Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Euphorbia tirucalli
(Indian-tree spurge)

Rojas-Sandoval J, 2016. Euphorbia tirucalli (Indian-tree spurge). Invasive Species Compendium. Wallingford, UK: CABI. DOI:10.1079/ISC.21381.20203482779

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Datasheet

Euphorbia tirucalli (Indian-tree spurge)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 20 November 2019
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Host Plant
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Euphorbia tirucalli
  • Preferred Common Name
  • Indian-tree spurge
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Plantae
  •     Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •       Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •         Class: Dicotyledonae
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • E. tirucalli is a many-branched succulent plant widely commercialized as an ornamental, hedge plant, potted plant and for soil conservation (Orwa et ...

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Euphorbia tirucalli (Indian-tree spurge); habit. Kahului, Maui, Hawaii, USA. August 2009.
TitleHabit
CaptionEuphorbia tirucalli (Indian-tree spurge); habit. Kahului, Maui, Hawaii, USA. August 2009.
Copyright©Forest & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Euphorbia tirucalli (Indian-tree spurge); habit. Kahului, Maui, Hawaii, USA. August 2009.
HabitEuphorbia tirucalli (Indian-tree spurge); habit. Kahului, Maui, Hawaii, USA. August 2009.©Forest & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Euphorbia tirucalli (Indian-tree spurge); habit, showing foliage. Kahului, Maui, Hawaii, USA. August 2009.
TitleHabit
CaptionEuphorbia tirucalli (Indian-tree spurge); habit, showing foliage. Kahului, Maui, Hawaii, USA. August 2009.
Copyright©Forest & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Euphorbia tirucalli (Indian-tree spurge); habit, showing foliage. Kahului, Maui, Hawaii, USA. August 2009.
HabitEuphorbia tirucalli (Indian-tree spurge); habit, showing foliage. Kahului, Maui, Hawaii, USA. August 2009.©Forest & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Euphorbia tirucalli (Indian-tree spurge); habit, showing foliage. Enchanting Floral Gardens of Kula, Maui, Hawaii, USA. October 2007.
TitleFoliage
CaptionEuphorbia tirucalli (Indian-tree spurge); habit, showing foliage. Enchanting Floral Gardens of Kula, Maui, Hawaii, USA. October 2007.
Copyright©Forest & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Euphorbia tirucalli (Indian-tree spurge); habit, showing foliage. Enchanting Floral Gardens of Kula, Maui, Hawaii, USA. October 2007.
FoliageEuphorbia tirucalli (Indian-tree spurge); habit, showing foliage. Enchanting Floral Gardens of Kula, Maui, Hawaii, USA. October 2007.©Forest & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Euphorbia tirucalli (Indian-tree spurge); foliar habit. Enchanting Floral Gardens of Kula, Maui, Hawaii, USA. October 2007.
TitleFoliage
CaptionEuphorbia tirucalli (Indian-tree spurge); foliar habit. Enchanting Floral Gardens of Kula, Maui, Hawaii, USA. October 2007.
Copyright©Forest & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Euphorbia tirucalli (Indian-tree spurge); foliar habit. Enchanting Floral Gardens of Kula, Maui, Hawaii, USA. October 2007.
FoliageEuphorbia tirucalli (Indian-tree spurge); foliar habit. Enchanting Floral Gardens of Kula, Maui, Hawaii, USA. October 2007.©Forest & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Euphorbia tirucalli (Indian-tree spurge); flowers. Hersonissos, Crete, Greece. April 2010.
TitleFlowers
CaptionEuphorbia tirucalli (Indian-tree spurge); flowers. Hersonissos, Crete, Greece. April 2010.
Copyright©H. Zell/via wikipedia - CC BY-SA 3.0
Euphorbia tirucalli (Indian-tree spurge); flowers. Hersonissos, Crete, Greece. April 2010.
FlowersEuphorbia tirucalli (Indian-tree spurge); flowers. Hersonissos, Crete, Greece. April 2010.©H. Zell/via wikipedia - CC BY-SA 3.0
Euphorbia tirucalli (Indian-tree spurge); habit, grown as an ornamental. Hersonissos, Crete, Greece. April 2010.
TitleHabit
CaptionEuphorbia tirucalli (Indian-tree spurge); habit, grown as an ornamental. Hersonissos, Crete, Greece. April 2010.
Copyright©H. Zell/via wikipedia - CC BY-SA 3.0
Euphorbia tirucalli (Indian-tree spurge); habit, grown as an ornamental. Hersonissos, Crete, Greece. April 2010.
HabitEuphorbia tirucalli (Indian-tree spurge); habit, grown as an ornamental. Hersonissos, Crete, Greece. April 2010.©H. Zell/via wikipedia - CC BY-SA 3.0
Euphorbia tirucalli (Indian-tree spurge); habit. The tree is 12m tall and 10cm in diameter. Note the white and black bark characteristics of mature trees. Bondo District, western Kenya.
TitleTree habit
CaptionEuphorbia tirucalli (Indian-tree spurge); habit. The tree is 12m tall and 10cm in diameter. Note the white and black bark characteristics of mature trees. Bondo District, western Kenya.
Copyright©Phanuel O. Oballa
Euphorbia tirucalli (Indian-tree spurge); habit. The tree is 12m tall and 10cm in diameter. Note the white and black bark characteristics of mature trees. Bondo District, western Kenya.
Tree habitEuphorbia tirucalli (Indian-tree spurge); habit. The tree is 12m tall and 10cm in diameter. Note the white and black bark characteristics of mature trees. Bondo District, western Kenya.©Phanuel O. Oballa
Euphorbia tirucalli (Indian-tree spurge); a large unarmed shrub, or small tree, up to 5m tall. Branchlets are slender, smooth and cylindrical. Small leaves can be observed appearing on young green branches. Muguga, 25km northwest of Nairobi, Kenya.
TitleGeneral habit
CaptionEuphorbia tirucalli (Indian-tree spurge); a large unarmed shrub, or small tree, up to 5m tall. Branchlets are slender, smooth and cylindrical. Small leaves can be observed appearing on young green branches. Muguga, 25km northwest of Nairobi, Kenya.
Copyright©Phanuel O. Oballa
Euphorbia tirucalli (Indian-tree spurge); a large unarmed shrub, or small tree, up to 5m tall. Branchlets are slender, smooth and cylindrical. Small leaves can be observed appearing on young green branches. Muguga, 25km northwest of Nairobi, Kenya.
General habitEuphorbia tirucalli (Indian-tree spurge); a large unarmed shrub, or small tree, up to 5m tall. Branchlets are slender, smooth and cylindrical. Small leaves can be observed appearing on young green branches. Muguga, 25km northwest of Nairobi, Kenya.©Phanuel O. Oballa
Euphorbia tirucalli (Indian-tree spurge); a windbreak in a farm. The row of trees is about 6m high. Kibos, nr. Kisumu, Kenya.
TitleWindbreak
CaptionEuphorbia tirucalli (Indian-tree spurge); a windbreak in a farm. The row of trees is about 6m high. Kibos, nr. Kisumu, Kenya.
Copyright©Phanuel O. Oballa
Euphorbia tirucalli (Indian-tree spurge); a windbreak in a farm. The row of trees is about 6m high. Kibos, nr. Kisumu, Kenya.
WindbreakEuphorbia tirucalli (Indian-tree spurge); a windbreak in a farm. The row of trees is about 6m high. Kibos, nr. Kisumu, Kenya.©Phanuel O. Oballa
Euphorbia tirucalli (Indian-tree spurge); a trimmed, dense, live hedge. The acacia thorns on the hedge are added to further deter penetration by intruders. nr. Kariandusi, on the Nairobi-Nakuru road, Kenya.
TitleLive hedge
CaptionEuphorbia tirucalli (Indian-tree spurge); a trimmed, dense, live hedge. The acacia thorns on the hedge are added to further deter penetration by intruders. nr. Kariandusi, on the Nairobi-Nakuru road, Kenya.
Copyright©Phanuel O. Oballa
Euphorbia tirucalli (Indian-tree spurge); a trimmed, dense, live hedge. The acacia thorns on the hedge are added to further deter penetration by intruders. nr. Kariandusi, on the Nairobi-Nakuru road, Kenya.
Live hedgeEuphorbia tirucalli (Indian-tree spurge); a trimmed, dense, live hedge. The acacia thorns on the hedge are added to further deter penetration by intruders. nr. Kariandusi, on the Nairobi-Nakuru road, Kenya. ©Phanuel O. Oballa

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Euphorbia tirucalli L.

Preferred Common Name

  • Indian-tree spurge

Other Scientific Names

  • Arthrothamnus bergii Klotzsch & Garcke
  • Arthrothamnus ecklonii Klotzsch & Garcke
  • Arthrothamnus tirucalli (L.) Klotzsch & Garcke
  • Euphorbia geayi Constantin & Gallaud
  • Euphorbia laro Drake
  • Euphorbia media N. E. Br.
  • Euphorbia rhipsalioides Lem.
  • Euphorbia rhipsaloides Willd.
  • Euphorbia scoparia N. E. Br.
  • Euphorbia suareziana Croizat
  • Euphorbia tirucalli var. rhipsaloides (Willd.) Chev.

International Common Names

  • English: African milkbush; bone bush; finger tree; milk bush; milk hedge; milk-bush; naked lady; pench tree; pencil bush; pencil tree; rubber euphorbia; rubber hedge; skeleton tree
  • Spanish: alfabeto chino; antena; aveloz; consuelda; esqueleto; palito
  • French: arbre de saint Sebastien; euphorbe antivenerien; euphorbe effilé; garde maison
  • Chinese: lü yu shu
  • Portuguese: almeidinha

Local Common Names

  • Bahamas: pencil-tree
  • Brazil: avelós; aveloz
  • Cuba: disciplinilla
  • Dominican Republic: alfabeto chino; aniseto; antena; esquelito; palito; polito
  • East Africa: mtupa mwitu; utupa
  • Germany: Milchbusch; Wolfsmilch, Finger-
  • India: Indian tree spurge; konpal; konpalsehnd; sehund; thuar; thuhar
  • India/Gujarat: thor dandalio
  • India/Tamil Nadu: chemedu; kada jemudu; kalli; tirukalli
  • India/West Bengal: lankasij; latadoana
  • Kenya: anno; asubgwa; kariaria; ojuok; ol-oile; shikhoni; utudi
  • Lesser Antilles: coral cactus; wishbone cactus
  • Malaysia: kayu patah; tentulang; tulang-tulang
  • Philippines: bali-bali
  • Puerto Rico: esqueleto
  • Rwanda: umuyenzi
  • Somalia: dana
  • Thailand: khia cheen; khia thian
  • Uganda: kakoni; oruyenje
  • United States Virgin Islands: Indian tree spurge; pencil cactus

EPPO code

  • EPHTI (Euphorbia tirucalli)

Summary of Invasiveness

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E. tirucalli is a many-branched succulent plant widely commercialized as an ornamental, hedge plant, potted plant and for soil conservation (Orwa et al., 2009; USDA-ARS, 2016). It has escaped from cultivation and once naturalized, it often grows forming thickets mostly in disturbed sites, abandoned gardens, deciduous forests, semiarid sites, and along roadsides (Little et al., 1974; PIER, 2016). This species grows very fast, and produces a lot of biomass even under very marginal soil and extreme climatic conditions (Mwine and Damme, 2011). In invaded areas, it is propagating vegetatively by cuttings and stem fragments (Little et al., 1974; PIER, 2016). Currently, this species is listed as invasive in Hawaii and Cuba (Oviedo Prieto et al., 2012; PIER, 2016), but is listed as potentially invasive on many islands in the Pacific and in tropical and subtropical areas of Asia (Nguyen and Sosef, 1999; Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2016; PIER, 2016).

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Plantae
  •         Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •             Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •                 Class: Dicotyledonae
  •                     Order: Euphorbiales
  •                         Family: Euphorbiaceae
  •                             Genus: Euphorbia
  •                                 Species: Euphorbia tirucalli

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

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The family Euphorbiaceae includes about 218 genera and 6745 species with Pantropical distribution (Stevens, 2012). Members of this family are mostly herbs, shrubs, and trees, sometimes succulent and cactus-like plants with xerophytic adaptations (Esser, 2009; Stevens, 2012). The Euphorbiaceae was considered as a morphologically well-defined family for a long time, based mostly on their unisexual flowers and the typical schizocarpous fruits. However, recent molecular studies have resulted in the recognition of several, mostly small families (i.e., Peraceae, Phyllanthaceae, Picrodendraceae, Putranjivaceae). In the most recent circumscription, Euphorbiaceae is defined as clearly monophyletic (Esser, 2009). The genus Euphorbia is among the largest genera of angiosperms, with about 2420 species that are renowned for their remarkably diverse growth forms (Horn et al., 2012; Stevens, 2012).

The family name Euphorbiaceae and genus name Euphorbia were named in honour of Euphorbus, 1st century physician to King Juba of Mauritania, who is believed to have used plants of this genus as medicine (Voigt and Porter, 2007).The specific epithet 'tirucalli' was used for E. tirucalli by Linnaeus in 1753 as this was the common name used by the natives of Malabar, India.

Description

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Trees or shrubs, producing abundant milky latex when injured, 2-6 m tall, dioecious, eventually forming a trunk 10-25 cm DBH with rugose, gray or light bark. Stems green, succulent, finely, longitudinally striate. Leaves alternate, present only on new growth; stipules very small, caducous; petiole ± absent; leaf blade oblong-linear, 7-15 × 0.7-1.5 mm, base attenuate, margin entire, apex obtuse. Cyathia clustered at apex of branches, pedunculate, unisexual; involucral leaves minute, membranous, caducous; involucre turbinate, approximately 2 × 1.5 mm, shortly pubescent inside; glands 5, peltate-ovate or subrounded. Male flowers many, exserted from involucre. Female flower: ovary glabrous, exserted from involucre; styles connate below middle; stigma 2-lobed. Capsule 3-lobed, 8 × 8 mm, smooth, sparsely pilose or glabrous. Seeds ovoid-globose, 4 × 4 mm, smooth; caruncle small (Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2016).

Plant Type

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Perennial
Seed propagated
Succulent
Tree
Vegetatively propagated

Distribution

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The origin of the species is not clear, as Palgrave (1977) and Webb et al. (1984) believe E. tirucalli originated from Africa and was thereafter introduced to India, whereas Noad and Birnie (1989) state that it was introduced to Africa from India in prehistoric times since the name 'tirucalli' is the local name from Malabar in India. Mwine and Damme (2011) cite sources suggesting that it originated from tropical East Africa. It now occurs throughout tropical Africa (Ethiopia to South Africa) and India, and is widely planted and naturalized throughout the tropics and subtropics (Nguyen and Sosef, 1999; Govaerts, 2016). It can be found naturalized in tropical and subtropical Asia, America, the West Indies and on many islands in the Pacific Ocean (see distribution table for details, Orwa et al., 2009; Acevedo-Rodríguez and Strong, 2012; Govaerts, 2016; PIER, 2016).

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 12 Mar 2020
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Planted Reference Notes

Africa

AngolaPresentNative
BotswanaPresentNative
BurundiPresentNative
Cabo VerdePresentIntroduced
ComorosPresentNative
Congo, Democratic Republic of thePresentNative
EritreaPresentNative
EswatiniPresentNative
EthiopiaPresentNative
GhanaPresentIntroduced
GuineaPresentIntroduced
Guinea-BissauPresentIntroduced
KenyaPresentNative
MadagascarPresentNative
MalawiPresentNative
MauritiusPresent
MozambiquePresentNative
NamibiaPresentNative
NigeriaPresentNative
RwandaPresentNative
Saint HelenaPresent
SenegalPresentIntroduced
SeychellesPresentIntroduced
SomaliaPresentNative
South AfricaPresentNative
SudanPresentNative
TanzaniaPresentNative
UgandaPresentNative
ZambiaPresentNative
ZimbabwePresentNative

Asia

BangladeshPresentIntroduced
ChinaPresentIntroducedInvasiveCultivated and escaped
-AnhuiPresentIntroducedInvasiveCultivated and escaped
-FujianPresentIntroducedInvasiveCultivated and escaped
-GuangdongPresentIntroducedInvasiveCultivated and escaped
-GuizhouPresentIntroducedInvasiveCultivated and escaped
-HainanPresentIntroducedInvasiveCultivated and escaped
-HubeiPresentIntroducedInvasiveCultivated and escaped
-HunanPresentIntroducedInvasiveCultivated and escaped
-JiangsuPresentIntroducedInvasiveCultivated and escaped
-JiangxiPresentIntroducedInvasiveCultivated and escaped
-SichuanPresentIntroducedCultivated and escaped
-YunnanPresentIntroducedCultivated and escaped
-ZhejiangPresentIntroducedCultivated and escaped
Hong KongPresentIntroducedInvasive
IndiaPresentNative
-Andhra PradeshPresent
-Arunachal PradeshPresentNative
-AssamPresentIntroduced
-BiharPresentNative
-ChhattisgarhPresentNative
-Dadra and Nagar HaveliPresentNative
-Daman and DiuPresentNative
-DelhiPresentNative
-GoaPresentNative
-GujaratPresentNative
-HaryanaPresentNative
-JharkhandPresentNative
-KarnatakaPresentNative
-KeralaPresentNative
-Madhya PradeshPresentNative
-MaharashtraPresentNative
-OdishaPresentNative
-PuducherryPresentNative
-PunjabPresentNative
-RajasthanPresentNative
-Tamil NaduPresentNative
-Uttar PradeshPresentNative
-West BengalPresentNative
IndonesiaPresentIntroduced
-JavaPresentIntroduced
IsraelPresentPlanted
JapanPresentPlanted
MalaysiaPresentIntroduced
-Peninsular MalaysiaPresent
MaldivesPresentNative
MyanmarPresentIntroduced
PakistanPresentNative
PhilippinesPresentIntroduced
SingaporePresentIntroducedCultivated
Sri LankaPresentNative
TaiwanPresentIntroducedInvasiveCultivated and escaped
ThailandPresentIntroduced
VietnamPresentIntroduced

North America

BahamasPresentIntroduced
British Virgin IslandsPresentIntroducedGuana, Tortola
Cayman IslandsPresentIntroduced
CubaPresentIntroducedInvasive
Dominican RepublicPresentIntroduced
HaitiPresentIntroduced
MexicoPresentIntroduced
Puerto RicoPresentIntroducedVieques
U.S. Virgin IslandsPresentIntroducedSt Croix, St John
United StatesPresentIntroduced
-CaliforniaPresentIntroduced
-FloridaPresentIntroduced
-HawaiiPresentIntroducedInvasive

Oceania

Cook IslandsPresentIntroducedCultivated
Federated States of MicronesiaPresentIntroduced
FijiPresentIntroduced
French PolynesiaPresentIntroducedMarquesas, Tahiti, Rurutu, Tubuai Is.
GuamPresentIntroduced
Marshall IslandsPresentIntroducedCultivated
NauruPresentIntroduced
PalauPresentIntroduced
United States Minor Outlying Islands
-Wake IslandPresentIntroduced
Wallis and FutunaPresentIntroduced

South America

BrazilPresentIntroduced
EcuadorPresentIntroducedImbabura, Los Rios, Manabi
-Galapagos IslandsPresentIntroducedSanta Cruz Is.

History of Introduction and Spread

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E. tirucalli has been widely commercialized and introduced into many regions to be used as an ornamental, hedge and potted plant (Orwa et al., 2009). However, very little is known about the history of introduction of this species, and it has been so widely cultivated that it is difficult to say where it occurs naturally and where it has been introduced. Voigt and Porter (2007) suggest that early traders and sailors carried plants from South Africa to India and the Far East, while Noad and Birnie (1989) state that it was introduced to Africa from India. In the West Indies, the first introductions probably occurred around the 1900s (US National Herbarium).

Risk of Introduction

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The risk of introduction of E. tirucalli is moderate to high. This species is an attractive succulent cactus-like species widely commercialized as an ornamental. It has the potential to escape from cultivation and colonize new habitats forming dense thickets (Little et al., 1974).

Habitat

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E. tirucallioccurs in various habitats including dry and moist thickets, semiarid thickets, savannas, brushwood, open woodland and grassland, up to 2000 m altitude. It can also be found growing in grassy hills, rocky outcrops and ridges, and along river courses (Nguyen and Sosef, 1999; Orwa et al., 2009).

Habitat List

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CategorySub-CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Terrestrial ManagedDisturbed areas Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial ManagedDisturbed areas Present, no further details Natural
Terrestrial ManagedDisturbed areas Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Terrestrial ManagedRail / roadsides Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial ManagedRail / roadsides Present, no further details Natural
Terrestrial ManagedRail / roadsides Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Terrestrial ManagedUrban / peri-urban areas Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial ManagedUrban / peri-urban areas Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalNatural grasslands Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalNatural grasslands Present, no further details Natural
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalNatural grasslands Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalScrub / shrublands Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalScrub / shrublands Present, no further details Natural
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalScrub / shrublands Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalArid regions Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalArid regions Present, no further details Natural
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalArid regions Present, no further details Productive/non-natural

Biology and Ecology

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Genetics

The chromosome number reported for E. tirucalli is 2n = 20 (Krishnappa and Reshme, 1982).

Reproductive Biology

E. tirucalli is a dioecious species. Plants producing male flowers are common, whereas plants with female flowers are much less common. Plants with bisexual cyathia also occur, although the female flower apparently often aborts. The flowers are yellow, inconspicuous, and carried in clusters at the apex of the short branches or in the angles of branches. Flowers are visited and pollinated by insects (Duke, 1983; Orwa et al., 2009; Mwine and Damme, 2011).

Physiology and Phenology

Within its native distribution range, E. tirucalli produces flowers in October and fruits from November to December (Orwa et al., 2009). In China, it has been recorded flowering and fruiting from July to October (Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2016).

E. tirucalli can grow very fast, and produce a lot of biomass even under very marginal soil and extreme climatic conditions. This can at least partly be explained by its rather unique combination of CAM stems and C3 leaves which allow it to assimilate CO2 during 24h per day (Mwine and Damme, 2011). It uses its green stems to photosynthesize and is therefore able to minimize surface exposure and water loss (Voigt and Porter, 2007).

Longevity

E. tirucalli is a perennial, drought resistant and very resilient plant adapted to grow in dry and semiarid habitats (Voigt and Porter, 2007).

Environmental Requirements

E. tirucalli is adapted to grow in areas with annual precipitation as low as 250-500 mm and annual temperature ranging from 21 to 28°C (Duke, 1983). It is well adapted to drought, salinity and infertile soil, but it does not tolerate frost. It is normally found in dry bushland thickets and naturalizes easily in brushwood, open woodland and grassland up to 2000 m (Orwa et al., 2009). This species appears to grow on almost any soil from pH ranging from 6 to 8.5 (Duke, 1983). The associated geology in its’ African habitats varies between granite, sandstone and rhyolite (Voigt and Porter, 2007).

Climate

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ClimateStatusDescriptionRemark
As - Tropical savanna climate with dry summer Tolerated < 60mm precipitation driest month (in summer) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
Aw - Tropical wet and dry savanna climate Tolerated < 60mm precipitation driest month (in winter) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
BS - Steppe climate Preferred > 430mm and < 860mm annual precipitation
BW - Desert climate Tolerated < 430mm annual precipitation
Cs - Warm temperate climate with dry summer Preferred Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry summers
Cw - Warm temperate climate with dry winter Preferred Warm temperate climate with dry winter (Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry winters)
Cf - Warm temperate climate, wet all year Tolerated Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, wet all year

Latitude/Altitude Ranges

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Latitude North (°N)Latitude South (°S)Altitude Lower (m)Altitude Upper (m)
30 -30 10 2000

Air Temperature

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Parameter Lower limit Upper limit
Absolute minimum temperature (ºC) 0
Mean annual temperature (ºC) 21 28
Mean maximum temperature of hottest month (ºC) 25 37
Mean minimum temperature of coldest month (ºC) 9 18

Rainfall

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ParameterLower limitUpper limitDescription
Dry season duration68number of consecutive months with <40 mm rainfall
Mean annual rainfall2501000mm; lower/upper limits

Rainfall Regime

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Bimodal
Summer
Uniform

Soil Tolerances

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Soil drainage

  • free

Soil reaction

  • alkaline
  • neutral

Soil texture

  • heavy
  • light
  • medium

Special soil tolerances

  • infertile
  • saline
  • shallow

Natural enemies

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Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Meloidogyne incognita Parasite Other/All Stages not specific

Notes on Natural Enemies

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The nematode Meloidogyne incognita infests plants of E. tirucalli in India (Orwa et al., 2009). Mwine and Damme (2011) reported that in Africa and India, infestation by Botrytis spp. causes the stems and roots to rot, especially in warm and humid conditions.

Means of Movement and Dispersal

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Within its native distribution range, E. tirucalli spreads by seeds. Fruits are eaten and dispersed by birds (Voigt and Porter, 2007). However, outside its native range, it rarely produces seeds, and thus it spreads mostly vegetatively by cuttings and stem fragments (Little et al., 1974).

Pathway Causes

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CauseNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Botanical gardens and zoosWidely planted for ornamental purposes Yes Yes USDA-ARS (2016)
DisturbanceProtects bare soil in dry areas from wind and water Yes Yes Orwa et al. (2009)
Escape from confinement or garden escapeOften escaped from cultivation Yes Yes Little et al. (1974)
Garden waste disposalCuttings and stem fragments Yes PIER (2016)
Habitat restoration and improvementPlanted for dune stabilization Yes Yes Little et al. (1974)
Hedges and windbreaksOften planted as hedge and barrier plant Yes Yes Orwa et al. (2009)
HorticultureWidely planted for ornamental purposes Yes Yes USDA-ARS (2016)
Landscape improvementWidely planted for ornamental purposes Yes Yes USDA-ARS (2016)
Medicinal useUsed in traditional African and Asian medicine Yes Yes Orwa et al. (2009)
Nursery tradeWidely planted for ornamental purposes Yes Yes USDA-ARS (2016)
Ornamental purposesWidely planted for ornamental purposes Yes Yes USDA-ARS (2016)

Pathway Vectors

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VectorNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Debris and waste associated with human activitiesOften spread by cuttings and stem fragments Yes Yes Orwa et al. (2009)

Impact Summary

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CategoryImpact
Cultural/amenity Positive and negative
Economic/livelihood Positive and negative
Environment (generally) Positive and negative
Human health Negative

Environmental Impact

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E. tirucalli grows forming dense thickets that displaces native vegetation. In many tropical areas, E. tirucalli is able to establish thick woody vegetation tending towards a forest and it may form hedge-like barriers in invaded areas. This species has the potential to outcompete native plants for water and nutrients (Orwa et al., 2009; Mwine and Damme, 2011; PIER, 2016).

Social Impact

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The milk latex is highly poisonous, causing severe injury to the eyes and rash on the skin of humans (Little et al., 1974; Orwa et al., 2009). The milky sap is poisonous if taken internally (Little et al., 1974, Haevermans, 2004).

Risk and Impact Factors

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Invasiveness
  • Proved invasive outside its native range
  • Has a broad native range
  • Abundant in its native range
  • Highly adaptable to different environments
  • Is a habitat generalist
  • Tolerates, or benefits from, cultivation, browsing pressure, mutilation, fire etc
  • Pioneering in disturbed areas
  • Benefits from human association (i.e. it is a human commensal)
  • Long lived
  • Fast growing
  • Gregarious
  • Reproduces asexually
Impact outcomes
  • Damaged ecosystem services
  • Ecosystem change/ habitat alteration
  • Modification of hydrology
  • Modification of successional patterns
  • Monoculture formation
  • Negatively impacts human health
  • Negatively impacts animal health
  • Reduced native biodiversity
  • Threat to/ loss of native species
Impact mechanisms
  • Causes allergic responses
  • Competition - monopolizing resources
  • Competition - shading
  • Competition - smothering
  • Induces hypersensitivity
  • Poisoning
  • Rapid growth
  • Rooting
Likelihood of entry/control
  • Highly likely to be transported internationally deliberately

Uses

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Economic Value

E. tirucalli has been used as a fish poison. It is also widely planted as a hedge and for ornamental purposes, especially in dry regions (Nguyen and Sosef, 1999; Orwa et al., 2009). In the West Indies, it is often planted as a hedge plant, potted plant and for dune stabilization (Little et al., 1974). The milky sap is also used as an insecticide and in East-Africa, it is used as gum. The white, close-grained, and fairly hard wood is used for rafters, toys and veneer (Orwa et al., 2009).

During the Second World War the latex was tested in South Africa as a rubber substitute, but it proved to be unstable unprofitable due to the high latex resin content. The oil obtained from the latex appeared useful for application in linoleum, oilskin and leather cloth industries (Nguyen and Sosef, 1999; Orwa et al., 2009).

E. tirucalli has potential as a drought-resistant biofuel crop. An investigation of the biogas production capacities of six E. tirucalli genotypes reveals biogas yields higher than from rapeseed but lower than maize silage (Hastilestari et al., 2013).

Social Benefit

In Asia, E. tirucalli is used in traditional medicine to heal broken bones, ulceration of the nose, haemorrhoids and swellings. Root scrapings, mixed with coconut oil, are given to cure stomach ache. An extract of the plant shows antibiotic activity (Nguyen and Sosef, 1999).

In Brazil, E. tirucalli is used in traditional medicine as an anti-helminthic, antisyphilitic and anti-tumoral agent. E. tirucalli has been confirmed to have larvicidal, mollucide, bactericidal and anti-herpes activity (Duke, 1983).

E. tirucalli has been promoted as an anticancer agent, but studies have shown that it suppresses the immune system, promotes tumour growth, and leads to the development of certain types of cancer. This species has also been associated with Burkitt's lymphoma and is thought to be a cofactor of the disease rather than a treatment (Bosch et al., 1993; Mwine and Damme, 2011).

Uses List

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Animal feed, fodder, forage

  • Fodder/animal feed

Environmental

  • Agroforestry
  • Amenity
  • Boundary, barrier or support
  • Erosion control or dune stabilization
  • Revegetation
  • Soil conservation
  • Windbreak

Fuels

  • Fuelwood

General

  • Botanical garden/zoo

Materials

  • Gums
  • Oils
  • Pesticide
  • Poisonous to fish
  • Poisonous to mammals
  • Rubber/latex
  • Wood/timber

Medicinal, pharmaceutical

  • Source of medicine/pharmaceutical
  • Traditional/folklore

Ornamental

  • Potted plant
  • Propagation material

Wood Products

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Roundwood

  • Posts
  • Roundwood structures

Sawn or hewn building timbers

  • Carpentry/joinery (exterior/interior)
  • For light construction

Veneers

Wood gas (and other hydrocarbons

Woodware

  • Tool handles
  • Toys

Similarities to Other Species/Conditions

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Euphorbia species are commonly confused with cacti. However, these two taxa can be easily distinguished due to the presence of sticky, milky-white latex in the Euphorbias, a trait that is absent in cacti. Additionally, flowers of Euphorbias are usually tiny and inconspicuous while cactus flowers are larger and showy. E. tirucalli has unmistakable, brush-like branch masses that are a noticeable feature of the plant (Voigt and Porter, 2007).

References

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Acevedo-Rodríguez P, Strong MT, 2012. Catalogue of the Seed Plants of the West Indies. Smithsonian Contributions to Botany, 98:1192 pp. Washington DC, USA: Smithsonian Institution. http://botany.si.edu/Antilles/WestIndies/catalog.htm

Areekul S, Sinchaisri P, Tigvatananon S, 1987. Effects of Thai plant extracts on the Oriental fruit fly. Kasetsart Journal, Natural Sciences, 21(4):395-407

Beentje HJ, 1994. Kenya trees, shrubs and lianas. Nairobi, Kenya: Majestic Printing Works Ltd.

Bosch, C. van den, Griffin, B. E., Kazembe, P., Dziweni, C., Kadzamira, L., 1993. Are plant factors a missing link in the evolution of endemic Burkitt's lymphoma?, British Journal of Cancer, 68(6):1232-1235

Carlowitz PGvon, Wolf GV, 1991. Potential and limitations of natural repellents against early destructive browsing by livestock and game. Agroforestry Systems, 16(1):33-40; [Also available as ICRAF Reprint No. 91].

Charles Darwin Foundation, , 2008. Database inventory of introduced plant species in the rural and urban zones of Galapagos. Galapagos, Ecuador: Charles Darwin Foundation

Chong KY, Tan HTW, Corlett RT, 2009. A checklist of the total vascular plant flora of Singapore: native, naturalised and cultivated species. Singapore: Raffles Museum of Biodiversity Research, National University of Singapore, 273 pp. http://lkcnhm.nus.edu.sg/nus/pdf/PUBLICATION/LKCNH%20Museum%20Books/LKCNHM%20Books/flora_of_singapore_tc.pdf

CSIR, 1969. The Wealth of India. Raw Materials. Vol. 8. New Delhi, India: Publication and Information Directorate. Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, New Delhi, India: 214-215.

Dale IR, Greenway PJ, 1961. Kenya trees and shrubs. Nairobi, Kenya: Buchanan's Kenya Estates Ltd. and London, UK: Hatchards.

Duke JA, 1983. Handbook of Energy Crops. Unpublished. Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana, USA: Centre for New Crops and Plant Products. http://www.hort.purdue.edu/newcrop/Indices/index_ab.html

Duke JA, 1983. Handbook of Energy Crops. Unpublished. Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana, USA: Centre for New Crops and Plant Products. World Wide Web page at http://www.hort.purdue.edu/newcrop/Indices/index_ab.html.

Egli A, Kalinganire A, 1988. Trees and shrubs for agroforestry in Rwanda. [Les arbres et arbustes agroforestiers au Rwanda.]. Butare, Rwanda: Institut de Sciences Agronomiques du Rwanda.

Esser HJ, 2009. Neotropical Euphorbiaceae. In: Milliken W, Klitgård B, Baracat A, Eds. Neotropikey - Interactive key and information resources for flowering plants of the Neotropics. www.kew.org/neotropikey

Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2016. Flora of China. St. Louis, Missouri and Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden and Harvard University Herbaria. http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2

Florence J, Chevillotte H, Ollier C, Meyer JY, 2013. Base de données botaniques Nadeaud de l'Herbier de la Polynésie Française (PAP) (Botanical database of the Nadeaud Herbarium of French Polynesia). http://www.herbier-tahiti.pf

Govaerts R, 2016. Family Euphorbiaceae - World Checklist of Euphorbiaceae. London, UK: Kew Royal Botanic Gardens. http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/

Haevermans T, 2004. Euphorbia tirucalli. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2004. e.T44452A10905047. http://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2004.RLTS.T44452A10905047.en

Hall DO, 1985. Plant hydrocarbon resources in arid and semi-arid lands. In: Wickens GE, Gordin JR, Field DV, eds. Kew International Conference on Economic Plants for Arid Lands, Kew, UK, 369-384.

Hastilestari, B. R., Mudersbach, M., Tomala, F., Vogt, H., Biskupek-Korell, B., Damme, P. van, Guretzki, S., Papenbrock, J., 2013. Euphorbia tirucalli L. - comprehensive characterization of a drought tolerant plant with a potential as biofuel source., PLoS ONE, 8(5):e63501 http://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0063501

Herrera K, Lorence DH, Flynn T, Balick MJ, 2010. Checklist of the vascular plants of Pohnpei with local names and uses. Allertonia. Lawai, Hawaii, USA: National Tropical Botanical Garden, 146 pp.

Horn, J. W., Ee, B. W. van, Morawetz, J. J., Riina, R., Steinmann, V. W., Berry, P. E., Wurdack, K. J., 2012. Phylogenetics and the evolution of major structural characters in the giant genus Euphorbia L. (Euphorbiaceae)., Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, 63(2):305-326 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1055790311005483

International Centre for Research in Agroforestry, 1992. A selection of useful trees and shrubs for Kenya: notes on their identification, propagation and management for use by agricultural and pastoral communities. 226 pp.; 25 ref.

Jørgensen PM, León-Yánez S, 1999. Catalogue of the vascular plants of Ecuador., Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden, 75:1-1182

Khan AQ, Ahmed Z, Kazmi NH, Malik A, Afza N, 1988. The structure and absolute configuration of cyclotirucanenol, a new triterpene from Euphorbia tirucalli Linn. Zeitschrift fur Naturforschung, Section B, Chemical Sciences, 43(8):1059-1062.

Khan AQ, Kazmi SNH, Ahmed Z, Malik A, 1989. Euphorcinol: a new pentacyclic triterpene from Euphorbia tirucalli. Planta Medica, 55(3):290-291.

Krishnappa DG, Reshme RV, 1982. IOPB chromosome number reports LXXVI., Taxon, 31:597–598

Kulkarni DK, Kumbhojkar MS, Nipunage DS, 1990. Note on fish stupefying plants from western Maharashtra. Indian Forester, 116(4):331-333.

Little EL, Woodbury RO, Wadsworth FH, 1974. Trees of Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands, Vol. 2. Agriculture Handbook No. 449. Washington, DC, USA: USDA, 1024 pp.

Lorence DH, Flynn TW, Wagner WL, 1995. Contributions to the flora of Hawai‘i. III. New additions, range extensions, and rediscoveries of flowering plants. In: Evenhuis NL, Miller SE, Eds. Records of the Hawaii Biological Survey for 1994. Part 1: Articles. Bishop Museum Occasional Papers, 41:19-58

Lorence DH, Wagner WL, 2013. Flora of the Marquesas Islands. National Tropical Botanical Garden and the Smithsonian Institution. http://botany.si.edu/pacificislandbiodiversity/marquesasflora/

Lynn KR, Clevette Radford NA, 1988. Proteases of Euphorbiaceae. Phytochemistry, 27(1):45-50.

Mabberley DJ, 1997. The plant-book: a portable dictionary of the vascular plants. Ed. 2: xvi + 858 pp. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press

MacKee HS, 1994. Catalogue of introduced and cultivated plants in New Caledonia. (Catalogue des plantes introduites et cultivées en Nouvelle-Calédonie). Paris, France: Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle. 164 pp.

McCormack G, 2013. Cook Islands Biodiversity Database, Version 2007.2. Cook Islands Biodiversity Database. Rarotonga, Cook Islands: Cook Islands Natural Heritage Trust. http://cookislands.bishopmuseum.org/search.asp

Mwine TJ, Damme P van, 2011. Euphorbia tirucalli L.(Euphorbiaceae): the miracle tree: current status of available knowledge., Scientific Research and Essays, 6(23):4905-4914

Nguyen NT, Sosef MSM, 1999. Euphorbia tirucalli L. Record from Proseabase. In: Padua LS de, Bunyapraphatsara N, Lemmens RHMJ, Eds. Bogor, Indonesia: PROSEA (Plant Resources of South-East Asia) Foundation. http://www.proseanet.org

Noad TC, Birnie A, 1989. Trees in Kenya. Nairobi, Kenya: General Printers Ltd.

Orwa C, Mutua A, Kindt R, Jamnadass R, Simons A, 2009. Agroforestree Database:a tree reference and selection guide version 4.0 http://www.worldagroforestry.org/af/treedb/

Oviedo Prieto R, Herrera Oliver P, Caluff MG, et al., 2012. National list of invasive and potentially invasive plants in the Republic of Cuba - 2011. (Lista nacional de especies de plantas invasoras y potencialmente invasoras en la República de Cuba - 2011). Bissea: Boletín sobre Conservación de Plantas del Jardín Botánico Nacional de Cuba, 6 (Special Issue 1):22-96

Oviedo Prieto R, Herrera Oliver P, Caluff MG, et al., 2012. National list of invasive and potentially invasive plants in the Republic of Cuba - 2011. (Lista nacional de especies de plantas invasoras y potencialmente invasoras en la República de Cuba - 2011). Bissea: Boletín sobre Conservación de Plantas del Jardín Botánico Nacional de Cuba, 6(Special Issue 1):22-96.

Palgrave CK, 1977. Trees of southern Africa. Cape Town, South Africa: C. Struik Publishers.

PIER, 2016. Pacific Islands Ecosystems at Risk. Honolulu, USA: HEAR, University of Hawaii. http://www.hear.org/pier/index.htm

Roussel J, 1995. Pépinières et plantations forestières en Afrique tropicale sèche [Forest nurseries and forest plantations in dry tropical Africa]. Dakar, Senegal: Institut Sénégalais de Recherches Agricoles (ISRA). Published in association with CIRAD (France).

Smith AC, 1981. Flora Vitiensis nova: a new flora of Fiji. Volume 2. Lawai, Kauai, Hawaii, USA: National Tropical Botanical Garden. 810 pp.

Space JC, Lorence DH, LaRosa AM, 2009. Report to the Republic of Palau: 2008 update on Invasive Plant Species. Honolulu, Hawaii, USA: USDA Forest Service, Pacific Southwest Research Station, Institute of Pacific Islands Forestry, 227 pp. http://www.hear.org/pier/pdf/Palau_report_2008.pdf

Stevens PF, 2012. Angiosperm Phylogeny Website. http://www.mobot.org/MOBOT/research/APweb/

Suhaila Mohamed, Sizama Saka, El-Sharkawy SH, Ali AM, Sepiah Muid, 1996. Antimycotic screening of 58 Malaysian plants against plant pathogens. Pesticide Science, 47(3):259-264; 28 ref.

USDA-ARS, 2016. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Online Database. National Germplasm Resources Laboratory, Beltsville, USA. http://www.ars-grin.gov/cgi-bin/npgs/html/tax_search.pl

USDA-NRCS, 2016. The PLANTS Database. Baton Rouge, USA: National Plant Data Center. http://plants.usda.gov/

Voigt W, Porter H, 2007. Euphorbia tirucalli. Plants of South Africa. http://pza.sanbi.org/euphorbia-tirucalli

Watt JM, Breyer-Brandwijk MG, 1962. The medicinal and poisonous plants of southern and eastern Africa. 2nd ed. (rev.) 1962. Edinburgh, UK: E.& S. Livingstone Ltd.

Webb DB, Wood PJ, Smith JP, Henman GS, 1984. A guide to species selection for tropical and sub-tropical plantations. Tropical Forestry Papers, No. 15. Oxford, UK: Commonwealth Forestry Institute, University of Oxford.

Whistler WA, Steele O, 1999. Botanical survey of the United States of America Kwajalein Atoll (USAKA) Islands. Prepared for Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education and the U. S. Army Environmental Center. 111 pp.

Wu T, 2001. Check List of Hong Kong Plants. Hong Kong Herbarium and the South China Institute of Botany. Agriculture, Fisheries and Conservation Department Bulletin 1 (revised):384 pp. http://www.hkflora.com/v2/flora/plant_check_list.php

Distribution References

Acevedo-Rodríguez P, Strong M T, 2012. Catalogue of the Seed Plants of the West Indies. Washington, DC, USA: Smithsonian Institution. 1192 pp. http://botany.si.edu/Antilles/WestIndies/catalog.htm

CABI, Undated. Compendium record. Wallingford, UK: CABI

CABI, Undated a. CABI Compendium: Status as determined by CABI editor. Wallingford, UK: CABI

Charles Darwin Foundation, 2008. Database inventory of introduced plant species in the rural and urban zones of Galapagos. In: Database inventory of introduced plant species in the rural and urban zones of Galapagos, Galapagos, Ecuador: Charles Darwin Foundation. unpaginated.

Chong K Y, Tan H T W, Corlett R T, 2009. A checklist of the total vascular plant flora of Singapore: native, naturalised and cultivated species. Singapore: Raffles Museum of Biodiversity Research, National University of Singapore. 273 pp. https://lkcnhm.nus.edu.sg/app/uploads/2017/04/flora_of_singapore_tc.pdf

Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2016. Flora of China. In: Flora of China. St. Louis, Missouri and Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden and Harvard University Herbaria. http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2

Florence J, Chevillotte H, Ollier C, Meyer JY, 2013. Botanical database of the Nadeaud Herbarium of French Polynesia. (Base de données botaniques Nadeaud de l'Herbier de la Polynésie Française (PAP))., http://www.herbier-tahiti.pf

Govaerts R, 2016. Family Euphorbiaceae - World Checklist of Euphorbiaceae., London, UK: Kew Royal Botanic Gardens. http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/

Herrera K, Lorence DH, Flynn T, Balick MJ, 2010. Checklist of the vascular plants of Pohnpei with local names and uses. In: Allertonia, Lawai, Hawaii, USA: National Tropical Botanical Garden. 146 pp.

Jørgensen P M, León-Yánez S, 1999. Catalogue of the vascular plants of Ecuador. 1182 pp.

Lorence D H, Flynn T W, Wagner W L, 1995. Contributions to the flora of Hawai'i. III. New additions, range extensions, and rediscoveries of flowering plants. Bishop Museum Occasional Papers. 19-58.

MacKee H S, 1994. Catalogue des plantes introduites et cultivées en Nouvelle-Calédonie. Paris, France: Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle. unpaginated.

McCormack G, 2013. Cook Islands Biodiversity Database, Version 2007.2., Rarotonga, Cook Islands: Cook Islands Natural Heritage Trust. http://cookislands.bishopmuseum.org/search.asp

Orwa C, Mutua A, Kindt R, Jamnadass R, Simons A, 2009. Agroforestree Database:a tree reference and selection guide version 4., http://www.worldagroforestry.org/af/treedb/

Oviedo Prieto R, Herrera Oliver P, Caluff M G, et al, 2012. National list of invasive and potentially invasive plants in the Republic of Cuba - 2011. (Lista nacional de especies de plantas invasoras y potencialmente invasoras en la República de Cuba - 2011). Bissea: Boletín sobre Conservación de Plantas del Jardín Botánico Nacional de Cuba. 6 (Special Issue No. 1), 22-96.

PIER, 2016. Pacific Islands Ecosystems at Risk., Honolulu, USA: HEAR, University of Hawaii. http://www.hear.org/pier/index.htm

Smith A C, 1981. Flora Vitiensis nova: a new flora of Fiji (spermatophytes only). Volume 2. In: Flora Vitiensis nova: a new flora of Fiji (spermatophytes only). Volume 2. Kauai, Hawaii, USA: Pacific Tropical Botanical Garden. 818 pp.

Space JC, Lorence DH, LaRosa AM, 2009. Report to the Republic of Palau: 2008 update on invasive plant species., Honolulu, Hawaii, USA: USDA Forest Service, Pacific Southwest Research Station, Institute of Pacific Islands Forestry. 227 pp. http://www.hear.org/pier/pdf/Palau_report_2008.pdf

USDA-NRCS, 2016. The PLANTS Database. Greensboro, North Carolina, USA: National Plant Data Team. https://plants.sc.egov.usda.gov

Whistler WA, 1999. Botanical survey of the United States of America Kwajalein Atoll (USAKA) Islands., Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education and the U. S. Army Environmental Center. 111 pp.

Wu T, 2001. Check List of Hong Kong Plants. Hong Kong Herbarium and the South China Institute of Botany. Agriculture, Fisheries and Conservation Department Bulletin 1 (revised)., 384 pp. http://www.hkflora.com/v2/flora/plant_check_list.php

Links to Websites

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WebsiteURLComment
GISD/IASPMR: Invasive Alien Species Pathway Management Resource and DAISIE European Invasive Alien Species Gatewayhttps://doi.org/10.5061/dryad.m93f6Data source for updated system data added to species habitat list.

Contributors

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19/05/16 Updated by:

Julissa Rojas-Sandoval, Department of Botany-Smithsonian NMNH, Washington DC, USA

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