Invasive Species Compendium

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Datasheet

Fimbristylis dichotoma
(tall fringe rush)

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Datasheet

Fimbristylis dichotoma (tall fringe rush)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 19 November 2019
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Pest
  • Host Plant
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Fimbristylis dichotoma
  • Preferred Common Name
  • tall fringe rush
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Plantae
  •     Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •       Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •         Class: Monocotyledonae
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • F. dichotoma is an aggressive invader in favourable environments. It is most noted as a weed of paddy rice.

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Upper part of F. dichotoma plant in fruiting stage.
TitleFruiting plant
CaptionUpper part of F. dichotoma plant in fruiting stage.
Copyright©Kurt G. Kissmann
Upper part of F. dichotoma plant in fruiting stage.
Fruiting plantUpper part of F. dichotoma plant in fruiting stage.©Kurt G. Kissmann
Spikes and achenes of F. dichotoma: (a) spikelet; (b) fertile glume; (c & d) achene; and (e & f) two-branched apex.
TitleSpikes and achenes
CaptionSpikes and achenes of F. dichotoma: (a) spikelet; (b) fertile glume; (c & d) achene; and (e & f) two-branched apex.
Copyright©Kurt G. Kissmann
Spikes and achenes of F. dichotoma: (a) spikelet; (b) fertile glume; (c & d) achene; and (e & f) two-branched apex.
Spikes and achenesSpikes and achenes of F. dichotoma: (a) spikelet; (b) fertile glume; (c & d) achene; and (e & f) two-branched apex.©Kurt G. Kissmann

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Fimbristylis dichotoma (L.) Vahl (1805)

Preferred Common Name

  • tall fringe rush

Other Scientific Names

  • Fimbristylis annua (non R & S) Merr.
  • Fimbristylis communis Kunth
  • Fimbristylis diphylla (Retz.) Vahl
  • Fimbristylis laxa Vahl
  • Fimbristylis longispica (non Steud.) Clarke
  • Fimbristylis polymorpha Boeck.
  • Fimbristylis squarrosa (non Vahl) Miq.
  • Scirpus dichotomus L. (1753)
  • Scirpus diphyllus Retz.

International Common Names

  • English: forked fringerush; twoleaf fimbristylis
  • Spanish: arrocillo
  • French: fimbristylis dichotome

Local Common Names

  • Brazil: falso alecrim da praia
  • Colombia: arrocillo; cortadera; coyolillo; namu
  • Germany: Einjährige Fransenbinse
  • Japan: tentsuki
  • Malaysia: rumput kepala lalat; rumput para-para; rumput purun batu
  • Taiwan: pyau-fo-tsau
  • USA/Hawaii: futaba tentsuki; futaba-tentsuki; futabo-tentuki

EPPO code

  • FIMAN (Fimbristylis annua)
  • FIMDI (Fimbristylis dichotoma)
  • FIMSQ (Fimbristylis squarrosa)

Summary of Invasiveness

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F. dichotoma is an aggressive invader in favourable environments. It is most noted as a weed of paddy rice.

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Plantae
  •         Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •             Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •                 Class: Monocotyledonae
  •                     Order: Cyperales
  •                         Family: Cyperaceae
  •                             Genus: Fimbristylis
  •                                 Species: Fimbristylis dichotoma

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

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The genus Fimbristylis belongs to the sedge family (Cyperaceae) and is characterized by the spiral arrangement of the glumes of its spikelets; in Cyperus species, the glumes are presented in two rows. It is a very polymorphous species, variable in habit, hairiness, size of inflorescence, size of glumes, number of stamens and shape of fruits. Several subspecies or varieties are recognized: F. dichotoma subsp. (or var.) dichotoma (perennial, sometimes stiffly hairy), F. dichotoma subsp. depauperata (annual, often softly hairy), F. dichotoma var. laxa (stout perennial), F. dichotoma var. pluristriata (annual with orbicular nutlet).

Description

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F. dichotoma is a tufted erect, annual or perennial plant, 10-80 cm tall, with numerous long stems about 2 mm in diameter, slightly three-angled, compressed below the inflorescence, nodeless, smooth. The root system is fibrous, wiry, black. Short rhizomes. Leaves numerous, forming a dense tuft at the base of the stem, being at least half as long as the stem, 1.5-5.0 mm wide, sheath margin membranous. Blades flat or slightly concave, abruptly acuminate, without an evident midrib, glabrous or somewhat pubescent, colour green or green-bluish. Ligules a dense fringe of short hairs. Involucral bracts leaf-like, 2-5, relatively short, the lowest can reach the length of the largest ray of the inflorescence (up to 20 cm). Inflorescence a simple or compound, loose or dense umbel. Spikelets some sessile others on distinct slender stalks, plump and rather egg-shaped, pointed, up to 5 mm long and 2 mm broad, round in section, glumes spirally arranged, imbricate, ovoid or ovoid-lanceolate, 3-10 mm long, fertile glumes shortly mucronate. Spikelets multi-flowered, one to three stamens, style short, thick, two-branched at the apex.

Fruit an obovate to broadly obovate nutlet, 0.8-1.2 mm long, 0.8-1.0 mm wide, biconvex, hard, dry, with about ten longitudinal grooves and transversal lines, brownish, apex round to truncate, at times with the two-branched style persistent.

Plant Type

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Annual
Grass / sedge
Perennial
Seed propagated
Vegetatively propagated

Distribution

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F. dichotoma is widely distributed in Asia and Africa, as well as in other parts of the tropics.

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 25 Feb 2021
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

Burkina FasoPresent
CameroonPresent
Côte d'IvoirePresent
GambiaPresent
GhanaPresent
GuineaPresent
KenyaPresent
LiberiaPresent
MaliPresent
NigeriaPresent
SenegalPresent
SeychellesPresent
Sierra LeonePresent
TanzaniaPresent
-Zanzibar IslandPresent
UgandaPresent

Asia

AfghanistanPresent
BangladeshPresent
ChinaPresent, LocalizedNativeInvasive
-AnhuiPresent
-GuangdongPresent
Hong KongPresent
IndiaPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-PunjabPresent
-Uttar PradeshPresent
IndonesiaPresent, LocalizedNativeInvasive
IraqPresent
IsraelPresent
JapanPresent
LaosPresent
MalaysiaPresent
NepalPresent
PakistanPresent
PhilippinesPresent
South KoreaPresent
Sri LankaPresent
TaiwanPresent
ThailandPresent
VietnamPresent

North America

Puerto RicoPresentNative
Trinidad and TobagoPresent
U.S. Virgin IslandsPresentNative
United StatesPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-AlabamaPresentNative
-FloridaPresentNative
-GeorgiaPresentNative
-HawaiiPresentNative
-LouisianaPresentNative
-MississippiPresentNative
-North CarolinaPresentNative
-South CarolinaPresentNative
-TexasPresentNative
-VirginiaPresentNative

Oceania

AustraliaPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-Northern TerritoryPresent
FijiPresent
French PolynesiaPresent
Papua New GuineaPresent

South America

BrazilPresent, LocalizedIntroducedInvasive
-GoiasPresent, Few occurrencesIntroduced
-MaranhaoPresent
-Mato Grosso do SulPresent, Few occurrencesIntroduced
-Minas GeraisPresent, LocalizedIntroduced
-ParaPresent
-ParanaPresent, LocalizedIntroducedInvasive
-Rio de JaneiroPresent, LocalizedIntroducedInvasive
-Rio Grande do SulPresent, LocalizedIntroducedInvasive
-Santa CatarinaPresent, LocalizedIntroducedInvasive
-Sao PauloPresent, LocalizedIntroducedInvasive

Habitat

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F. dichotoma grows well on wet or even flooded soil; it is also found in uplands where the soil has good water retention. It is also found in swamps, open waste places, grassy roadsides, Imperata cylindrica grasslands and some plantation crops. It is a tropical weed, occurring at altitudes up to 1500 (-2500) m in Papua New Guinea (Soerjani et al., 1987).

Habitat List

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CategorySub-CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Terrestrial
Terrestrial ManagedCultivated / agricultural land Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial ManagedDisturbed areas Present, no further details
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalRiverbanks Present, no further details
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalWetlands Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
LittoralCoastal areas Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Freshwater

Hosts/Species Affected

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The crops that are most affected by F. dichotoma are those growing on paddy soil, particularly rice. In addition to the crops listed, it can be common and troublesome in pastures (Holm et al., 1977).

Host Plants and Other Plants Affected

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Plant nameFamilyContextReferences
Ananas comosus (pineapple)BromeliaceaeMain
    Camellia sinensis (tea)TheaceaeMain
      Colocasia esculenta (taro)AraceaeMain
        Oryza sativa (rice)PoaceaeMain
          Tectona grandis (teak)LamiaceaeMain

            Growth Stages

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            Seedling stage, Vegetative growing stage

            Biology and Ecology

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            Genetics

            F. dichotoma is a very variable species. Chromosome analysis of populations from the Indian Punjab has been carried out by Bir et al. (1992a, b).

            Reproductive Biology

            F. dichotoma reproduces by seeds. Flowering and seed production occur during most of the year. Many seeds are produced which fall to the ground and germinate quickly (Holm et al., 1977). Some seeds can survive in the soil for up to 3 years. Growth of the plants is very rapid.

            Environmental Requirements

            F. dichotoma exists as a perennial when conditions are favourable, otherwise it occurs as an annual.

            It can be found at altitudes from 0 to 1500 m in Indonesia (Holm et al., 1977) and to 1800 m in Colombia (Aristizabal and Posada, 1987). In Brazil, it is found mostly in coastal areas, at altitudes up to 300 m. Where temperatures drop below 10°C, the plant exists only as an annual.

            F. dichotoma grows best in moist soils, including poorly aerated soils. It appears to be better adapted to upland soils than F. miliacea (Holm et al., 1977). In Japan, it has been found growing on acidic soils (pH <3) on volcanoes (Tsujimura, 1979) and, in Thailand, it is able to survive high salinity (Nemoto et al., 1987).

            Latitude/Altitude Ranges

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            Latitude North (°N)Latitude South (°S)Altitude Lower (m)Altitude Upper (m)
            0 0 1800 0

            Air Temperature

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            Parameter Lower limit Upper limit
            Absolute minimum temperature (ºC) 5
            Mean annual temperature (ºC) 17 25
            Mean maximum temperature of hottest month (ºC) 20 30
            Mean minimum temperature of coldest month (ºC) 15 20

            Rainfall

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            ParameterLower limitUpper limitDescription
            Dry season duration12number of consecutive months with <40 mm rainfall
            Mean annual rainfall15002500mm; lower/upper limits

            Rainfall Regime

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            Summer
            Winter

            Soil Tolerances

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            Soil drainage

            • seasonally waterlogged

            Soil reaction

            • acid
            • neutral
            • very acid

            Soil texture

            • light
            • medium

            Means of Movement and Dispersal

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            Natural Dispersal (non-biotic)

            Seeds can be distributed by water.

            Vector Transmission (biotic)

            Grazing cattle ingest the plants and undigested seeds are excreted without much loss in germinability.

            Agricultural Practices

            When preparing the soil for planting rice or other crops, the movement of earth and water can disperse the seeds of this and other species of weeds.

            Accidental introduction

            Nutlets (achenes) and parts of spikelets can contaminate seeds of pasture grasses (Tasrif, 1990).

            Plant Trade

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            Plant parts liable to carry the pest in trade/transportPest stagesBorne internallyBorne externallyVisibility of pest or symptoms
            True seeds (inc. grain) seeds

            Impact Summary

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            CategoryImpact
            Animal/plant collections None
            Animal/plant products None
            Biodiversity (generally) None
            Crop production Negative
            Environment (generally) None
            Fisheries / aquaculture Negative
            Forestry production None
            Human health None
            Livestock production Positive
            Native fauna None
            Native flora None
            Rare/protected species None
            Tourism None
            Trade/international relations None
            Transport/travel None

            Impact

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            A heavy infestation of F. dichotoma in a rice field affects productivity by competing for nutrients, causing plants to lodge and making mechanical harvesting almost impossible. It is also costly to control the weed.

            Environmental Impact

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            Plants can clog canals, affecting water flow.

            Impact: Biodiversity

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            F. dichotoma has the capacity to choke other species, altering the local flora.

            Risk and Impact Factors

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            Invasiveness
            • Invasive in its native range
            • Proved invasive outside its native range
            • Highly mobile locally
            • Has high reproductive potential
            • Has propagules that can remain viable for more than one year
            Impact outcomes
            • Damaged ecosystem services
            • Ecosystem change/ habitat alteration
            • Negatively impacts agriculture
            Impact mechanisms
            • Competition - monopolizing resources
            Likelihood of entry/control
            • Difficult to identify/detect as a commodity contaminant
            • Difficult/costly to control

            Uses

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            Cattle may graze on F. dichotoma (Holm et al., 1977) but it has low nutritional value. It is considered a poor green manure crop and has been used to make inferior mats in the Philippines (Holm et al., 1977).

            Similarities to Other Species/Conditions

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            Fimbristylis spp. are common weeds of rice (IRRI, 1989). The shape of the nutlet (sometimes known as a nut or achene) is a simple diagnostic character of some common sedge weeds of rice: species with a biconvex nutlet are F. acuminata, F. aestivalis, F. dichotoma, F. tomentosa; species with a three-angled nutlet include F. miliacea (=F. littoralis) and many weedy Cyperus spp.

            Prevention and Control

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            Due to the variable regulations around (de)registration of pesticides, your national list of registered pesticides or relevant authority should be consulted to determine which products are legally allowed for use in your country when considering chemical control. Pesticides should always be used in a lawful manner, consistent with the product's label.

            Introduction

            F. dichotoma has many similarities to F. miliacea and can be controlled in much the same way (see the data sheet on this species).

            Cultural Control

            The key to successful cultural control in rice is the establishment of a competitive crop stand. This includes the sowing of weed-free crop seed into a clean seedbed, use of competitive varieties (fast growing, tall and leafy varieties) and maintaining a healthy crop.

            Mechanical Control

            Inter-row cultivation is an effective, though somewhat laborious, method of control. This should be done when the F. dichotoma is a seedling or small plant and before it competes with the crop. Hand-pulling can be applied to large plants but, by then, the crop will have suffered modest competition.

            Chemical Control

            Herbicides cited as being suitable for weed control in rice included molinate (pre-emergence) and propanil (early post-emergence; Soerjani et al., 1987).

            References

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            Aristizabal AG; Posada HR, 1987. Descripción de Malezas em Plantaciones de Café. Bogota, Colombia: Cenicafé, 44-45.

            Bir SS; Chatha GS; Sidhu M, 1992. Intraspecific variation in Cyperaceae from Punjab Plain, India. Willdenowia, 22(1-2):133-142

            Bir SS; Cheema P; Sidhu MK, 1992. Chromosomal analysis of Fimbristylis Vahl in Punjab, North West India. Proceedings of the Indian National Science Academy. Part B, Biological Sciences, 58(1):63-70.

            Haines RW; Lye KA, 1983. The Sedges and Rushes of East Africa. Nairobi, Kenya: East African Natural History Society.

            Holm GL; Pancho JV; Herberger JP; Plucknett DL, 1991. A Geographical Atlas of World Weeds. Krieger, Malabar, Florida.

            Holm LG; Plucknett DL; Pancho JV; Herberger JP, 1977. The World's Worst Weeds. Distribution and Biology. Honolulu, Hawaii, USA: University Press of Hawaii.

            Hutchinson J; Dalziel JM, 1972. Flora of West Tropical Africa. Volume 3. 2nd edition. London, UK: Crown Agents.

            IRRI, 1989. Weeds Reported in Rice in South and South East Asia. Manila, Philippines: International Rice Research Institute.

            Kissmann KG, 1997. Plantas Infestantes e Nocivas. Tomo 1, edition 2. Brazil: BASF, 256-258.

            Langkamp PJ; Farnell GK; Dalling MJ, 1981. Acetylene reduction rates by selected leguminous and non-leguminous plants of Groote Eylandt, Northern Territory. Australian Journal of Botany, 29(1):1-9.

            Lorenzi H, 1982. Plantas Daninhas do Brasil. Nova Odessa, San Paulo, Brazil: H. Lorenzi.

            Napper DM, 1965. Cyperaceae of East Africa - III. Cyperus L. Journal of the East African Natural History Society, 25(1):1-27.

            Nemoto M; Panchaban S; Vichaidis P; Takai Y, 1987. Some aspects of the vegetation at the inland saline areas in northeast Thailand. Journal of Agricultural Science, Tokyo Nogyo Daigaku, 32(1):1-9

            Robertson SA, 1989. Flowering Plants of Seychelles. Kew, UK: Royal Botanic Gardens.

            Soejani M; Kostermans AJGH; Tjitrosoepomo G, 1987. Weeds of Rice in Indonesia. Jakarta, Indonesia: Balai Pustaka.

            Srivastava AK; Vaishya RD, 1993. Effect of nitrogen and weed management practices on nitrogen uptake by weeds in puddled seeded rice. Integrated weed management for sustainable agriculture. Proceedings of an Indian Society of Weed Science International Symposium, Hisar, India, 18-20 November 1993 Hisar, Haryana, India; Indian Society of Weed Science, Vol. III:43-45

            Tasrif A, 1989. Weed seeds intercepted from grass and germination ability. BIOTROP Special Publication, No. 38:237-242.

            Tsujimura A, 1979. The arrangement of the vegetation of Solfataras according to pH value of soils. Ecological Review, 19(2):59-65.

            USDA-NRCS, 2003. The PLANTS Database, Version 3.5. National Plant Data Center, Baton Rouge, USA. http://plants.usda.gov.

            Distribution References

            Bir S S, Chatha G S, Sidhu M, 1992. Intraspecific variation in Cyperaceae from Punjab Plain, India. Willdenowia. 22 (1-2), 133-142.

            CABI, Undated. CABI Compendium: Status inferred from regional distribution. Wallingford, UK: CABI

            CABI, Undated a. CABI Compendium: Status as determined by CABI editor. Wallingford, UK: CABI

            Carvalho V C de, Andrade T C G R de, Silva M C de C, Santos R de S, Pereira D L, 2018. Phytosociological survey of weeds in cacao plantation. Amazonian Journal of Plant Research. 2 (2), 189-194. DOI:10.26545/ajpr.2018.b00023x

            Haines RW, Lye KA, 1983. The Sedges and Rushes of East Africa., Nairobi, Kenya: East African Natural History Society.

            He YunHe, Qiang Sheng, 2014. Analysis of farmland weeds species diversity and its changes in the different cropping systems. Bulgarian Journal of Agricultural Science. 20 (4), 786-794. http://agrojournal.org/20/04-09.pdf

            Holm LG, Pancho JV, Herberger JP, Plucknett DC, 1991. A Geographical Atlas of World Weeds., Malabar, Florida, Krieger.

            Hutchinson J, Dalziel JM, 1972. Flora of West Tropical Africa., 3 (2nd) London, UK: Crown Agents.

            IRRI, 1989. Weeds Reported in Rice in South and South East Asia., Manila, Philippines: International Rice Research Institute.

            Kissmann KG, 1997. (Plantas Infestantes e Nocivas)., 1 (2) Brazil: BASF. 256-258.

            Langkamp P J, Farnell G K, Dalling M J, 1981. Acetylene reduction rates by selected leguminous and non-leguminous plants of Groote Eylandt, Northern Territory. Australian Journal of Botany. 29 (1), 1-9. DOI:10.1071/BT9810001

            Lorenzi H, 1982. (Plantas Daninhas do Brasil)., Nova Odessa San Paulo, Brazil: H. Lorenzi. 400 pp.

            Mesquita M L R, Andrade L A de, Pereira W E, 2013. Floristic diversity of the soil weed seed bank in a rice-growing area of Brazil: in situ and ex situ evaluation. Acta Botanica Brasilica. 27 (3), 465-471. http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0102-33062013000300001&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en DOI:10.1590/S0102-33062013000300001

            Napper DM, 1965. Cyperaceae of East Africa - III. Cyperus L. In: Journal of the East African Natural History Society, 25 (1) 1-27.

            Nemoto M, Panchaban S, Vichaidis P, Takai Y, 1987. Some aspects of the vegetation at the inland saline areas in northeast Thailand. Journal of Agricultural Science, Tokyo Nogyo Daigaku. 32 (1), 1-9.

            Robertson SA, 1989. Flowering Plants of Seychelles., Kew, UK: Royal Botanic Gardens.

            Srivastava A K, Vaishya R D, 1993. Effect of nitrogen and weed management practices on nitrogen uptake by weeds in puddled seeded rice. In: Integrated weed management for sustainable agriculture. Proceedings of an Indian Society of Weed Science International Symposium, Hisar, India, 18-20 November 1993. [Integrated weed management for sustainable agriculture. Proceedings of an Indian Society of Weed Science International Symposium, Hisar, India, 18-20 November 1993.], Hisar, Haryana, India: Indian Society of Weed Science. 43-45.

            Tsujimura A, 1979. The arrangement of the vegetation of Solfataras according to pH value of soils. Ecological Review. 19 (2), 59-65.

            USDA-NRCS, 2003. The PLANTS Database. Greensboro, North Carolina, USA: National Plant Data Team. https://plants.sc.egov.usda.gov

            Xie X M, Tang W, Zhong P T, Shiyomi M, 2008. Analysis of spatial heterogeneity of the weed community in a manilagrass lawn using power-law. Acta Horticulturae. 529-534. http://www.actahort.org

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