Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

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Erythrina berteroana
(coralbean)

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Datasheet

Erythrina berteroana (coralbean)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 20 November 2019
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Host Plant
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Erythrina berteroana
  • Preferred Common Name
  • coralbean
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Plantae
  •     Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •       Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •         Class: Dicotyledonae
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • E. berteroana is a popular Central America tree often used in agroforestry systems as a living fence, shade tree and for fodder and forage (Russo, 20...

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Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Erythrina berteroana Urb.

Preferred Common Name

  • coralbean

Other Scientific Names

  • Erythrina neglecta Krukoff & Moldenke

International Common Names

  • English: coral bean; coral tree; machete
  • Spanish: coralillo; helequeme; palo de pito

Local Common Names

  • British Virgin Islands: machete
  • Colombia: mata caimán; peronilla; peronío; pito de peronilla
  • Costa Rica: poro; poró de cerca
  • Cuba: bucare; piñn forastero; piñon de cerca; piñón de pito
  • Dominican Republic: amapola de cerca; machetico; piñón; piñón amoroso de España; piñon de España
  • El Salvador: pito; pitón
  • Guatemala: coralillo; machetillos; miche; pito; pitón
  • Haiti: brucal
  • Honduras: pito; pitón; poro nene
  • Nicaragua: elequeme; helemeque
  • Panama: gallito; pernilla de casa
  • Puerto Rico: bucayo enano; bucayo sin espina; enano; machete

EPPO code

  • ERZBE (Erythrina berteroana)

Summary of Invasiveness

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E. berteroana is a popular Central America tree often used in agroforestry systems as a living fence, shade tree and for fodder and forage (Russo, 2002; Barrance et al., 2003; Orwa et al., 2009). It is not considered a highly invasive species, mostly because it has an ineffective dispersal mechanism for its seeds (they just fall from the tree). However, E. berteroana roots easily from cuttings and it also has high rates of seed germination (Russo, 2002). Consequently, this species is commonly found naturalized and colonizing new areas mostly in sites near cultivation, in disturbed areas, and along streams and fences. Currently, E. berteroana is listed as invasive only in Cuba (Oviedo Prieto et al., 2012), but there is no reason to suspect that this species would be less aggressive than other Erythrina species which are currently listed as invasive in many tropical and subtropical regions (Randall, 2012; PIER, 2016). 

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Plantae
  •         Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •             Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •                 Class: Dicotyledonae
  •                     Order: Fabales
  •                         Family: Fabaceae
  •                             Subfamily: Faboideae
  •                                 Genus: Erythrina
  •                                     Species: Erythrina berteroana

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

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Erythrina is a genus of the family Fabaceae comprising about 120 species, occurring throughout the tropics and subtropics of the world, but with two-thirds of the species in the Americas (Russo, 2002).  The generic name derives from the Greek work erythros, meaning ‘red’, referring to the flower colour of some species.

Description

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E. berteroana is a tree to 10 m tall, trunk to 48 cm dbh, crown low, spreading, profusely branched; bark pale, smooth, with many or few broad and conical spines; branchlets smooth, lustrous, spines occasional, pyramidal, to 0.6 cm long, often reflexed at the apex. Leaves alternate, trifoliate, 10-35 cm long, the leaflets ovate or deltoid, 5-17 cm long, 4-20 cm wide, margin entire, shortly acute or acuminate at the apex; stalks swollen at the base, 7.5-15 cm; blades usually coated with whitish bloom beneath. Flowers pinkish to red, appearing with the leaves, in terminal racemes, 12.5-25 cm long; each flower 5-10 cm long, embracing 10 stamens, the anthers protruding; ovary stalked, pubescent. Calyx green, tubular; corolla 5-petalled, 7.5 cm long, standard narrow with 3-4 very small petals hidden within. Pod dark brown, semi-woody, curved, moniliform, 10-30 cm long, 1-1.5 cm broad, the beak 2-4 cm long, the several seeds. Seed 5 mm long, oblongoid, bright orange red, with a conspicuous black hilum (Orwa et al., 2009). 

Plant Type

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Perennial
Seed propagated
Tree
Vegetatively propagated
Woody

Distribution

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E. berteroana is native to Mexico and Central America. It grows from southern Mexico to Colombia and Venezuela in South America (Holdridge et al., 1997). It was introduced in Africa and the West Indies where it can be found naturalized (ILDIS, 2016; USDA-ARS, 2016). 

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 10 Jan 2020

History of Introduction and Spread

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E. berteroana has been introduced principally in tropical regions to be used as a living fence and shade tree, in agroforestry systems to improve soils and reduce erosion and for fodder and forage (Russo, 2002; Barrance et al., 2003; Orwa et al., 2009). In the West Indies, this species appears in herbarium collections made in 1896 in Cuba, 1913 in Dominican Republic, and 1922 in Puerto Rico (US National Herbarium; Morton, 1994).

Introductions

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Introduced toIntroduced fromYearReasonIntroduced byEstablished in wild throughReferencesNotes
Natural reproductionContinuous restocking
Cuba Central America 1896 Forestry (pathway cause) Yes
Dominican Republic Central America 1913 Forestry (pathway cause) Yes
Puerto Rico Central America Forestry (pathway cause) Yes

Risk of Introduction

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The likelihood of further introductions of E. berteroana is very high. This species is one of the most popular tree species grown in agroforestry systems. It is also very popular for establishing living fences and to provide shade in cacao and coffee plantations (Russo, 2002; Barrance et al., 2003; Orwa et al., 2009). Due to its extensive uses, new introductions of this species could take place in the near future, primarily in tropical regions. 

Habitat

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E. berteroana is one of the most common tree species in lowlands and dry regions of Central America and the West Indies (Holdridge et al., 1997; Morton, 1997; Barrance et al., 2003). It grows at elevations from sea level to 2000 m in dry and moist habitats, and in wet and montane forests (Barrance et al., 2003). 

Habitat List

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CategorySub-CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Terrestrial
Terrestrial ManagedCultivated / agricultural land Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial ManagedCultivated / agricultural land Present, no further details Natural
Terrestrial ManagedCultivated / agricultural land Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Terrestrial ManagedManaged grasslands (grazing systems) Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial ManagedManaged grasslands (grazing systems) Present, no further details Natural
Terrestrial ManagedManaged grasslands (grazing systems) Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Terrestrial ManagedDisturbed areas Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial ManagedDisturbed areas Present, no further details Natural
Terrestrial ManagedDisturbed areas Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Terrestrial ManagedRail / roadsides Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial ManagedRail / roadsides Present, no further details Natural
Terrestrial ManagedRail / roadsides Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalNatural forests Present, no further details Natural

Biology and Ecology

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Genetics

The chromosome number shared by all Erythrina species that have been evaluated is n = 21 (Kass, 1994).

Reproductive Biology

E. berteroana has bright red flowers that are pollinated by hummingbirds; the species Heliomaster longirostris (long-billed starthroat hummingbird) is the principal pollinator in Central America. Flowers are also visited by butterflies (Little and Wadsworth, 1964; Orwa et al., 2009).

In Central America, E. berteroana flowers from December to March and fruitification usually runs from February to April, later in high elevations (Russo, 2002; Barrance et al., 2003; Orwa et al., 2009).

Physiology and Phenology

E. berteroana is a perennial fast-growing tree. Like most Erythrina species, this probably roots readily from large fence-post sized cuttings. Seeds germinate rather rapidly (Kass, 1994; Morton, 1994).

A single tree of E. berteroana growing in a living fence may produce 30 to 50 pods or 80-120 g of seeds per year. When E. berteroana is propagated by seed, either simple scarification or 12-hour soak in water is a necessary pre-germination treatment. For this species high germination rates (85-90%) have been obtained in nursery trials using seeds collected during the previous year and stored in cold chambers at 5°C with a relative humidity of 30 to 40 percent. When E. berteroana is vegetatively propagated, large cuttings (>1.5 to 2.5m long and 6 to 10 cm in diameter) are necessary. This method is used to establish living fences (Víquez and Camacho, 1993).

Environmental Requirements

E. berteroana prefers to grow in dry and moist habitats from sea level to about 1800 m. It grows best in areas with mean annual temperature ranging from 20-28°C and annual rainfall ranging from 1500 to 4000 mm (Budowski and Russo, 1993; Russo, 2002; Orwa et al., 2009). It can establish in acid soils (up to pH 4) with high aluminium saturation (>50%; Budowski and Russo, 1993; Russo, 2002).

Climate

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ClimateStatusDescriptionRemark
Af - Tropical rainforest climate Preferred > 60mm precipitation per month
Am - Tropical monsoon climate Preferred Tropical monsoon climate ( < 60mm precipitation driest month but > (100 - [total annual precipitation(mm}/25]))
As - Tropical savanna climate with dry summer Preferred < 60mm precipitation driest month (in summer) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
Aw - Tropical wet and dry savanna climate Preferred < 60mm precipitation driest month (in winter) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])

Latitude/Altitude Ranges

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Latitude North (°N)Latitude South (°S)Altitude Lower (m)Altitude Upper (m)
22 -21 40 1000

Air Temperature

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Parameter Lower limit Upper limit
Absolute minimum temperature (ºC) 14
Mean annual temperature (ºC) 18 26
Mean maximum temperature of hottest month (ºC) 24 28
Mean minimum temperature of coldest month (ºC) 16 20

Rainfall

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ParameterLower limitUpper limitDescription
Dry season duration23number of consecutive months with <40 mm rainfall
Mean annual rainfall15004500mm; lower/upper limits

Rainfall Regime

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Bimodal

Soil Tolerances

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Soil drainage

  • seasonally waterlogged

Soil reaction

  • acid

Soil texture

  • heavy

Natural enemies

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Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Phyllophaga menetriesii Herbivore Leaves/Seedlings not specific
Terastia meticulosalis Herbivore All Stages not specific

Means of Movement and Dispersal

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E. berteroana spreads by seeds and vegetatively by cuttings (Orwa et al., 2009). Seeds fall from the tree and are occasionally consumed by birds and small animals (Little and Wadsworth, 1964). 

Pathway Causes

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CauseNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Crop productionPlanted as a shade tree in plantations Yes Yes Orwa et al. (2009)
Escape from confinement or garden escapeEscaped from cultivation Yes Yes Barrance et al. (2003)
ForageLeaves are eaten by cattle, goats, rabbits, etc Yes Yes Barrance et al. (2003)
ForestryUsed a live-fences and soil improver Yes Yes Barrance et al. (2003)
Habitat restoration and improvement Yes Yes Orwa et al. (2009)
Hedges and windbreaksUsed a living-fence, soil improver, and in alley cropping systems Yes Yes Barrance et al. (2003)

Pathway Vectors

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VectorNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Debris and waste associated with human activitiesSeeds Yes Yes Orwa et al. (2009)
LivestockLeaves and seeds consumed by livestock Yes Orwa et al. (2009)

Impact Summary

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CategoryImpact
Cultural/amenity Positive
Economic/livelihood Positive and negative
Environment (generally) Positive and negative
Human health Negative

Environmental Impact

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E. berteroana often spreads from planted trees (i.e., living fences), displacing native vegetation and altering successional patterns. Seedlings and saplings can be found established within 100 m of planted specimens and naturalized along roadsides (Little and Wadsworth, 1964). Currently, E. berteroana is listed as invasive in Cuba, where it is negatively impacting native vegetation (Oviedo Prieto et al., 2012). 

Risk and Impact Factors

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Invasiveness
  • Proved invasive outside its native range
  • Abundant in its native range
  • Highly adaptable to different environments
  • Is a habitat generalist
  • Tolerates, or benefits from, cultivation, browsing pressure, mutilation, fire etc
  • Pioneering in disturbed areas
  • Benefits from human association (i.e. it is a human commensal)
  • Long lived
  • Fast growing
  • Reproduces asexually
Impact outcomes
  • Ecosystem change/ habitat alteration
  • Modification of nutrient regime
  • Reduced native biodiversity
Impact mechanisms
  • Competition - shading
  • Competition - smothering
  • Poisoning
  • Rapid growth
  • Rooting
Likelihood of entry/control
  • Highly likely to be transported internationally deliberately

Uses

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E. berteroana is frequently planted as large cuttings to establish living fences and windbreak barriers in agroforestry systems (Barrance et al., 2003). Trees are also used to support climbers such as black pepper (Piper nigrum) and vanilla (Vanilla planifolia), and to provide shade to Theobroma cacao orchards and coffee plantations (Muschler et al., 1993; Morton, 1994). Leaves and twigs are often used as fodder and forage for cattle, goats, and rabbits. Because it is a nitrogen-fixing species, it is planted as a soil improver and to maintain soil fertility (Russo, 2002; Orwa et al., 2009).

In Central America, the beautiful bright red seeds of this species have been used to make necklaces and other jewelry. The seeds are also used for religious purposes by the Mayan people. Seeds are chewed and swallowed for sedative and aphrodisiac effects. Young flowers and young leaves are consumed by humans as a vegetable (Voogelbreinder, 2009). The seeds and flowers of E. berteroana contain erythrina alkaloids. These alkaloids are responsible for the sedative effects of the plants. A new alkaloid, erythratine-N-oxide, has been isolated from this particular species (Soto-Hernandez and Jackson, 1994).

Uses List

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Animal feed, fodder, forage

  • Fodder/animal feed
  • Forage

Drugs, stimulants, social uses

  • Religious

Environmental

  • Agroforestry
  • Boundary, barrier or support
  • Erosion control or dune stabilization
  • Shade and shelter
  • Soil improvement
  • Windbreak

General

  • Ritual uses
  • Sociocultural value

Human food and beverage

  • Spices and culinary herbs
  • Vegetable

Materials

  • Beads
  • Chemicals
  • Dye/tanning
  • Green manure
  • Pesticide
  • Wood/timber

Medicinal, pharmaceutical

  • Source of medicine/pharmaceutical
  • Traditional/folklore

Wood Products

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Roundwood

  • Stakes

Sawn or hewn building timbers

  • Exterior fittings
  • Fences

References

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Acevedo-Rodríguez P; Strong MT, 2012. Catalogue of the Seed Plants of the West Indies. Smithsonian Contributions to Botany, 98:1192 pp. Washington DC, USA: Smithsonian Institution. http://botany.si.edu/Antilles/WestIndies/catalog.htm

Barrance A; Beer J; Boshier DH; Chamberlain J; Cordero J; Detlefsen G; Finegan B; Galloway G; Gómez M; Gordon J; Hands M; Hellin J; Hughes C; Ibrahim M; Kass D; Leakey R; Mesén F; Montero M; Rivas C; Somarriba E; Stewart J; Pennington T, 2003. Árboles de Centroamerica: un manual para extensionistas (Trees of Central America: a manual for extension workers) [ed. by Cordero, J.\Boshier, D. H.]. Oxford, UK: Oxford Forestry Institute, University of Oxford, vii + 1079 pp.

Beer JW (ed.), Fassbender HW (ed.), Heuveldop J, 1989. Advances in agroforestry research. Proceedings of a seminar held in CATIE, Turrialba, Costa Rica from September 1 to 11th, 1985, and sponsored by Centro Agronomico Tropical de Investigacion y Ensenanza (CATIE) and Deutsche Gesellschaft fur Technische Zusammenarbeit (GTZ). [Avances en la investigacion agroforestal. Actas del seminario realizado en el CATIE, Turrialba, Costa Rica, de 1° al 11 de setiembre de 1985 y patrocinado por el Centro Agronomico Tropical de Investigacion y Ensenanza y la Deutsche Gesellschaft fur Technische Zusammenarbeit (GTZ).] Serie Tecnica: Informe Tecnico Centro Agronomico Tropical de Investigacion y Ensenanza, No. 147, 451 pp.

Beer JW, 1987. Experiences with fence line fodder trees in Costa Rica and Nicaragua. Serie Tecnica: Informe Tecnico Centro Agronomico Tropical de Investigacion y Ensenanza, No. 117, 215-222; 16 ref.

Borel R; Romero F; Scherr SJ, 1991. On-farm research in a silvopastoral project: a case study. Special issue: on farm agroforestry research, based on an international workshop 'Methods for participatory on farm agroforestry research' Nairobi, 1990. Agroforestry-Systems, 15(2-3):245-257; 11 ref.

Budowski G; Gholz HL, 1987. Living fences in tropical America, a widespread agroforestry practice. Agroforestry: realities, possibilities and potentials. 1987, 169-178; 18 ref.

Budowski G; Russo RO, 1985. Productivity of an Erythrina berteroana live fence in Turrialba, Costa Rica. [Productividad de una cerca viva de Erythrina berteroana Urban en Turrialba, Costa Rica.] Turrialba, 35(1):83-86; 8 ref.

Budowski G; Russo RO, 1993. Live fence posts in Costa Rica: a compilation of the farmer's beliefs and technologies. Journal of Sustainable Agriculture, 3(2):65-87; 54 ref.

Camero Rey A; Ibrahim M, 1995. Protein banks of Erythrina berteroana and Gliricidia sepium. [Bancos de proteina de poro (Erythrina berteroana) y madero negro (Gliricidia sepium).] Agroforesteria en las Americas, 2(8):31-33; 3 ref.

CATIE, 1989. Erythrina spp. Fase I. Informe Técnico final del Proyecto AFN/CIID/CATIE Centro Agronómico Tropical de Investigación y Enseñanza.

CATIE, 1989. Erythrina spp. Fase II. Informe Técnico final del Proyecto AFN/CIID/CATIE Centro Agronómico Tropical de Investigación y Enseñanza.

Chacón JC, 1990. Análisis del crecimiento del follaje en tres especies de Erythrina en Costa Rica. Tesis Magister Scientiae. Turrialba, Costa Rica. Centro Agronómico Tropical de Investigación y Enseñanza.

Cooperband LR; Logan TJ, 1993. Baseline soil characteristics of a humid tropical silvopastoral system and changes in selected soil properties. Turrialba, 43(1):22-36; 50 ref.

Dwyer J, 1980. Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden, 67(3):686-692.

Esquivel J; Ibrahim M; Jiménez F; Pezo B, 1998. Soil nutrient distribution under poro (Erythrina berteroana), madero negro (Gliricidia sepium) or Arachis pintoi with Brachiaria brizantha. Agroforestería en las Américas, 5(17/18):39-43; 11 ref.

Geilfus F, 1989. El árbol al servicio del agricultor para el desarrollo rural. Vol 2: Guía de especies. Santo Domingo, DO: Enda-Caribe y CATIE.

Hilje L; Coto D, 1992. Two insects associated with Erythrina spp. in Costa Rica. Boletin Informativo - Manejo Integrado de Plagas, No. 25:4-5.

Holdridge L; Poveda LJ; Jiménez Q, 1997. Arboles de Costa Rica. Vol. 1. San José, Costa Rica: Centro Científico Tropical.

ILDIS, 2016. International Legume Database and Information Service. Reading, UK: School of Plant Sciences, University of Reading. http://www.ildis.org/

Jansen H; Nieuwenhuyse A; Ibrahim M; Abarca S, 1997. Economic evaluation of the incorporation of legumes into improved pastures compared with traditional cattle feeding systems in the Atlantic Zone of Costa Rica. Agroforestería en las Américas, 4(15):9-13; 6 ref.

Jansen HGP; Ibrahim MA; Nieuwenhuyse A; Mannetje L't; Joenje M; Abarca S, 1997. The economics of improved pasture and silvipastoral technologies in the Atlantic Zone of Costa Rica. Tropical Grasslands, 31(6):588-598; 37 ref.

Janzen D; Liesner R, 1980. Annotated Check-list of Plants of Lowland Guanacaste Province, Costa Rica, Exclusive of Grasses and Non-Vascular Cryptogams. Brenesia, 18:15-90.

Jimenez JM; Viquez E; Kass DL; Chavarria R, 1992. Use of Erythrina berteroana and Gliricidia sepium as live supports for yams (Dioscorea alata cv. 6322). [Uso de Erythrina berteroana y Gliricidia sepium como soportes vivos de name alado (Dioscorea alata L. c.v. 6322).] Chasqui, No. 29, 6-11; 8 ref.

Kass DL, 1994. Erythrina species - pantropical multipurpose tree legumes. Forage tree legumes in tropical agriculture., 84-96; 38 ref.

Little EL Jr; Wadsworth FH, 1964. Common trees of Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands. Agricultural Handbook, No. 249. Washington DC, US; Department of Agriculture.

López FL; Kass DCL, 1996. Effect of organic amendments on phosphorus dynamics and indicators of biological activity and bean yield in an Acrudoxic Melanudand. Agroforestería en las Américas, 3(11/12):12-15; 14 ref.

Morton JF, 1994. Pito (Erythrina berteroana) and chipilin (Crotalaria longirostrata), (Fabaceae), two soporific vegetables of Central America. Economic Botany, 48(2):130-138.

Muschler RG; Nair PKR; Melendez L, 1993. Crown development and biomass production of pollarded Erythrina berteroana, E. fusca and Gliricidia sepium in the humid tropical lowlands of Costa Rica. Agroforestry Systems, 24(2):123-143.

Nygren A, 1993. Traditional uses and cultural significance of tree Erythrina species among the rural population of Tuís District, Turrialba, Costa Rica. In: Westley S, Powell, M, eds. Erythrina in the New and Old Worlds. Nitrogen Fixing Tree Research Reports Special Issue.

Orwa C; Mutua A; Kindt R; Jamnadass R; Simons A, 2009. Agroforestree Database: a tree reference and selection guide version 4.0. World Agroforestry Centre. http://www.worldagroforestry.org/af/treedb/

Oviedo Prieto R; Herrera Oliver P; Caluff MG, et al. , 2012. National list of invasive and potentially invasive plants in the Republic of Cuba - 2011. (Lista nacional de especies de plantas invasoras y potencialmente invasoras en la República de Cuba - 2011). Bissea: Boletín sobre Conservación de Plantas del Jardín Botánico Nacional de Cuba, 6(Special Issue 1):22-96.

Perez E, 1990. Evaluación del Ensayo Clonal de Erythrina spp en San Juan Sur, Turrialba, Costa Rica. Tesis Magister Scientiae. Turrialba, Costa Rica. Centro Agronómico Tropical de Investigación y Enseñanza.

Romero F, 1993. Cercas Vivas y bancos de proteínas de Erythrina berteroana manejados para la producción de biomasa comestible en el trópico húmedo de Costa Rica. In: Westley S, Powell, M, eds. Erythrina in the New and Old Worlds. Nitrogen Fixing Tree Research Reports Special Issue.

Romero F; Chana C; Montenegro J; Sanchez LA; Guevara G, 1991. Productivity of Gliricidia sepium and Erythrina berteroana in live fences managed under three pruning frequencies in the Atlantic zone of Costa Rica. [Productividad de Gliricidia sepium y Erythrina berteroana en cercas vivas manejadas bajo tres frecuencias de poda en la zona Atlantica de Costa Rica.] Agroforesteria, No. 6, 4 pp.; 9 ref.

Russo RO, 1993. The use of Erythrina species in the Americas. In: Westley SB, Powell MH, eds. Erythrina in the new and old worlds. Nitrogen Fixing Tree Research Reports Special Issue, 28-45.

Russo RO, 2002. Erythrina berteroana. In: Tropical tree seed manual. Agricultural Handbook 721 [ed. by Vozzo, J. A.]. Washington, USA: Forest Service, United States Department of Agriculture, 452-454.

Salvat SA, 1984. Gran Atlas, 11. Instituto Geográfico de Agostini, Novara, España: Ediciones PAMPLONA Barcelona.

Salvat SA, 1986. Gran Atlas, 12 y 13. Instituto Geográfico de Agostini, Novara, España: Ediciones PAMPLONA Barcelona.

Sanchez JA; Dubon A, 1994. Establishment and management of cacao under shade. Technical guide for forestry extension. Serie Tecnica: Manual Tecnico - Centro Agronomico Tropical de Investigacion y Ensenanza Turrialba, Costa Rica, No. 10:v + 82 pp.

Sanchez JF; Moreno R, 1992. Adapt[at]ion of some leguminous trees for agroforestry use in the north coast of Colombia. Leucaena Research Reports, 13: 13-17; 10 ref.

Soto-Hernandez M; Jackson HA, 1994. Erythrina Alkaloids: isolation and characterization of alkaloids from seven Erythrina Species. Planta Medica, 60:75-177.

Standley PC; Steyermark JA, 1946. Flora of Guatemala, IV. Fieldiana (Bot.) 1946. 24 (4). (v + 1-493). Field Mus. Publ. No. 577.

Stevens PF, 2012. Angiosperm Phylogeny Website. http://www.mobot.org/MOBOT/research/APweb/

USDA-ARS, 2016. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). National Plant Germplasm System. Online Database. Beltsville, Maryland, USA: National Germplasm Resources Laboratory. https://npgsweb.ars-grin.gov/gringlobal/taxon/taxonomysearch.aspx

Víquez E, 1993. Live fenceposts chapter 5. In: Westley S, Powell, M, eds. Erythrina: Production and use, a field manual. Nitrogen Fixing Tree Asociation.

Víquez E; Camacho Y, 1993. Establishment chapter 2. In: Westley S, Powell, M, eds. Erythrina: Production and use, a field manual. Nitrogen Fixing Tree Asociation.

Voogelbreinder S, 2009. Garden of Eden: The Shamanic Use of Psychoactive Flora and Fauna, and the Study of Consciousness. 510 pp.

Westley SB; Powell MH, 1993. Erythrina in the new and old worlds. ^italic~Erythrina^roman~ in the new and old worlds., xii + 358 pp.; [^italic~Nitrogen Fixing Tree Research Reports^roman~ Special Issue]; many ref.

Distribution References

Acevedo-Rodríguez P, Strong M T, 2012. Catalogue of the Seed Plants of the West Indies. Washington, DC, USA: Smithsonian Institution. 1192 pp. http://botany.si.edu/Antilles/WestIndies/catalog.htm

CABI, Undated. Compendium record. Wallingford, UK: CABI

CABI, Undated a. CABI Compendium: Status as determined by CABI editor. Wallingford, UK: CABI

ILDIS, 2016. International Legume Database and Information Service., Reading, UK: School of Plant Sciences, University of Reading. http://www.ildis.org/

Oviedo Prieto R, Herrera Oliver P, Caluff M G, et al, 2012. National list of invasive and potentially invasive plants in the Republic of Cuba - 2011. (Lista nacional de especies de plantas invasoras y potencialmente invasoras en la República de Cuba - 2011). Bissea: Boletín sobre Conservación de Plantas del Jardín Botánico Nacional de Cuba. 6 (Special Issue No. 1), 22-96.

USDA-ARS, 2016. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Online Database. Beltsville, Maryland, USA: National Germplasm Resources Laboratory. https://npgsweb.ars-grin.gov/gringlobal/taxon/taxonomysimple.aspx

Links to Websites

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WebsiteURLComment
GISD/IASPMR: Invasive Alien Species Pathway Management Resource and DAISIE European Invasive Alien Species Gatewayhttps://doi.org/10.5061/dryad.m93f6Data source for updated system data added to species habitat list.

Contributors

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19/05/16 Updated by:

Julissa Rojas-Sandoval, Department of Botany-Smithsonian NMNH, Washington DC, USA

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