratón
  • Germany: Spreublume
  • Haiti: feuilles la fiebre; queue de rat; santypite
  • India: kunjar; puthkanda
  • Italy: scimitro
  • Kiribati: libai
  • Lesotho: bohomane
  • Lesser Antilles: ven-ven
  • Netherlands: kafbloem
  • South Africa: grootklits; isinama
  • Zimbabwe: udombo

EPPO code

  • ACYAS (Achyranthes aspera)

Summary of Invasiveness

Top of page

A. aspera can become aggressive outside of its native range and has naturalized widely. It appears to be kept under control in its native range by natural enemies.

Taxonomic Tree

Top of page
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Plantae
  •         Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •             Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •                 Class: Dicotyledonae
  •                     Order: Caryophyllales
  •                         Family: Amaranthaceae
  •                             Genus: Achyranthes
  •                                 Species: Achyranthes aspera

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

Top of page

Six species of Achyranthes occur in warm temperate and tropical regions of the world. Townsend (1985) records three infraspecific variants of A. aspera: var. aspera, var. pubescens and var. sicula. The latter is the only form occurring in the Mediterranean region. The variants A. aspera var. aspera and A. aspera var. pubescens were recorded in the West Indies (Liogier, 1985).

 

Description

Top of page

Erect or ascending herbs or shrubs; 0.8-4 m high, sometimes almost treelike; Stems tough, becoming woody at the base. Leaves opposite, simple and ovate, up to 10 cm long by 8 cm wide, tapering to a point at both ends and shortly stalked, the blades entire. Inflorescences terminal and axillary, spicate, erect, many-flowered; becoming elongate, with only a few flowers open at the same time; flowers hermaphrodite, solitary in axils of acute, membranous, persistent bracts. Individual flowers are small, with five white to pink or greenish tepals and white filaments, and form narrow, elongated terminal spikes up to 60 cm long. As the flowers age, they bend downwards and become pressed closely against the stem. The bracts surrounding the flowers in the fruiting stage have sharp, pointed tips making the heads spiny to the touch. Fruits are capsules, orange to reddish purple or brown, 1-3 (-5) mm long. Ovary is 1-seeded. Further details are given in Smith (1981).

Plant Type

Top of page
Annual
Broadleaved
Perennial
Seed propagated
Shrub
Vegetatively propagated
Woody

Distribution

Top of page

Probably indigenous to South-East Asia and Africa and now a ubiquitous weed (Smith, 1981). Many records in the country list have been added from USDA-ARS (2003) which were still listed as native on the USDA-ARS GRIN database in 2012; however, this website notes that the exact native range is obscure.

Distribution Table

Top of page

The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 25 Feb 2021
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

AlgeriaPresentNative
BotswanaPresent, Localized
Cabo VerdePresent, Localized
CameroonPresentNative
Central African RepublicPresent, Localized
Côte d'IvoirePresentNative
EgyptPresent, LocalizedNative
GhanaPresent, Localized
Guinea-BissauPresent, Localized
KenyaPresent, WidespreadNativeInvasive
LesothoPresent, Widespread
MalawiPresent, Localized
MauritiusPresent, Widespread
MoroccoPresentNative
NamibiaPresent, Widespread
NigeriaPresent, LocalizedNative
SenegalPresent, LocalizedNative
Sierra LeonePresentNative
South AfricaPresent, Localized
SudanPresent, LocalizedNative
TanzaniaPresent, WidespreadNativeInvasive
TunisiaPresentNative
UgandaPresent, WidespreadNative
ZambiaPresent, Widespread
ZimbabwePresent, Widespread

Asia

AfghanistanPresentNative
BhutanPresentNative
CambodiaPresent, LocalizedNative
ChinaPresent, LocalizedNative
Hong KongPresent, Localized
IndiaPresent, WidespreadNative
-UttarakhandPresent
-West BengalPresent
IndonesiaPresent, WidespreadNative
IranPresent, Localized
JordanPresentNative
LaosPresentNative
LebanonPresentNative
MalaysiaPresent, WidespreadNative
MyanmarPresentNative
NepalPresent, LocalizedNative
PakistanPresentNative
PhilippinesPresent, WidespreadNative
SingaporePresentIntroducedInvasive
Sri LankaPresentNative
SyriaPresentNative
TaiwanPresentNative
ThailandPresent, LocalizedNative
VietnamPresent, LocalizedNative

Europe

ItalyPresentNative
SpainPresentNative

North America

Antigua and BarbudaPresentIntroduced1937Year of introduction taken from collections of Smithsonian Herbarium
BahamasPresentIntroduced1920Invasive
BarbadosPresentIntroduced1906Year of introduction taken from collections of Smithsonian Herbarium
British Virgin IslandsPresentIntroduced1913InvasiveGuana Island, Tortola, and Virgin Gorda
Costa RicaPresentNative
CubaPresentIntroduced1903InvasiveA. aspera var aspera and var. indica; year of introduction taken from collections of Smithsonian Herbarium
DominicaPresentIntroduced1940Year of introduction taken from collections of Smithsonian Herbarium
Dominican RepublicPresentIntroduced1911Year of introduction taken from collections of Smithsonian Herbarium
El SalvadorPresentNative
GrenadaPresentIntroduced1904Year of introduction taken from collections of Smithsonian Herbarium
GuadeloupePresentIntroduced1892Year of introduction taken from collections of Smithsonian Herbarium
GuatemalaPresentNative
HaitiPresentIntroduced1920Year of introduction taken from collections of Smithsonian Herbarium
HondurasPresentInvasive
JamaicaPresentIntroduced1897Year of introduction taken from collections of Smithsonian Herbarium
MartiniquePresentIntroduced1874Year of introduction taken from collections of Smithsonian Herbarium
MexicoPresentNative
MontserratPresentIntroduced1907Year of introduction taken from collections of Smithsonian Herbarium
NicaraguaPresentNative
Puerto RicoPresentIntroduced1913InvasiveAlso on the islands of Caja de Muertos, Culebra, Desecheo, and Mona
Saint LuciaPresentNative
Saint Vincent and the GrenadinesPresentNative
U.S. Virgin IslandsPresentIntroduced1895InvasiveSt. Croix and St. John
United StatesPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-FloridaPresentIntroduced
-HawaiiPresentIntroducedInvasive

Oceania

AustraliaPresent, LocalizedNative
-QueenslandPresent
Cook IslandsPresent
Federated States of MicronesiaPresent
FijiPresent, Localized
French PolynesiaPresent
GuamPresent
KiribatiPresent
Marshall IslandsPresent
New CaledoniaPresent
NiuePresent
Northern Mariana IslandsPresent
PalauPresent
SamoaPresent
Solomon IslandsPresent
Timor-LestePresent, LocalizedNative
TongaPresent
TuvaluPresent
VanuatuPresent
Wallis and FutunaPresent

South America

BoliviaPresentNative
ColombiaPresentNative
EcuadorPresentInvasive
PeruPresentNative
SurinamePresent, LocalizedIntroduced

History of Introduction and Spread

Top of page

A. aspera frequently occurs in waste areas, and along roadsides, foot paths, railroads and sand dunes. It often infests fence rows, open woodland, and the borders of forests and plantations. It has adapted to a wide range of environments (Holm et al., 1979). In the Bahamas this species was collected by N.L. Britton and C. T. Millspaugh in 1920 (Britton and Millspaugh, 1920). For Puerto Rico (including Mona, Vieques and Culebra), the US Virgin Islands (St. Croix and St. Thomas) and the British Virgin Islands (Tortola) this species appears in a 1924 collection made by N.L. Britton on these islands (Britton and Wilson, 1924). A. aspera was also introduced on Pacific Islands (including Hawaii, Samoa, Mariana Islands, Cook Islands, Fiji, and French Polynesia) where it has been classified as an “invasive species” (PIER, 2012) and in Florida it is listed as a “potential problematic species” (USDA-NRCS, 2012).

Risk of Introduction

Top of page

The risk of introduction of A. aspera  is high. It is a widespread weedy pantropical species readily transported to new habitats because its spiny fruits easily detach and stick to clothes, fur, and feathers. Consequently, seeds of this species may be easily transported to new habitats by birds, mammals, and humans.

Habitat

Top of page

A. aspera is a weed of crops, grasslands, forestry, disturbed areas and waste places. It is common in waste and cultivated grounds in Puerto Rico and the US Virgin Islands (Acevedo-Rodriguez and Strong, 2012). In Fiji, this species occurs from sea level to about 900 m elevation as an abundantly naturalized weed on rocky shores, limestone islets and grassy slopes, in coastal thickets, cultivated areas and along roadsides and forest trails (Smith, 1981).

Habitat List

Top of page
CategorySub-CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Terrestrial
Terrestrial ManagedCultivated / agricultural land Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial ManagedProtected agriculture (e.g. glasshouse production) Present, no further details
Terrestrial ManagedManaged forests, plantations and orchards Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial ManagedManaged grasslands (grazing systems) Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial ManagedDisturbed areas Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial ManagedRail / roadsides Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial ManagedUrban / peri-urban areas Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalNatural forests Present, no further details
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalNatural grasslands Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalRiverbanks Present, no further details
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalWetlands Present, no further details
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalDeserts Present, no further details
LittoralCoastal areas Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)

Host Plants and Other Plants Affected

Top of page
Plant nameFamilyContextReferences
Gossypium hirsutum (Bourbon cotton)MalvaceaeMain
    Triticum aestivum (wheat)PoaceaeMain
      Vigna mungo (black gram)FabaceaeMain
        Vigna unguiculata (cowpea)FabaceaeMain

          Biology and Ecology

          Top of page

          Physiology and Phenology

          A. aspera is a coarse herb or shrub, sometimes growing in arable land as an annual, but under suitable conditions lasting for a number of years and reaching a height of 4 m. There are sun and shade adapted types (Vora et al., 1989).

          Reproductive Biology

          In germination studies of desert plants, Khan et al. (1984) noted little seed dormancy in this species.

          Associations

          A. aspera displays antifeedant activity against gram pod borer (Helicoverpa armigera; Singh et al., 2001).

          Soil Tolerances

          Top of page

          Soil drainage

          • free
          • impeded

          Soil reaction

          • acid
          • alkaline
          • neutral

          Soil texture

          • heavy
          • light
          • medium

          Special soil tolerances

          • infertile
          • shallow

          Means of Movement and Dispersal

          Top of page

          Vector Transmission (Biotic)

          Spiny bracts cause the fruits to stick to the hair of animals, clothing etc. There is evidence of dispersal by livestock (Bullock and Primack, 1977).

          Pathway Causes

          Top of page
          CauseNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
          Harvesting fur, wool or hair Yes Yes Lange et al., 2004
          Medicinal use Yes Yes Girach et al., 1992

          Pathway Vectors

          Top of page

          Plant Trade

          Top of page
          Plant parts liable to carry the pest in trade/transportPest stagesBorne internallyBorne externallyVisibility of pest or symptoms
          Flowers/Inflorescences/Cones/Calyx flowers
          Stems (above ground)/Shoots/Trunks/Branches seeds; whole plants

          Impact Summary

          Top of page
          CategoryImpact
          Animal/plant collections Negative
          Animal/plant products None
          Biodiversity (generally) Negative
          Crop production Negative
          Environment (generally) Negative
          Fisheries / aquaculture None
          Forestry production None
          Human health None
          Livestock production Negative
          Native fauna Negative
          Native flora Negative
          Rare/protected species None
          Tourism None
          Trade/international relations None
          Transport/travel None

          Risk and Impact Factors

          Top of page
          Invasiveness
          • Invasive in its native range
          • Proved invasive outside its native range
          • Highly adaptable to different environments
          • Tolerates, or benefits from, cultivation, browsing pressure, mutilation, fire etc
          • Highly mobile locally
          • Has high reproductive potential
          • Has propagules that can remain viable for more than one year
          Impact outcomes
          • Damaged ecosystem services
          • Ecosystem change/ habitat alteration
          • Negatively impacts agriculture
          • Negatively impacts animal health
          • Reduced native biodiversity
          Impact mechanisms
          • Competition - monopolizing resources
          • Produces spines, thorns or burrs
          Likelihood of entry/control
          • Highly likely to be transported internationally accidentally
          • Highly likely to be transported internationally deliberately

          Uses

          Top of page

          A. aspera has various medicinal applications: for example, as an anti-inflammatory and anti-arthritic treatment (Girach et al., 1992; Gokhale et al., 2002); as an abortifacient (Pakrashi and Bhattacharya, 1977; Siddiqui et al., 1988); it has also been tested as an antifertility agent (Prakash, 1986; Varshney et al., 1986; Wadhwa et al., 1986), and for anti-cancer activity (Chakraborty et al., 2002). Barua et al. (2012) examined it for healing of wounds and burns, while antifungal potential is reported by Sharma et al. (2011).

          It is a diuretic in goats (Nazish Jahan et al., 2002) and is used in other veterinary preparations (Bhaumik and Sharma, 1993; Sikawar, 1994).

          It has been investigated for energy production (Subramanian and Sampathrajan, 1999).

          Uses List

          Top of page

          Environmental

          • Host of pest
          • Soil improvement

          Medicinal, pharmaceutical

          • Traditional/folklore

          Prevention and Control

          Top of page

          Due to the variable regulations around (de)registration of pesticides, your national list of registered pesticides or relevant authority should be consulted to determine which products are legally allowed for use in your country when considering chemical control. Pesticides should always be used in a lawful manner, consistent with the product's label.

          A. aspera is moderately resistant to 2,4-D and MCPA. In the young seedling stage, a reasonable kill can be obtained with rates of the order of 1.0 kg/ha but resistance increases rapidly with age and older plants require 2.0 kg/ha or more (Ivens, 1967).

          References

          Top of page

          Acevedo-Rodríguez P; Strong MT, 2012. Catalogue of the Seed Plants of the West Indies. Smithsonian Contributions to Botany, 98:1192 pp. Washington DC, USA: Smithsonian Institution. http://botany.si.edu/Antilles/WestIndies/catalog.htm

          Aneja AK; Brar DS; Joginder Singh; Singh J, 2002. Preference of Bemisia tabaci (Genn.) to host plants and hirsutum cotton treated with different insecticides. Insect Environment 2002, 8(1):39-41.

          Aulakh BS; Rimkus AJ, 1987. Some agronomic aspects of rainfed wheat production in northern Zambia. Fifth Regional Wheat Workshop for Eastern, Central and Southern Africa and the Indian Ocean Mexico City, Mexico; CIMMYT, 194-201

          Barua CC; Archana Talukdar; Begum SA; Pathak DC; Sarma DK; Borah RS; Asheesh Gupta, 2012. In vivo wound-healing efficacy and antioxidant activity of Achyranthes aspera in experimental burns. Pharmaceutical Biology, 50(7):892-899. http://informahealthcare.com/loi/phb

          Bhaumik A; Sharma MC, 1993. Therapeutic efficacy of two herbal preparations in induced hepatopathy in sheep. Journal of Research and Education in Indian Medicine, 12(1):33-42.

          Biradar AP; Patil MB, 2001. Studies on utilization of prominent weeds for vermiculturing. Indian Journal of Weed Science, 33(3/4):229-230; 2 ref.

          Britton NL; Millspaugh CF, 1920. The Bahama Flora. New York, USA: NL Britton & CF Millspaugh.

          Britton NL; Wilson P, 1924. Scientific Survey of Porto Rico and the Virgin islands, Volume V, Botany of Porto Rico and the Virgin Islands. New York Academy of Sciences, New York.

          Bullock SH; Primack RB, 1977. Comparative experimental study of seed dispersal on animals. Ecology, 58(3):681-686

          Chakraborty A; Brantner A; Mukainaka T; Nobukuni Y; Kuchide M; Konoshima T; Tokuda H; Nishino H, 2002. Cancer chemopreventive activity of Achyranthes aspera leaves on Epstein-Barr virus activation and two-stage mouse skin carcinogenesis. Cancer Letters, 177(1):1-5.

          Chakravarty DK; Pariya SN, 1977. Inhibition of germination of phytopathogenic fungi in some Indian medicinal plant extracts. Zeitschrift fur Pflanzenkrankheiten und Pflanzenschutz, 84:221-223

          Duarte MC; Gomes I; Moreira I, 1999. Santiago Island (Cape Verde) - Notes on the flora and phytogeography. Garcia de Orta. Serie de Botanica, 14(1):107-113.

          Girach RD; Aminuddin; Khan SA, 1992. Ethnomedicinal uses of Achyranthes ospera L. in Orissa, India. International Journal of Pharmacognosy, 30(2):113-115.

          Gokhale AB; Damre AS; Kulkarni KR; Saraf MN, 2002. Preliminary evaluation of anti-inflammatory and anti-arthritic activity of S. lappa, A. speciosa and A. aspera. Phytomedicine, 9(5):433-437.

          Holm L; Pancho JV; Herberger JP; Plucknett DL, 1979. A Geographical Atlas of World Weeds. Toronto, Canada: John Wiley and Sons Inc.

          Ivens GW, 1967. East Africa Weeds and their Control. Nairobi, Kenya: Oxford University Press.

          Jagetia GC; Baliga MS, 2002. Cystone, an ayurvedic herbal drug imparts protection to the mice against the lethal effects of gamma-radiation: a preliminary study. Nahrung, 46(5):332-336.

          Kaushal Kumar; Singh KK; Kumar B; Thiru Selvun; Sajibala B; Pushpangadan P; Kumar K; Selvun T, 2001. Use of medicinal plants by the settlers in Great Nicobar Island (India). Journal of Tropical Medicinal Plants, 2(2):235-238.

          Khan D; Shaukat SS; Faheemuddin M, 1984. Germination studies of certain desert plants. Pakistan Journal of Botany, 16(2):231-254.

          Kuldeep Singh; Khosla SN, 1987. Comparative evaluation of 2,4-D lac slow release herbicide. Indian Journal of Forestry, 10(4):256-261

          Lal B; Vats SK; Singh RD; Gupta AK, 1994. Plants used as ethnomedicine by Gaddis in Kantra and Chamba District of Himachal Pradesh, India. Ethnobiology in human welfare: abstracts of the fourth international congress of ethnobiology, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, India, 17-21 November, 1994, p. 143.

          Lange PJ; Scofield RP; Greene T, 2004. Achyranthes aspera (Amaranthaceae) a new indigenous adition to the flora of the Kermadec Islands group. New Zealand Journal of Botany, 42:167-173.

          Liogier AH, 1985. Descriptive Flora of Puerto Rico and adjacent islands. Spermatophyta. Vols. 1-5. Río Piedras, Puerto Rico: Editorial de la Universidad de Puerto Rico.

          Mariappan V; Govindaswami CV; Ramakrishnan K, 1973. A note on Achyranthes aspera L., mosaic virus occuring around Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu. Indian Journal of Weed Science, 5(1):48-49.

          Misra TN; Singh RS; Pandey HS; Prasad C; Singh BP, 1992. Antifungal essential oil and a long chain alcohol from Achyranthes aspera.. Phytochemistry, 31(5):1811-1812; 5 ref.

          Nazish Jahan; Riaz Ahmad; Faqir Hussain, 2002. Evaluation of diuretic activity of Achyranthes aspera (Chirchita) in goats. Pakistan Veterinary Journal, 22(3):124-127.

          Olifintoye JA; Adesiyun AA, 1989. Weed control in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) with sethoxydim and Galex. Nigerian Journal of Weed Science, 2(1-2):29-34

          Oviedo Prieto R; Herrera Oliver P; Caluff MG, et al. , 2012. National list of invasive and potentially invasive plants in the Republic of Cuba - 2011. (Lista nacional de especies de plantas invasoras y potencialmente invasoras en la República de Cuba - 2011). Bissea: Boletín sobre Conservación de Plantas del Jardín Botánico Nacional de Cuba, 6(Special Issue 1):22-96.

          Pakrashi A; Bhattacharya N, 1977. Abortifacient principle of Achyranthes aspera Linn. Indian Journal of Experimental Biology, 15(10):856-858.

          Paradkar VK; Sharma TR; Sharma RC, 1998. Water stagnation for control of weeds in Eucalyptus rostrata, Schlecht plantation. World Weeds, 5(1/2):67-68.

          PIER, 2012. Pacific Islands Ecosystems at Risk. Honolulu, USA: HEAR, University of Hawaii. http://www.hear.org/pier/index.html

          Prakash AO, 1986. Potentialities of some indigenous plants for antifertility activity. International Journal of Crude Drug Research, 24(1):19-24.

          Raman MH; Faroque ABM; Islam SN, 1996. Studies on the antibacterial properties of Achyranthes aspera stems. Fitoterapia, 67(1): 92-93.

          Rashmi Yadav BP; Ojha KL, 1998. A comparative study of fungicidal compounds and plant extracts against Alternaria alternata. Journal of Applied Biology, 8(2):61-64; 17 ref.

          Saklani A; Jain SK, 1994. Credibility of folk-claims in N.W. Himalaya and N.E. India. Ethnobiology in human welfare: abstracts of the fourth international congress of ethnobiology, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, India, 17-21 November, 1994, p. 155.

          Satpathi CR, 1999. Weeds as hosts of Bihar hairy caterpillar (Diacrisia obliqua Wlk.). Insect Environment, 5(3):122.

          Sharma NR; Prabhjot Kaur; Anjuvan Singh, 2011. Antifungal potential of Achyranthes aspera Linn. collected from Himachal Pradesh, Punjab and Haryana region. Journal of Pure and Applied Microbiology, 5(2):971-976. http://www.microbiologyjournal.org

          Sikawar RLS, 1994. Ethnoveterinary plant medicines in Morena district of MP, India. Ethnobiology in human welfare: abstracts of the fourth international congress of ethnobiology, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, India, 17-21 November, 1994, p. 289.

          Singh IB; Singh K; Singh HN, et al. , 2001. Relative efficacy of certain plant extracts as antifeedants against gram pod borer, Heliothis (=Helicoverpa) armigera (Hub.). Bioved, 12(1-2):41-44.

          Singh VK; Singh RP, 1988. Chemical weed control in blackgram (Vigna mungo L.). Indian Journal of Weed Science, 20(4):81-82

          Smith AC, 1981. Flora Vitiensis Nova: A new flora of Fiji. Lawai, Kauai, Hawaii. National Tropical Botanical Garden, 2:290.

          Smithsonian Institution, 2012. Flora of the West Indies. Flora of the West Indies., USA: Smithsonian Institution. http://botany.si.edu/antilles/westindies/

          Stone BC, 1970. The Flora of Guam. Micronesica, 6:1-659.

          Subramanian P; Sampathrajan A, 1999. Physical and chemical characterisation of selected weed species for energy production. Bioresource Technology, 70(1):51-54; 12 ref.

          Sushil Kumar; Bagchi GD; Darokar MP; Kumar S, 1997. Antibacterial activity observed in the seeds of some coprophilous plants. International Journal of Pharmacognosy, 35(3:179-184.

          Swarbrick JT, 1997. Weeds of the Pacific Islands. Technical paper No. 209. Noumea, New Caledonia: South Pacific Commission.

          Townsend CC, 1985. Amaranthaceae. In: Polhill RM, ed. Flora of Tropical East Africa. Rotterdam, Netherlands: A.A. Balkema, 1-2, 20-24, 35-36.

          Turkhede AB; Katkar RN; Solanke VM; Wankhade ST, 2002. Integrated weed management in cotton. Crop Research (Hisar), 23(2):397-401; 2 ref.

          USDA-ARS, 2003. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Online Database. Beltsville, Maryland, USA: National Germplasm Resources Laboratory. https://npgsweb.ars-grin.gov/gringlobal/taxon/taxonomysearch.aspx

          USDA-ARS, 2012. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Online Database. Beltsville, Maryland, USA: National Germplasm Resources Laboratory. https://npgsweb.ars-grin.gov/gringlobal/taxon/taxonomysearch.aspx

          USDA-NRCS, 2012. The PLANTS Database. Baton Rouge, USA: National Plant Data Center. http://plants.usda.gov/

          Varshney MD; Sharma BB; and Gupta DN, 1986. Antifertility screening of plants Part II. Effect of ten indigenous plants on early and late pregnancy in albino rats. Comparative Physiology and Ecology, 11(4):183-189.

          Verma SK, 1983. Host plants of Amsacta moorei Butler in the Rajasthan Desert. Bulletin of Entomology, 24(1):49-50

          Vora AB; Patel JA; Punjani BL, 1989. Comparative photosynthesis and levels of metabolites in leaves and chloroplasts of sun-adapted and shade-adapted plants of Achyranthes aspera Lin. Journal of Environmental Biology, 10(2):159-164.

          Wadhwa V; Singh MM; Gupta DN; Chandan Singh; Kamboj VP, 1986. Contraceptive and hormonal properties of Achyranthes aspera in rats and hamsters. Planta Medica, No. 3:231-233.

          Wagoire Wamala W, 1987. An appraisal of weed control methods in wheat in Uganda. Fifth Regional Wheat Workshop for Eastern, Central and Southern Africa and the Indian Ocean 1987, pp. 240-243.

          Wells MJ; Balsinhas AA; Joffe H; Engelbrecht VM; Harding G; Stirton CH, 1986. A catalogue of problem plants in South Africa. Memoirs of the botanical survey of South Africa No 53. Pretoria, South Africa: Botanical Research Institute.

          Yousif G; Iskander GM; Daw El Beit A, 1983. Investigation of the alkaloidal components in the Sudan Flora. III. Fitoterapia, 54(6):269-272.

          Distribution References

          Abbas G, Arif M J, Muhammad Ashfaq, Muhammad Aslam, Shafqat Saeed, 2010. Host plants distribution and overwintering of cotton mealybug (Phenacoccus solenopsis; Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae). International Journal of Agriculture and Biology. 12 (3), 421-425. http://www.fspublishers.org/ijab/past-issues/IJABVOL_12_NO_3/20.pdf

          Acevedo-Rodríguez P, Strong M T, 2012. Catalogue of the Seed Plants of the West Indies. Washington, DC, USA: Smithsonian Institution. 1192 pp. http://botany.si.edu/Antilles/WestIndies/catalog.htm

          Britton N L, Millspaugh C F, 1920. The Bahama Flora. New York, USA: NL Britton & CF Millspaugh.

          CABI, Undated. CABI Compendium: Status inferred from regional distribution. Wallingford, UK: CABI

          CABI, Undated a. CABI Compendium: Status as determined by CABI editor. Wallingford, UK: CABI

          Dangwal L R, Antima Sharma, Amandeep Singh, Rana C S, Tajinder Singh, 2011. Weed flora of S.R.T. Campus Badshahi Thaul Tehri Garhwal (H.N.B. Garhwal Central University, Uttarakhand), India. Pakistan Journal of Weed Science Research. 17 (4), 387-396. http://www.wssp.org.pk/174-10.pdf

          Devi M R, Madhavan S, Baskaran A, Thangaratham T, 2015. Ethno medicinal aspects of weeds from paddy field in Thiruvarur district, Tamil Nadu, India. World Journal of Pharmaceutical Research. 4 (11), 1909-1920. http://www.wjpr.net/dashboard/abstract_id/4153

          Duarte M C, Gomes I, Moreira I, 1999. Santiago Island (Cape Verde) - Notes on the flora and phytogeography. (Ilha de Santiago (Cabo Verde) - Notas florísticas e fitogeográficas (I).). Garcia de Orta. Série de Botânica. 14 (1), 107-113.

          Duary B, Mukherjee A, 2013. Distribution pattern of predominant weeds in wet season and their management in West Bengal, India. In: The role of weed science in supporting food security by 2020. Proceedings of the 24th Asian-Pacific Weed Science Society Conference, Bandung, Indonesia, October 22-25, 2013 [The role of weed science in supporting food security by 2020. Proceedings of the 24th Asian-Pacific Weed Science Society Conference, Bandung, Indonesia, October 22-25, 2013.], [ed. by Bakar B H, Kurniadie D, Tjitrosoedirdjo S]. Bandung, Indonesia: Weed Science Society of Indonesia. 191-199.

          Gabuin T G, Abdul S D, Sawa F B, 2014. Preliminary observations on weeds of maize (Zea mays L.) and rice (Oryza sativa L.) fields in Bauchi. Journal of Agricultural and Biological Science. 9 (11), 385-388. http://www.arpnjournals.com/jabs/research_papers/rp_2014/jabs_1114_690.pdf

          Grice A C, Lawes R A, Abbott B N, Nicholas D M, Whiteman L V, 2004. How abundant and widespread are riparian weeds in the dry tropics of north-east Queensland? In: Weed management: balancing people, planet, profit. 14th Australian Weeds Conference, Wagga Wagga, New South Wales, Australia, 6-9 September 2004: papers and proceedings. [ed. by Sindel B M, Johnson S B]. Sydney, Australia: Weed Society of New South Wales. 173-175.

          Holm L, Pancho J V, Herberger J P, Plucknett D L, 1979. A geographical atlas of world weeds. New York, Chichester (), Brisbane, Toronto, UK: John Wiley and Sons. xlix + 391 pp.

          Ivens GW, 1967. East Africa Weeds and their Control., Nairobi, Kenya: Oxford University Press.

          Khan R U, Wazir S M, Muhammad Subhan, Saad Ullah, Hidayat Ullah, Aysha Farooq, Farheen Jaffar, Shazia, Shah I A, Mustafa Kamal, 2012. Weed flora of sugarcane in district Bannu, Khyber Pakhtunkhawa, Pakistan. Pakistan Journal of Weed Science Research. 18 (4), 541-552. http://www.wssp.org.pk/article.htm

          Kiran G G R, Rao A S, 2013. Survey of weed flora in transplanted rice in Krishna agroclimatic zone of Andhra Pradesh, India. Pakistan Journal of Weed Science Research. 19 (1), 45-51. http://www.wssp.org.pk/4-19-1-45-51.pdf

          Kirsur M V, Sakthivel N, Mahimasanthi A, Balasaraswathi S, Bindroo B B, 2014. Weed hosts of papaya mealy bug (Paracoccus marginatus) in mulberry ecosystem of Tamil Nadu. Indian Journal of Sericulture. 53 (1), 78-80.

          Kondaiah R H, Sreeramulu A, 2014. Survey on fungal diseased crops in Cuddapah District of Andhra Pradesh. Indian Journal of Fundamental and Applied Life Sciences. 4 (1), 244-251. http://www.cibtech.org/J%20LIFE%20SCIENCES/PUBLICATIONS/2014/Vol-4-No-1/JLS-040-078-SREERAMULU-SURVEY-PRADESH.pdf

          Mware B, Olubayo F, Narla R, Songa J, Amata R, Kyamanywa S, Ateka E M, 2010. First record of spiraling whitefly in coastal Kenya: emergence, host range, distribution and association with cassava brown streak virus disease. International Journal of Agriculture and Biology. 12 (3), 411-415. http://www.fspublishers.org/ijab/past-issues/IJABVOL_12_NO_3/18.pdf

          Oviedo Prieto R, Herrera Oliver P, Caluff M G, et al, 2012. National list of invasive and potentially invasive plants in the Republic of Cuba - 2011. (Lista nacional de especies de plantas invasoras y potencialmente invasoras en la República de Cuba - 2011). Bissea: Boletín sobre Conservación de Plantas del Jardín Botánico Nacional de Cuba. 6 (Special Issue No. 1), 22-96.

          PIER, 2012. Pacific Islands Ecosystems at Risk., Honolulu, USA: HEAR, University of Hawaii. http://www.hear.org/pier/index.html

          Rashtra Vardhana, 2017. Plant's diseases of district Ghaziabad and adjacent areas. Plant Archives. 17 (1), 727-732. http://www.plantarchives.org/PDF%2017-1/727-732%20(3511).pdf

          Rasthra Vardhana, 2007. Plant's havoc by Cuscuta spp. in district Meerut U.P. India. Plant Archives. 7 (2), 917-918.

          Rasthra Vardhana, 2007a. Plant's havoc by Cuscuta spp. in district Ghaziabad U.P. India. Plant Archives. 7 (2), 921-922.

          Rehmat Ullah, Kalim Ullah, Khan M A, Imdad Ullah, Zahid Usman, 2014. Summer weeds flora of district Dera Isamail Khan Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Pakistan. Pakistan Journal of Weed Science Research. 20 (4), 505-517. http://www.wssp.org.pk/vol-20-4-2014/8.%20PJWSR-36-2013.pdf

          Sakthivel P, Karuppuchamy P, Kalyanasundaram M, Srinivasan T, 2012. Host plants of invasive papaya mealybug, Paracoccus marginatus (Williams and Granara de Willink) in Tamil Nadu. Madras Agricultural Journal. 99 (7/9), 615-619. https://doc-00-7g-docsviewer.googleusercontent.com/viewer/securedownload/dsn1aovipa7l846lsfcf94nedj8q2p4u/qo3phtufamvk9q39umu888pbj4t4kkc6/1348647300000/c2l0ZXM=/AGZ5hq8BgbJY1gwaOYx83cPOdNw6/WkdWbVlYVnNkR1J2YldGcGJud3hNWFJvWlcxaFpISmhjMkZuY21samRXeDBkWEpoYkdwdmRYSnVZV3g4WjNnNk56WmpPREk1WXpBd01XWTNZelZrWkE=?a=gp&filename=99-7-9-615-619.pdf&chan=EQAAAOqeu1nfMdjbyOfMSElqQCfRbAOx1kCMBqnRUfeLUnjy&docid=0508176bd4abbdc3e7017b1a89751bc3%7C9c9df36583445f1fe402a841b5e1963b&sec=AHSqidZmGWqJKVKwfKsaqtFstCH

          Smithsonian Institution, 2012. Flora of the West Indies., USA: Smithsonian Institution. http://botany.si.edu/antilles/westindies/

          Swarbrick JT, 1997. Weeds of the Pacific Islands. In: Technical paper No. 209, Noumea, New Caledonia, South Pacific Commission.

          Townsend CC, 1985. Amaranthaceae. In: Flora of Tropical East Africa, [ed. by Polhill RM]. Rotterdam, Netherlands: A.A. Balkema. 1-2, 20-24, 35-36,

          USDA-ARS, 2003. Hedychium flavescens. In: Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Online Database, Beltsville, USA: National Germplasm Resources Laboratory. http://www.ars-grin.gov/cgi-bin/npgs/html/tax_search.pl

          USDA-NRCS, 2012. The PLANTS Database. Greensboro, North Carolina, USA: National Plant Data Team. https://plants.sc.egov.usda.gov

          Verma S K, 1983. Host plants of Amsacta moorei Butler in the Rajasthan Desert. Bulletin of Entomology. 24 (1), 49-50.

          Wells M J, Balsinhas A A, Joffe H, Engelbrecht V M, Harding G, Stirton C H, 1986. A catalogue of problem plants in southern Africa incorporating the national weed list of South Africa. Memoirs, Botanical Survey of South Africa. v + 658pp.

          Zeeshan Ahmad, Khan S M, Shahab Ali, Inayat-ur-Rahman, Hussan Ara, Iram Noreen, Ayesha Khan, 2016. Indicator species analyses of weed communities of maize crop in District Mardan, Pakistan. Pakistan Journal of Weed Science Research. 22 (2), 227-238. http://www.wssp.org.pk/SearchViaList/85f2b9507de3d718f94122555958c33a/8229716c1c1ad23b1ea10452ba59f128

          Links to Websites

          Top of page
          WebsiteURLComment
          Flora of the West Indieshttp://botany.si.edu/antilles/WestIndies/
          Pacific Island Ecosystems at Riskhttp://www.hear.org/pier/

          Contributors

          Top of page

          21/08/12 Updated by

          Julissa Rojas-Sandoval, Department of Botany-Smithsonian NMNH, Washington DC, USA

          Pedro Acevedo-Rodríguez, Department of Botany-Smithsonian NMNH, Washington DC, USA

          Distribution Maps

          Top of page
          You can pan and zoom the map
          Save map
          Select a dataset
          Map Legends
          • CABI Summary Records
          Map Filters
          Extent
          Invasive
          Origin
          Third party data sources: