Invasive Species Compendium

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Datasheet

Cornus sericea
(redosier dogwood)

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Datasheet

Cornus sericea (redosier dogwood)

Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Cornus sericea with bright red stems in the fens of the Lodi Marsh, Wisconsin, USA. The  posts in the background are permanent markers for a long-term study of Cornus sericea growth after cattle grazing.
TitleHabit in a fen
CaptionCornus sericea with bright red stems in the fens of the Lodi Marsh, Wisconsin, USA. The posts in the background are permanent markers for a long-term study of Cornus sericea growth after cattle grazing.
CopyrightBeth A. Middleton
Cornus sericea with bright red stems in the fens of the Lodi Marsh, Wisconsin, USA. The  posts in the background are permanent markers for a long-term study of Cornus sericea growth after cattle grazing.
Habit in a fenCornus sericea with bright red stems in the fens of the Lodi Marsh, Wisconsin, USA. The posts in the background are permanent markers for a long-term study of Cornus sericea growth after cattle grazing. Beth A. Middleton
Fen with tussock sedge (Carex stricta), various prairie marsh forbs and native Typha latifolia. Lodi Marsh, Wisconsin, USA.
TitleHabitat
CaptionFen with tussock sedge (Carex stricta), various prairie marsh forbs and native Typha latifolia. Lodi Marsh, Wisconsin, USA.
CopyrightBeth A. Middleton
Fen with tussock sedge (Carex stricta), various prairie marsh forbs and native Typha latifolia. Lodi Marsh, Wisconsin, USA.
HabitatFen with tussock sedge (Carex stricta), various prairie marsh forbs and native Typha latifolia. Lodi Marsh, Wisconsin, USA.Beth A. Middleton
Eupatorium maculatum, 'Joe Pye Weed' a tall sedge meadow forb which is shaded out by shrub growth. Lodi Marsh, Wisconsin, USA.
TitleHabitat
CaptionEupatorium maculatum, 'Joe Pye Weed' a tall sedge meadow forb which is shaded out by shrub growth. Lodi Marsh, Wisconsin, USA.
CopyrightBeth A. Middleton
Eupatorium maculatum, 'Joe Pye Weed' a tall sedge meadow forb which is shaded out by shrub growth. Lodi Marsh, Wisconsin, USA.
HabitatEupatorium maculatum, 'Joe Pye Weed' a tall sedge meadow forb which is shaded out by shrub growth. Lodi Marsh, Wisconsin, USA.Beth A. Middleton

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Cornus sericea L., 1753

Preferred Common Name

  • redosier dogwood

Other Scientific Names

  • Cornus stolonifera Michx., 1803
  • Swida sericea (L.) Holub., 1838
  • Swida stolonifera Rydb., 1931
  • Thelycrania sericea (L.) Dandy

International Common Names

  • English: redosier; red-osier; red-osier dogwood
  • French: Cornouiller osier

Local Common Names

  • Germany: Weiden-Hartriegel

EPPO code

  • CRWSR (Cornus sericea)

Summary of Invasiveness

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C. sericea is native to North America, and occurs in wetlands from Alaska to Labrador, southward to northern Mexico along the Rocky Mountains (Karlsson, 2009). It occurs in the once glaciated regions of North America, and occurs locally southward (Viereck and Little, 1972). The species is listed as an invasive species by the European Plant Quarantine Data Retrieval System (EPPO, 2009b), and is on the “alert list” for Switzerland and Belgium (EPPO 2009b and IAS 2009, respectively). Elsewhere in northern Europe, it is considered an emerging invasive; the species has invasive tendencies where it has been introduced (EPPO, 2009b). Kelly (1990) lists nearly 20 instances of occurrence of the species in Ireland, mostly in wetland woods, where it may threaten biodiversity. Among the listed occurrences in Ireland, one is on an island, and likely to have established from a plant fragment washed ashore. Despite searching, Kelly (1990) did not find seedlings of this species in Irish habitats.

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Plantae
  •         Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •             Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •                 Class: Dicotyledonae
  •                     Order: Cornales
  •                         Family: Cornaceae
  •                             Genus: Cornus
  •                                 Species: Cornus sericea

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

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Cornus sericea is the revised taxonomic name, formerly known as Cornus stolonifera or Swida stolonifera (common names: red-osier dogwood and Seidiger Hartriegel, Lohmueller, 2008). Some cultivars include ‘Allerman’s Compact’, ‘Flaviramea’, ‘Hedgerows Gold’, ‘Isanti’, ‘Kelseyi’, ‘Silver and Gold’, and ‘Variegata’ (Rook, 2002).

C. sericea has straightforward morphology in the northeastern USA, but westward in North America, the species’ characteristics become less clear as it hybridizes with Cornus occidentalis. The hybrids have a diverse array of characteristics related to pubescence, flower size and endocarp characters (Rickett, 1944). Cornus alba of northern Asia is very similar to C. sericea, except that it does not form suckers (Kelly, 1990).

Description

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C. sericea is a deciduous shrub with brightly coloured (often red) stems in the winter. The stems root along nodes, and spread by layering (EPPO, 2009b). The clones form large dense patches, with individual plants up to 3.7 m tall (USDA-NRCS, 2009) in both native and invasive habitats. The leaves are ovate to elliptic, green above, with 20-40 mm petioles (Karlsson, 2009). Long peduncles hold corymb-like infloresences of 20-50 flowers, each with 4 tiny white petals (1-3 mm). Fruit is a white to lead colour, subglobose pyrene (USDA, 1948) with a rounded base, wider than long (3.5 to 6 mm), with eight ridges (Karlsson, 2009).

 

Plant Type

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Perennial
Seed propagated
Shrub
Vegetatively propagated
Woody

Distribution

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C. sericea is native to North America, from northern Canada to northern Mexico, at elevations below 2500 m. It is considered to be potentially invasive there (WBIS, 2009). In addition to the countries listed in the distribution table, this species is also present in Arizona (JT Kartesz, Biota of North America Program (BONAP), North Carolina, USA, unpublished data), Colorado (B Johnston, U.S. Forest Service, Lakewood, Colorado, unpublished data), Kansas (RL McGregor, USDA, personal communication, 2009), Kentucky (J Campbell, USDA, personal communication, 2009), Massachusetts (BA Sorrie, Massachusetts, USA, unpublished data) and Wisconsin (R Reed, Wisconsin, USA, unpublished data). The EPPO (2009b) considers the species an emerging invader in northern Europe.

 

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 03 Mar 2021
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Europe

AustriaPresentIntroduced
BelgiumPresentIntroduced1885
CzechiaPresentIntroduced
DenmarkPresent, WidespreadIntroducedInvasiveIntroduced as an ornamental
EstoniaPresentIntroducedOriginal citation: EPPO (2009)
FinlandPresent, WidespreadIntroducedInvasiveIntroduced as an ornamental
FrancePresentIntroducedEstablishment pattern unknown; Original citation: DAISIE (2009)
GermanyPresentIntroducedOriginal citation: EPPO (2009)
HungaryPresentIntroducedNot established; Original citation: DAISIE (2009)
IrelandPresentIntroduced
ItalyPresent, Only in captivity/cultivationIntroduced
LatviaPresentIntroduced
LuxembourgPresentIntroduced1823
RussiaPresentIntroducedOriginal citation: EPPO (2009)
SwedenPresent, WidespreadIntroducedInvasiveIntroduced as an ornamental
SwitzerlandPresentIntroducedInvasive
United KingdomPresentIntroduced
-ScotlandPresentIntroducedInvasiveUnknown status; Original citation: DAISIE (2009)

North America

CanadaPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-AlbertaPresentNative
-British ColumbiaPresentNative
-ManitobaPresentNative
-New BrunswickPresentNative
-Newfoundland and LabradorPresentNative
-Northwest TerritoriesPresentNative
-Nova ScotiaPresentNative
-NunavutPresentNative
-OntarioPresentNative
-Prince Edward IslandPresentNative
-QuebecPresentNative
-SaskatchewanPresentNative
-YukonPresentNative
MexicoPresent, LocalizedNativeLimited distribution in northern Mexico including Chihuahua, Durango and Nuevo Leon
Saint Pierre and MiquelonPresentNative
United StatesPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-AlaskaPresentNativeOriginal citation: HITCHCOCK et al. (1969)
-ArizonaPresentNative
-CaliforniaPresentNative
-ColoradoPresent
-ConnecticutPresentNative
-DelawarePresentNative
-IdahoPresentNative
-IllinoisPresentNative
-IndianaPresentNative
-IowaPresentNative
-MainePresentNative
-MarylandPresentNative
-MichiganPresentNative
-MinnesotaPresentNative
-MontanaPresentNativeOriginal citation: HITCHCOCK et al. (1969)
-NebraskaPresentNative
-NevadaPresentNative
-New HampshirePresentNative
-New JerseyPresentNative
-New MexicoPresentNative
-New YorkPresentNative
-North DakotaPresentNative
-OhioPresent
-OregonPresentNativeOriginal citation: HITCHCOCK et al. (1969)
-PennsylvaniaPresentNative
-Rhode IslandPresentNative
-South DakotaPresentNative
-UtahPresentNative
-VermontPresentNative
-VirginiaPresentNative
-WashingtonPresentNativeOriginal citation: HITCHCOCK et al. (1969)
-West VirginiaPresentNative
-WyomingPresentNative

Oceania

AustraliaPresentIntroduced

History of Introduction and Spread

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C. sericea is a native to North America. The species was introduced in Europe as early as 1823, when it was documented in Luxembourg under its synonym Cornus stolonifera (Ries et al., 2021), and has been planted for ornamental purposes in Australia and Europe because of its attractive bark; some cultivars turn red in the winter season. In Europe, the distribution of the species is limited (EPPO, 2009b).

Introductions

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Introduced toIntroduced fromYearReasonIntroduced byEstablished in wild throughReferencesNotes
Natural reproductionContinuous restocking
Australia North America   Horticulture (pathway cause) No No Gardening Australia (2009) Not considered invasive
Europe North America 1885 Horticulture (pathway cause) Yes No EPPO (2009) Considered an emerging invader in Europe

Risk of Introduction

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C. sericea may be a threat in Europe because of its invasive behaviour, and widespread usage as an ornamental species. The species is planted as an ornamental in Australia (Gardening Australia, 2009). It is listed as a black listed invasive species in Switzerland (EPPO, 2009b).

The species reproduces vegetatively by rooting along nodes and the lower stems (EPPO, 2009b). In native habitats such as sedge meadows and fens in North America, C. sericea colonizes far from clones of shrub by seed, but also advances via spreading (B Middleton, National Wetlands Research Center, Louisiana, USA, personal observation, 2009). Cattle grazing disturbs the soil, and allows C. sericea to establish if cattle grazing ceases (Middleton, 2002b).

Habitat

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In North America, C. sericea is found mostly in northern climates, with some occurrences as far south as northern Mexico (USDA-FS, 2009) generally at elevations below 2500 m (EPPO, 2009b). The species can tolerate extreme conditions, including cold and submergence for several months (EPPO, 2009b). It is limited by high temperature at southern limits, e.g. New Mexico (USDA-FA, 2009). In sedge meadows grazed by cattle, the species can persist as a minor component of the wetland, even though the cattle browse the seedlings, saplings and full-grown shrubs of C. sericea. This shrub species may grow profusely after cattle are removed, so that C. sericea can be somewhat invasive in sedge meadows released from cattle grazing (Middleton, 2002a, b; Middleton et al., 2006).

Habitat List

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CategorySub-CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Terrestrial
Terrestrial ManagedCultivated / agricultural land Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial ManagedManaged forests, plantations and orchards Secondary/tolerated habitat Natural
Terrestrial ManagedManaged grasslands (grazing systems) Secondary/tolerated habitat Natural
Terrestrial ManagedIndustrial / intensive livestock production systems Secondary/tolerated habitat Natural
Terrestrial ManagedDisturbed areas Secondary/tolerated habitat Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial ManagedDisturbed areas Secondary/tolerated habitat Natural
Terrestrial ManagedRail / roadsides Secondary/tolerated habitat Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial ManagedRail / roadsides Secondary/tolerated habitat Natural
Terrestrial ManagedUrban / peri-urban areas Secondary/tolerated habitat Natural
Terrestrial ManagedBuildings Secondary/tolerated habitat Natural
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalNatural forests Principal habitat Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalNatural grasslands Present, no further details Natural
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalRiverbanks Principal habitat Natural
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalWetlands Principal habitat Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalWetlands Principal habitat Natural
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalCold lands / tundra Principal habitat Natural
FreshwaterLakes Principal habitat Natural
FreshwaterReservoirs Principal habitat Natural
FreshwaterRivers / streams Principal habitat Natural
FreshwaterPonds Principal habitat Natural
BrackishEstuaries Principal habitat Natural

Hosts/Species Affected

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Include additional information not covered by the listing(s) above. Note any more specific information on stages of crop/plant growth most affected (e.g. to 40 days post-emergence). Cite important references here (rather than in above list).

Host Plants and Other Plants Affected

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Plant nameFamilyContextReferences
Carex strictaUnknown

    Growth Stages

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    Pre-emergence, Seedling stage, Vegetative growing stage

    Biology and Ecology

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    Genetics

    2n = 22 (Karlsson, 2009).
     
    Reproductive Biology
     
    Seeds germinate in draw down, and are stored in the seed bank (USDA-FS, 2009). The seeds cold stratify in 90-120 days (Heit, 1968 in Baskin and Baskin, 1998), or as little as 30 days (Acharya et al., 1992 in Baskin and Baskin, 1998). Optimal germination temperatures are 10 to 30oC (Heit, 1968b in Baskin and Baskin, 1998) or 10–25oC (Acharya et al., 1992 in Baskin and Baskin, 1998).
     
    Physiology and Phenology
     
    In North America, C. sericea flowers from May to July, fruits from late July to October, and disperses from late July to October (USDA, 1948). Adult plants tolerate flooding for most of the growing season (USDA-FS, 2009). The minimum and maximum elevation ranges vary in the western states of the USA, with a minimum of 1036 m in Montana and a maximum elevation of 2896 m in Utah (USDA-FS, 2009). These differences in elevational preference may be related to water availability. The species grows best in wet areas, with 75% of full sunlight (USDA-FS, 2009). The phenology of flowering, leaf out, resting stage, red bark colour and leaf abscission varies across the latitudinal and longitudinal range of C. sericea in North America (USDA-FS, 2009).
     
    Associations
     
    In North America, C. sericea is associated with sedge meadows and fens in the north, which are dominated by Carex stricta and Calamagrostis canadensis. Rare forbs are often part of these systems (for list of forbs see Middleton, 2002b). C. sericea is also found as a riparian species in forest, woodland and grasslands, and thus is associated with a very wide variety of species (USDA-FS, 2009). In Europe, it is a species of wet woods (Kelly, 1990).
     
    Environmental Requirements
     
    Generally restricted to northern environments, and southward in mountainous areas.

     

    Climate

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    ClimateStatusDescriptionRemark
    C - Temperate/Mesothermal climate Tolerated Average temp. of coldest month > 0°C and < 18°C, mean warmest month > 10°C
    Cs - Warm temperate climate with dry summer Tolerated Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry summers
    Cw - Warm temperate climate with dry winter Tolerated Warm temperate climate with dry winter (Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry winters)
    D - Continental/Microthermal climate Preferred Continental/Microthermal climate (Average temp. of coldest month < 0°C, mean warmest month > 10°C)
    Df - Continental climate, wet all year Preferred Continental climate, wet all year (Warm average temp. > 10°C, coldest month < 0°C, wet all year)
    Ds - Continental climate with dry summer Preferred Continental climate with dry summer (Warm average temp. > 10°C, coldest month < 0°C, dry summers)
    Dw - Continental climate with dry winter Preferred Continental climate with dry winter (Warm average temp. > 10°C, coldest month < 0°C, dry winters)
    EF - Ice cap climate Preferred Ice cap climate (Average temp. all months < 0°C)
    ET - Tundra climate Preferred Tundra climate (Average temp. of warmest month < 10°C and > 0°C)

    Air Temperature

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    Parameter Lower limit Upper limit
    Absolute minimum temperature (ºC) -38.9

    Rainfall

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    ParameterLower limitUpper limitDescription
    Mean annual rainfall4571524mm; lower/upper limits

    Soil Tolerances

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    Soil drainage

    • free
    • impeded
    • seasonally waterlogged

    Soil reaction

    • acid
    • alkaline
    • neutral

    Soil texture

    • heavy
    • light
    • medium

    Special soil tolerances

    • infertile
    • saline
    • sodic

    Natural enemies

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    Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
    Botryosphaeria dothidea Pathogen Roots not specific Schoeneweiss, 1979
    Erysiphe tortilis Pathogen Leaves not specific Swiderska et al., 2005
    Lambdina fiscellaria Herbivore Leaves not specific Torgersen and Baker, 1969
    Septoria cornicola Pathogen Leaves not specific Garibaldi et al., 2003; Mmbaga and Sauvé, 2004

    Means of Movement and Dispersal

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    Natural dispersal by seed is mainly via animals (USDA-FS, 2009). Clones spread readily via rooting by stems (EPPO, 2009b). Intentional introduction of the species has been for horticultural purposes in Europe and Australia (EPPO, 2009b).

    Pathway Causes

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    CauseNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
    Botanical gardens and zoos Yes EPPO, 2009; Gardening Australia, 2009
    Breeding and propagation Yes
    Digestion and excretionNorth America Yes Yes
    DisturbanceNorth America Yes Middleton, 2002; USDA-FS, 2009
    Escape from confinement or garden escapeEurope, Australia Yes EPPO, 2009; Gardening Australia, 2009
    Hedges and windbreaksEurope Yes EPPO, 2009
    HorticultureEurope, Australia Yes EPPO, 2009; Gardening Australia, 2009
    Internet salesEurope, Australia Yes EPPO, 2009; Gardening Australia, 2009
    Landscape improvementEurope, Australia Yes EPPO, 2009; Gardening Australia, 2009
    Ornamental purposesEurope, Australia Yes EPPO, 2009; Gardening Australia, 2009

    Pathway Vectors

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    VectorNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
    Floating vegetation and debrisParts of plant transported by water Yes Kelly, 1990
    LivestockEaten and likely transported by water Yes Kelly, 1990
    MailHorticulture trade Yes EPPO, 2009
    Plants or parts of plantsParts of plant transported by water Yes Kelly, 1990
    WaterParts of plant transported by water Yes Kelly, 1990

    Impact Summary

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    CategoryImpact
    Environment (generally) Negative

    Environmental Impact

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    Impact on Habitats

    Due to the fact that C. sericea is a woody species, it may shade and replace grassland or herbaceous species in either native or invasive environments. The species may reduce biodiversity by reducing the growth and flowering of herbaceous species, e.g. in fens and sedge meadows in formerly grazed settings in North America (Middleton, 2002a). A proliferation of the species in ecosystems is likely to cause shifts in ecosystem function related to production, decomposition, and nutrient cycling.
     
    Impact on Biodiversity
     
    The species may reduce biodiversity by reducing the the growth and flowering of herbaceous species, e.g. in fens and sedge meadows in formerly grazing settings in North America (Middleton, 2002a). Similarly, it is thought to cause a reduction of biodiversity in woodland settings in Europe (Kelly, 1990).

    Risk and Impact Factors

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    Invasiveness
    • Invasive in its native range
    • Proved invasive outside its native range
    • Has a broad native range
    • Abundant in its native range
    • Highly adaptable to different environments
    • Is a habitat generalist
    • Tolerates, or benefits from, cultivation, browsing pressure, mutilation, fire etc
    • Pioneering in disturbed areas
    • Tolerant of shade
    • Highly mobile locally
    • Benefits from human association (i.e. it is a human commensal)
    • Long lived
    • Fast growing
    • Has high reproductive potential
    • Gregarious
    • Has propagules that can remain viable for more than one year
    • Reproduces asexually
    • Has high genetic variability
    Impact outcomes
    • Altered trophic level
    • Damaged ecosystem services
    • Ecosystem change/ habitat alteration
    • Modification of nutrient regime
    • Modification of successional patterns
    • Monoculture formation
    • Reduced native biodiversity
    Impact mechanisms
    • Competition - monopolizing resources
    • Competition - shading
    • Herbivory/grazing/browsing
    • Rapid growth
    • Rooting
    Likelihood of entry/control
    • Highly likely to be transported internationally deliberately
    • Difficult to identify/detect in the field
    • Difficult/costly to control

    Uses List

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    Animal feed, fodder, forage

    • Forage

    Drugs, stimulants, social uses

    • Smoking

    Environmental

    • Agroforestry
    • Revegetation
    • Wildlife habitat
    • Windbreak

    General

    • Botanical garden/zoo

    Materials

    • Baskets

    Medicinal, pharmaceutical

    • Source of medicine/pharmaceutical

    Wood Products

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    Containers

    • Baskets

    Similarities to Other Species/Conditions

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    Cornus alba is from northern Asia, but looks similar to C. sericea (Kelly, 1990). C. alba does not spread by suckers, whereas C. sericea has suckers and rooting branches. The fruits are drupe-like with several seeds (pyrene) in both species. C. alba has an ellipsoid pyrene tapering to a flat base, and C. sericea has a subglobose pyrene, rounded at the base (Karlsson, 2009).

    Cornus sericea var. sericea hybridizes with Cornus sericea var. occidentalis westward in North America. The varieties of C. sericea may differ in characteristics, but generally overlap (Karlsson, 2009). The hybrids of these two types have a diverse array of characteristics related to pubescence, flower size and endocarp characters (Rickett, 1944).

     

    Prevention and Control

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    Due to the variable regulations around (de)registration of pesticides, your national list of registered pesticides or relevant authority should be consulted to determine which products are legally allowed for use in your country when considering chemical control. Pesticides should always be used in a lawful manner, consistent with the product's label.

    Prevention

    SPS measures

    The species is on alert lists in Belgium and Switzerland (IAS, 2009 and EPPO, 2009b, respectively).
     
    Control
     
    Physical/mechanical control

    Can be controlled temporarily by cutting.
     
    Biological control

    Known diseases/parasites are not specific to C. sericea.
     
    Chemical control

    Control of shrubs using herbicides is more successful when sprayed early in the growing season (USDA-FS, 2009).
     
    Ecosystem Restoration

    In North America, C. sericea is often used to rehabilitate eroding stream banks, and terrestrial oil spills (USDA-FS, 2009). C. sericea is opportunistic, and spreads in sedge meadows and fens grazed by cattle. The cattle trample sedge tussocks, and allow a window of opportunity for colonization (Middleton, 1999). Although cattle continue to browse the shrubs and seedlings of C. sericea, the species exists in small amounts in the wetland. If grazing ceases, C. sericea spreads quickly and may dominate formerly grazed sedge meadows (Middleton, 2002a, b). Prescribed burning can increase the biodiversity of herbaceous species in such situations, by providing a short window of opportunity for flowering and seed set (Middleton, 2002a). C. sericea re-grows quickly from surviving roots and stems after fire, but it can be killed by hot fires (USDA-FS, 2009). Two years after a prescribed burn in Montana, C. sericea had regained 72% of its pre-fire dominance (Gordon, 1976). In Wisconsin, fire helps to maintain shrub-carrs (White, 1965; Warners, 1987).

     

    Gaps in Knowledge/Research Needs

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    As ecosystem function shifts are likely in shrub communities of C. sericea, further research would be useful in both Europe and North America.

    References

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    Acharya SN, Chu CB, Hermesh R, Schaalje GB, 1992. Factors affecting red-osier dogwood seed germination. Canadian Journal of Botany, 70(5):1012-1016

    Atwood Jr JT, Countryman WD, Jervis RA, Miller DH, Seymour FC, Smith ML, 1973. Checklist of Vermont plants including all vascular plants growing without cultivation. Vermont, USA: Vermont Botanical and Bird Club

    Barkley TM, 1977. Atlas of the flora of the Great Plains. Ames, Iowa, : Iowa State University Press., 600 pp

    Baskin CC, Baskin JM, 1998. Seeds: ecology, biogeography, and evoluation of dormancy and germination. California, USA: Academic Press, 666 pp

    Brouillet L, Coursol F, Favreau M, 2006. VASCAN. The database of Canadian vascular plants. Montreal, Canada: Herbier Marie-Victorin, Institut de Recherche en Biologie Vegetale. http://www.botany.ubc.ca/herbarium/vascular/index.html

    Brown RG, Brown ML, 1972. Woody plants of Maryland. Maryland, USA: Port City Press, 347 pp

    Cooperrider TS, 1995. The Dicotyledoneae of Ohio. Part 2: Linaceae through Campanulaceae. Ohio, USA: Ohio State University Press, 656 pp

    Crovello TJ, Keller CA, Kartesz JT, 1983. The vascular plants of Indiana: A computer based checklist. Indiana, USA: University of Notre Dame Press, 136 pp

    DAISIE, 2009. Delivering Alien Invasive Species Inventories Europe. Brussels, Belgium: European Commission. http://www.europe-aliens.org/speciesFactsheet.do?speciesId=17173#

    DAISIE, 2009. Delivering Alien Invasive Species Inventories for Europe. http://www.europe-aliens.org

    Davis R, 1952. Flora of Idaho. Iowa, USA: WC Brown and Company, 828 pp

    Dorn RD, 1977. Manual of the vascular plants of Wyoming. 2 vols. New York, USA: Garland Publishing Inc., 1498 pp

    Dowhan JJ, 1979. Preliminary checklist of the vascular flora of Connecticut (growing without cultivation). Connecticut, USA: State Geological and Natural History Survey of Connecticut

    EFloras, 2009. Arboles y arbustos de los Andes del Ecuador. http://www.efloras.org/florataxon.aspx?flora_id=201&taxon_id=10219

    EFloras, 2009. Flora of Chile. http://www.efloras.org/florataxon.aspx?flora_id=60&taxon_id=10219

    EFloras, 2009. Flora of China. http://www.efloras.org/florataxon.aspx?flora_id=2&taxon_id=200005226

    EFloras, 2009. Flora of Pakistan. http://www.efloras.org/browse.aspx?flora_id=5&name_str=Cornus+sericea

    EFloras, 2009. Madagascar Catalogue. http://www.efloras.org/florataxon.aspx?flora_id=12&taxon_id=10219

    EFloras, 2009. Taiwan plant names. http://www.efloras.org/florataxon.aspx?flora_id=101&taxon_id=10219

    Eilers LJ, Roosa DM, 1991. The vascular plants of Iowa. Iowa, USA: University of Iowa Press, 304 pp

    EPPO, 2009. Cornus sericea. EPPO's plant quarantine data retrieval system. Paris, France: EPPO. http://www.eppo.org/QUARANTINE/Alert_List/invasive_plants/Cornus_sericea.htm

    EPPO, 2009. EPPO's plant quarantine data retrieval system. Paris, France: EPPO. http://www.eppo.org/DATABASES/pqr/pqr.htm

    Gardening Australia, 2009. Fact sheet: winter interest plants. Melbourne, Australia: ABC. http://www.abc.net.au/gardening/stories/s2336829.htm

    Garibaldi A, Bertetti D, Gullino ML, 2003. First report of septoria leaf spot on Cornus sericea in Italy. Plant Disease, 87(2):204

    Gordon FA, 1976. Srping burning in an aspen-conifer stand for maintenance of moose habitat, West Boulder River, Montana. In: Proceedings, Montana Tall Timbers Fire Ecology Conference and Intermountain Fire Research Council Fire and Land Management Symposium; 1974 October 8-10; Missoula, MT Florida, USA: Tall Timbers Research Station, 501-538

    Harvill AM, Stevens CE, Ware DME, 1977. Atlas of the Virginia flora, Part I. Pteridophytes through monocotyledons. Virginia, USA: Virginia Botanical Associates, 59 pp

    Heit CE, 1968. Propagation from seed. 15. Fall planting of shrub seeds for successful seedling production. American Nurseryman, 128(4):8-10, 70-80

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    Mohlenbrock R H, 1986. Guide to the vascular flora of Illinois. Carbondale and Edwardsville, Illinois, USA: Southern Illinois University Press. 500 pp.

    Ownbey G B, Morley T, 1991. Vascular plants of Minnesota: A checklist and atlas. Minnesota, USA: University of Minnesota Press. 307 pp.

    Randall R P, 2009. The introduced flora of Australia and its weed status. In: CRC for Australian Weed Management, Glen Osmond, Australia: University of Adelaide. http://www.weedscrc.org.au/documents/intro_flora_australia.pdf

    Rhoads A F, McKinley Klein W Jr, 1993. The vascular flora of Pennsylvania: annotated checklist and atlas. In: The vascular flora of Pennsylvania: annotated checklist and atlas. Philadelphia, USA: American Philosophical Society. 636 pp.

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    Voss E G, 1985. Michigan flora. Bloomfield Hills, Michigan, USA: Cranbrook Institute of Science. 488 pp.

    Welsh S L, Atwood N D, Higgins L C, Goodrich S, 1987. A Utah flora. In: Great Basin Naturalist Memoirs, No. Provo, Utah, USA: Brigham Young University Press. 986 pp.

    Links to Websites

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    WebsiteURLComment
    Belgian Biodiversity Platformhttp://www.biodiversity.be/
    USDA-PLANTShttp://plants.usda.gov

    Organizations

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    France: European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organisation (EPPO), OEPP/EPPO, 1 rue Le Notre, 75016 Paris, http://www.eppo.org/

    Contributors

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    14/09/09 Original text by:

    Beth Middleton, USGS National Wetlands Research Center, 700 Cajundome Boulevard, Lafayette, LA  70506, USA

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