Echium plantagineum (Paterson's curse)
- Summary of Invasiveness
- Taxonomic Tree
- Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature
- Plant Type
- Distribution Table
- History of Introduction and Spread
- Risk of Introduction
- Habitat List
- Hosts/Species Affected
- Host Plants and Other Plants Affected
- Growth Stages
- Biology and Ecology
- Air Temperature
- Rainfall Regime
- Soil Tolerances
- Natural enemies
- Notes on Natural Enemies
- Means of Movement and Dispersal
- Pathway Vectors
- Plant Trade
- Impact Summary
- Environmental Impact
- Impact: Biodiversity
- Social Impact
- Risk and Impact Factors
- Uses List
- Similarities to Other Species/Conditions
- Prevention and Control
- Distribution Maps
Don't need the entire report?
Generate a print friendly version containing only the sections you need.Generate report
PicturesTop of page
IdentityTop of page
Preferred Scientific Name
- Echium plantagineum L. (1771)
Preferred Common Name
- Paterson's curse
Other Scientific Names
- Echium latifolium Bubani (1897) nom. illeg.
- Echium lycopsis L. (1754)
- Echium maritimum Willd. (1798) sensu stricto
- Echium murale Hill (1756) nom. illeg.
- Echium plantaginoides Roem. & Schult. (1819)
- Echium sennenii Pau (1924)
- Echium violaceum L. (1767)
International Common Names
- English: blue weed; dwarf blue bedder; Lady Campbell weed; purple bugloss; purple echium; purple viper's bugloss; riverina bluebell; salvation Jane
- Spanish: borraja del campo; flor morada; flor morada; hierba azul; viborera morada
- French: vipérine faux-plantain
- Portuguese: soagem
Local Common Names
- Austria: Blauer Natternkopf; Wegerrichblättriger Natternkopf
- Brazil: borracha-chimarrona
- Finland: ratamoneidonkieli
- Germany: Blauer Natternkopf; Wegerrichblättriger Natternkopf
- Italy: viperina piantaginea
- South Africa: bloudissel; pers echium
- Spain: llengua de bou; tapabraguetes
- EHIPL (Echium plantagineum)
Summary of InvasivenessTop of page
E. plantagineum is mainly known as a weed of pastures. It is found in parts of the world with a Mediterranean climate. Where introduced it has established and spread successfully in pastures where it can out-compete native species. It is listed as a noxious weed in all states of Australia, and described as invasive in Ethiopia, Kenya, South Africa and Tanzania, and countries of South America.
Taxonomic TreeTop of page
- Domain: Eukaryota
- Kingdom: Plantae
- Phylum: Spermatophyta
- Subphylum: Angiospermae
- Class: Dicotyledonae
- Order: Boraginales
- Family: Boraginaceae
- Genus: Echium
- Species: Echium plantagineum
Notes on Taxonomy and NomenclatureTop of page
DescriptionTop of page
Plant TypeTop of page
DistributionTop of page
E. plantagineum has been spread widely throughout the world and has become particularly well established in countries with Mediterranean-type climates including South Africa, southwest Russia, the western USA, Uruguay, Argentina and Brazil, and New Zealand (Holm et al., 1979). In addition to the listed distribution, there are unpublished records for Saudi Arabia and United Arab Emirates (AW Sheppard, CSIRO European Laboratory, Montferrier-sur-Lez, France, personal communication, 2005) and, in the USA, Oregon and Washington (Isaacson, personal communication, 2005).
The extent and abundance of E. plantagineum is often greater in the exotic range than in the Mediterranean regions where it originated for a number of reasons: a) extensive agriculture, particularly pasture-based, is now more commonly practised in other Mediterranean parts of the world than in Europe; b) native vegetation in the regions is usually poorly adapted to compete with E. plantagineum in the presence of livestock grazing; and c) there are relatively few native natural enemies damaging the plant in the exotic range (Piggin and Sheppard, 1995). Nonetheless, E. plantagineum can be a significant component of the flora in its native range, for example being described as a 'principal' weed in Tunisia (Holm et. al., 1979) and occasionally requiring some management in Spain (Zulueta, 1974).
E. plantagineum is now common, and often abundant, throughout southwest Western Australia, central and southern South Australia, southeast Queensland, central and southern New South Wales, Victoria, Tasmania and the Northern Territory. At the edge of its range it is mostly limited to disturbances on roadsides. In New Zealand, E. plantagineum is abundant north of the volcanic plateau of the North Island and scattered to rare elsewhere (Webb et al., 1988). It is regarded as a weed in many places in south Africa (Smith, 1964). There are few reports on the significance of E. plantagineum in pastures in other parts of the exotic range.
Distribution TableTop of page
The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.Last updated: 10 Jan 2020
|Continent/Country/Region||Distribution||Last Reported||Origin||First Reported||Invasive||Reference||Notes|
|Algeria||Present, Widespread||Native||Original citation: Greuter et al. (1984)|
|Egypt||Present, Widespread||Native||Original citation: Greuter et al. (1984)|
|Libya||Present, Widespread||Native||Original citation: Greuter et al. (1984)|
|Morocco||Present, Widespread||Native||Original citation: Greuter et al. (1984)|
|South Africa||Present, Widespread||Introduced||Invasive|
|Tunisia||Present, Widespread||Native||Original citation: Greuter et al. (1984)|
|Georgia||Present||Native||Original citation: Greuter et al. (1984)|
|Israel||Present, Widespread||Native||Original citation: Greuter et al. (1984)|
|Jordan||Present, Widespread||Native||Original citation: Greuter et al. (1984)|
|Lebanon||Present, Widespread||Native||Original citation: Greuter et al. (1984)|
|Syria||Present, Widespread||Native||Original citation: Greuter et al. (1984)|
|Albania||Present, Widespread||Native||Original citation: Greuter et al. (1984)|
|Bosnia and Herzegovina||Present, Widespread||Native||Original citation: Greuter et al. (1984)|
|Croatia||Present, Widespread||Native||Original citation: Greuter et al. (1984)|
|Cyprus||Present, Widespread||Native||Original citation: Greuter et al. (1984)|
|Federal Republic of Yugoslavia||Present||Native||Original citation: Greuter et al. (1984)|
|-Corsica||Present, Widespread||Native||Original citation: Greuter et al. (1984)|
|North Macedonia||Present, Widespread||Native|
|Russia||Present||Present based on regional distribution.|
|-Southern Russia||Present, Widespread||Native|
|Serbia||Present||Native||Original citation: Greuter et al. (1984)|
|Slovenia||Present, Widespread||Native||Original citation: Greuter et al. (1984)|
|-Balearic Islands||Present, Widespread||Native|
|-Canary Islands||Present, Widespread||Native|
|United Kingdom||Present, Localized||Native|
|-Channel Islands||Present, Widespread||Native|
|United States||Present||Present based on regional distribution.|
|Australia||Present||Present based on regional distribution.|
|-New South Wales||Present, Widespread||Introduced||Invasive|
|-Northern Territory||Present, Localized||Introduced|
|-South Australia||Present, Widespread||Introduced||Invasive|
|-Western Australia||Present, Widespread||Introduced||Invasive|
|New Zealand||Present, Localized||Introduced|
History of Introduction and SpreadTop of page
The plant was introduced into Argentina in the late 1800s and increased the carrying capacity of pastures (Roseveare, 1948). In Uruguay, it was a browse species eaten mainly by sheep and was regarded as a weedy invader of pastures (Roseveare, 1948). Its importance might be on the increase, however, with more recent records of poisoning of cattle in Brazil following ingestion of the weed (Mendez et al. 1985). In South Africa, it was introduced as a stock feed and spread along roadsides (Retief and Wyk, 1998).
Risk of IntroductionTop of page
HabitatTop of page
In the exotic range, E. plantagineum occurs mainly in perennial and annual pastures on roadsides and in waste places, where it can often be dominant. It sometimes occurs in crops if sowing is early and/or land preparation is poor. In the annual pasture-cropping zone in southern Australia, E. plantagineum is a major component of an introduced pasture agro-ecosystem. Co-occurring species in such communities include Trifolium subterraneum, Sisymbrium officinale, Vulpia myuros, Bromus diandrus and Lolium rigidum plus 19 other species (Smyth et al. 1992). Other introduced species commonly found in association with E. plantagineum in Australia are Acetosella vulgaris [Rumex acetosella subsp. acetosella], Arctotheca calendula, Avena spp., Bromus molliformis [B. hordeaceus subsp. divaricatus], Emex australis, Erodium spp., Heliotropium europaeum, Hordeum spp., Oxalis pes-caprae, Raphanus raphanistrum, Romulea spp. and Tribulus terrestris. Annual pastures are usually rotated with cereal or fodder crops allowing E. plantagineum to carry over as a weed into these crops. In perennial pasture systems in southern Australia, E. plantagineum can be locally abundant and associated also with perennial species such as Phalaris aquatica, Dactylis glomerata, Lolium perenne, Medicago sativa and Trifolium repens (Friend, 1991, Dellow et al., 2002). At the northern end of its distribution in Australia (in Queensland), E. plantagineum grows mainly in winter crops such as Avena sativa and M. sativa (Piggin and Sheppard, 1995). In these situations, occurrence is related more to land use and history than to plant associations with the plant growing where it has been introduced as a garden species, as a contaminant of seed, by livestock around old homestead sites, poultry operations, saleyards and trucking yards, and in sown pastures and crops. E. plantagineum-dominated communities in other parts of the exotic range have not been documented.
Comparisons between associated plant communities in the native and exotic range show that many of the associated species are the same, being similarly adapted to common agricultural practice. In addition to exotic communities tending to be species poor assemblages compared to the native communities, these native communities always have a much higher diversity and community dominance from other broadleaf annual rosette-forming species that are in the same functional group as E. plantagineum (Grigulis, 1999).
Habitat ListTop of page
|Terrestrial||Managed||Cultivated / agricultural land||Present, no further details||Harmful (pest or invasive)|
|Terrestrial||Managed||Managed grasslands (grazing systems)||Present, no further details||Harmful (pest or invasive)|
|Terrestrial||Managed||Disturbed areas||Present, no further details||Harmful (pest or invasive)|
|Terrestrial||Managed||Rail / roadsides||Present, no further details||Harmful (pest or invasive)|
|Terrestrial||Managed||Urban / peri-urban areas||Present, no further details||Harmful (pest or invasive)|
|Terrestrial||Natural / Semi-natural||Natural grasslands||Present, no further details||Harmful (pest or invasive)|
|Terrestrial||Natural / Semi-natural||Riverbanks||Present, no further details||Harmful (pest or invasive)|
|Littoral||Coastal areas||Present, no further details||Harmful (pest or invasive)|
Hosts/Species AffectedTop of page
Opinions are divided on the weed status of E. plantagineum in crops. It is a weed that significantly reduces yield in lucerne (Medicago sativa) and wild oats where present (Piggin and Sheppard, 1995). In the Western Australian cereal belt, E. plantagineum can crowd out growing crops, reduce grain yield and make harvesting difficult (Carne and Gardner 1925). Pearce (1972), however considered that it was not a serious crop weed because it is controlled by normal cropping techniques and, if necessary, spraying with 2,4-D. Instances of herbicide resistance have since been reported. Piggin (1976) showed that the plant is rare in crops because most seed germinates in the summer and autumn when soil temperatures are high and seedlings are killed by cultivation before the crop is sown. The plant became a more important crop weed with the adoption of minimum-tillage crop establishment techniques.
Host Plants and Other Plants AffectedTop of page
Growth StagesTop of page
Biology and EcologyTop of page
The basic chromosome number of E. plantagineum is 8 (2n=16) (Britton, 1951). E. plantagineum exhibits some variation in vegetative and reproductive characters. The shape of rosette leaves varies from ovate to lanceolate and flower colour varies from pink to blue to purple to white. The unusual white-flowered and fasciated forms which occur occasionally in natural populations have been mentioned by Ewart (1916), Anon. (1919) and Piggin and Sheppard (1995). Isozyme studies have shown that E. plantagineum exhibits high levels of genetic variation (isozyme polymorphism) compared to other species with similar breeding systems present at a similar stage in succession. Australian populations possess 2.7 alleles per locus, a gene diversity of 34-38% and heterozygosity of 32-35%. These values are very similar to those measured from populations in the native range of the plant (Brown and Burdon, 1983; Burdon and Brown, 1986). This results from a high outcrossing rate which outweighs limitations placed on the diversity of this weed by long distance colonization. Flower colour most likely results from the complementary interaction of at least two loci. Moreover, genes controlling the colour of the corolla tube may act independently of genes controlling the colour of petal tips (Piggin and Sheppard, 1995). White is the recessive colour. Although rare white forms were consistently found to be poorer competitors compared to the wild type, variation in this result suggests that not all white individuals result from the inbreeding of existing white individuals (Burdon et al. 1983).
Physiology and Phenology
E. plantagineum has a winter annual life history strategy. Germination is epigeal. The radicle emerges through a split in the pointed end of the seed coat and forms the primary root, whilst the cotyledons, often carrying the split seed coat, are pushed to the soil surface. Seed germination occurs from 12° to 40°C, favoured by high constant (20° to 30°C) or alternating (15/40°C) temperatures in the presence of moisture; light is not a requirement (Ballard and Grant Lipp, 1970; Piggin and Sheppard, 1995). This is typical of winter annual species, where spring germination is inhibited by the preceding low winter temperatures. Seeds have an after-ripening period with germination occurring several months after maturity in spring and increasing to 30% by autumn. The remaining seeds germinate at a similar rate per year in subsequent years (Grigulis, 1999). The seed coat controls germination; its complete removal allows almost 100% germination (Ballard, 1970). Germination is depressed by a water-soluble inhibitor present in the aerial parts of the plant (Ballard and Grant Lipp, 1959). Emergence is abundant after rainfall in summer and autumn when temperatures are high, and it is not uncommon for over 50% of seedlings to emerge before the main autumn rains. Cultivation reduces emergence and this is associated with seed burial and reduced soil moisture. E. plantagineum emergence declines with burial depth and does not occur below 8 cm (Piggin and Sheppard, 1995). In the field, most seedlings of E. plantagineum emerge in late summer and early autumn.
The rate of leaf appearance is temperature related. The high relative growth rate, leaf-area ratio and leaf-weight ratio of E. plantagineum leads to large quantities of standing biomass in pastures, especially when nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizers are applied (Trumble and Fraser, 1932) and grazing pressure is low (Davies and Sim, 1931; Pearce, 1972). A glasshouse study showed that swards of E. plantagineum produce the equivalent of up to 6 t/ha of herbage and 6.5 t/ha of roots during the first 12 weeks of growth (Piggin and Sheppard, 1995). The above-ground biomass of E. plantagineum in the field measured 3.1 t/ha when E. plantagineum was 70% of the total spring pasture production with 121 plants/m² (Smyth et al., 1997).
Plants elongate and flower in late winter and early spring in response to increasing photoperiods enhanced by vernalization in winter (Ballard and Grant Lipp, 1959; Piggin and Sheppard, 1995). This flowering response limits the distribution of the species to warm-temperate and Mediterranean climate regions. Rosettes will flower slightly later if drought stressed (Wood and Degabriele, 1985). These plants normally die in summer, although those growing near drains, roadsides, rivers and dams, may continue flowering through summer and die in late summer/early autumn. Plants generally flower for 2-5 months. The flowering period is shortened by drought conditions particularly on shallow soil (Burdon et al., 1988) and lengthened if defoliated and if moisture is available. All these factors allow it to be possible to see the odd flowering plant during most of the year.
The seedbank decays at a peak rate of about 35% per annum such that it may last 10 years, but is highly affected by field conditions. Most seedbank losses are through germination (Sheppard and Smyth, 2002). Successful germination is higher in the exotic range due to lower competition from other species for microsites and more seeds make it into the seedbank (Grigulis et al., 2001)
E. plantagineum reproduces only by seed. Each flowering cyme will open 0-3 flowers (mean 0.82-1.28) per 24-hour period (Núñez, 1977; Corbet and Delfosse, 1984). The flower is protandrous, the anthers dehiscing in the bud which favours cross-pollination. The conspicuous colour of the flower and the accessibility and abundance of nectar and pollen encourage insect visitors, mainly honey bees (93.5%; Davis 1992). Flower density peaks at ca. 450 flowers/m² and an average density of 250 flowers/m² represents a nectar sugar yield of 300 kg/ha/season. Nectar production is coupled to photosynthesis and its relationship with insect visitors has been described by Corbet and Delfosse (1984). Flowers are visited by a wide range of insects in addition to honeybees, including native ants, butterflies, moths, hover flies, bees and thrips (Kirk, 1984). The outcrossing rate is very high in E. plantagineum. The multilocus estimates range from 0.73 in low density <10 plants/m²) populations (Burdon and Brown, 1986) to between 0.81 and 1.05 in high density (>150 plants/m²) populations (Burdon et al. 1988). This high rate of outcrossing probably results more from the frequency of inter-plant movements by pollinating insects than the protandrous floral behaviour. At high plant densities the flowering shoot architecture encourages the intermingling of flower cymes on adjacent plants, which maximizes the chance that adjacent flowers visited by a pollinator are from different individuals (Burdon et al., 1988). At the start of the season, when fewer individuals are in flower, the outcrossing rate is lower (0.85; Burdon et al., 1988).
Full-sized, black seeds (or nutlets) take 26 days after pollination to develop at 17°C and 34 to 68 days at 10°C (Piggin and Sheppard, 1995). While four mature seeds could be produced in all flowers, this is never observed. Flowers produce, on average, 37% (max 51%) of potential seeds with a fairly constant percentage between plants at a given site. This percentage declines through the flowering period (Burdon et al., 1988). When damage or cold weather prevents seed production from a series of flowers on a cyme, later flowers immediately compensate producing the full complement of four seeds. Flower number (r²=0.88), total cyme length (r²=0.82), and tap root diameter (r²=0.72) per plant are good predictors of seed production across sites suggesting seed production was not limited by pollination (Piggin and Sheppard, 1995; Smyth et al., 1997). The weight and number of seeds produced per plant is also directly proportional to the plant straw weight (plant dry weight - seed weight) and therefore reproductive effort (seed weight produced per unit straw weight) is constant for plants of all sizes and there is no threshold size for seed production (Piggin and Sheppard, 1995). Individual plants can produce up to 10,000 seeds. However, in grazed paddocks, plants produce an average of 15-60 (max. 260) seeds (Smyth et al., 1997). The common abundance of E. plantagineum on roadsides can be related to prolific seeding where grazing pressure is light. Resulting seed rain (seeds produced in a season/m²) varies from 100 (at 0.8 plants/m²) to 12,000 (at 700 plants/m²) in grazed paddocks. Soil seed banks of up to 13,000-18,000 seeds/m² with grazing and of up to 30,000 seeds/m² without grazing have been recorded in Australia (Piggin and Sheppard, 1995), although most populations have between 2000 and 10,000 seeds/m². Most seeds fall from the plant at maturity, although the last seed produced per calyx may remain attached. The seeds are relatively small and heavy (Piggin and Sheppard, 1995).
E. plantagineum has been recorded from 0 to 1300 m a.s.l. in its native and introduced range (Pignatti, 1982; Piggin and Sheppard, 1995). Moore (1967) suggested that dense stands of E. plantagineum in Australia occur under the following conditions: annual rainfall is less than 1270 mm; in the warmest month, rainfall is greater than 64 mm, mean temperature is 21.1-26.7°C, and daily temperature range is 13.9-19.4°C; and in the coldest month, rainfall is greater than 25 mm, mean temperature is 4.4-10.0°C, and daily range is 8.3-13.9°C. However, high rainfall during the warmest month does not characterize the climate of areas supporting dense stands of E. plantagineum and a more realistic limit would be less than 64 mm. Otherwise, such conditions do occur in the Mediterranean-type climatic areas where E. plantagineum is abundant. The plant also grows in areas where rainfall and daylengths are more even and temperatures are higher during the year, but it appears to be at the limit of its climatic range in this region. Short photoperiods and high temperatures retard flowering (Ballard and Grant Lipp, 1970; Piggin and Sheppard, 1995). Although E. plantagineum is a calcifuge and occurs most commonly on sandy soils, this does not prevent it from growing well on a wide range of other soil types (from light to heavy and red to grey in Australia).
E. plantagineum has vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizas. In South Australia, studies during 1977 showed that 15-95% of the root length was colonized by hyphae, vesicles or arbuscules of mycorrhiza. The significance of these mycorrhizas is uncertain but they may assist in the uptake of phosphorus (Piggin and Sheppard, 1995).
Air TemperatureTop of page
|Parameter||Lower limit||Upper limit|
|Absolute minimum temperature (ºC)||-15|
|Mean annual temperature (ºC)||10||20|
|Mean maximum temperature of hottest month (ºC)||20||40|
|Mean minimum temperature of coldest month (ºC)||2||10|
RainfallTop of page
|Parameter||Lower limit||Upper limit||Description|
|Dry season duration||0||12||number of consecutive months with <40 mm rainfall|
|Mean annual rainfall||300||1300||mm; lower/upper limits|
Rainfall RegimeTop of page
Soil TolerancesTop of page
- very acid
Special soil tolerances
Natural enemiesTop of page
|Natural enemy||Type||Life stages||Specificity||References||Biological control in||Biological control on|
|Alfalfa mosaic virus||Pathogen|
|Dialectica scalariella||Herbivore||Leaves||New South Wales; Western Australia|
|Erysiphe horridula f. echii-myosotidis||Pathogen||Leaves|
|Mogulones larvatus||Herbivore||Growing point/Leaves/Roots|
|Tobacco mosaic virus||Pathogen|
|Tobacco necrosis virus||Pathogen|
|Tobacco ringspot virus||Pathogen|
Notes on Natural EnemiesTop of page
Ten natural enemies from the native range of E. plantagineum have been researched as biological control agents for Australia. The moth Dialectica scalariella was the first agent (Wapshere and Kirk, 1977). It was successfully established in 1988 and has spread to all but the coldest parts of the distribution of the weed in Australia, but will attack native Boraginaceae. Its leaf mines are commoner where introduced than in the native range. Only under drought conditions has it killed plants. It appears to have blown across the Tasman sea to New Zealand.
All other biological control agents on E. plantagineum have only one generation per year. The two root weevils Mogulones larvatus and M. geographicus lay eggs in autumn in the leaf stalks of the larger young rosettes. The larvae (Vayssieres, 1986) burrow down the leaves and cause most damage in either the root crown (M. larvatus) or the root cortex (M. geographicus) (Vayssieres and Wapshere, 1983; Forrester, 1993). M. larvatus has now been released throughout Australia where widespread plant death has been observed (Sheppard et al., 1999; Shea et al., 2000; Sheppard et al., 2001; Buckley et al., 2005). Twenty percent of plants in one field in southern France had all root cortex destroyed by M. geographicus. Following release in Australia, M. geographicus is increasing in abundance and distribution.
Longitarsus aeneus and L. echii, halticine flea beetles, have larvae that feed in the roots and adults which feed on the leaves. The life cycle is similar to that of the root weevils except that the next generation adults do not emerge in spring but remain in the soil until autumn (Wapshere, 1982). L. aeneus, a root hair feeder was released in 1993, but failed to establish. L. echii is causing significant damage following release, especially in dry areas (Smyth and Sheppard, 2002; Smyth et al., 2004).
Phytoecia coerulescens has spread since release too although this species is likely to develop in other exotic and some native Boraginaceae (Kirk and Wapshere, 1979). The most damaging flower-feeding insect is the sap beetle Meligethes planiusculus (Swirepik et al., 1996). Three other species were studied but not released as biological control agents. These are the two shoot-sucking bugs Dictyla echii and D. nassata (Vayssieres, 1983) and the flower cyme-feeding moth Ethmia terminella. The pathogen Cercospora echii also occurs in Australia through accidental introduction (Floyd et al., 1996).
Native species in the exotic range in Australia that use E. plantagineum include the economically important Thrips imaginis and T. tabaci which breed in significant numbers in the flowers (Kirk, 1984; Milne and Walter, 1998). Larvae and adults of the native moth Utethesia pulchelloides are common on E. plantagineum. A native Longitarsus species spread from native Cynoglossum spp. to attack E. plantagineum and can kill plants in some circumstances (Piggin and Sheppard, 1995).
Means of Movement and DispersalTop of page
Because seeds are relatively heavy they are not spread over any great distance by wind. Seeds are spread by water where plants grow close to rivers and streams or in steep country prone to erosion and run-off.
Several species of ant (e.g., Messor sp. in the native range; Pheidole megacephala, Iridomyrmex discors, Prolasius sp. in Australia) collect seeds and store them in granaries above and below the ground, where many later germinate (Piggin and Sheppard, 1995), but ants probably do not transport seed over great distances. The seed can form a significant part of the diet of ground-feeding seed-eating birds (e.g., crested pigeons Ocyphaps lophotes), especially in drought years, and they may be responsible for dispersal over greater distances (Piggin and Sheppard, 1995). The seeds can also pass through the digestive tracts of grazing animals.
Movement of soil, fodder, vehicles and livestock has probably caused the greatest spread within and between farms and districts. In addition to ingestion, seeds are often carried on the coats of livestock because the calyx and seed coat of E. plantagineum are rough and adhesive. Wool waste from affected areas can also contain seed of E. plantagineum (Piggin and Sheppard, 1995).
Movement in Trade
E. plantagineum seed is sometimes reported as a contaminant of harvested grain (Sahadeva Singh, 2001) because the plant can be a weed in cereal and pasture seed crops (Piggin and Sheppard, 1995).
Dispersal may occur by seed movement in soil for road building or construction or in mud attached to all-terrain vehicles (Parsons and Cuthbertson, 1992).
E. plantagineum was almost certainly first exported outside its native range intentionally as a garden species and remains a species of horticultural interest in parts of the world (e.g., USA).
Pathway VectorsTop of page
Plant TradeTop of page
|Plant parts liable to carry the pest in trade/transport||Pest stages||Borne internally||Borne externally||Visibility of pest or symptoms|
|Flowers/Inflorescences/Cones/Calyx||flowers||Yes||Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye|
|True seeds (inc. grain)||seeds||Yes||Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye|
|Plant parts not known to carry the pest in trade/transport|
|Fruits (inc. pods)|
|Growing medium accompanying plants|
|Stems (above ground)/Shoots/Trunks/Branches|
Impact SummaryTop of page
|Fisheries / aquaculture||None|
ImpactTop of page
E. plantagineum has been noted as a weed in pastures grown for the production of Trifolium subterraneum seed. Seeds of the two species are produced at the same time and are difficult to separate because they are of similar size and colour (Gardner, 1933).
Environmental ImpactTop of page
Impact: BiodiversityTop of page
Social ImpactTop of page
Risk and Impact FactorsTop of page
- Proved invasive outside its native range
- Highly adaptable to different environments
- Tolerates, or benefits from, cultivation, browsing pressure, mutilation, fire etc
- Highly mobile locally
- Has high reproductive potential
- Has propagules that can remain viable for more than one year
- Damaged ecosystem services
- Ecosystem change/ habitat alteration
- Negatively impacts agriculture
- Negatively impacts human health
- Negatively impacts animal health
- Negatively impacts tourism
- Reduced amenity values
- Competition - monopolizing resources
- Produces spines, thorns or burrs
- Highly likely to be transported internationally accidentally
- Highly likely to be transported internationally deliberately
- Difficult to identify/detect as a commodity contaminant
- Difficult/costly to control
UsesTop of page
The seed oil of E. plantagineum is unusual in that it contains a unique ratio of omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids which are valuable as health supplements. E. plantagineum is currently the best agricultural source of certain of these. The seed oil is also valued for its moisturizing and anti-inflammatory action (McEwen et al., 2003). E. plantagineum is also grown and marketed in some parts of the world a as garden species because of its attractive flowers. 'Blue bedder' and 'White Hills' varieties are available in USA (Britton, 1951). The plant has been well regarded as an attractive wildflower and considered a tourist attraction in parts of South Australia (Burt, 1978). It was also harvested and sold as a cut flower in the Sydney markets for many years.
Uses ListTop of page
Human food and beverage
- Honey/honey flora
- Poisonous to mammals
Similarities to Other Species/ConditionsTop of page
Prevention and ControlTop of page
Due to the variable regulations around (de)registration of pesticides, your national list of registered pesticides or relevant authority should be consulted to determine which products are legally allowed for use in your country when considering chemical control. Pesticides should always be used in a lawful manner, consistent with the product's label.
Heavy grazing has long been recognized as an effective means of controlling E. plantagineum. It should be concentrated when plants are young, continued at regular intervals during the year, and again concentrated at the end of the year when plants are seeding. Like mowing, it is useful in conjunction with other control measures such as cultivation, handpulling and spraying (Maiden, 1905; Carne and Gardner, 1925; Pearce, 1972). Some authors suggest that cattle are less effective than sheep because they do not graze sufficiently close to the ground. Pearce (1972) and Piggin (1979) considered that the level of control comes from the stocking rate not the livestock type and added that spray-grazing can be effective using sheep or cattle. Piggin (1979) reported that more or less continuous grazing by ca. nine sheep/ha reduced the cover of E. plantagineum from 36% to 3% for 6 months over winter. Pearce (1972) reported that the proportion and plant density of E. plantagineum were reduced as the stocking rate of sheep was increased. Response to grazing, however, can be complicated. In areas where E. plantagineum occurs with perennial grasses such as Phalaris aquatica and Dactylis glomeratus, grazing can increase the abundance of E. plantagineum through preferential grazing of the grasses (Piggin and Sheppard, 1995). Grazing with rabbits reduces available herbage but not percentage composition (Piggin and Sheppard, 1995).
Establishment of vigorous pasture with species such as Trifolium subterraneum and Phalaris aquatica, sown in autumn after fallowing over summer, has been effective in controlling E. plantagineum (Michael, 1970). Pasture establishment is usually recommended as a follow-up to other control measures. Top-dressing with fertilizers can be combined with pasture establishment, or used alone, to encourage T. subterraneum to control E. plantagineum, although nitrogen- and phosphate-rich fertilizers encourage, rather than control, E. plantagineum (Piggin and Sheppard, 1995). The destruction of plants by burning with a flame thrower has also been suggested as a useful method of control, especially along fences, roads and channels.
Handpulling and cutting have been suggested for the control of single plants and small patches, especially where flowering plants have survived following the use of other control methods such as spraying, cultivation and grazing. After removal, plants should be piled up and burnt because seeds may continue to mature (Maiden, 1905; Carne and Gardner, 1925). E. plantagineum can be effectively controlled in arable areas by cultivation, especially if followed by cropping with root or cereal crops, establishment of a vigorous, smothering pasture, grazing or handpulling (Ewart and Tovey, 1909; Carne and Gardner, 1925; Piggin and Sheppard, 1995).
Mowing has been recommended, especially in combination with other control measures, as a means of controlling E. plantagineum in pastures and reducing seed production. It is especially useful where stocking pressure cannot be maintained (Piggin and Sheppard, 1995). Early hay cutting and silage making can also help control. Davies and Sim (1931) reported that in a pasture near Adelaide, South Australia, the dry matter yield and average composition of E. plantagineum were reduced from 435 kg/ha and 25% with a single cut in spring to 62 kg/ha and 7% with fortnightly cuts during 1928. Piggin (1978) showed that mowing reduced the herbage production of swards containing E. plantagineum and reduced shoot weight per plant, root weight and root:shoot ratios of E. plantagineum.
Biological control of E. plantagineum has only been attempted in Australia, where six agents have been released (Julien and Griffiths, 1998). The biological control programme became a landmark case in the history of weed biological control; conflicts of interest raised by graziers and beekeepers led to a full public enquiry and benefit:cost analysis that came out in favour of control by 10 to 1 and also led to the first biological control legislation (Delfosse and Cullen, 1981, 1985). Since then the impacts of two of the agents (Mogulones larvatus and Longitarsus echii) have been significant (Swirepik and Smyth, 2002) and sufficient for detailed economic evaluation of the project which is expected to save Australian agriculture nearly A1$ billion by 2050 (Nordblom et al., 2001).
Herbicides, in the form of brine, petroleum and arsenical preparations, were first recommended for the control of E. plantagineum in Australia by Davey (1922). Since then, many have been found to be effective in controlling the plant: asulam; atrazine; atrazine-amitrole mixtures; amitrole; arsenic pentoxide; bromoxynil; chlorsulfuron; chlorthal-dimethyl; chlorthal-dimethyl-linuron mixtures; cotoran [fluometuron]; dicamba; diuron; 4-CPA; glyphosate mixtures; ioxynil; linuron; MCPA; metribuzin-methabenzthiazuron mixtures; metsulfuron methyl; paraquat; picloram; prometryne; propionic acid-MCPA mixtures; sodium chlorate; terbutryn; 2,3,6-TBA; 2,4-D ester and amine; 2,4-DB; 2,4-D-atrazine mixtures; and 2,4-D-picloram mixtures (Parsons and Cuthbertson, 1992; Piggin and Sheppard, 1995). Up until the 1970s, the plant was usually controlled by spraying with 2,4-D at the flowering stage in spring when the plant was most conspicuous. There are disadvantages, however, with spraying in spring: firstly, the high doses of herbicide necessary to kill flowering plants are expensive and severe on associated desirable species such as Trifolium subterraneum; secondly, by spring, E. plantagineum has competed in the pasture for most of the year; and, thirdly, recolonization by desirable species is poor after spraying. Herbicides are now considered to be most effective when applied at the young rosette stage. Wetting agents may improve control and spraying should be accompanied by adjustments in pasture and livestock management to prevent the return of the weed. A selective application technique, such as a carpet wiper, can target non-selective herbicides such as glyphosate on the weed.
To overcome disadvantages of herbicide-only strategies, a technique known as spray-grazing was developed which combined grazing with the application of low doses of 2,4-D in the autumn to control E. plantagineum with a minimum of damage to associated pasture (Pearce, 1972). Doses as low as 0.14 kg a.i./ha sprayed in May/June followed by grazing a week later with five to seven times the normal stocking rate have resulted in 100% control. The capacity of Trifolium subterraneum to continue to germinate through winter after E. plantagineum germination drops off, can allow this to lead to a balanced pasture of T. subterraneum and grasses in spring (Piggin et al., 1973; Piggin, 1979). Huwer et al. (2005) compare more complex integrated strategies where spray-grazing to remove E. plantagineum are combined with fertilizing and over-sowing infested pasture with desirable species to make the pasture more competitive and sustainable without the need for complete re-seeding. Such strategies were also considered in relation to how they interact with biological control agents (Smyth and Sheppard, 1996).
ReferencesTop of page
Adamson RS, Salter TM, 1950. Flora of the Cape Peninsula. Capetown, South Africa: Juta
Anon, 1919. Notes and exhibits: Ordinary monthly meeting, 24 September 1919. Proceedings of the Linnaean Society of N.S.W., 44:525-528
Ballard LAT, 1970. Germination behaviour of Echium lycopsis. Proceedings of the Australian Weeds Conference, Hobart, 1970, 5-9 & 5-11
Ballard LAT, Grant Lipp AE, 1959. Differential specificity exhibited by two germination inhibitors present in Echium plantagineum L. Australian Journal of Biological Science, 12:343-347
Ballard LAT, Grant Lipp AE, 1970. Flowering responses of Echium lycopsis to photoperiod and vernalization Proceedings of Australian Weeds Conference, Hobart, 1970, 5.11-5.13
Bernáldez FG, Haeger JF, Levassor C, Merino JA, Sancjo F, 1980. La prospection intégrée de paturages extensifs dans la Sierra Morena (Espagne). Espaniola Geographica, 3:241-252
Bramwell D, Bramwell ZI, 1974. Wild Flowers of the Canary Islands. Cabildo Insular de Tenerife, Canary Islands: Excmo
Britton DM, 1951. Cytogenetic studies on the Boraginaceae. Brittonia, 7:233-266
Brown AHD, Burdon JJ, 1983. Multilocus diversity in an outbreeding weed, Echium plantagineum L. Australian Journal of Biological Science, 36:503-509
Buckley YM, Rees M, Sheppard AW, Smyth M, 2005. Stable coexistence of an invasive plant and biocontrol agent: a coupled plant-herbivore model. Journal of Applied Ecology, 42:in press
Bull LB, Culvenor CCJ, Dick AT, 1968. The pyrrolizidine alkaloids. Amsterdam, Netherlands: North Holland Publishing Co
Burdon JJ, Marshall DR, Brown AHB, 1983. Demographic and genetic changes in populations of Echium plantagineum. Journal of Ecology, 71:667-679
Burt J, 1978. Magnificent Australia in Colour. Melbourne, Australia: Budget Books
Carlquist S, 1970. Wood anatomy of Echium (Boraginaceae). Aliso, 7:183-199
Carne WM, Gardner CA, 1925. Paterson’s curse (Echium plantagineum, Linn.). Journal of the Department of Agriculture of Western Australia, 2:486-488
Clapham AR, Tutin TG, Warburg EF, 1962. Flora of the British Isles. Second edition. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press
Couthinho AXP, 1995. Flora de Portugal: Plantas Vasculares. Dehra Dun, India: Bishen Singh Mahendra Pal Singh
Culvenor CCJ, 1956. The alkaloids of Echium plantagineum L. I. Echiumine and Echimidine. Australian Journal of Chemistry, 9:512-520
Culvenor CCJ, Jago MV, Peterson JE, Smith LW, Payne AL, Campbell DG, Edgar JA, Frahn JL, 1984. Toxicity of Echium plantagineum (Paterson's Curse). 1. Marginal toxic effects in Merino wethers from long-term feeding. Australian Journal of Agricultural Research, 35(2):293-304; 18 ref
Davey HW, 1922. Weeds and their eradication: Paterson’s curse or purple bugloss. Journal of the Department Agriculture of Victoria, 20:603-606
Davies JG, Sim AH, 1931. The influence of frequency of cutting on the productivity, botanical and chemical composition, and the nutritive value of 'natural' pastures in South Australia. Council for Science, Industry and Research in Australia Pamphlet No. 18
Davis AR, 1992. Evaluating honey bees as pollinators of virgin flowers of Echium plantagineum L. (Borgainaceae) py pollen tube fluorescence. Journal of Apicultural Research, 31:83
Delfosse ES, Cullen JM, 1981. New activities in biological control of weeds in Australia. 2. Echium plantagineum: curse or salvation? Proceedings of the 5th International Symposium on Biological Control of Weeds. Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization. Australia, 563-574
Delfosse ES, Cullen JM, 1985. CSIRO Division of Entomology submission to the inquiries into biological control of Echium plantagineum L., Paterson's curse/salvation Jane. Plant Protection Quarterly, 1(1):24-40
Dellow JJ, Seaman JT, 1985. Distribution of Echium plantagineum L. and its association with pyrrolizidine alkaloid poisoning in horses in New South Wales. Plant Protection Quarterly, 1:79-83
Ewart AJ, 1916. Contributions to the Flora of Australia, No. 23. Proceedings of the Royal Society of Victoria 28 (N.S.), 11:216-222
Ewart AJ, Tovey JR, 1909. The Weeds, Poison Plants and Naturalised Aliens of Victoria. Melbourne, Australia: Government Printer
Fernández Alés R, Laffarga JM, Ortega F, 1993. Strategies in Mediterranean grassland annuals in relation to stress and disturbance. Journal of Vegetation Science, 4:313-322
Fernández-Alés R, Leiva MJ, Laffarga J, 1991. Los pastizales del Campo de Gibraltar (Cadiz). Composition floristica y calidad. Boletin Real Sociedad Espanola de Historia. Natural (Sec. Biol.), 87:61-72
Fernandez-Caro S, Munoz AF, Gomez-Hernandez P, 1992. Contribution to the knowledge of weeds in Tierra de Barros (Badajoz). Proceedings: 1992 Congress el Sociedad Espanola de Malherbologia, Madrid, 95-98
Floyd RM, Lloyd SG, Shivas RG, 1996. First record of Cercospora echii in Australia. Australasian Plant Pathology, 25:68
Forcella F, Wood JT, Dillon SP, 1986. Characteristics distinguishing invasive weeds within Echium (Bugloss). Weed Research, 26:351-364
Forrester GJ, 1993. Resource partitioning between two species of Ceutorhynchus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) on Echium plantagineum in a Mediterranean habitat. Bulletin of Entomological Research, 83(3):345-351
Friend DA, 1991. Paterson’s curse (Echium plantagineum) and E. vulgare in Tasmania. Australian Weed Research Newsletter, 40:3
Gibbs PE, 1971. Taxonomic studies of the genus Echium. I. An outline revision of the Spanish species. Lagascalia, 1:27-82
Gibbs PE, 1972. Echium Boraginceae. In: Tutin TG, ed. Flora Europaea, Vol. 3
Goodacre WA, 1938. The Honey and Pollen Flora of New South Wales. Sydney, Australia: Government Printer
Greuter W, Burdet HM, Long G, 1989. Med-Checklist Vol. 4. Conservatoire et Jardin botaniques de la Ville de Genève
Grigulis K, 1999. The comparative population dynamics of Echium plantagineum L. between its native and invaded ranges. PhD Thesis, Australian National University, Canberra, Australia
Grigulis K, Sheppard AW, Ash JE, Groves RH, 2001. The comparative demography of the pasture weed Echium plantagineum between its native and invaded ranges. Journal of Applied Ecology, 38(2):281-290; [Special profile: Grasslands, grazing and biodiversity]; 62 ref
Holm L, Pancho J, Herberger J, Plucknett D, 1979. A Geographical Atlas of World Weeds. New York, USA: John Wiley & Sons
Huwer RK, Briese DT, Dowling P, Kemp D, Lonsdale WM, Michalk DL, Neave MJ, Sheppard AW, Woodburn TL, 2005. Can an integrated management approach provide a basis for long-term prevention of weed dominance in Australian pasture systems? Weed Research, 45: in press
Jepson WL, 1979. Flora of California. California, USA: University of California
Julien MH, Griffiths MW, 1998. Biological control of weeds: a world catalogue of agents and their target weeds. Biological control of weeds: a world catalogue of agents and their target weeds., Ed. 4:x + 223 pp
Kloot PM, 1982. The naturalisation of Echium plantagineum in Australia. Australian Weeds, 1:29-31
Lacaita CC, 1919. A revision of some critical species of Echium as exemplified in the Linnaean and other Herbaria; with a description of Echium judaeum, a new species from Palestine. Journal of the Linnaean Society (Botanical), 44:363-438
Maiden JH, 1905. Weeds of New South Wales: blue weed or Paterson’s curse (Echium plantagineum Linn.). Agricultural Gazette of N.S.W., 16:267-270
McEwen AB, Whittle EB, Parsons RG, McCurrie K, 2003. [14C]-glyphosate: uptake into Echium plantagineum following pre-emergent application. Proceedings of the Brighton Crop Protection International Congress: Crop Science and Technology, Vols 1 & 2. Glasgow, UK: British Crop Protection Council, 883-886
Michael PW, 1970. Weeds of grasslands. In: Moore RM, ed. Australian grassland. Canberra, Australia: Australian National University Press, 349-360
Milne M, Walter GH, 1998. Host species and plant part specificity of the polyphagous onion thrips, Thrips tabaci Lindeman (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), in an Australian cotton-growing area. Australian Journal of Entomology, 37(2):115-119; 19 ref
Moore RM, 1967. The naturalization of alien plants in Australia. Proceedings Papers of the IUCN 10th Technical Meeting, part III, section 1, 82-97
Nordblom T, Smyth M, Swirepik A, Sheppard A, Briese D, 2001. Benefit-cost analysis for biological control of Echium weed species (Paterson’s curse / Salvation Jane). In: Centre for International Economics. The CRC for Weed Management Systems: an impact assessment. Technical Series, No. 6. Adelaide, Australia: Cooperative Research Centre for Weed Management Systems, Waite Campus, University of Adelaide, 36-43
Noy-Meir I, Gutman M, Kaplan Y, 1989. Responses of Mediterranean grassland plants to grazing and protection. Journal of Ecology, 77:290-310
Núñez J, 1977. Nectar flow by melliferous flora and gathering flow by Apis mellifera ligustica. Journal of Insect Physiology, 23:265-275
Oregon State University Herbarium, 2005. Oregon Vascular Plants Online Database. Botany and Plant Pathology, Corvallis, USA. http://ocid.nacse.org/cgi-bin/qml/herbarium/plants/vherb.qml
Parsons WT, Cuthbertson EG, 1992. Noxious Weeds of Australia. Melbourne, Australia: Inkata Press
Pearce GA, 1972. Paterson’s curse: its importance and control. Western Australian Department of Agriculture Bulletin, No. 3855
Pérez Lara, 1889. Anales de la Sociedad Española de Historia Natural, 18:97
Piggin CM, 1976. The ecology and control of Paterson’s curse (Echium plantagineum L.). Unpublished PhD thesis, University Melbourne, Australia
Piggin CM, Hallett ML, Smith DF, 1973. The germination response of seed of some annual pasture plants to alternating temperatures. Seed Science Technology, 1:1-10
Piggin CM, Sheppard AW, 1995. Echium plantagineum L. In: RH Groves, RCH Shepherd, RG Richardson, eds. The Biology of Australian Weeds. Vol. 1. Melbourne, Australia: Richardson Publishers, 87-110
Pignatti S, 1982. Flora d’Italia, Vols I, II, III. Bologna, Italy: Edagricole
Rayment T, 1925. Profitable Honey Plants of Australasia. Melbourne, New Zealand, London: Whitcombe & Tombs
Roseveare GM, 1948. The Grasslands of Latin America. Bulletin No. 36. Aberystwyth, UK: Imperial Bureau of Pastures and Field Crops, 19, 36, 38, 169
Sa G, Vasconcelos T, Nazare F, 1989. Weed flora of some orchards in Portugal. Influence of ecological factors. Proceedings of the 4th EWRS symposium on weed problems in Mediterranean climates. Vol. 1. Problems of weed control in fruit, horticultural crops and rice, 51-58
Schild AL, Motta AC, Riet Correa F, Karam FC, Grecco FB, 2004. Photosensitization in cattle in Southern Brazil. In: Acamovic T, Stewart CS, Pennycott TW, eds. Poisonous Plants and Related Toxins. Wallingford, UK: CABI Publishing, 62-166
Seaman JT, 1978. Paterson’s curse is a curse for horses. Agricultural Gazette of N.S.W., 89:43
Seaman JT, Turvey WS, Ottaway SJ, Dixon RJ, Gilmour AR, 1989. Investigations into the toxicity of Echium plantagineum in sheep. 1. Field grazing experiments. Australian Veterinary Journal, 66(9):279-285; 28 ref
Shea K, Smyth M, Sheppard A, Morton R, Chalimbaud J, 2000. Effect of patch size and plant density of Paterson's curse (Echium plantagineum) on the oviposition of a specialist weevil, Mogulones larvatus. Oecologia, 124(4):615-621; 45 ref
Sheppard A, Smyth M, 2002. Predicting seedbank decay rates: the effects of field conditions on seed longevity and seedling recruitment in Echium plantagineum L. 13th Australian Weeds Conference: weeds "threats now and forever?", Sheraton Perth Hotel, Perth, Western Australia, 8-13 September 2002: papers and proceedings, 541-544; 4 ref
Sheppard AW, Smyth M, Swirepik A, 1999. Impact of the root-crown weevil (Mogulones larvatus) and other biological control agents on Paterson’s curse in Australia: an update. In: Bishop AC, Boersma M, Barnes CD, eds. Proceedings of the 12th Australian Weeds Conference. Tasmania, Australia: Tasmanian Weed Society Devonport, 343-346
Smith CA, 1964. Common Names of South African Plants. Pretoria, Australia: Government Printer
Smyth M, Sheppard A, 2002. Longitarsus echii and its impact on Echium plantagineum (Paterson's curse): the insect for the Mediterranean rainfall range of the weed?. 13th Australian Weeds Conference: weeds "threats now and forever?", Sheraton Perth Hotel, Perth, Western Australia, 8-13 September 2002: papers and proceedings, 422-425; 6 ref
Smyth M, Sheppard A, Huwer R, 2004. The population and impact of Longitarsus echii Koch (Coleoptera: chrysmelidae), a root-feeding beetle on Echium plantagineum L (Boraginaceae) (Paterson’s curse) under field grazing conditions. In: Sindel BM, Johnson SB, eds. Proceedings of the 14th Australian Weeds Conference. Sydney, Australia: Weed Society of NSW, 349-352
Smyth M, Sheppard AW, 1996. The effect of simulated spray-grazing on the Paterson’s curse crown weevil, Mogulones larvatus, Schultze. Proceedings of the 11th Australian Weeds Conference. Australia: Weed Science Society of Victoria Inc., 291-293
Smyth MJ, Moorhouse J, Sheppard AW, Swirepik A, 1992. Factors affecting the dominance of Echium plantagineum in annual pastures. Australian Weed Research Newsletter, 20:11-14
Swirepik A, Sheppard AW, Smyth S, 1996. Meligethes planiusculus (Nitidulidae): an inflorescence-feeding beetle of good potential for the biological control of Paterson’s curse. Proceedings of the 11th Australian Weeds Conference. Australia: Weed Science Society of Victoria Inc., 294-297
Swirepik A, Smyth M, 2002. Biological control of broad-leafed pasture weeds (Paterson's curse, Onopordum and nodding thistles). What have we achieved and where to from here?. 13th Australian Weeds Conference: weeds "threats now and forever?", Sheraton Perth Hotel, Perth, Western Australia, 8-13 September 2002: papers and proceedings, 373-376; 14 ref
Trumble HC, Fraser KM, 1932. The effect of top-dressing with artificial fertilizers on the annual yield, botanical composition, and carrying capacity of a natural pasture over a period of seven years. Journal of the Department of Agriculture of South Australia, 35:1341-1353
USDA-ARS, 2005. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Online Database. Beltsville, Maryland, USA: National Germplasm Resources Laboratory. https://npgsweb.ars-grin.gov/gringlobal/taxon/taxonomysearch.aspx
Valdés B, Talavera S, Fernandez-Gallano E, 1987. Flora Vascular de Andalucia Occidental, Vol. 2
Vayssieres JF, Wapshere AJ, 1983. Life-histories and host specificities of Ceutorhynchus geographicus (Goeze) and C. larvatus Schultze (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), potential biological control agents for Echium. Bulletin of Entomological Research, 73(3):431-440
Webb CJ, Sykes WR, Garnock-Jones PJ, 1988. Flora of New Zealand Volume IV. Naturalised Pteridophytes, Gymnosperms and Dicotyledons. Christchurch, New Zealand: DSIR Botany Division, 1365 pp. http://floraseries.landcareresearch.co.nz/pages/Book.aspx?fileName=Flora%204.xml
Witt, A., Luke, Q., 2017. Guide to the naturalized and invasive plants of Eastern Africa, [ed. by Witt, A., Luke, Q.]. Wallingford, UK: CABI.vi + 601 pp. http://www.cabi.org/cabebooks/ebook/20173158959 doi:10.1079/9781786392145.0000
Wood H, Degabriele R, 1985. Genetic variation and phenotypic plasticity in populations of Paterson's curse (Echium plantagineum L.) in south-eastern Australia. Australian Journal of Botany, 33:677-685
Zulueta J, 1974. The use of herbicides in the establishment of subterranean clover in the Extremadura region. Anales del Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Agrarias. Series Proteccion Vegetal, 4(9):167-206
Bramwell D, Bramwell ZI, 1974. Wild Flowers of the Canary Islands., Cabildo Insular de Tenerife, Canary Islands, Excmo.
CABI, Undated. Compendium record. Wallingford, UK: CABI
CABI, Undated a. CABI Compendium: Status inferred from regional distribution. Wallingford, UK: CABI
CABI, Undated b. CABI Compendium: Status as determined by CABI editor. Wallingford, UK: CABI
Clapham AR, Tutin TG, Warburg EF, 1962. Flora of the British Isles., Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
Couthinho AXP, 1995. (Flora de Portugal: Plantas Vasculares)., Dehra Dun, India: Bishen Singh Mahendra Pal Singh.
Gibbs PE, 1972. (Echium Boraginceae). In: Flora Europaea, 3 [ed. by Tutin TG].
Holm L, Pancho J, Herberger J, Plucknett D, 1979. A Geographical Atlas of World Weeds., New York, USA: John Wiley & Sons.
Jepson WL, 1979. Flora of California., California, USA: University of California.
Oregon State University Herbarium, 2005. Oregon Vascular Plants Online Database., Corvallis, USA: Botany and Plant Pathology. http://ocid.nacse.org/cgi-bin/qml/herbarium/plants/vherb.qml
Piggin CM, 1976. The ecology and control of Paterson's curse (Echium plantagineum L.). Unpublished PhD thesis., Australia: University Melbourne.
USDA-ARS, 2005. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Online Database. Beltsville, Maryland, USA: National Germplasm Resources Laboratory. https://npgsweb.ars-grin.gov/gringlobal/taxon/taxonomysimple.aspx
Valdés B, Talavera S, Fernandez-Gallano E, 1987. (Flora Vascular de Andalucia Occidental)., 2
Webb C J, Sykes W R, Garnock-Jones P J, 1988. Flora of New Zealand Volume IV: Naturalized Pteridophytes, Gymnosperms, Dicotyledons. Christchurch, New Zealand: Department of Scientific and Industrial Research. 1365 pp.
Witt A, Luke Q, 2017. Guide to the naturalized and invasive plants of Eastern Africa. [ed. by Witt A, Luke Q]. Wallingford, UK: CABI. vi + 601 pp. http://www.cabi.org/cabebooks/ebook/20173158959 DOI:10.1079/9781786392145.0000
Distribution MapsTop of page
Select a dataset
CABI Summary Records
Unsupported Web Browser:
One or more of the features that are needed to show you the maps functionality are not available in the web browser that you are using.
Please consider upgrading your browser to the latest version or installing a new browser.
More information about modern web browsers can be found at http://browsehappy.com/