Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Gossypium barbadense
(Gallini cotton)

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Datasheet

Gossypium barbadense (Gallini cotton)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 12 August 2020
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Host Plant
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Gossypium barbadense
  • Preferred Common Name
  • Gallini cotton
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Plantae
  •     Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •       Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •         Class: Dicotyledonae
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • Gossypium barbadense is a cultivated cotton plant native to Peru and Ecuador that has been widely introduced in cultivation. It has escaped and become naturalized in Africa, Australia, Oceania, and parts of the Caribbean and is categorize...

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Gossypium barbadense (Gallini cotton); Habit. Kaanapali train depot, Maui, Hawaii. February 2007.
TitleHabit
CaptionGossypium barbadense (Gallini cotton); Habit. Kaanapali train depot, Maui, Hawaii. February 2007.
Copyright©Forest and Kim Starr/via Starr Environmental - CC BY 2.0
Gossypium barbadense (Gallini cotton); Habit. Kaanapali train depot, Maui, Hawaii. February 2007.
HabitGossypium barbadense (Gallini cotton); Habit. Kaanapali train depot, Maui, Hawaii. February 2007.©Forest and Kim Starr/via Starr Environmental - CC BY 2.0
Gossypium barbadense (Gallini cotton); Flowers, leaves and cotton seeds. Kealia Pond NWR, Maui, Hawaii. June 2013.
TitleFlowers, leaves and cotton seeds
CaptionGossypium barbadense (Gallini cotton); Flowers, leaves and cotton seeds. Kealia Pond NWR, Maui, Hawaii. June 2013.
Copyright©Forest and Kim Starr/via Starr Environmental - CC BY 2.0
Gossypium barbadense (Gallini cotton); Flowers, leaves and cotton seeds. Kealia Pond NWR, Maui, Hawaii. June 2013.
Flowers, leaves and cotton seedsGossypium barbadense (Gallini cotton); Flowers, leaves and cotton seeds. Kealia Pond NWR, Maui, Hawaii. June 2013.©Forest and Kim Starr/via Starr Environmental - CC BY 2.0
Gossypium barbadense (Gallini cotton); Flower. Democratic Republic of the Congo. April 2010.
TitleFlower
CaptionGossypium barbadense (Gallini cotton); Flower. Democratic Republic of the Congo. April 2010.
Copyright©Augustin Konda ku Mbuta/via Scamperdale, Flickr - CC BY-NC 2.0
Gossypium barbadense (Gallini cotton); Flower. Democratic Republic of the Congo. April 2010.
FlowerGossypium barbadense (Gallini cotton); Flower. Democratic Republic of the Congo. April 2010.©Augustin Konda ku Mbuta/via Scamperdale, Flickr - CC BY-NC 2.0
Gossypium barbadense (Gallini cotton); Flower. Kealia Pond NWR, Maui, Hawaii. June 2013.
TitleFlower
CaptionGossypium barbadense (Gallini cotton); Flower. Kealia Pond NWR, Maui, Hawaii. June 2013.
Copyright©Forest and Kim Starr/via Starr Environmental - CC BY 2.0
Gossypium barbadense (Gallini cotton); Flower. Kealia Pond NWR, Maui, Hawaii. June 2013.
FlowerGossypium barbadense (Gallini cotton); Flower. Kealia Pond NWR, Maui, Hawaii. June 2013.©Forest and Kim Starr/via Starr Environmental - CC BY 2.0
Gossypium barbadense (Gallini cotton); Bracts with developing fruit. Kaanapali train depot, Maui, Hawaii. February 2007.
TitleBracts with developing fruit
CaptionGossypium barbadense (Gallini cotton); Bracts with developing fruit. Kaanapali train depot, Maui, Hawaii. February 2007.
Copyright©Forest and Kim Starr/via Starr Environmental - CC BY 2.0
Gossypium barbadense (Gallini cotton); Bracts with developing fruit. Kaanapali train depot, Maui, Hawaii. February 2007.
Bracts with developing fruitGossypium barbadense (Gallini cotton); Bracts with developing fruit. Kaanapali train depot, Maui, Hawaii. February 2007.©Forest and Kim Starr/via Starr Environmental - CC BY 2.0
Gossypium barbadense (Gallini cotton); Bracts. Kaanapali train depot, Maui, Hawaii. February 2007.
TitleBracts
CaptionGossypium barbadense (Gallini cotton); Bracts. Kaanapali train depot, Maui, Hawaii. February 2007.
Copyright©Forest and Kim Starr/via Starr Environmental - CC BY 2.0
Gossypium barbadense (Gallini cotton); Bracts. Kaanapali train depot, Maui, Hawaii. February 2007.
BractsGossypium barbadense (Gallini cotton); Bracts. Kaanapali train depot, Maui, Hawaii. February 2007.©Forest and Kim Starr/via Starr Environmental - CC BY 2.0
Gossypium barbadense (Gallini cotton); Pitted fruit. Kaanapali train depot, Maui, Hawaii. February 2007.
TitlePitted fruit
CaptionGossypium barbadense (Gallini cotton); Pitted fruit. Kaanapali train depot, Maui, Hawaii. February 2007.
Copyright©Forest and Kim Starr/via Starr Environmental - CC BY 2.0
Gossypium barbadense (Gallini cotton); Pitted fruit. Kaanapali train depot, Maui, Hawaii. February 2007.
Pitted fruitGossypium barbadense (Gallini cotton); Pitted fruit. Kaanapali train depot, Maui, Hawaii. February 2007.©Forest and Kim Starr/via Starr Environmental - CC BY 2.0
Gossypium barbadense (Gallini cotton); Seed capsules. Enchanting Floral Gardens of Kula, Maui, Hawaii. October 2009.
TitleSeed capsules
CaptionGossypium barbadense (Gallini cotton); Seed capsules. Enchanting Floral Gardens of Kula, Maui, Hawaii. October 2009.
Copyright©Forest and Kim Starr/via Starr Environmental - CC BY 2.0
Gossypium barbadense (Gallini cotton); Seed capsules. Enchanting Floral Gardens of Kula, Maui, Hawaii. October 2009.
Seed capsulesGossypium barbadense (Gallini cotton); Seed capsules. Enchanting Floral Gardens of Kula, Maui, Hawaii. October 2009.©Forest and Kim Starr/via Starr Environmental - CC BY 2.0
Gossypium barbadense (Gallini cotton); Seeds and cotton. Kaanapali train depot, Maui, Hawaii. February 2007.
TitleSeeds and cotton
CaptionGossypium barbadense (Gallini cotton); Seeds and cotton. Kaanapali train depot, Maui, Hawaii. February 2007.
Copyright©Forest and Kim Starr/via Starr Environmental - CC BY 2.0
Gossypium barbadense (Gallini cotton); Seeds and cotton. Kaanapali train depot, Maui, Hawaii. February 2007.
Seeds and cottonGossypium barbadense (Gallini cotton); Seeds and cotton. Kaanapali train depot, Maui, Hawaii. February 2007.©Forest and Kim Starr/via Starr Environmental - CC BY 2.0
Gossypium barbadense (Gallini cotton); Fruit with fluff. Enchanting Floral Gardens of Kula, Maui, Hawaii. January 2010.
TitleFruit with fluff.
CaptionGossypium barbadense (Gallini cotton); Fruit with fluff. Enchanting Floral Gardens of Kula, Maui, Hawaii. January 2010.
Copyright©Forest and Kim Starr/via Starr Environmental - CC BY 2.0
Gossypium barbadense (Gallini cotton); Fruit with fluff. Enchanting Floral Gardens of Kula, Maui, Hawaii. January 2010.
Fruit with fluff.Gossypium barbadense (Gallini cotton); Fruit with fluff. Enchanting Floral Gardens of Kula, Maui, Hawaii. January 2010.©Forest and Kim Starr/via Starr Environmental - CC BY 2.0
Gossypium barbadense (Gallini cotton); Leaves. Kaanapali train depot, Maui, Hawaii. February 2007.
TitleLeaves
CaptionGossypium barbadense (Gallini cotton); Leaves. Kaanapali train depot, Maui, Hawaii. February 2007.
Copyright©Forest and Kim Starr/via Starr Environmental - CC BY 2.0
Gossypium barbadense (Gallini cotton); Leaves. Kaanapali train depot, Maui, Hawaii. February 2007.
LeavesGossypium barbadense (Gallini cotton); Leaves. Kaanapali train depot, Maui, Hawaii. February 2007.©Forest and Kim Starr/via Starr Environmental - CC BY 2.0
Gossypium barbadense (Gallini cotton); Young seedling. Kealia Pond NWR, Maui, Hawaii. June 2013.
TitleYoung seedling
CaptionGossypium barbadense (Gallini cotton); Young seedling. Kealia Pond NWR, Maui, Hawaii. June 2013.
Copyright©Forest and Kim Starr/via Starr Environmental - CC BY 2.0
Gossypium barbadense (Gallini cotton); Young seedling. Kealia Pond NWR, Maui, Hawaii. June 2013.
Young seedlingGossypium barbadense (Gallini cotton); Young seedling. Kealia Pond NWR, Maui, Hawaii. June 2013.©Forest and Kim Starr/via Starr Environmental - CC BY 2.0

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Gossypium barbadense L.

Preferred Common Name

  • Gallini cotton

Other Scientific Names

  • Gosspyium evertum O. F. Cook & J. Hubb
  • Gossypium acuminatum Roxb. ex G. Don
  • Gossypium auritum O.F. Cook & J.W. Hubb.
  • Gossypium brasiliense Macfad.
  • Gossypium calycotum O.F. Cook & J.W. Hubb.
  • Gossypium cambayense Raf.
  • Gossypium glabrum Lam.
  • Gossypium guyanense Raf.
  • Gossypium isabelum Raf.
  • Gossypium javanicum Blume
  • Gossypium jumelianum (Tod.) Prokh.
  • Gossypium lapideum Tussac
  • Gossypium maritimum Tod.
  • Gossypium microcarpum Tod.
  • Gossypium multiglandulosum Phil.
  • Gossypium nankin Raf.
  • Gossypium nigrum Buch. -Ham
  • Gossypium niveum Raf.
  • Gossypium pallens Raf.
  • Gossypium pedatum G. Watt
  • Gossypium perenne Blanco
  • Gossypium peruvianum Cav.
  • Gossypium pubescens Splitg. ex de Vriese
  • Gossypium punctatum Schumach. & Thonn.
  • Gossypium quinacre O. F. Cook & J. W. Hubb.
  • Gossypium racemosum Poir.
  • Gossypium rohrianum Raf.
  • Gossypium rupestre Raf.
  • Gossypium sarmentosum Raf.
  • Gossypium speciosum Raf.
  • Gossypium suffruticosum Bertol.
  • Gossypium teleium Raf.
  • Gossypium tenax Raf.
  • Gossypium trichospermum Raf.
  • Gossypium vaupellii Graham
  • Gossypium virens Raf.
  • Gossypium virgatum Raf.
  • Gossypium vitifolium Lam.
  • Hibiscus barbadensis (L.) Kuntze
  • Hibiscus fruticulosus (Tod.) Kuntze

International Common Names

  • English: American Egyptian cotton; Brazilian cotton; Egyptian cotton; ELS cotton; extra-long staple cotton; kidney cotton; long staple cotton; Peruvian cotton; pima cotton; Sea Island cotton
  • Spanish: algodón ; algodon de las Indias Occidentales; algodón vicuña; algodonero de las Barbados; algodonero Egipcio
  • French: coton a longue soie; coton des Indes Occidentales; cotonnier d'Egypte
  • Chinese: hai dao mian
  • German: Sea Island Baumwolle

Local Common Names

  • Cook Islands: vavai; vavaī; vavaī papa‘ā
  • Cuba: algodón criollo
  • Denmark: vestindisk bomuld
  • Fiji: vauvau; vauvau ni vavalangi
  • French Polynesia: evavai; komiro ina; komorio iva; vavai; vavay
  • French Polynesia/Marquesas: aavaih; uru
  • Germany: Westindische Baumwolle
  • Greece: Thavnodes vamvaki
  • Kiribati: te baobao; te baubau
  • Marshall Islands: kotin
  • Mexico: algodón Americano; algodón de las Indias; algodón de las islas; algodón de mata
  • Micronesia/Pohnpei: koatun
  • Nauru: duwoduwo
  • Niue: vavae
  • Northern Mariana Islands: algodon; atgodon
  • Samoa: vavae; vavae pālagi; vavae pālagi
  • Tonga: vavae; vavae tonga
  • Wallis and Futuna Islands: vavae; vavai

EPPO code

  • GOSBA (Gossypium barbadense)
  • GOSVV (Gossypium vitifolium)

Summary of Invasiveness

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Gossypium barbadense is a cultivated cotton plant native to Peru and Ecuador that has been widely introduced in cultivation. It has escaped and become naturalized in Africa, Australia, Oceania, and parts of the Caribbean and is categorized as invasive on a number of Pacific Islands. Although reported as a weed, its impacts are not detailed, but large clumps have been reported growing on Pacific Islands. It is capable of hybridization with other Gossypium species, so weedy, feral populations can contaminate the gene pool of native Gossypium. It may re-sprout after cutting.

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Plantae
  •         Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •             Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •                 Class: Dicotyledonae
  •                     Order: Malvales
  •                         Family: Malvaceae
  •                             Genus: Gossypium
  •                                 Species: Gossypium barbadense

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

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Gossypium is a genus of 54 species (World Flora Online, 2020), four of which are cultivated: these are the diploid Old World cottons G. arboreum and G. herbaceum, and the tetraploid New World cottons G. hirsutum and G. barbadense.  The taxonomy of Gossypium is complicated, particularly because of the four domestication events and extensive interspecific hybridization (PIER, 2012).

- G. arboretum originates from Asia and has yellow flowers with a purplish base and a coarsely pitted, tapering capsule

- G. barbadense originates from South America and has flowers that are initially yellow, later pink, with a basal reddish spot and a coarsely pitted capsule.

- G. herbaceum originates from eastern Africa and has yellow flowers with a purplish base and a smooth, rounded capsule. It probably.

- Several subdivisions of G. hirsutum have been proposed, especially into varieties, but these differ to such an extent that they are not presented here.

Commercial cottons can be classified by lint length:

- very short staple (<16 mm), typically from cultivars of G. herbaceum and G. arboreum, known collectively as 'desi' cottons, rain-grown

- short staple (16-24 mm), ditto

- medium staple (25-28 mm), mainly from upland cultivars of G. hirsutum, mainly rain-grown

- long staple (29-33 mm), from long-stapled upland cultivars and cultivars of G. barbadense, rain-grown or under irrigation

- extra-long staple (>35 mm), from cultivars of G. barbadense, grown under irrigation.

Very drought-hardy 'desi' cottons are grown for local, coarse cloth and for seed oil, but on the whole these are an insignificant crops found in drier areas.

Missouri Botanical Garden (2020) and World Flora Online (2020), mostly list the same synonyms for G. barbadense, with the exception of Gossypium punctatum, which Missouri Botanical Garden (2020) regards as a synonym of G. barbadense, while World Flora Online (2020) places it as a synonym of G. hirsutum.

The species epithet of Gossypiumbarbadense refers to Barbados, where it was originally believed to be from (OGTR, 2008).

Description

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A perennial shrub, usually cultivated as an annual subshrub, 1-1.5 (-3) m high. Tap root robust, often with four rows of lateral roots. Main stem monopodial with internodes decreasing in length from the base to the top; nodes bearing leaves with axillary branches. Leaves spirally arranged, long-petiolate; lamina usually 3-5-lobed, 7.5-15 x 7.5-15 cm, cordate at base and with triangular and acuminate lobes, usually with stellate hairs and glands on undersurface of main veins; stipules present but caducous, falcate, ca 10 x 4 mm.

Flowers solitary on axillary, sympodial branches, seemingly opposite the leaves, stalked with three glands near the top of the pedicel; epicalyx consisting of 3 (-4) large toothed segments; calyx small, cup-shaped, obscurely lobed; petals 5, obovate, ca 5 cm long, initially creamy-white and turning pink or red; stamens numerous, filaments united in a staminal column; ovary superior, style inside staminal tube, stigma lobed. Fruit a leathery, spherical or ovoid capsule, 2-6 cm long, (3-) 4-5-locular with numerous seeds. Seeds pear-shaped, 3.5-5 mm long; testa with short and very long, convoluted hairs.

Plant Type

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Broadleaved
Perennial
Seed / spore propagated
Shrub
Woody

Distribution

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Gossypiumbarbadense is a tropical species, but is also successfully cultivated in warm temperate climates. It is native to Peru and Ecuador. It is the main cotton grown in Egypt and the Caribbean, with other major producers including Sudan, Peru and the USA (PIER, 2012).

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 25 Feb 2021
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

BeninPresentIntroduced
BurundiPresentIntroducedNaturalized
CameroonPresentIntroduced
Congo, Republic of thePresentIntroduced
Côte d'IvoirePresentIntroduced
EgyptPresentIntroduced
GabonPresentIntroduced
GuineaPresentIntroduced
KenyaPresentIntroduced
MaliPresentIntroduced
NigeriaPresentIntroduced
RwandaPresentIntroducedNaturalized
SenegalPresentIntroduced
SudanPresentIntroduced
TogoPresentIntroduced

Asia

ChinaPresentIntroduced
-GuangdongPresentIntroduced
-GuangxiPresentIntroduced
-HainanPresentIntroduced
-HunanPresentIntroduced
IndiaPresentIntroduced
IsraelPresent
MaldivesPresentIntroduced
Sri LankaPresentIntroduced

North America

BahamasPresentIntroduced
British Virgin IslandsPresentIntroducedAnegada
CubaPresentIntroducedInvasive
Dominican RepublicPresentIntroduced
MexicoPresentIntroduced
Puerto RicoPresentIntroducedNaturalized
Trinidad and TobagoPresentIntroduced
U.S. Virgin IslandsPresentIntroduced
United StatesPresentIntroduced
-ArizonaPresentIntroduced
-CaliforniaPresentIntroduced
-HawaiiPresentIntroduced
-New MexicoPresentIntroduced
-TexasPresentIntroduced

Oceania

American SamoaPresentIntroduced
AustraliaPresentIntroduced
Christmas IslandPresentIntroducedInvasive
Cook IslandsPresentIntroduced
Federated States of MicronesiaPresentIntroduced
-ChuukPresentIntroduced
-PohnpeiPresentIntroduced
-YapPresent
FijiPresentIntroducedInvasive
French PolynesiaPresentIntroducedInvasive
-Marquesas IslandsPresentIntroducedInvasive
GuamPresentIntroducedInvasive
KiribatiPresentIntroduced
Marshall IslandsPresentIntroduced
NauruPresentIntroduced
New CaledoniaPresentIntroducedInvasive
NiuePresentIntroduced
Northern Mariana IslandsPresentIntroduced
PalauPresentIntroducedInvasive
PitcairnPresentIntroducedInvasive
Timor-LestePresent
TongaPresentIntroduced

South America

BoliviaPresentIntroduced
ChilePresentIntroduced
-Easter IslandPresentIntroduced
ColombiaPresentIntroduced
EcuadorPresentNative
-Galapagos IslandsPresentIntroducedInvasive
PeruPresentNative

History of Introduction and Spread

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Gossypium barbadense probably originated as a cross between G. herbaceum and either Gossypium raimondii or Gossypium gossypioides. It was domesticated in northwestern South America and spread to other South American countries and Central America. After 1492, it was introduced into Africa, Asia and the Pacific Islands, and, in 1785, into the USA. It is now widely cultivated.

Habitat

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In Hawaii, it is naturalized in dry and disturbed areas. In Guam, it is an occasional escape from cultivation. In Niue it grows around most villages. In Central Africa, it is naturalized in savannas, abandoned villages, around houses and along rivers. In East Africa, it occurs from sea-level up to 1200 m altitude in gardens and cultivated plots and as an escape (PIER, 2017).

Habitat List

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CategorySub-CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Terrestrial ManagedCultivated / agricultural land Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Terrestrial ManagedManaged forests, plantations and orchards Present, no further details
Terrestrial ManagedManaged grasslands (grazing systems) Present, no further details
Terrestrial ManagedDisturbed areas Present, no further details Natural
Terrestrial ManagedBuildings Present, no further details Natural
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalNatural forests Principal habitat Natural
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalNatural grasslands Present, no further details Natural
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalRiverbanks Present, no further details Natural

Biology and Ecology

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Genetics

Gossypium barbadense is a tetraploid 2n = 4x = 52 (OECD, 2010).

Reproductive Biology

Gossypium barbadense is propagated through seed. Insects can cause considerable outcrossing, but self-pollination is the dominant mating system. Most pollination occurs during dawn, because that is when the flowers open. After pollination, the flowers turn pink and then red the next day. On the second day, they start withering and die on the third day (PIER, 2012).

Physiology and Phenology

Depending on cultivar and climate, the growth period ranges from 160 to 220 days. Normally, the crop stands on the field for 6 months. In the wild, it usually takes longer than 1 year to reach reproductive maturity (PIER, 2012). The hypocotyl appears above the ground 4-10 days after sowing. Cotton remains unbranched until at least 1 month after planting. Branching is dimorphic. The main-stem apex initiates main-stem leaves and lateral buds in the axils of these leaves. Normally, only one bud develops. At lower nodes, the true axillary bud remains vegetative and may develop into a vegetative branch (monopodium), replicating the main stem and carried at an acute angle. After floral induction, the extra-axillary buds at subsequent main-stem nodes are reproductive and develop into horizontal fruiting branches (sympodia). In G. barbadense, the first fruiting branch appears at node 10-12 of the main stem. A sympodial apex initiates one true leaf and then transforms into a flower primordium. The axillary bud between the flower bud and the leaf continues growth of the branch, producing a further segment, which in turn also terminates with a flower bud and a leaf which has an axillary bud. The development of successive axillary buds along a branch may be repeated, leading to a typical zigzag structure. After 50-65 days, the first visible flower buds appear as small, green, pyramidal structures, known as ‘squares’, whilst developing fruit are termed ‘bolls’. The main stem does not carry flowers.

Flowering starts about 8 weeks after planting, and normally continues for 6 weeks or more; but under optimum conditions, the bulk of the crop is derived from the first 3-4 weeks of flowering. The time taken from flowering to the opening of the boll is about 8 weeks. Fibres reach their full, genetically determined length during the first 4 weeks, and then cellulose is deposited inside the fibre cell during the next 4 weeks until maturity.

Activity Patterns

In general, the crop cycle is 120-220 days with seedlings emerging 5-15, or as much as 30, days after sowing, and the first true leaf unfolding 7-9 days later. All these processes vary with temperature. Upon germination, seedlings send a long tap root and the plant remains unbranched for about 1 month. Fruiting branches develop as primary branches on the main stem. Secondary branches develop on vegetative branches (PIER, 2012).

Environmental Requirements

Gossypium barbadense needs full sun, high humidity and high rainfall. It requires a temperature of (15-)22-32(-38)°C. The optimum temperature for germination is 34°C, for the growth of seedlings 24-29°C, and for later continuous growth 34°C. It is very sensitive to frost. Low temperatures increase the production of vegetative branches and extends the cropping period while high temperatures increase the number of fruiting branches and reduces the cropping period. Cotton is susceptible to frost. High temperature increases the number of fruiting branches and reduces the cropping period. Cotton is a sun-loving plant and cannot tolerate shade, particularly in the seedling stage. Reduced light intensity, due to prolonged overcast weather, shading from interplanted crops or too dense a stand of cotton, retards flowering and fruiting and increases boll shedding. Shedding of over 50% of squares, flowers or young bolls, due to early bollworm, drought or waterlogging, is normal. Upland cottons are day-neutral.

Gossypium barbadense requires rainfall of (500-)750-1250(-1500) mm during the growing season. The crop will not tolerate very heavy rainfall and, where grown as a rain-fed crop, the average rainfall is usually 800-1200 mm. Modern cotton cultivars have some ability to overcome drought, and recover from a dry spell to resume growth and fruiting. Adequate, but not excessive, moisture is required for early vegetative growth. The first flowering period requires relative dryness to speed up formation of fruiting branches. An increase in moisture is required for boll setting and renewed growth, followed by dry weather for ripening and harvest. Sufficient soil moisture is essential during the flowering period (PIER, 2012).

It can be grown on a variety of soils from light sandy soils to heavy alluvium and rendzina-type clays. Soils must be permeable to water and to roots to a depth of at least 100 cm, preferably over 150 cm, with pH 5.5-8.5. Cotton is one of the more salt-tolerant crops.

Climate

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ClimateStatusDescriptionRemark
As - Tropical savanna climate with dry summer Preferred < 60mm precipitation driest month (in summer) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
Aw - Tropical wet and dry savanna climate Preferred < 60mm precipitation driest month (in winter) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
BS - Steppe climate Preferred > 430mm and < 860mm annual precipitation
Cs - Warm temperate climate with dry summer Preferred Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry summers

Latitude/Altitude Ranges

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Latitude North (°N)Latitude South (°S)Altitude Lower (m)Altitude Upper (m)
37 -25

Air Temperature

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Parameter Lower limit Upper limit
Absolute minimum temperature (ºC) 0
Mean maximum temperature of hottest month (ºC) 38
Mean minimum temperature of coldest month (ºC) 15

Rainfall

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ParameterLower limitUpper limitDescription
Mean annual rainfall7501250mm; lower/upper limits

Rainfall Regime

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Bimodal
Summer
Uniform

Soil Tolerances

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Soil drainage

  • free

Soil reaction

  • acid
  • alkaline
  • neutral

Soil texture

  • heavy
  • light
  • medium

Special soil tolerances

  • saline

Notes on Natural Enemies

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Gossypium barbadense is attacked by the caterpillars of many species of Lepidoptera (Simpson, 2017). Leaf, stem and bud-sucking bugs cause damage to this species. The most widespread diseases known are bacterial blight, leaf spot, blackarm or boll rot (PROTA, 2017). It contains the compound gossypol, which gives it some resistance to insect and fungal damage (Simpson, 2017)

Means of Movement and Dispersal

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Natural Dispersal

Gossypium barbadense seeds can be dispersed by wind and gravity. The seeds remain attached to the placenta and get separated by strong wind/rain or by picking. Flooding or other extreme environmental conditions such as cyclones also contribute in seed dispersal (PIER, 2012).

Accidental Introduction

Gossypium barbadense propagules can be dispersed during harvesting or escape from where the cotton seed is stored. Seeds also get dispersed during transport, stock feeding, and due to adverse weather conditions (PIER, 2012).

Vector transmission (biotic)

Gossypium barbadense can be dispersed after being consumed by cattle (PIER, 2012).

Intentional introduction

Gossypium barbadense was introduced intentionally by people around the world to cultivate it for its fibres (PIER, 2012).

Pathway Causes

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CauseNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Animal productionThe seed cake produced after oil extraction is used as fodder for livestock, or the whole seed can be digested by ruminants Yes Yes PROTA, 2017
Breeding and propagation Yes Yes PROTA, 2017
Crop production Yes Yes PROTA, 2017
Escape from confinement or garden escape Yes Yes PROTA, 2017
Forage Yes Yes PROTA, 2017
Horticulture Yes Yes Useful Tropical Plants, 2017
Internet salesSeeds available for purchase online Yes Yes ,
Medicinal use Yes Yes PROTA, 2017
Nursery trade Yes Yes ,
Ornamental purposes Yes Yes Useful Tropical Plants, 2017
Seed trade Yes Yes ,

Pathway Vectors

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VectorNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
MailSeeds available for purchase online Yes Yes ,
Livestock Yes Yes PROTA, 2017
Water Yes Yes PIER, 2017
Wind Yes Yes PIER, 2017

Impact Summary

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CategoryImpact
Cultural/amenity Positive
Economic/livelihood Positive and negative
Environment (generally) Positive
Human health Positive

Environmental Impact

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There is no evidence of negative impacts of G. barbadense on environment. Gossypium barbadense is not considered to be a threat to agricultural productivity or native biodiversity (PIER, 2012).

Social Impact

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The seeds can be toxic if ingested in large quantities due to the presence of gossypol and cyclopropenoid fatty acids (PIER, 2012).

Risk and Impact Factors

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Invasiveness
  • Proved invasive outside its native range
  • Has a broad native range
  • Abundant in its native range
  • Highly adaptable to different environments
  • Is a habitat generalist
  • Pioneering in disturbed areas
  • Highly mobile locally
  • Long lived
  • Has high reproductive potential
  • Has propagules that can remain viable for more than one year
  • Has high genetic variability
Impact outcomes
  • Negatively impacts animal health
  • Negatively impacts livelihoods
Likelihood of entry/control
  • Highly likely to be transported internationally accidentally
  • Highly likely to be transported internationally deliberately

Uses

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Economic Value

Cotton lint is the most important and versatile vegetable fibre in the world today, and is woven into fabrics, either alone or combined with other fibres. Cotton also supplies yarn, cordage, twine and tyre cord. Between 2004 and 2008 70,000,000 t of seed cotton were produced. 90% of this production was G. hirsutum, but the majority of the remaining 10% was from G. barbadense (PROTA, 2017).G. barbadense is an especially valued cotton species as it produces long, strong and fine fibres, which are higher quality than G. hirsutum, but it has lower yields (PROTA, 2017).

The seeds yield a semi-drying edible oil, which is used in salad and as cooking oil, and in margarine manufacture. Low-grade oil is used in the manufacture of soap, lubricants, sulphonated oils and protective coatings. The residual seed cake, decorticated or undecorticated, is an important protein concentrate for livestock. Low-grade cake is used as manure. The whole seed may also be used as cattle feed. Cotton seed hulls are used as roughage for livestock and as bedding and fuel. The fuzz from seed delinting after ginning is used in upholstery, felt, paper and explosives. It is also used to weave hammocks and carpet and as stuffing material for pillows and cushions.

Social Benefit

Gossypium barbadense is used in traditional medicine, and it believed to have antifungal and antitumour properties. The leaves are used to treat hypertension and irregular menstruation. G. barbadense fibre is used for weaving articles such as waistbands, neckerchiefs and armlets in West Africa. In Cameroon, its fibre is used to make cloth for dowries and in burials (PROTA, 2017). The dry stalks can be used as household fuel.

Uses List

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Human food and beverage

  • Flour/starch
  • Seeds

Materials

  • Fibre

Medicinal, pharmaceutical

  • Source of medicine/pharmaceutical

Ornamental

  • Potted plant
  • Seed trade

Prevention and Control

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Due to the variable regulations around (de)registration of pesticides, your national list of registered pesticides or relevant authority should be consulted to determine which products are legally allowed for use in your country when considering chemical control. Pesticides should always be used in a lawful manner, consistent with the product's label.

Physical/Mechanical Control

Gossypium barbadense can be controlled by mulching, root cutting and burning (OGTR, 2008).

Chemical Control

Herbicides can be used to control seedling cotton volunteers. Glyphosate is a common herbicide used to control these volunteers (PIER, 2012).

References

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Kirkpatrick TL, Rothrock CS, 2001. Compendium of cotton diseases, St. Paul, Minnesota, USA: American Phytopathological Society.

Almeida, R. P. de, 2000. Economic threshold for the cotton boll weevil (Anthonomus grandis Boheman) control. In: Proceedings of the Section Experimental and Applied Entomology of the Netherlands Entomological Society [Proceedings of the 11th meeting of experimental and applied entomologists in the Netherlands, Wageningen, Netherlands, 17 December 1999], 11 [ed. by Sommeijer, M. J., Meeuwsen, F. J. A. J.]. 97-101.

Cauquil, J., Vaissayre, M., 1997. New cotton protection policy and rational use of pesticides. Agriculture et Développement, (Special issue), 4-11, 36-37.

Deguine, J. P., Goze, E., Leclant, F., 2000. The consequences of late outbreaks of the aphid Aphis gossypii in cotton growing in central Africa: towards a possible method for the prevention of cotton stickiness. International Journal of Pest Management, 46(2), 85-89. doi: 10.1080/096708700227426

FAO, 2003. FAOSTAT. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations.http://www.fao.org/faostat/en/#home

Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2017. Flora of China. In: Flora of China St. Louis, Missouri and Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden and Harvard University Herbaria.http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2

Godoy-Avila S, Palomo Gil A, Garcia Hernandez JL, 2000. Evaluation of transgenic cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) varieties resistant to pink bollworm (Pectinophora gossypiella S.) I. Yield. ITEA Produccion Vegetal, 96, 157-164.

Gregory, P., Stewart, R., Stavrou, S., 2002. Adoption of Bt cotton by small-scale farmers in South Africa. Pesticide Outlook, 13(1), 31-34. doi: 10.1039/b200938m

Hardee DD, VanDuyn JW, Layton MB, Bagwell RD, 2000. Bt cotton and management of the tobacco budworm-bollworm complex. United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service publication ARS-154. USDA-ARS.40 pp.

Layton, M. B., Stewart, S. D., Williams, M. R., Long, J. L., 1999. Performance of Bt cotton in Mississippi, 1998. In: 1999 Proceedings Beltwide Cotton Conferences, Orlando, Florida, USA, 3-7 January, 1999: Volume 2 [1999 Proceedings Beltwide Cotton Conferences, Orlando, Florida, USA, 3-7 January, 1999: Volume 2], [ed. by Dugger, P., Richter, D.]. Memphis, USA: National Cotton Council. 942-945.

Longley, A. E., 1933. Chromosomes in Gossypium and related genera. Journal of Agricultural Research, 46, 217-27.

Mann, G. S., Dhaliwal, G. S., Dhawan, A. K., 2001. Effect of alternate application of neem products and insecticides on population of Bemisia tabaci Gennadius and its impact on bollworm damage in upland cotton. Annals of Plant Protection Sciences, 9(1), 22-25.

Miller, T., 2001. Control of pink bollworm. Pesticide Outlook, 12(2), 68-70. doi: 10.1039/b102656a

Missouri Botanical Garden, 2020. Tropicos database. In: Tropicos database St. Louis, Missouri, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden.http://www.tropicos.org/

OECD, 2010. Safety Assessment of Transgenic Organisms, Volume 4: OECD Consensus Documents, Paris, France: OECD Publishing.doi: https://doi.org/10.1787/9789264096158-5-en

OGTR, 2008. The Biology of G. hirsutum and G. barbadense (cotton). Australian Government Department of Health and Aging - Office of the Gene Technology Regulator (OGTR).http://www.ogtr.gov.au/internet/ogtr/publishing.nsf/Content/cotton-3/$FILE/biologycotton08.pdf

Oviedo Prieto R, Herrera Oliver P, Caluff MG, et al. , 2012. National list of invasive and potentially invasive plants in the Republic of Cuba - 2011. (Lista nacional de especies de plantas invasoras y potencialmente invasoras en la República de Cuba - 2011). Bissea: Boletín sobre Conservación de Plantas del Jardín Botánico Nacional de Cuba, 6(Special Issue 1):22-96

Oviedo Prieto, R., Herrera Oliver, P., Caluff, M. G., et al., 2012. National list of invasive and potentially invasive plants in the Republic of Cuba - 2011. (Lista nacional de especies de plantas invasoras y potencialmente invasoras en la República de Cuba - 2011). Bissea: Boletín sobre Conservación de Plantas del Jardín Botánico Nacional de Cuba, 6(Special Issue No. 1), 22-96.

PFAF, 2020. Plants For A Future Database. In: Plants For A Future Database Dawlish, UK: Plants For A Future.http://www.pfaf.org/USER/Default.aspx

PIER, 2012. Gossypium barbadense weed risk assessment. Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER).http://www.hear.org/pier/wra/pacific/Gossypium%20barbadense.pdf

PIER, 2017. Pacific Islands Ecosystems at Risk. In: Pacific Islands Ecosystems at Risk Honolulu, Hawaii, USA: HEAR, University of Hawaii.http://www.hear.org/pier/index.html

PROTA, 2017. PROTA4U web database. In: PROTA4U web database Wageningen and Nairobi, Netherlands\Kenya: Plant Resources of Tropical Africa.https://www.prota4u.org/database/

Sheraz Farid, Gill, M. I., Hussain, S. Z., Anwar, M., 2000. Evaluation of Stomp-330E pre-emergence herbicide for weed control in cotton planted on bed and furrow. Sarhad Journal of Agriculture, 16(1), 19-23.

Silvie, P., Deguine, J. P., Nibouche, S., Michel, B., Vaissayre, M., 2001. Potential of threshold-based interventions for cotton pest control by small farmers in West Africa. Crop Protection, 20(4), 297-301. doi: 10.1016/S0261-2194(00)00146-0

Simpson D, 2017. Some Magnetic Island Plants. https://somemagneticislandplants.com.au/

USDA-NRCS, 2017. The PLANTS Database. In: The PLANTS Database Greensboro, North Carolina, USA: National Plant Data Team.https://plants.sc.egov.usda.gov

Useful Tropical Plants, 2017. Useful tropical plants database. In: Useful tropical plants database : K Fern.http://tropical.theferns.info/

World Flora Online, 2020. World Flora Online. In: World Flora Online : World Flora Online Consortium.http://www.worldfloraonline.org

Distribution References

Abdel-Salam A M M, Rezk A A, Dawoud R A, 2019. Biochemical, serological, molecular and natural host studies on Tomato Chlorosis Virus in Egypt. Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences. 22 (2), 83-94. https://scialert.net/fulltext/?doi=pjbs.2019.83.94&org=11

El-Zahi E S, Aref S A E, Korish S K M, 2016. The cotton mealybug, Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) as a new menace to cotton in Egypt and its chemical control. Journal of Plant Protection Research. 56 (2), 111-115. http://www.degruyter.com/view/j/jppr.2016.56.issue-2/jppr-2016-0017/jppr-2016-0017.xml?format=INT

Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2017. Flora of China. In: Flora of China. St. Louis, Missouri and Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden and Harvard University Herbaria. http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2

Gann GD, Trejo-Torres JC, Stocking CG, 2017. Plants of the Island of Puerto Rico. (Plantas de la Isla de Puerto Rico). Delray Beach, Florida, USA: The Institute for Regional Conservation. https://regionalconservation.org/ircs/database/site/IntroPR.asp

Halpern H C, Bell A A, Wagner T A, Liu J, Nichols R L, Olvey J, Woodward J E, Sanogo S, Jones C A, Chan C T, Brewer M T, 2018. First report of Fusarium wilt of cotton caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. vasinfectum race 4 in Texas, U.S.A. Plant Disease. 102 (2), 446. DOI:10.1094/PDIS-07-17-1084-PDN

Ibrahim I K A, Mokbel A A, Handoo Z A, 2010. Current status of phytoparasitic nematodes and their host plants in Egypt. Nematropica. 40 (2), 239-262. http://www.ontaweb.org/

Kim Y, Hutmacher R B, Davis R M, 2005. Characterization of California isolates of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. vasinfectum. Plant Disease. 89 (4), 366-372. DOI:10.1094/PD-89-0366

OGTR, 2008. The Biology of G. hirsutum and G. barbadense (cotton)., Australian Government Department of Health and Aging - Office of the Gene Technology Regulator (OGTR). http://www.ogtr.gov.au/internet/ogtr/publishing.nsf/Content/cotton-3/$FILE/biologycotton08.pdf

Oviedo Prieto R, Herrera Oliver P, Caluff M G, et al, 2012. National list of invasive and potentially invasive plants in the Republic of Cuba - 2011. (Lista nacional de especies de plantas invasoras y potencialmente invasoras en la República de Cuba - 2011). Bissea: Boletín sobre Conservación de Plantas del Jardín Botánico Nacional de Cuba. 6 (Special Issue No. 1), 22-96.

PIER, 2017. Pacific Islands Ecosystems at Risk. In: Pacific Islands Ecosystems at Risk. Honolulu, Hawaii, USA: HEAR, University of Hawaii. http://www.hear.org/pier/index.html

PROTA, 2017. PROTA4U web database. In: PROTA4U web database. Wageningen and Nairobi, Netherlands\Kenya: Plant Resources of Tropical Africa. https://www.prota4u.org/database/

Ray J D, Sharman M, Quintao V, Rossel B, Westaway J, Gambley C, 2016. Cotton leafroll dwarf virus detected in Timor-Leste. Australasian Plant Disease Notes. 11 (1), 29. http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s13314-016-0217-2 DOI:10.1007/s13314-016-0217-2

Reddy R V C, Muniyappa V, Colvin J, Seal S, 2005. A new begomovirus isolated from Gossypium barbadense in southern India. Plant Pathology. 54 (4), 570. DOI:10.1111/j.1365-3059.2005.01214.x

UPRRP, 2017. UPRRP Herbarium. In: UPRRP Herbarium. San Juan, Puerto Rico: University of Puerto Rico. http://herbariodb.uprrp.edu/

USDA-NRCS, 2017. The PLANTS Database. In: The PLANTS Database. Greensboro, North Carolina, USA: National Plant Data Team. https://plants.sc.egov.usda.gov

Womach J, 2005. Agriculture: a glossary of terms, programs, and laws. CRS Report for Congress., Washington, DC, USA: Congressional Research Service, the Library of Congress. https://web.archive.org/web/20130923055613/http://www.cnie.org/NLE/CRSreports/05jun/97-905.pdf

Links to Websites

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WebsiteURLComment
GISD/IASPMR: Invasive Alien Species Pathway Management Resource and DAISIE European Invasive Alien Species Gatewayhttps://doi.org/10.5061/dryad.m93f6Data source for updated system data added to species habitat list.
Global register of Introduced and Invasive species (GRIIS)http://griis.org/Data source for updated system data added to species habitat list.

Contributors

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07/05/2017 Original text by:

Shruti Dube, Department of Botany-Smithsonian NMNH, Washington DC, USA

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