Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Cardiospermum halicacabum
(balloon vine)

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Datasheet

Cardiospermum halicacabum (balloon vine)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 19 November 2019
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Pest
  • Host Plant
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Cardiospermum halicacabum
  • Preferred Common Name
  • balloon vine
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Plantae
  •     Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •       Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •         Class: Dicotyledonae
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • C. halicacabum is a long-lived scrambling, creeping, or climbing vine that is a weed of gardens, roadsides, disturbed sites and plantations. It has also the ability to climb and cover mature trees up to 8 m or more in height (...

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Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Cardiospermum halicacabum L.

Preferred Common Name

  • balloon vine

Other Scientific Names

  • Cardiospermum acuminatum Miq.
  • Cardiospermum corycodes Kunze
  • Cardiospermum glabrum Schumach. & Thonn.
  • Cardiospermum inflatum Salisb.
  • Cardiospermum luridum Blume
  • Cardiospermum moniliferum Schwagr. ex Steud.
  • Corindum halicacabum (L.) Medik.

International Common Names

  • English: heart pea; heartseed; lesser balloonvine; love in a puff; small balloon creeper; small balloon vine; winter-cherry
  • Spanish: amor en bolsita; bejuco Colorado; farolito; globitos; revienta caballo
  • French: pois de merveille
  • Chinese: dao di ling
  • Portuguese: balaozinho

Local Common Names

  • Australia: small balloon vine
  • Costa Rica: amor en bolsita; farolito; globitos
  • Cuba: farolito (var. halicacabum); revienta caballos
  • Dominican Republic: toffe-toffe
  • Germany: Ballonrebe; Blasenerbse; Herzsame
  • Haiti: bonnet carré; persil bâtard; pois de merveille; pois merveille
  • Indonesia: cenet (Malay, Western Sumatra); ketipes (Javanese); paria gunung (Sundanese)
  • Italy: vesicaria del cuore
  • Lesser Antilles: bonne kawe; bonnet care; chapeau carre; heart seed; liane persil; lyann pesi; pesi bata; sprain bush vine; wild parsley
  • Malaysia: bintang berahi; peria bulan; uban kayu
  • Mexico: pejuco colorado
  • Netherlands: Blaaserwt
  • Philippines: kana; paria-aso; parol-parolan
  • South Africa: lesser balloon vine
  • Thailand: kok kra om; luupleep khruea; pho om

EPPO code

  • CRIHA (Cardiospermum halicacabum)

Summary of Invasiveness

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C. halicacabum is a long-lived scrambling, creeping, or climbing vine that is a weed of gardens, roadsides, disturbed sites and plantations. It has also the ability to climb and cover mature trees up to 8 m or more in height (Weeds of Australia, 2015). This species is often cultivated as an ornamental in gardens of tropical and subtropical regions of the world for its inflated balloon shaped fruits (Acevedo-Rodríguez, 2005; PIER, 2015; PROTA, 2015; Weeds of Australia, 2015). It has escaped from cultivation, and once naturalized it grows over native vegetation smothering trees, shrubs and understory vegetation. It is very successful invading forest margins, woodland, grassland, riverbanks, floodplains and rocky sites. Dense infestations can also impede access, increase the risk and intensity of fires and harbour pests and diseases (Invasive Species South Africa, 2015). Currently, C. halicacabum is regarded as a weed and invasive species in Australia, South Africa, Kenya, Tanzania, Uganda, French Polynesia, the Cook Islands, New Caledonia, Singapore, the USA, and Cuba (Foxcroft et al., 2003; Oviedo Prieto et al., 2012; BioNet-EAfrinet, 2015; PIER, 2015; USDA-NRCS, 2015; Weeds of Australia, 2015). 

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Plantae
  •         Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •             Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •                 Class: Dicotyledonae
  •                     Order: Sapindales
  •                         Family: Sapindaceae
  •                             Genus: Cardiospermum
  •                                 Species: Cardiospermum halicacabum

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

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The family Sapindaceae includes 142 genera and approximately 1900 species distributed worldwide. Sapindaceae, along with the families Bignoniaceae and Fabaceae, are the major components of the vine vegetation of the Neotropics (Stevens, 2012). The genus Cardiospermum currently comprises 17 species of subshrubs and herbaceous climbers commonly called balloon vines (the Plant List, 2013). Around half of the species occur in moist tropical and subtropical regions of the world while other species are well-adapted to arid and semiarid habitats (Ferrucci and Urdampilleta, 2011; Gildenhuys et al., 2013). Cardiospermum is mostly restricted to the Neotropics (from Mexico to southern South-America; Ferrucci and Urdampilleta, 2011), with three species that extend into the Paleotropics. The species C. halicacabum is often listed as a cosmopolitan species with a wide distribution. The native status of this species is highly debated and still remains uncertain (Ferrucci and Urdampilleta, 2011; Urdampilleta et al., 2013; Gildenhuys et al., 2013).

The name Cardiospermum is the combination of the Latin words “cardio” meaning heart, and “sperma” meaning seed and refers to the white heart-shaped pattern (pseudohilum) observed on the seeds (USDA-NRCS, 2015). 

Description

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Herbaceous vine, much branched from the base, climbs by means of tendrils and attains 1.5-2 m in length. Stems with 5 longitudinal ribs, glabrous or puberulent; cross section with a single vascular cylinder. Leaves alternate, biternate; leaflets chartaceous, puberulent or sparsely pubescent, the apex obtuse, acute, or acuminate, the base attenuate, the margins lobate or laciniate; terminal leaflet lanceolate or triangular, rhombic or narrowly lanceolate in outline, 2-3.5(5) cm long; lateral leaflets ovate, lanceolate, or oblong in outline, 1-2.5 cm long; rachis and petiole not winged; petioles 2-3 cm long; stipules lanceolate, approximately 5 mm long; tendrils in pairs, spirally twisted, at the end of short axillary axes (aborted inflorescences), from which an inflorescence usually develops. Flowers functionally unisexual, zygomorphic, in axillary racemiform thyrses, shorter than the accompanying leaf. Calyx light green, of 4 unequal sepals, the outer ones approximately 1.2 mm long, the inner ones 3-3.5 mm long. Petals white, obovate, 2.5-3.5 mm long; petaliferous appendages slightly shorter than the petals, fleshy and yellow at the apex, forming a hood that encloses the apex of the glands of the disc; disc unilateral, with 4 rounded or ovoid glands, approximately 0.4 mm long; stamens 8, the filaments unequal, pubescent; ovary trilocular, with one style and 3 stigmas. Capsules brown, pearlike, turbinate-obtriangular or sometimes nearly ellipsoid, 1.5-3 × 2-4 cm, pubescent. Seeds black, shiny, approximately 5 mm in diameter; hilum green when fresh, white when dry, cordate (Acevedo-Rodríguez, 2005; Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2015). 

Plant Type

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Annual
Biennial
Herbaceous
Perennial
Seed propagated
Vine / climber

Distribution

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The native status of C. halicacabum is highly debated and its biogeographical history remains uncertain (Gildenhuys et al., 2013). It is probably native to the Neotropics, but is also distributed in the tropics of the Old World. Currently, C. halicacabum is regarded as being native to South and Central America while its status is questioned in North America (Rojo and Pitargue, 1999; Gildenhuys et al., 2013; USDA-ARS, 2015). Biogeographic analysis by Gildenhuys et al. (2015) gave unclear results for the overall native range, but suggested an alien status in southern Africa.

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 25 Feb 2021
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

AngolaPresentProbably introduced
BotswanaPresentProbably introduced
BurundiPresentProbably introduced
Cabo VerdePresentProbably introduced
EgyptPresentProbably introduced
Equatorial GuineaPresentProbably introduced
EritreaPresentProbably introduced
EswatiniPresentProbably introduced
EthiopiaPresentProbably introduced
GhanaPresentProbably introduced
GuineaPresentProbably introduced
Guinea-BissauPresentProbably introduced
KenyaPresentIntroducedInvasive
LesothoPresentProbably introduced
LiberiaPresentProbably introduced
MadagascarPresentProbably introduced
MalawiPresentProbably introduced
MaliPresentProbably introduced
MauritiusPresent
MozambiquePresentProbably introduced
NamibiaPresentProbably introduced
NigeriaPresentProbably introduced
RwandaPresentProbably introduced
SenegalPresentProbably introduced
SeychellesPresentProbably introduced
Sierra LeonePresentProbably introduced
SomaliaPresentProbably introduced
South AfricaPresent, WidespreadIntroducedInvasiveWidespread principally in the eastern parts of the country
TanzaniaPresentIntroducedInvasive
TogoPresentProbably introduced
UgandaPresentIntroducedInvasive
ZambiaPresentProbably introduced
ZimbabwePresentProbably introduced

Asia

BangladeshPresent
ChinaPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-FujianPresentProbably introduced
-GansuPresentProbably introduced
-GuizhouPresentProbably introduced
-HainanPresentProbably introduced
-HubeiPresentProbably introduced
-SichuanPresentProbably introduced
-YunnanPresentProbably introduced
Hong KongPresentProbably introduced
IndiaPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-JharkhandPresent
-KarnatakaPresent
-KeralaPresent
-MaharashtraPresent
-OdishaPresent
-RajasthanPresent
-Tamil NaduPresent
-Uttar PradeshPresent
IndonesiaPresent
JapanPresentIntroduced
-Bonin IslandsPresentIntroduced
MalaysiaPresent
MaldivesPresent
MyanmarPresent
NepalPresentProbably introduced
OmanPresentProbably introduced
PakistanPresentProbably introduced
PhilippinesPresent
SingaporePresentIntroducedInvasive
Sri LankaPresentProbably introduced
TaiwanPresent
ThailandPresentIntroducedWeed
VietnamPresent
YemenPresentProbably introduced

Europe

BelgiumPresentIntroduced
FrancePresentIntroducedEstablished
GreecePresentIntroduced
SpainPresentIntroducedEstablished

North America

Antigua and BarbudaPresent, WidespreadProbably native
BahamasPresentProbably native
BarbadosPresent, WidespreadProbably native
Cayman IslandsPresentProbably native
Costa RicaPresentNative
CubaPresentIntroducedInvasive
DominicaPresent, WidespreadProbably native
Dominican RepublicPresentProbably native
GrenadaPresent, WidespreadProbably native
GuadeloupePresent, WidespreadProbably native
GuatemalaPresentNative
HaitiPresentProbably native
HondurasPresentNative
JamaicaPresentProbably native
MartiniquePresent, WidespreadProbably native
MexicoPresentNative
MontserratPresent, WidespreadProbably native
Netherlands AntillesPresent, WidespreadProbably native
NicaraguaPresentNative
PanamaPresentNative
Puerto RicoPresentProbably native
Saint Kitts and NevisPresent, WidespreadProbably native
Saint LuciaPresent, WidespreadProbably native
Saint Vincent and the GrenadinesPresent, WidespreadProbably native
Sint MaartenPresentProbably native
Trinidad and TobagoPresentProbably native
United StatesPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-AlabamaPresentIntroducedInvasiveNoxious weed
-ArkansasPresentIntroducedInvasiveNoxious weed
-ConnecticutPresentIntroduced
-DelawarePresent
-FloridaPresentIntroduced
-GeorgiaPresentIntroduced
-HawaiiPresentIntroduced
-IllinoisPresentIntroduced
-IndianaPresentIntroduced
-KansasPresentIntroduced
-KentuckyPresentIntroduced
-LouisianaPresentIntroduced
-MarylandPresent
-MichiganPresentIntroduced
-MississippiPresentIntroduced
-MissouriPresentIntroduced
-New JerseyPresentIntroduced
-North CarolinaPresentIntroducedInvasivePlant pest
-OhioPresentIntroduced
-OklahomaPresentIntroduced
-PennsylvaniaPresentIntroduced
-South CarolinaPresent
-TennesseePresentIntroduced
-TexasPresentIntroducedInvasiveNoxius plant
-VirginiaPresent

Oceania

AustraliaPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-New South WalesPresentIntroducedInvasive
-Northern TerritoryPresentIntroducedInvasive
-QueenslandPresentIntroducedInvasive
-Western AustraliaPresentIntroducedInvasive
Christmas IslandPresentIntroducedInvasive
Cook IslandsPresentIntroducedInvasive
FijiPresent
French PolynesiaPresentIntroducedInvasiveAlso listed as native (PIER, 2015)
GuamPresentIntroduced
New CaledoniaPresentIntroducedInvasive
NiuePresentIntroducedInvasive
Northern Mariana IslandsPresentIntroduced
Papua New GuineaPresent
Solomon IslandsPresentIntroduced
TongaPresentIntroducedInvasive
VanuatuPresent
Wallis and FutunaPresentIntroducedInvasive

South America

ArgentinaPresentNative
BoliviaPresentNativeBeni, Chuquisaca, Cochabamba, La pAz, Sata Cruz
BrazilPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-AcrePresentNative
-AmapaPresentNative
-AmazonasPresentNative
-BahiaPresentNative
-Espirito SantoPresentNative
-MaranhaoPresentNative
-Mato GrossoPresentNative
-Mato Grosso do SulPresentNative
-Minas GeraisPresentNative
-ParaPresentNative
-ParaibaPresentNative
-ParanaPresentNative
-PernambucoPresentNative
-Rio de JaneiroPresentNative
-Rio Grande do SulPresentNative
-RoraimaPresentNative
-Santa CatarinaPresentNative
-Sao PauloPresentNative
-SergipePresentNative
ChilePresentNative
EcuadorPresentNativeAzuay, Carchi, Oro, Guayas, Manabi, Napo, Pichincha, Pastaza
-Galapagos IslandsPresent
French GuianaPresentNative
GuyanaPresentNative
ParaguayPresentNative
PeruPresentNative
SurinamePresentNative
UruguayPresentNative
VenezuelaPresentNative

History of Introduction and Spread

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The ornamental trade of C. halicacabum spans more than 100 years. However, in Australia, it is speculated that C. halicacabum was introduced during James Cook’s second voyage in the 1770’s (Bean, 2007; Harris et al., 2007). In South Africa, the introduction of C. halicacabum occurred approximately 100 years ago (Simelane et al., 2011). In North America, C. halicacabum was reported in the Spontaneous Illinois Vascular Flora before 1922 and was described as abundant in Oklahoma in the 1820’s (Gildenhuys et al., 2013). In Cuba, where this species is listed as introduced and invasive (Oviedo Prieto et al., 2012), it appears in herbarium collections made in 1910 (US National Herbarium).

C. halicacabum also occurs in Asia. In China it is described as a common weed in forest margins, shrublands, grasslands, cultivated areas and wastelands of the east, south and southwest (Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2015) while in India it is a widespread weed. The history of C. halicacabum in these countries is unknown, but it is widely used for medicinal purposes (Subramanyam et al., 2007; Gildenhuys et al., 2013).

Risk of Introduction

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The risk of introduction of C. halicacabum is high. This species has been extensively moved around the world for its medicinal and ornamental uses. C. halicacabum produces inflated balloon shaped fruits which are the main ornamental attraction of this species. Coincidently this trait also contributes to its colonization success, because these balloons can float in seawater and stay viable for long periods of time, facilitating long distance dispersal, even between landmasses (Gildenhuys et al., 2013).

Habitat

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C. halicacabum is often cultivated as an ornamental for its curious papery capsules (Acevedo-Rodríguez, 2005). This species has repeatedly escaped from cultivation and once naturalized it can be found growing in disturbed or open areas, like roadsides and thickets, in pastures, cultivated areas, forest margins, riparian zones, shrublands, and grasslands at low elevations in dry and moist habitats (Wagner et al., 1999; Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2015). In the Galapagos Islands it grows in arid lowlands (McMullen, 1999). 

Habitat List

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CategorySub-CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Terrestrial
Terrestrial ManagedCultivated / agricultural land Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial ManagedCultivated / agricultural land Present, no further details Natural
Terrestrial ManagedDisturbed areas Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial ManagedDisturbed areas Present, no further details Natural
Terrestrial ManagedRail / roadsides Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial ManagedRail / roadsides Present, no further details Natural
Terrestrial ManagedRail / roadsides Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Terrestrial ManagedUrban / peri-urban areas Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial ManagedUrban / peri-urban areas Present, no further details Natural
Terrestrial ManagedUrban / peri-urban areas Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalNatural forests Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalNatural forests Present, no further details Natural
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalNatural grasslands Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalNatural grasslands Present, no further details Natural
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalRiverbanks Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalRiverbanks Present, no further details Natural
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalRocky areas / lava flows Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalRocky areas / lava flows Present, no further details Natural
LittoralCoastal areas Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
LittoralCoastal areas Present, no further details Natural

Hosts/Species Affected

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C. halicacabum is a weed with substantial economic impacts on sugarcane and soyabean plantations (Gildenhuys et al., 2013). 

Host Plants and Other Plants Affected

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Plant nameFamilyContextReferences
Glycine max (soyabean)FabaceaeMain
    SaccharumPoaceaeMain

      Growth Stages

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      Flowering stage, Fruiting stage, Vegetative growing stage

      Biology and Ecology

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      Genetics

      The chromosome number reported for C. halicacabum is 2n = 22 (Hemmer and Morawetz, 1990).

      Reproductive Biology

      C. halicacabum flowers are hermaphrodite and are visited by insects including bees, wasps, flies, and butterflies (PIER, 2015). It can be found flowering and fruiting throughout the year, except for prolonged periods of drought (Rojo and Pitargue, 1999).

      Physiology and Phenology

      C. halicacabum is a perennial vine that can be propagated by seed and cuttings. Seeds germinate at temperatures from 15-40°C with an optimum of 35°C, and taking about 3 weeks. Scarification with concentrated sulphuric acid may facilitate germination. Seedlings and young plants are able to survive flooded, saturated and dry conditions while performing best in intermediate conditions (Gildenhuys et al., 2013).

      In China, C. halicacabum has been recorded flowering in the summer-autumn and fruiting in the autumn-early winter (Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2015). In Puerto Rico, it has been collected in flower and fruit in December and March (Acevedo-Rodríguez, 2005). In North America, it flowers from July to August and seeds ripen from August to October (USDA-NRCS, 2015). In South Africa, this species produces flowers and fruits mainly from January to June (PROTA, 2015).

      Environmental Requirements

      C. halicacabum can be found growing in a wide range of ecological conditions, including wet or seasonal climates, acid and basic soils, and in dry, marshy or periodically flooded places. It prefers sunny places, such as wasteland, roadsides, grassland, scrub, hedges and forest edges, at altitudes up to 1500 m. It cannot grow in shaded areas (Rojo and Pitargue, 1999; Acevedo-Rodríguez, 2005; PROTA, 2015).

      Climate

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      ClimateStatusDescriptionRemark
      Am - Tropical monsoon climate Preferred Tropical monsoon climate ( < 60mm precipitation driest month but > (100 - [total annual precipitation(mm}/25]))
      As - Tropical savanna climate with dry summer Preferred < 60mm precipitation driest month (in summer) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
      Aw - Tropical wet and dry savanna climate Preferred < 60mm precipitation driest month (in winter) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
      BS - Steppe climate Tolerated > 430mm and < 860mm annual precipitation
      Cf - Warm temperate climate, wet all year Tolerated Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, wet all year
      Cs - Warm temperate climate with dry summer Preferred Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry summers
      Cw - Warm temperate climate with dry winter Preferred Warm temperate climate with dry winter (Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry winters)

      Air Temperature

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      Parameter Lower limit Upper limit
      Mean maximum temperature of hottest month (ºC) 36
      Mean minimum temperature of coldest month (ºC) 8

      Soil Tolerances

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      Soil drainage

      • free

      Soil reaction

      • acid
      • alkaline
      • neutral

      Soil texture

      • heavy
      • light
      • medium

      Natural enemies

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      Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
      Cissoanthonomus tuberculipennis Herbivore Seeds not specific
      Phyllachora rimulosa Pathogen All Stages not specific
      Puccinia arechavaletae Pathogen All Stages not specific

      Notes on Natural Enemies

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      In 2003, the South Africa’s Working for Water program launched a research initiative to find biological control agents against C. grandiflorum (Simelane et al., 2011). Eight insects and two fungal agents were identified and put for host specificity testing in South Africa (Simelane et al., 2011). Most are capable of feeding and developing on other Cardiospermum spp. in South Africa, in particular C. halicacabum and C. corindum (McKay et al., 2010). Three promising agents were identified:

      • a seedfeeding weevil (Curculionidae: Cissoanthonomus tuberculipennis),
      • a fruit-galling midge (Cecidomyiidae: Contarinia spp.)
      • a rust fungus Puccinia arechavaletae

      Despite concerns about potential non-target impacts of candidate control agents initially preventing the release of these agents (Gildenhuys et al., 2013), approval was later given for release of the weevil C. tuberculipennis. Gildenhuys et al. (2015) suggested that while monitoring of the native Cardiospermum species C. corindum and C. pechuelli for non-target impacts of the weevil was strongly recommended, in light of the introduced status of C. halicacabum then any possible impacts on this species were a lesser concern from the standpoint of native species protection.

      Means of Movement and Dispersal

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      C. halicacabum spreads by seeds, which are dispersed by birds, wind and water. Fruits can float on both seawater and freshwater and therefore they can be dispersed by ocean and water currents.

      Long-distance introductions of this species are mainly the result of human activities (Rojo and Pitargue, 1999; Gildenhuys et al., 2013). It can also be dispersed as a potential seed contaminant and in dumped garden waste (USDA-ARS, 2015). 

      Pathway Causes

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      CauseNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
      DisturbanceOften common along roadsides and disturbed areas Yes Yes Acevedo-Rodríguez, 2005
      Escape from confinement or garden escapeCan escape from cultivated areas Yes Yes Gildenhuys et al., 2013
      Medicinal useMedicinal plant Yes Yes Gildenhuys et al., 2013
      Ornamental purposesWidely commercialized as ornamental Yes Yes Gildenhuys et al., 2013

      Pathway Vectors

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      VectorNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
      Debris and waste associated with human activitiesSeeds Yes Yes Gildenhuys et al., 2013
      WaterFruits can float in seawater Yes Gildenhuys et al., 2013
      WindSeeds Yes Yes Gildenhuys et al., 2013

      Impact Summary

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      CategoryImpact
      Economic/livelihood Positive and negative
      Environment (generally) Positive and negative
      Human health Positive and negative

      Economic Impact

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      C. halicacabum is a major weed with substantial economic impacts on sugarcane and soyabean plantations (Gildenhuys et al., 2013). It is also listed as an environmental weed in Australia and South Africa where dense infestations can impede access, increase the risk and intensity of fires and harbour pests and diseases (Invasive Species South Africa, 2015; Weeds of Australia, 2015). 

      Environmental Impact

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      C. halicacabum is globally listed as an aggressive invasive plant species. It is a “transformer weed” that grows forming a dense and thick curtain of stems and leaves which excludes light and inhibits photosynthesis in the native plants below (McKay et al. 2010; Weeds of Australia, 2015). The weight of this vegetation can also contribute to canopy collapse and ecosystem destruction. It invades forest margins, woodland, grassland, riverbanks, floodplains and rocky sites. Dense infestations can also increase the risk and intensity of fires, altering the successional process in natural habitats (Gildenhuys et al., 2013; Weeds of Australia, 2015).

      Social Impact

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      Because C. halicacabum contains potentially toxic compounds such as saponins, cyanolipids and cyanogenic glycosides, it can be toxic for humans (Rojo and Pitargue, 1999).

      Risk and Impact Factors

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      Invasiveness
      • Invasive in its native range
      • Proved invasive outside its native range
      • Has a broad native range
      • Abundant in its native range
      • Highly adaptable to different environments
      • Is a habitat generalist
      • Tolerates, or benefits from, cultivation, browsing pressure, mutilation, fire etc
      • Pioneering in disturbed areas
      • Highly mobile locally
      • Benefits from human association (i.e. it is a human commensal)
      • Long lived
      • Fast growing
      • Has high reproductive potential
      • Has propagules that can remain viable for more than one year
      • Reproduces asexually
      Impact outcomes
      • Ecosystem change/ habitat alteration
      • Loss of medicinal resources
      • Modification of fire regime
      • Modification of successional patterns
      • Monoculture formation
      • Negatively impacts agriculture
      • Negatively impacts forestry
      • Reduced amenity values
      • Reduced native biodiversity
      • Threat to/ loss of native species
      Impact mechanisms
      • Competition - monopolizing resources
      • Competition - shading
      • Competition - smothering
      • Rapid growth
      • Rooting
      Likelihood of entry/control
      • Highly likely to be transported internationally accidentally
      • Highly likely to be transported internationally deliberately

      Uses

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      C. halicacabum is cultivated as an ornamental and medicinal plant (PROTA, 2015). The root is the most important plant part used for medicinal purposes. In South-East Asia it is considered to be a diaphoretic, diuretic, emetic, antipyretic and purgative. Apart from its medicinal uses, C. halicacabum is eaten as a vegetable, the stems serve to make baskets and the seeds are used as beads. An edible oil can be obtained from the seed (Rojo and Pitargue, 1999).

      Uses List

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      Animal feed, fodder, forage

      • Forage

      Environmental

      • Amenity

      General

      • Botanical garden/zoo
      • Ornamental

      Human food and beverage

      • Vegetable

      Materials

      • Baskets
      • Beads
      • Oils

      Medicinal, pharmaceutical

      • Traditional/folklore

      Similarities to Other Species/Conditions

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      C. halicacabum is very similar to the closely related species Cardiospermum grandiflorum. These two species can be distinguished by the following differences (Weeds of Australia, 2015):

      • Cardiospermum halicacabum has relatively small leaves (4-12 cm long) and finely hairy to almost hairless younger stems. Its flowers (3-4 mm long) and papery capsules (1-3 cm long) are also relatively small; nectary glands 4, ovoid, ca. 0.4 mm long.
      • Cardiospermum grandiflorum has relatively large leaves (6-16 cm long) and densely hairy younger stems. Its flowers (6-11 mm long) and papery capsules (5-6.5 cm long) are also relatively large; nectary glands 2, corniform, 1.2-2 mm long.

      Prevention and Control

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      Due to the variable regulations around (de)registration of pesticides, your national list of registered pesticides or relevant authority should be consulted to determine which products are legally allowed for use in your country when considering chemical control. Pesticides should always be used in a lawful manner, consistent with the product's label.

      Small Cardiospermum invasions can be controlled using manual removal or burning (Subramanyam et al., 2007). Manual removal involves cutting plants at the base, enabling the top part to die off, after which roots are dug out which is very labour intensive (McKay et al. 2010).

      Chemical Control

      Chemical control of larger Cardiospermum infestations includes treatment with paraquat, glufosinate-ammonium, lactofen, carfentrazone-ethyl, sulfentrazone, glyphosate or 2, 4-dichloraphenoxy acetic acid (Subramanyam et al., 2007). However, the use of chemical control could potentially be problematic due to the typical proximity of invasions to waterways making environmental contamination a threat (Simelane et al., 2011). Another problem in the management of Cardiospermum invasions is the persistent seedbank. Therefore chemical control should be repeated until control (Gildenhuys et al., 2013). 

      References

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      Acevedo-Rodríguez P, 2005. Vines and climbing plants of Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands. Contributions from the United States National Herbarium, 51:483 pp.

      Acevedo-Rodríguez P; Strong MT, 2012. Catalogue of the Seed Plants of the West Indies. Smithsonian Contributions to Botany, 98:1192 pp. Washington DC, USA: Smithsonian Institution. http://botany.si.edu/Antilles/WestIndies/catalog.htm

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      Broome R; Sabir K; Carrington S, 2007. Plants of the Eastern Caribbean. Online database. Barbados: University of the West Indies. http://ecflora.cavehill.uwi.edu/index.html

      Chong KY; Tan HTW; Corlett RT, 2009. A checklist of the total vascular plant flora of Singapore: native, naturalised and cultivated species. Singapore: Raffles Museum of Biodiversity Research, National University of Singapore, 273 pp. http://lkcnhm.nus.edu.sg/nus/pdf/PUBLICATION/LKCNH%20Museum%20Books/LKCNHM%20Books/flora_of_singapore_tc.pdf

      DAISIE, 2015. Delivering Alien Invasive Species Inventories for Europe. European Invasive Alien Species Gateway. www.europe-aliens.org/default.do

      Ferrucci MS; Urdampilleta JD, 2011. Cardiospermum bahianum (Sapindaceae: Paullinieae), a new species from Bahia, Brazil. Systematic Botany, 36(4):950-956. http://www.bioone.org/doi/abs/10.1600/036364411X604967

      Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2015. Flora of China. St. Louis, Missouri and Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden and Harvard University Herbaria. http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2

      Florence J; Chevillotte H; Ollier C; Meyer J-Y, 2013. Base de données botaniques Nadeaud de l'Herbier de la Polynésie Française (PAP) (Botanical database of the Nadeaud Herbarium of French Polynesia). http://www.herbier-tahiti.pf

      Foxcroft LC; Henderson L; Nichols GR; Martin BW, 2003. A revised list of alien plants for the Kruger National Park. Koedoe, 46(2):21-44.

      Funk V; Hollowell T; Berry P; Kelloff C; Alexander SN, 2007. Checklist of the plants of the Guiana Shield (Venezuela: Amazonas, Bolivar, Delta Amacuro; Guyana, Surinam, French Guiana). Contributions from the United States National Herbarium, 584 pp.

      Gildenhuys E; Ellis AG; Carroll SP; Roux JJle, 2013. The ecology, biogeography, history and future of two globally important weeds: Cardiospermum halicacabum Linn. and C. grandiflorum sw. NeoBiota, No.19:45-65. http://www.pensoft.net/journals/neobiota/article/5279/the-ecology-biogeography-history-and-future-of-two-globally-important-weeds-cardiospermum-halicacabum-linn-and-c-grandif

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      McKay F; Oleiro M; Fourie A; Simelane D, 2010. Natural enemies of balloon vine Cardiospermum grandiflorum (Sapindaceae) in Argentina and their potential use as biological control agents in South Africa. International Journal of Tropical Insect Science, 30(2):67-76. http://journals.cambridge.org/action/displayJournal?jid=JTI

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      Morales Quirós JF, 2015. Sapindaceae. Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden, 131:37-95. [Manual de Plantas de Costa Rica. Vol. VIII.]

      Oviedo Prieto R; Herrera Oliver P; Caluff MG, et al. , 2012. National list of invasive and potentially invasive plants in the Republic of Cuba - 2011. (Lista nacional de especies de plantas invasoras y potencialmente invasoras en la República de Cuba - 2011). Bissea: Boletín sobre Conservación de Plantas del Jardín Botánico Nacional de Cuba, 6(Special Issue 1):22-96.

      PIER, 2015. Pacific Islands Ecosystems at Risk. Honolulu, USA: HEAR, University of Hawaii. http://www.hear.org/pier/index.html

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      Rojo JP; Pitargue FC, 1999. Cardiospermum halicacabum L. In: Plant Resources of South-East Asia No. 12(1): Medicinal and poisonous plants 1 [ed. by Padua, L. S. de \Bunyapraphatsara, N. \Lemmens, R. H. M. J.]. Leiden, The Netherlands: Backhuys Publisher, 176-178.

      Simelane DO; Fourie A; Mawela KV, 2011. Prospective agents for the biological control of Cardiospermum grandiflorum Sw. (Sapindaceae) in South Africa. African Entomology, 19(2):269-277. http://journals.sabinet.co.za/essa

      Simelane DO; Mawela KV; Mc Kay F; Oleiro M, 2014. Field and laboratory studies to determine the suitability of Cissoanthonomus tuberculipennis (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) for release against Cardiospermum grandiflorum (Sapindaceae) in South Africa. Biocontrol Science and Technology, 24(7):734-750. http://www.tandfonline.com/loi/cbst20

      Somner GV; Ferrucci MS; Acevedo-Rodríguez P, 2015. Cardiospermum in Lista de Espécies da Flora do Brasil (Cardiospermum in the list of species of the flora of Brazil). Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: Jardim Botânico do Rio de Janeiro. http://floradobrasil.jbrj.gov.br/jabot/floradobrasil/FB20884

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      Space JC; Flynn T, 2001. Report to the Kingdom of Tonga on invasive plant species of environmental concern. Institute of Pacific Islands Forestry, Honolulu, Hawaii, USA: USDA Forest Service.

      Space JC; Waterhouse BM; Newfield M; Bull C, 2004. Report to the Government of Niue and the United Nations Development Programme: Invasive plant species on Niue following Cyclone Heta. 80 pp. [UNDP NIU/98/G31 - Niue Enabling Activity.] http://www.hear.org/pier/reports/niue_report_2004.htm

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      Distribution References

      Acevedo-Rodríguez P, Strong M T, 2012. Catalogue of the Seed Plants of the West Indies. Washington, DC, USA: Smithsonian Institution. 1192 pp. http://botany.si.edu/Antilles/WestIndies/catalog.htm

      Anon, 1999. Catalogue of the vascular plants of Ecuador. [ed. by Jørgensen P M, León-Yànez S]. Missouri, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden. viii + 1182 pp.

      BioNET-EAFRINET, 2015. East African Network for Taxonomy. In: Online Key and Fact Sheets for Invasive plants, http://keys.lucidcentral.org/keys/v3/eafrinet/weeds/key/weeds/Media/Html/index.htm

      Broome R, Sabir K, Carrington S, 2007. Plants of the Eastern Caribbean., Barbados: University of the West Indies. http://ecflora.cavehill.uwi.edu/index.html

      CABI, Undated. CABI Compendium: Status inferred from regional distribution. Wallingford, UK: CABI

      Chong KY, Tan HTW, Corlett RT, 2009. A checklist of the total vascular plant flora of Singapore: native, naturalised and cultivated species., Singapore, Raffles Museum of Biodiversity Research, National University of Singapore. 273 pp. http://lkcnhm.nus.edu.sg/nus/pdf/PUBLICATION/LKCNH%20Museum%20Books/LKCNHM%20Books/flora_of_singapore_tc.pdf

      DAISIE, 2015. Delivering Alien Invasive Species Inventories for Europe. http://www.europe-aliens.org/

      Devi M R, Madhavan S, Baskaran A, Thangaratham T, 2015. Ethno medicinal aspects of weeds from paddy field in Thiruvarur district, Tamil Nadu, India. World Journal of Pharmaceutical Research. 4 (11), 1909-1920. http://www.wjpr.net/dashboard/abstract_id/4153

      EPPO, 2020. EPPO Global database. In: EPPO Global database, Paris, France: EPPO. https://gd.eppo.int/

      Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2015. Flora of China., St. Louis, Missouri; Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden and Harvard University Herbaria. http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2

      Florence J, Chevillotte H, Ollier C, Meyer JY, 2013. Botanical database of the Nadeaud Herbarium of French Polynesia. (Base de données botaniques Nadeaud de l'Herbier de la Polynésie Française (PAP))., http://www.herbier-tahiti.pf

      Foxcroft L C, Henderson L, Nichols G R, Martin B W, 2003. A revised list of alien plants for the Kruger National Park. Koedoe. 46 (2), 21-44.

      Funk V, Hollowell T, Berry P, Kelloff C, Alexander S N, 2007. Contributions from the United States National Herbarium, Washington, USA: Department of Systematic Biology - Botany, National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution. 55, 584 pp.

      India Biodiversity Portal, 2016. Online Portal of India Biodiversity., http://indiabiodiversity.org/species/list

      Jørgensen PM, Nee MH, Beck SG, 2014. (Catálogo de las plantas vasculares de Bolivia). In: Monographs in systematic botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden, 127 1-1744.

      Kato H, 2007. Herbarium records of Makino Herbarium., Tokyo Metropolitan University.

      MacKee H S, 1994. Catalogue des plantes introduites et cultivées en Nouvelle-Calédonie. Paris, France: Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle. unpaginated.

      Mito T, Uesugi T, 2004. Invasive alien species in Japan: the status quo and new regulations for prevention of their adverse effects. In: Global Environmental Research, 8 (2) 171-191.

      Morales Quirós JF, 2015. Sapindaceae. Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden. In: Manual de Plantas de Costa Rica. Vol. VIII, 131 37-95.

      Nayak S K, Satapathy K B, 2015. Diversity, uses and origin of invasive alien plants in Dhenkanal district of Odisha, India. International Research Journal of Biological Sciences. 4 (2), 21-27. http://www.isca.in/IJBS/Archive/v4/i2/4.ISCA-IRJBS-2014-223.pdf

      Oviedo Prieto R, Herrera Oliver P, Caluff M G, et al, 2012. National list of invasive and potentially invasive plants in the Republic of Cuba - 2011. (Lista nacional de especies de plantas invasoras y potencialmente invasoras en la República de Cuba - 2011). Bissea: Boletín sobre Conservación de Plantas del Jardín Botánico Nacional de Cuba. 6 (Special Issue No. 1), 22-96.

      PIER, 2015. Pacific Islands Ecosystems at Risk., Honolulu, USA: HEAR, University of Hawaii. http://www.hear.org/pier/index.html

      PROTA, 2015. PROTA4U web database., [ed. by Grubben GJH, Denton OA]. Wageningen, Netherlands: Plant Resources of Tropical Africa. http://www.prota4u.info

      Rojo JP, Pitargue FC, 1999. (Cardiospermum halicacabum L). In: Plant Resources of South-East Asia : Medicinal and poisonous plants 1, 12 (1) [ed. by Padua LS, de Bunyapraphatsara N, Lemmens RHMJ]. Leiden, The Netherlands: Backhuys Publisher. 176-178.

      Somner GV, Ferrucci MS, Acevedo-Rodríguez P, 2015. Cardiospermum in the list of species of the flora of Brazil. (Cardiospermum in Lista de Espécies da Flora do Brasil)., Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: Jardim Botânico do Rio de Janeiro. http://floradobrasil.jbrj.gov.br/jabot/floradobrasil/FB20884

      Space J, Flynn T, 2002. Report to the Government of the Cook Islands on Invasive Plant Species of Environmental Concern., Honolulu, USA: USDA Forest Service, Pacific Southwest Research Station, Institute of Pacific Islands Forestry. 146.

      Space JC, Flynn T, 2001. Report to the Kingdom of Tonga on invasive plant species of environmental concern., Honolulu, Hawaii, USA: Institute of Pacific Islands Forestry, USDA Forest Service.

      Space JC, Waterhouse BM, Newfield M, Bull C, 2004. Report to the Government of Niue and the United Nations Development Programme: Invasive plant species on Niue following Cyclone Heta. In: UNDP NIU/98/G31 - Niue Enabling Activity, 80 pp. http://www.hear.org/pier/reports/niue_report_2004.htm

      Tsai JingFu, Hsieh YiXuan, Rédei D, 2013. The soapberry bug, Jadera haematoloma (Insecta, Hemiptera, Rhopalidae): first Asian record, with a review of bionomics. ZooKeys. 1-41. http://www.pensoft.net/journals/zookeys/article/4695/the-soapberry-bug-jadera-haematoloma-insecta-hemiptera-rhopalidae-first-asian-record-with-a-review-of-bionomics

      USDA-ARS, 2015. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Online Database. Beltsville, Maryland, USA: National Germplasm Resources Laboratory. https://npgsweb.ars-grin.gov/gringlobal/taxon/taxonomysimple.aspx

      USDA-NRCS, 2015. The PLANTS Database. Greensboro, North Carolina, USA: National Plant Data Team. https://plants.sc.egov.usda.gov

      Wagner W L, Herbst D R, Sohmer S H, 1999. Manual of the flowering plants of Hawai'i, Vols. 1 & 2. Honolulu, USA: University of Hawai'i Press/Bishop Museum Press. 1918 + [1] pp.

      Waterhouse D F, 1993. The major arthropod pests and weeds of agriculture in Southeast Asia. Canberra, Australia: ACIAR. v + 141 pp.

      Weeds of Australia, 2015. Weeds of Australia, Biosecurity Queensland Edition., http://keyserver.lucidcentral.org/weeds/data/03030800-0b07-490a-8d04-0605030c0f01/media/Html/search.html?zoom_query=

      Whistler W A, 1988. Checklist of the weed flora of Western Polynesia. An annotated list of the weed species of Samoa, Tonga, Niue, and Wallis and Futuna, along with the earliest dates of collection and the local names. In: Technical Paper, South Pacific Commission, 69 pp.

      Contributors

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      10/12/15 Original text by:

      Julissa Rojas-Sandoval, Department of Botany-Smithsonian NMNH, Washington DC, USA

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