Invasive Species Compendium

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Datasheet

Passalora fulva
(tomato leaf mould)

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Datasheet

Passalora fulva (tomato leaf mould)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 16 November 2021
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Pest
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Passalora fulva
  • Preferred Common Name
  • tomato leaf mould
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Fungi
  •     Phylum: Ascomycota
  •       Subphylum: Pezizomycotina
  •         Class: Dothideomycetes

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Passalora fulva (tomato leaf mould); Symptoms on tomato leaf. September 2016.
TitleSymptoms
CaptionPassalora fulva (tomato leaf mould); Symptoms on tomato leaf. September 2016.
Copyright©CABI (taken by Dr Philip Taylor)
Passalora fulva (tomato leaf mould); Symptoms on tomato leaf. September 2016.
SymptomsPassalora fulva (tomato leaf mould); Symptoms on tomato leaf. September 2016.©CABI (taken by Dr Philip Taylor)
Passalora fulva (tomato leaf mould); Symptoms on tomato leaf. September 2016.
TitleSymptoms
CaptionPassalora fulva (tomato leaf mould); Symptoms on tomato leaf. September 2016.
Copyright©CABI (taken by Dr Philip Taylor)
Passalora fulva (tomato leaf mould); Symptoms on tomato leaf. September 2016.
SymptomsPassalora fulva (tomato leaf mould); Symptoms on tomato leaf. September 2016.©CABI (taken by Dr Philip Taylor)
Passalora fulva (tomato leaf mould); Symptoms on underside of tomato leaf. September 2016.
TitleSymptoms
CaptionPassalora fulva (tomato leaf mould); Symptoms on underside of tomato leaf. September 2016.
Copyright©CABI (taken by Dr Philip Taylor)
Passalora fulva (tomato leaf mould); Symptoms on underside of tomato leaf. September 2016.
SymptomsPassalora fulva (tomato leaf mould); Symptoms on underside of tomato leaf. September 2016.©CABI (taken by Dr Philip Taylor)
Passalora fulva (tomato leaf mould); Symptoms on dorsal side of tomato leaf. September 2016.
TitleSymptoms
CaptionPassalora fulva (tomato leaf mould); Symptoms on dorsal side of tomato leaf. September 2016.
Copyright©CABI (taken by Dr Philip Taylor)
Passalora fulva (tomato leaf mould); Symptoms on dorsal side of tomato leaf. September 2016.
SymptomsPassalora fulva (tomato leaf mould); Symptoms on dorsal side of tomato leaf. September 2016.©CABI (taken by Dr Philip Taylor)
Passalora fulva (tomato leaf mould); Symptoms on underside of tomato leaf. September 2016.
TitleSymptoms
CaptionPassalora fulva (tomato leaf mould); Symptoms on underside of tomato leaf. September 2016.
Copyright©CABI (taken by Dr Philip Taylor)
Passalora fulva (tomato leaf mould); Symptoms on underside of tomato leaf. September 2016.
SymptomsPassalora fulva (tomato leaf mould); Symptoms on underside of tomato leaf. September 2016.©CABI (taken by Dr Philip Taylor)
Passalora fulva (tomato leaf mould); Symptoms on underside of tomato leaf. September 2016.
TitleSymptoms
CaptionPassalora fulva (tomato leaf mould); Symptoms on underside of tomato leaf. September 2016.
Copyright©CABI (taken by Dr Philip Taylor)
Passalora fulva (tomato leaf mould); Symptoms on underside of tomato leaf. September 2016.
SymptomsPassalora fulva (tomato leaf mould); Symptoms on underside of tomato leaf. September 2016.©CABI (taken by Dr Philip Taylor)
P. fulva (tomato leaf mold) on tomato leaves. The Gambia, March 1978.
TitleSymptoms
CaptionP. fulva (tomato leaf mold) on tomato leaves. The Gambia, March 1978.
Copyright©J.M. Waller/CABI BioScience
P. fulva (tomato leaf mold) on tomato leaves. The Gambia, March 1978.
SymptomsP. fulva (tomato leaf mold) on tomato leaves. The Gambia, March 1978.©J.M. Waller/CABI BioScience

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Passalora fulva (Cooke) U. Braun & Crous

Preferred Common Name

  • tomato leaf mould

Other Scientific Names

  • Cladosporium fulvum Cooke
  • Fulvia fulva (Cooke) Cif.
  • Mycovellosiella fulva (Cooke) Arx

International Common Names

  • Spanish: abigarrado del tomate
  • French: maladie fauve de la tomate; moisissure des feuilles de la tomate

Local Common Names

  • Germany: Braunfleckigkeit: Tomate; Samtfleckenkrankheit: Tomate

EPPO code

  • FULVFU (Fulvia fulva)

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Fungi
  •         Phylum: Ascomycota
  •             Subphylum: Pezizomycotina
  •                 Class: Dothideomycetes
  •                     Subclass: Dothideomycetidae
  •                         Order: Capnodiales
  •                             Family: Mycosphaerellaceae
  •                                 Genus: Passalora
  •                                     Species: Passalora fulva

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 25 Feb 2021
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

AngolaPresentOriginal citation: CMI, 1983
CameroonPresentOriginal citation: CMI, 1983
Congo, Democratic Republic of thePresentOriginal citation: CMI, 1983
Côte d'IvoirePresentOriginal citation: CMI, 1983
EgyptPresentOriginal citation: CMI, 1983
GabonPresentOriginal citation: CMI, 1983
GambiaPresentOriginal citation: CMI, 1983
GhanaPresentOriginal citation: CMI, 1983
GuineaPresentOriginal citation: CMI, 1983
KenyaPresentOriginal citation: CMI, 1983
LibyaPresentOriginal citation: CMI, 1983
MalawiPresentOriginal citation: CMI, 1983
MauritiusPresentOriginal citation: CMI, 1983
MoroccoPresentOriginal citation: CMI, 1983
MozambiquePresentOriginal citation: CMI, 1983
NigeriaPresentOriginal citation: CMI, 1983
SenegalPresentOriginal citation: CMI, 1983
SeychellesPresentOriginal citation: CMI, 1983
Sierra LeonePresentOriginal citation: CMI, 1983
South AfricaPresentOriginal citation: CMI, 1983
SudanPresentOriginal citation: CMI, 1983
TanzaniaPresentOriginal citation: CMI, 1983
TogoPresentOriginal citation: CMI, 1983
UgandaPresentOriginal citation: CMI, 1983
ZimbabwePresentOriginal citation: CMI, 1983

Asia

AzerbaijanPresent
CambodiaPresentOriginal citation: CMI, 1983
ChinaPresentOriginal citation: CMI, 1983
-GansuPresent
-GuangxiPresent
-HebeiPresent
-HeilongjiangPresent
-JiangxiPresent
-JilinPresent
-LiaoningPresent
-ShaanxiPresent
-YunnanPresent
IndiaPresentOriginal citation: CMI, 1983
-Andhra PradeshPresentOriginal citation: CMI, 1983
-Madhya PradeshPresentOriginal citation: CMI, 1983
-MaharashtraPresentOriginal citation: CMI, 1983
-Uttar PradeshPresentOriginal citation: CMI, 1983
-West BengalPresentOriginal citation: CMI, 1983
IndonesiaPresentOriginal citation: CMI, 1983
IranPresentOriginal citation: CMI, 1983
IraqPresentOriginal citation: IMI Herbarium, 1985
IsraelPresentOriginal citation: CMI, 1983
JapanPresentOriginal citation: CMI, 1983
KazakhstanPresent
LebanonPresentOriginal citation: CMI, 1983
MalaysiaPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-Peninsular MalaysiaPresentOriginal citation: CMI, 1983
-SabahPresentOriginal citation: CMI, 1983
PakistanPresentOriginal citation: CMI, 1983
PhilippinesPresentOriginal citation: CMI, 1983
South KoreaPresentOriginal citation: CMI, 1983
Sri LankaPresentOriginal citation: CMI, 1983
TaiwanPresentOriginal citation: CMI, 1983
ThailandPresentOriginal citation: CMI, 1983
TurkeyPresentOriginal citation: CMI, 1983
TurkmenistanPresent
UzbekistanPresent
VietnamPresentOriginal citation: CMI, 1983

Europe

AlbaniaPresent
BelarusPresent
BelgiumPresentOriginal citation: CMI, 1983
BulgariaPresentOriginal citation: CMI, 1983
CroatiaPresent
CyprusPresent
CzechoslovakiaPresentOriginal citation: CMI, 1983
DenmarkPresentOriginal citation: CMI, 1983
EstoniaPresent
Faroe IslandsPresentOriginal citation: CMI, 1983
FinlandPresentOriginal citation: CMI, 1983
FrancePresentOriginal citation: CMI, 1983
GermanyPresentOriginal citation: CMI, 1983
HungaryPresentOriginal citation: CMI, 1983
IcelandPresentOriginal citation: CMI, 1983
IrelandPresentOriginal citation: CMI, 1983
ItalyPresentOriginal citation: CMI, 1983
LatviaPresentOriginal citation: Shvartsman, 1975
LithuaniaPresentOriginal citation: Shvartsman, 1975
MaltaPresentOriginal citation: CMI, 1983
MoldovaPresent
NetherlandsPresentOriginal citation: CMI, 1983
NorwayPresentOriginal citation: CMI, 1983
PolandPresentOriginal citation: CMI, 1983
RomaniaPresentOriginal citation: CMI, 1983
RussiaPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-Central RussiaPresentOriginal citation: CMI, 1983
-Russian Far EastPresent
SpainPresentOriginal citation: CMI, 1983
SwedenPresentOriginal citation: CMI, 1983
SwitzerlandPresentOriginal citation: CMI, 1983
UkrainePresent
United KingdomPresentOriginal citation: CMI, 1983
-Channel IslandsPresentOriginal citation: CMI, 1983

North America

BarbadosPresentOriginal citation: CMI, 1983
BermudaPresentOriginal citation: CMI, 1983
CanadaPresentOriginal citation: CMI, 1983
-British ColumbiaPresent
-New BrunswickPresent
-Nova ScotiaPresent
-OntarioPresent
-QuebecPresent
Costa RicaPresentOriginal citation: CMI, 1983
CubaPresentOriginal citation: CMI, 1983
DominicaPresentOriginal citation: CMI, 1983
Dominican RepublicPresentOriginal citation: CMI, 1983
GrenadaPresentOriginal citation: CMI, 1983
GuadeloupePresentOriginal citation: CMI, 1983
GuatemalaPresentOriginal citation: CMI, 1983
HaitiPresentOriginal citation: CMI, 1983
HondurasPresentOriginal citation: CMI, 1983
JamaicaPresentOriginal citation: CMI, 1983
MartiniquePresentOriginal citation: CMI, 1983
MexicoPresentOriginal citation: CMI, 1983
NicaraguaPresentOriginal citation: CMI, 1983
PanamaPresentOriginal citation: CMI, 1983
Puerto RicoPresentOriginal citation: CMI, 1983
Saint LuciaPresentOriginal citation: CMI, 1983
Saint Vincent and the GrenadinesPresentOriginal citation: CMI, 1983
Trinidad and TobagoPresentOriginal citation: CMI, 1983
United StatesPresentOriginal citation: CMI, 1983
-ArkansasPresent
-ConnecticutPresent
-FloridaPresent
-HawaiiPresent
-IdahoPresent
-IowaPresent
-KentuckyPresent
-LouisianaPresent
-MississippiPresent
-North CarolinaPresent
-OklahomaPresent
-OregonPresent
-TexasPresent
-WashingtonPresent

Oceania

American SamoaPresent
AustraliaPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-New South WalesPresentOriginal citation: CMI, 1983
-QueenslandPresentOriginal citation: CMI, 1983
-South AustraliaPresentOriginal citation: CMI, 1983
-TasmaniaPresentOriginal citation: CMI, 1983
-VictoriaPresentOriginal citation: CMI, 1983
FijiPresentOriginal citation: CMI, 1983
French PolynesiaPresent
New CaledoniaPresentOriginal citation: CMI, 1983
New ZealandPresentOriginal citation: CMI, 1983
Papua New GuineaPresentOriginal citation: CMI, 1983
SamoaPresentOriginal citation: CMI, 1983
Solomon IslandsPresentOriginal citation: CMI, 1983
TongaPresentOriginal citation: CMI, 1983

South America

ArgentinaPresent
BoliviaPresentOriginal citation: CMI, 1983
BrazilPresentOriginal citation: CMI, 1983
-Minas GeraisPresentOriginal citation: Mizubuti & Brommonschenker, 1996
ChilePresentOriginal citation: CMI, 1983
ColombiaPresentOriginal citation: CMI, 1983
GuyanaPresentOriginal citation: CMI, 1983
PeruPresentOriginal citation: CMI, 1983
SurinamePresentOriginal citation: CMI, 1983
VenezuelaPresentOriginal citation: CMI, 1983

Growth Stages

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Vegetative growing stage

List of Symptoms/Signs

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SignLife StagesType
Leaves / abnormal colours
Leaves / abnormal leaf fall
Leaves / fungal growth
Leaves / necrotic areas

Natural enemies

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Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Dicyma pulvinata Mycoparasite
Hansfordia pulvinata Pathogen
Hypocrea rufa Mycoparasite
Sarocladium strictum Pathogen
Trichoderma harzianum Antagonist
Trichothecium roseum Antagonist

Plant Trade

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Plant parts liable to carry the pest in trade/transportPest stagesBorne internallyBorne externallyVisibility of pest or symptoms
Flowers/Inflorescences/Cones/Calyx fungi/hyphae; fungi/spores Yes Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Fruits (inc. pods) fungi/hyphae; fungi/spores Yes Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Leaves fungi/hyphae; fungi/spores Yes Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
True seeds (inc. grain) fungi/spores Yes Pest or symptoms usually invisible
Plant parts not known to carry the pest in trade/transport
Bark
Bulbs/Tubers/Corms/Rhizomes
Growing medium accompanying plants
Roots
Seedlings/Micropropagated plants
Wood

References

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Anon., 1976. Manual of Plant Growth Stages and Disease Assessment Keys. UK, Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food. Pinner, Middlesex, UK: MAFF (Publications).

Arx JA von, 1983. Mycosphaerella and its anamorphs. Proceedings of the Koninklijke Nederlandse Akademie van Wetenschappen, Series C, 86: 15-54.

Batista UG; Higgins VJ, 1991. Accumulation of phytoalexins in the compatible interaction between Cladosporium fulvum and tomato in relation to colonization. Canadian Journal of Botany, 69(4):822-830

Bedlan G, 1997. Biologische Bekampfung ausgewahlter Gemusekrankheiten mittels Trichoderma harzianum. Gesunde Pflanzen, 49(3):89-94.

Blancard D; Jamme M de la; Brun J-M, 1983. Control of Cladosporium disease of tomato grown under cover in South-East France. Revue Horticole, No.235:23-29

Braun U, 1995. A monograph of Cercosporella, Ramularia and allied genera (phytopathogenic hyphomycetes), Vol. 1. Eching bei Munchen, Germany: IHW-Verlag, 333 pp.

Brooks F, 2002. List of Plant Diseases in American Samoa 2002. Land Grant Technical Report No. 44. Pago Pago, American Samoa: American Samoa Community College Land Grant Program.

Cara, M. de, Heras, F., Santos, M., Tello Marquina, J. C., 2008. First report of Fulvia fulva, causal agent of tomato leaf mold, in greenhouses in Southeastern Spain. Plant Disease, 92(9), 1371. doi: 10.1094/PDIS-92-9-1371B

Ciferri R, 1954. A few critical Italian fungi. Atti Istituto Botanico della Universita Laboratorio Crittogamico Pavia, ser. 5, 10:237-251.

Cobelli L; Scannavini M; Antoniacci L; Brunelli A, 1995. Control trials against tomato leaf mould in tunnels. Informatore Fitopatologico, 45(4):42-45; 3 ref.

Costache M; Tomescu A; Dragomir N, 1982. New fungicides for the control of tomato pathogens. Productia Vegetala, Horticultura, 31(5):16-21.

Crous PW; Aptroot A; Kang J-C; Braun U; Wingfield MJ, 2000. The genus Mycosphaerella and its anamorphs. Studies in Mycology, 45:107-221.

Crous PW; Braun U, 2003. Mycosphaerella and its anamorphs: 1. Names published in Cercospora and Passalora. CBS Biodiversity Series, 1:1-571.

Crous PW; Kang JiChuan; Braun U, 2001. A phylogenetic redefinition of anamorph genera in Mycosphaerella based on ITS rDNA sequence and morphology. Mycologia, 93(6):1081-1101; many ref.

Dickinson MJ; Jones DA; Jones JDG, 1993. Close linkage between the Cf-2/Cf-5 and Mi resistance loci in tomato. Molecular Plant-Microbe Interactions, 6(3):341-347

Dorozhkin NA; Poliksenova VD, 1983. Methods of maintaining the resistance of tomatoes to Cladosporium in relation to the racial dynamics of the pathogen. Tagungsbericht, Akademie der Landwirtschaftswissenschaften der Deutschen Demokratischen Republik, 216(II):649-652.

Dow JM; Callow JA, 1978. A possible role for alpha -tomatine in the varietal-specific resistance of tomato to Cladosporium fulvum. Phytopathologische Zeitschrift, 92(3):211-216

Ellis MB, 1971. Dematiaceous Hyphomycetes. Wallingford, UK: CAB International.

Ellis MB, 1976. More dematiaceous hyphomycetes. Kew, UK: CMI, 507 pp.

Farr DF; Bills GF; Chamuris GP; Rossman AY, 1989. Fungi on Plants and Plant Products in the United States. St. Paul, Minnesota, USA: APS Press, 1252 pp.

Farr DF; Bills GF; Chamuris GP; Rossman AY, 1991. Fungi on Plants and Plant Products in the United States. St Paul, Minnesota, USA: APS Press.

Firman ID, 1975. Plant diseases in the area of the South Pacific Commission. 2. American Samoa. Information Document South Pacific Commission, No.38:7 + 3 pp.

Fletcher JT; Harris PA, 1979. Survey of diseases of glasshouse tomato crops in England and Wales in 1976. Plant Pathology, 28(3):111-118

Gerlach WWP; Matalavea S; Tuionoula M, 1986. Evaluation of fungicides for the control of tomato leaf diseases in Western Samoa. Alafua Agricultural Bulletin, 11(3):33-36

Ginns JH, 1986. Compendium of Plant Disease and Decay Fungi in Canada 1960-1980. Ottawa, Canada: Research Branch Agriculture Canada Publication 1813.

Gleason ML; Parker SK, 1995. Epidemic of leaf mold caused by Fulvia fulva on field-grown tomatoes in Iowa. Plant Disease, 79(5):538

Grnborg H, 1984. Diseases of tomato. Gartner Tidende, 100(6):147

Hammond-Kosack KE; Jones JDG, 1994. Incomplete dominance of tomato Cf genes for resistance to Cladosporium fulvum. Molecular Plant-Microbe Interactions, 7(1):58-70

Hankawa Y, 1988. Pest control on tomatoes in plastic houses by labour saving methods. Bulletin of the Hiroshima Prefectural Agricultural Experiment Station, 51:65-77

Hanusova M, 1972. Conditions for the growth of Cladosporium fulvum Cooke in artificial culture. Ochrana Rostlin, 8(3):201-206

Hanusova M, 1974. The inhibition of TMV reproduction in tomato leaves induced by Cladosporium fulvum Cooke. Biologia Plantarum, 16(3):224-226.

Hasan MS, 1989. Soil sterilization by solar heating in Iraq. Arab Journal of Plant Protection, 7(2):122-125; 15 ref.

Higgins VJ; Hollands J, 1987. Prevalent races of Cladosporium fulvum in southern Ontario and their benomyl sensitivity. Canadian Journal of Plant Pathology, 9(1):32-35

Holliday P; Mulder JL, 1976. Fulvia fulva. CMI Descriptions of Pathogenic Fungi and Bacteria No. 487. Wallingford, UK: CAB International.

IMI Herbarium, 1900-. Herbarium specimen. International Mycological Institute (now CABI Bioscience) Herbarium. Egham, UK: CABI Bioscience.

Kashyap U, 1979??. Biological control of some fungal diseases of tomatoes by phyllosphere microorganisms. India, Society of Mycology and Plant Pathology: Symposium on plant disease problems. Indian Journal of Mycology and Plant Pathology, 8(1):37.

Kashyap U; Levkina LM, 1977. Epiphytic microflora of Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. Vestnik Moskovskogo Universiteta, Biologiya, No.4:69-72

Kim ByungSup; Cho KwangCho, 1995. Antifungal effects on plant pathogenic fungi and characteristics of antifungal substances produced by Bacillus subtilis SJ-2 isolated from sclerotia of Rhizoctonia solani. Korean Journal of Plant Pathology, 11(2):165-172; 23 ref.

Kumar K; Srivastava SSL; Singh J, 1986. Fungi associated with Brassica juncea seeds, their effect and control. Farm Science Journal, 1(1-2):38-41.

Kuznetsov NN, 1979. Brown spot of tomato in Sakhalin. Zashchita Rastenii, No.3:30

Latorre, B. A., Besoain, X., 2002. Occurrence of severe outbreaks of leaf mold caused by Fulvia fulva in greenhouse tomatoes in Chile. Plant Disease, 86(6), 694. doi: 10.1094/PDIS.2002.86.6.694B

Leach CM, 1975. Influence of relative humidity and red-infrared radiation on violent spore release by Drechslera turcica and other fungi. Phytopathology, 65(11):1303-1312

Li GuiYing; Li JingFu; Li YongHao; Guo QingXun; Wang Fu, 1996. Preliminary study on physiological race differentiation in tomato leaf mold in three northeastern provinces of China. Journal of Northeast Agricultural University (English Edition), 3(1):63-66; 7 ref.

Matta A; Mohamed MI; Mohamed AA, 1979. Leaf diseases of tomato in Somalia. Studi e Ricerche, No.3:344-351

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Muradov, P. Z., Shirinova, G. F., Asgerli, L. X., Allahverdiyev, E., Gasimov, C. F., 2019. Species composition of fungi causing diseases in agricultural plants in agrarian sector of Azerbaijan. Journal of Applied and Natural Science, 11(4), 785-790. doi: 10.31018/jans.v11i4.2168

Neergaard P, 1977. Seed Pathology. Volume 1. London, UK: Macmillan Press Ltd., 839 pp.

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Okasha AM; Sharif FM; Al-Hussein FA; Jameel WN, 1989. Effect of some fungicides and antagonistic fungi on infection of tomato with leaf mold and early blight in plastic greenhouses. Arab Journal of Plant Protection, 7(2):126-132

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Sadykina EI; Sadykin AV; Ivchenko NM, 1990. Breeding greenhouse tomato for immunity. Vsesoyuznoe nauchno-tekhnicheskoe soveshchanie "Puti povysheniya effektivnosti ispol'zovaniya sovremennykh sooruzhenii zashchishchennogo grunta", Simferopol', 16 maya, 1990., 48-50.

Sati MC; Dhyani AP; Khulbe RD, 1989. Distribution and seed-plant transmission of Cladosporium spp. in red pepper, bell pepper and tomato crops of Kumaun Himalaya, UP, India. Proceedings of the Indian National Science Academy. Part B, Biological Sciences, 55(4):291-294

Satou, M., Shinozaki, T., Nishi, K., Kubota, M., 2005. Leaf mold of tomato caused by races 4 and 4.11 of Passalora fulva in Japan. Journal of General Plant Pathology, 71(6), 436-437. doi: 10.1007/s10327-005-0223-2

Shvartsman SR; Vasygina MP; Byzova ZM; Filimonova NM, 1975. Flora of spore-bearing plants of Kazakhstan. Vol. VIII. Fungi Imperfecti (Deuteromycetes). 2. Moniliales. Flora sporovykh rastenii Kazakhstana. Tom VIII. Nesovershennye griby. Fungi Imperfecti (Deuteromycetes). 2. Monilial'nye - Moniliales. Izdatel'stvo Nauka. Alma-Ata USSR, 518 pp.

Srivastava HP; Mathur PK, 1979. Two new leaf spot diseases of Jasminum sambac. Indian Phytopathology, 32(4):616-618

Tai FL, 1979. Sylloge fungorum Sinicorum. Sylloge fungorum Sinicorum. Peking, China: Science Press, Academia Sinica, 1527 pp.

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Tirilly Y; Lambert F; Thouvenot D, 1991. Bioproduction of [C]deoxyphomenone, a fungistatic metabolite of the hyperparasite Dicyma pulvinata. Phytochemistry, 30(12):3963-3965

Tirilly Y; Lambert F; Thouvenot D, 1991. Determination of the production and role of deoxyphomenone, a toxin produced by the hyperparasitic fungus Dicyma pulvinata. Mededelingen van de Faculteit Landbouwwetenschappen, Rijksuniversiteit Gent, 56(2a):203-210

Tirilly Y; Trique B; Maisonneuve J, 1987. Prospects of the use of Hansfordia pulvinata against tomato leaf mould. Bulletin OEPP, 17(4):639-643

Vakalounakis DJ, 1992. Control of fungal diseases of greenhouse tomato under long-wave infrared-absorbing plastic film. Plant Disease, 76(1):43-46

Vlasova eA, 1986. Immunity analysis of the diversity of Lycopersicon Tourn. and Daucus L. P"rva natsionalna konferentsiya po imunogenetika na rasteniyata, Sofiya, 24-25 yuni, 1986. Dokl. T. 1., 140-143; 7 ref.

Voglino P, 1912. Sopra una nova infezione dei Pomidoro[sic]. Annali della Accademia d'agricoltura di Torino, 55:381.

Vries GA de, 1952. Contribution to the knowledge of the genus Cladosporium Link ex Fr. Baarn, 121.

Winspear KW; Postlethwaite JD; Cotton RF, 1970. The restriction of Cladosporium fulvum and Botrytis cinerea attacking glasshouse tomatoes, by automatic humidity control. Annals of Applied Biology, 65(1):75-83.

Wit PJGM de, 1992. Molecular characterization of gene-for-gene systems in plant-fungus interactions and the application of avirulence genes in control of plant pathogens. Annual Review of Phytopathology, 30:391-418.

Wit PJGM de; Joosten MHAJ; Honee G; Wubben JP; Ackerveken GFJM van den; Broek HWJ van den, 1994. Molecular communication between host plant and the fungal tomato pathogen Cladosporium fulvum. Antonie van Leeuwenhoek, 65(3):257-262

Wit PJGM de; Kodde E, 1981. Induction of polyacetylenic phytoalexins in Lycopersicon esculentum after inoculation with Cladosporium fulvum (syn. Fulvia fulva). Physiological Plant Pathology, 18(2):143-148

Wit PJGMde, 1977. A light and scanning-electron microscopic study of infection of tomato plants by virulent and avirulent races of Cladosporium fulvum. Netherlands Journal of Plant Pathology, 83(3):109-122

Wit PJGMde; Ackerveken GFJMvan den; Vossen PMJ; Joosten MHAJ; Cozijnsen TJ; Honee G; Wubben JP; Danhash N; Kan JALvan; Marmeisse R; Broek HWJvan den, 1993. Avirulence genes of the tomato pathogen Cladosporium fulvum and their exploitation in molecular breeding for disease-resistant plants. Mechanisms of plant defense responses., 24-32; [^italic~Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference of the European Foundation for Plant Pathology, Strasbourg, France, 24-27 August 1992.^roman~]; 22 ref.

Zhang Huan; Zhang LeMin; Chai Min, 1996. Jiafen No. 15 - a new tomato variety for protected cultivation. China Vegetables, No. 2:4-6.

Distribution References

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CABI, Undated. Compendium record. Wallingford, UK: CABI

CABI, Undated a. CABI Compendium: Status inferred from regional distribution. Wallingford, UK: CABI

CABI, Undated b. CABI Compendium: Status as determined by CABI editor. Wallingford, UK: CABI

Cara M de, Heras F, Santos M, Tello Marquina J C, 2008. First report of Fulvia fulva, causal agent of tomato leaf mold, in greenhouses in Southeastern Spain. Plant Disease. 92 (9), 1371. DOI:10.1094/PDIS-92-9-1371B

Dorozhkin N A, Poliksenova V D, 1983. Methods of maintaining the resistance of tomatoes to Cladosporium in relation to the racial dynamics of the pathogen. Tagungsbericht, Akademie der Landwirtschaftswissenschaften der Deutschen Demokratischen Republik. 649-652.

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Firman I D, 1975. Plant diseases in the area of the South Pacific Commission. 2. American Samoa. In: Information Document South Pacific Commission, 7 + 3 pp.

Ginns JH, 1986. Compendium of Plant Disease and Decay Fungi in Canada 1960-1980., Ottawa, Canada: Research Branch Agriculture Canada Publication 1813.

Gleason M L, Parker S K, 1995. Epidemic of leaf mold caused by Fulvia fulva on field-grown tomatoes in Iowa. Plant Disease. 79 (5), 538. DOI:10.1094/PD-79-0538C

Higgins V J, Hollands J, 1987. Prevalent races of Cladosporium fulvum in southern Ontario and their benomyl sensitivity. Canadian Journal of Plant Pathology. 9 (1), 32-35.

Kuznetsov N N, 1979. Brown spot of tomato in Sakhalin. (Buraya pyatnistost' pomidorov na Sakhaline.). Zashchita Rastenii. 30.

Latorre B A, Besoain X, 2002. Occurrence of severe outbreaks of leaf mold caused by Fulvia fulva in greenhouse tomatoes in Chile. Plant Disease. 86 (6), 694. DOI:10.1094/PDIS.2002.86.6.694B

Li GuiYing, Li JingFu, Li YongHao, Guo QingXun, Wang Fu, 1996. Preliminary study on physiological race differentiation in tomato leaf mold in three northeastern provinces of China. Journal of Northeast Agricultural University (English Edition). 3 (1), 63-66.

Merkuri J, Varaku S, Casulli F, 2002. Fungal diseases of vegetable crops in Albania. Phytopathologia Mediterranea. 41 (2), 157-159.

Muradov P Z, Shirinova G F, Asgerli L X, Allahverdiyev E, Gasimov C F, 2019. Species composition of fungi causing diseases in agricultural plants in agrarian sector of Azerbaijan. Journal of Applied and Natural Science. 11 (4), 785-790. DOI:10.31018/jans.v11i4.2168

Novak A, Kajić V, Milek T M, 2011. Distribution of tomato leaf mold (Passalora fulva (Cooke) U. Braun and Crous, syn. Cladosporium fulvum) in Croatia. Acta Horticulturae. 117-119. http://www.actahort.org/books/914/914_20.htm

Phocas C L, 1986. Annual Report of the Department of Agriculture, Cyprus, for the year 1985. Nicosia, Cyprus: Ministry of Agriculture and Natural Resources. 90-92.

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Sadykina E I, Sadykin A V, Ivchenko N M, 1990. Breeding greenhouse tomato for immunity. In: Vsesoyuznoe nauchno-tekhnicheskoe soveshchanie "Puti povysheniya ėffektivnosti ispol'zovaniya sovremennykh sooruzheniĭ zashchishchennogo grunta", Simferopol', 16 maya, 1990. 48-50.

Satou M, Shinozaki T, Nishi K, Kubota M, 2005. Leaf mold of tomato caused by races 4 and 4.11 of Passalora fulva in Japan. Journal of General Plant Pathology. 71 (6), 436-437. DOI:10.1007/s10327-005-0223-2

Shvartsman S R, Vasygina M P, Byzova Z M, Filimonova N M, 1975. Flora sporovykh rastenii Kazakhstana. Tom VIII. Nesovershennye griby. Fungi Imperfecti (Deuteromycetes). 2. Monilial'nye - Moniliales. Alma-Ata, USSR: Izdatel'stvo Nauka. 518 pp.

Tai F L, 1979. Sylloge fungorum Sinicorum. Peking, China: Science Press, Academia Sinica. 1527 pp.

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