Eggplant mottled dwarf virus (tomato vein yellowing virus)
- Taxonomic Tree
- Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature
- Distribution Table
- Risk of Introduction
- Hosts/Species Affected
- Host Plants and Other Plants Affected
- Growth Stages
- List of Symptoms/Signs
- Biology and Ecology
- Seedborne Aspects
- Detection and Inspection
- Prevention and Control
- Distribution Maps
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PicturesTop of page
IdentityTop of page
Preferred Scientific Name
- Eggplant mottled dwarf virus
Preferred Common Name
- tomato vein yellowing virus
Other Scientific Names
- eggplant mottled dwarf nucleorhabdovirus
International Common Names
- English: Hibiscus vein yellowing virus; Pelargonium vein clearing virus; Pittosporum vein clearing virus; Pittosporum vein yellowing virus
Local Common Names
- Italy: nanismo maculato della melanzana
- EMDV00 (Eggplant mottled dwarf nucleorhabdovirus)
Taxonomic TreeTop of page
- Domain: Virus
- Unknown: "Positive sense ssRNA viruses"
- Unknown: "RNA viruses"
- Order: Mononegavirales
- Family: Rhabdoviridae
- Genus: Nucleorhabdovirus
- Species: Eggplant mottled dwarf virus
Notes on Taxonomy and NomenclatureTop of page Eggplant mottled dwarf virus (EMDV) was named after the disease it induces in aubergines, its primary host (Martelli, 1969).
Based on its morphological, structural, physicochemical and cytopathological features (Martelli, 1969; Martelli and Castellano, 1970; Russo and Martelli, 1973; Dale and Peters, 1981), EMDV was assigned to the genus Nucleorhabdovirus, as a definitive species (Murphy et al., 1995). The Nucleorhabdovirus genus is one of five genera included in the Rhabdoviridae family (Murphy et al., 1985).
EMDV is not serologically related to any of the other plant rhabdoviruses tested (El-Maataoui et al., 1985; Adam et al., 1987). Virus isolates from different hosts proved to be serologically uniform, suggesting that they belong to the same species. However, differences were noticed in the response to infection of some experimental hosts, in the cytopathological features and in the molecular mass of proteins G and M1 indicating that different strains may exist (Adam et al., 1987).
DescriptionTop of page EMDV has bacilliform particles with estimated length and diameter ranging from 220 to 310 nm and from 65 to 86 nm, respectively (Martelli, 1969; El-Maataoui et al., 1975; Plavsic-Banjac et al., 1976, Plavsic et al., 1976, 1978; Kano et al., 1985; Lockhart, 1987). Thin-sectioned particles have a most frequent size of 220-230 x 65-70 nm (Martelli, 1969; Plavsic et al., 1984; Cherif and Martelli, 1985; Martelli and Hamadi, 1986; Martelli and Cherif, 1987). However, in thin-sectioned tissues of artificially infected hosts, abnormally long virions, measuring up to 1.5 mm, were occasionally observed (Martelli and Castellano, 1970; Rana and Franco, 1979). The presence of these long virions can stimulate the formation of cell wall outgrowths in infected cells (Di Franco et al., 1980).
Virions have a lipoprotein outer membrane 100-200 nm thick, with surface projections about 60Å in length, enveloping an internal core 45-50 nm in diameter. The helical nucleocapsid is 55Å thick, with a pitch of the helix of 45Å (Russo and Martelli, 1973). Virions contain four species of structural proteins with the following Mr: G, 83 kDa; N, 61 kDa; M1, 27 kDa; M2, 22 kDa (Dale and Peters, 1981). Virus particles acquire the outer membrane at the inner lamella of the nuclear envelope and accumulate in perinuclear gaps (Martelli and Castellano, 1970; Russo and Martelli, 1973). The nuclei of infected cells have a reduced electron opacity, and a uniformly finely granular nucleoplasm which is a consequence of a drastic reduction of nucleohistones (Russo and Martelli, 1975).
DistributionTop of page
EMDV is endemic in the Mediterranean basin, where it is widespread, but it also occurs in countries outside this area (for example, Afghanistan). A yellow vein disease of tomato resembling that occurring in Morocco (El-Maataoui et al., 1985) and Italy (Castellano and Martelli, 1987) was recorded from Nigeria (Ladipo, 1977). The causal agent of the Nigerian disease, however, has not been identified.
A record of EMDV in Honshu, Japan (Kano et al., 1985) published in previous versions of the Compendium is unreliable. Kano et al. (1985) refers to a new virus in Japan, tomato vein clearing virus (TVCV), which is similar to tomato vein yellowing virus (synonym of EMDV) but differs in host range and intracellular appearances, and is distinct from EMDV. According to The Phytopathological Society of Japan (2014), EMDV has never occurred in Japan.
Distribution TableTop of page
The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.
|Continent/Country/Region||Distribution||Last Reported||Origin||First Reported||Invasive||Reference||Notes|
|Afghanistan||Present||Martelli and Lal, 1985; CABI/EPPO, 2008; EPPO, 2014|
|Azerbaijan||Present||Desbiez et al., 2018|
|Iran||Present||CABI/EPPO, 2008; EPPO, 2014|
|Israel||Present||Martelli, 1990; CABI/EPPO, 2008; EPPO, 2014|
|Japan||Absent, unreliable record|
|-Honshu||Absent, unreliable record||Kano et al., 1985|
|Jordan||Present||Martelli, 1990; CABI/EPPO, 2008; EPPO, 2014|
|Turkey||Present||Martelli et al., 1984; CABI/EPPO, 2008; EPPO, 2014|
|Algeria||Present||Martelli and Hamadi, 1986; CABI/EPPO, 2008; EPPO, 2014|
|Libya||Present||Plavsic et al., 1978; CABI/EPPO, 2008; EPPO, 2014|
|Morocco||Present||El Maatoui et al., 1985; CABI/EPPO, 2008; EPPO, 2014|
|-Canary Islands||Present||Plavsic et al., 1984; CABI/EPPO, 2008; EPPO, 2014|
|Tunisia||Present||Cherif and Martelli, 1985; CABI/EPPO, 2008; EPPO, 2014|
|Albania||Present||Pappi et al., 2012; EPPO, 2014|
|Bulgaria||Present||CABI/EPPO, 2008; EPPO, 2014|
|Croatia||Present||Plavsic et al., 1984; CABI/EPPO, 2008; EPPO, 2014|
|Germany||Present||Menzel et al., 2016|
|Greece||Present||Plavsic et al., 1984; CABI/EPPO, 2008; EPPO, 2014|
|Italy||Present||Martelli, 1969; CABI/EPPO, 2008; EPPO, 2014; Zhai et al., 2014|
|-Italy (mainland)||Present||CABI/EPPO, 2008|
|-Sicily||Present||CABI/EPPO, 2008; EPPO, 2014|
|Portugal||Present||Adam et al., 1987; CABI/EPPO, 2008; EPPO, 2014|
|Slovenia||Absent, formerly present||IPPC, 2006; CABI/EPPO, 2008; EPPO, 2014|
|Spain||Present||Parrella et al., 2013; EPPO, 2014|
|-Spain (mainland)||Present||CABI/EPPO, 2008|
Risk of IntroductionTop of page EMDV does not have quarantine status. Dissemination through infected propagative material of ornamentals is likely to occur, but whether this represents a source of inoculum for subsequent spread to vegetable crops is unknown.
Hosts/Species AffectedTop of page
EMDV can be transmitted mechanically to a moderate range of plant species in different botanical families, most of which are infected both locally and systemically. Gomphrena globosa reacts with reddish local lesions not followed by systemic invasion, whereas all solanaceous hosts, Nicotiana spp. in particular, typically respond with conspicuous vein clearing or yellowing of systemically invaded leaves (Martelli and Rana, 1970; Franco et al., 1979; Rana and Franco, 1979; El-Maataoui et al., 1985; Martelli and Cherif, 1987, Roggero et al., 1995; Polverari et al., 1996).
Host Plants and Other Plants AffectedTop of page
|Capparis spinosa (Caper bush)||Capparaceae||Wild host|
|Capsicum annuum (bell pepper)||Solanaceae||Other|
|Cucumis melo subsp. melo||Cucurbitaceae||Other|
|Cucumis sativus (cucumber)||Cucurbitaceae||Other|
|Hibiscus rosa-sinensis (China-rose)||Malvaceae||Other|
|Hydrangea macrophylla (French hydrangea)||Hydrangeaceae||Other|
|Nicotiana tabacum (tobacco)||Solanaceae||Other|
|Pelargonium zonale hybrids||Geraniaceae||Other|
|Pittosporum tobira (Japanese pittosporum)||Pittosporaceae||Other|
|Solanum lycopersicum (tomato)||Solanaceae||Other|
|Solanum melongena (aubergine)||Solanaceae||Main|
|Solanum nigrum (black nightshade)||Solanaceae||Wild host|
|Solanum tuberosum (potato)||Solanaceae||Other|
Growth StagesTop of page Flowering stage, Fruiting stage, Seedling stage, Vegetative growing stage
SymptomsTop of page Infected aubergines have deformed leaves of varying intensity, which are also crinkled and puckered, and have chlorotic to yellow discolorations of the veins and adjacent tissues that sometimes turn into a generalized chlorotic mottling. Foliar symptoms may be accompanied by mild to severe stunting and a lack of fruit. The flowers are apparently unaffected, while the fruits, when present, are small, deformed and roughened by suberized cracks (Martelli, 1969). The same symptomatology occurs in all aubergine cultivars in the countries where the disease is found (Martelli and Cirulli, 1969; Martelli et al., 1984; Cherif and Martelli, 1985; Martelli and Hamadi, 1986).
The recurrent and characterizing symptom shown by all other naturally infected hosts, regardless of the plant species, is a clearing or yellowing of the main and secondary veins, sometimes accompanied by crinkling, curling and deformation of the leaves (Plavsic et al., 1976, 1984; Franco et al., 1979; Di Franco and Gallitelli, 1985; El-Maataoui et al., 1985; Kano et al., 1985; Castellano and Martelli, 1987; Lockhart, 1987; Roggero et al., 1995; Polverari et al., 1996).
List of Symptoms/SignsTop of page
|Fruit / abnormal shape|
|Leaves / abnormal colours|
|Leaves / abnormal forms|
|Leaves / abnormal patterns|
|Stems / stunting or rosetting|
|Whole plant / dwarfing|
|Whole plant / early senescence|
Biology and EcologyTop of page In vegetatively propagated crops, especially ornamentals, EMDV is disseminated through infected propagating material. In the absence of seed transmission, the recurrent infections to vegetable crops are likely to be mediated by a vector that acquires the virus from natural reservoirs, possibly weeds (El-Maataoui et al., 1985; Lockhart, 1987). The distribution pattern of infected vegetables in the field suggests the activity of an inefficient aerial vector (Martelli, 1990) which, however, has not been identified. Repeated attempts to transmit the eggplant and Pittosporum isolates by aphids and leafhoppers have failed (Rana and Franco, 1979; M. Conti, Istituto di Fitovirologia Applicato del CNR, Turin, Italy, personal communication, 1997).
Seedborne AspectsTop of page EMDV is not known to be seedborne.
ImpactTop of page EMDV does not appear to greatly affect any of the ornamentals it infects. In contrast, the virus is very severe and highly damaging to vegetable crops. Its economic impact, however, is minor because the incidence of field infections is very low, both in aubergine, where it rarely exceeds 1% (Martelli and Cirulli, 1969; Martelli et al., 1984; Cherif and Martelli, 1985; Martelli and Hamadi, 1986), and in other crops, such as tomato (El-Maataoui et al., 1985; Castellano and Martelli, 1987), pepper and cucumber (Roggero et al., 1995).
DiagnosisTop of page Although the reactions of some herbaceous hosts, Nicotiana spp. in particular, are highly diagnostic, confirmation by serology is advisable. Antisera to the eggplant and tomato isolates of EMDV were produced. The serological identification methods most frequently used are agar gel immunodiffusion tests (El-Maataoui et al., 1985; Martelli and Hamadi, 1986; Castellano and Martelli, 1987; Lockhart, 1987; Martelli and Cherif, 1987; Polverari et al., 1996) and immunoelectron microscopy (Adam et al., 1987; Castellano and Martelli, 1987; Lockhart, 1987; Martelli and Cherif, 1987; Polverari et al., 1996). ELISA has been used to detect the hibiscus isolate of the virus (Lockhart, 1987).
Detection and InspectionTop of page EMDV infections are readily detected in the field because of the vein clearing or yellowing typically shown by infected hosts, regardless of whether they are wild or cultivated.
Prevention and ControlTop of page The use of healthy material for vegetatively propagated species is advised.
ReferencesTop of page
Desbiez, C., Verdin, E., Moury, B., Lecoq, H., Millot, P., Wipf-Scheibel, C., et al., 2018. Prevalence and molecular diversity of the main viruses infecting cucurbit and solanaceous crops in Azerbaijan. European Journal of Plant Pathology, https://link.springer.com/content/pdf/10.1007%2Fs10658-018-1562-0.pdf doi: 10.1007/s10658-018-1562-0
El-Maataoui M, Lockhart BEL, Lesemann D-E, 1985. Biological, serological, and cytopathological properties of tomato vein-yellowing virus, a rhabdovirus occurring in tomato in Morocco. Phytopathology, 75(1):109-115
EPPO, 2014. PQR database. Paris, France: European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization. http://www.eppo.int/DATABASES/pqr/pqr.htm
IPPC, 2006. IPP Report No. SI-1/3. Rome, Italy: FAO
Martelli GP, 1969. Bacilliform particles associated with mottled dwarf of eggplant. Journal of General Virology, 5:319-320
Martelli GP, 1990. Virosi della melanzana. Sono poche e poco dannose ma é bene conoscerle. Giornale di Agricoltura, 100(25):45-46
Martelli GP, Castellano MA, 1970. Electron microscopy of eggplant mottled dwarf virus. Phytopathologia Mediterranea, 9:39-49
Martelli GP, Cirulli M, 1969. Mottled dwarf of eggplant (Solanum melongena L.), a virus disease. Annales de Phytopathologie, 1:393-397
Martelli GP, Rana GL, 1970. Trasmissione meccanica dell'agente del nanismo maculato della melanzana. Phytopathologia Mediterranea, 9:187-191
Menzel W, Winter S, Hamacher J, 2016. First report of Eggplant mottled dwarf virus causing flower breaking and vein clearing in Hydrangea macrophylla in Germany. New Disease Reports, 34:11. http://www.ndrs.org.uk/article.php?id=034011
Murphy FA, Fauquet CM, Bishop DHL, Ghabrial SA, Jarvis AW, Martelli GP, Mayo MA, Summers MD, 1995. Virus taxonomy: classification and nomenclature of viruses. Sixth report of the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses. Virus taxonomy: classification and nomenclature of viruses. Sixth report of the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses., viii + 586 pp.; [^italic~Archives of Virology, Supplement 10^roman~]
Parrella G, Stradis Ade, Greco B, Villanueva F, Fortes IM, Navas-Castillo J, 2013. First report of Eggplant mottled dwarf virus in China rose in southern Spain. Spanish Journal of Agricultural Research, 11(1):204-207. http://revistas.inia.es/index.php/sjar/article/view/3461
Russo M, Martelli GP, 1973. A study of the structure of eggplant mottled dwarf virus. Virology, 52:39-48
Tang J, Elliott C, Ward LI, Iqram A, 2015. Identification of Eggplant mottled dwarf virus in PEQ Hibiscus syriacus plants imported from Australia. Australasian Plant Disease Notes, 10(1):6. http://rd.springer.com/article/10.1007/s13314-014-0153-y/fulltext.html
The Phytopathological Society of Japan, 2014. Plant viruses and viroids occurred in Japan. http:/www.ppsj.org/pdf/mokuroku-viroid_2014.pdf
Zhai Y, Miglino R, Sorrentino R, Masenga V, Alioto D, Pappu HR, 2014. First report of natural infection of Agapanthus sp. by Eggplant mottled dwarf virus (EMDV). New Disease Reports, 29:20. http://www.ndrs.org.uk/article.php?id=029020
Distribution MapsTop of page
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