Coccinia grandis (scarlet-fruited ivy gourd)
- Summary of Invasiveness
- Taxonomic Tree
- Plant Type
- Distribution Table
- History of Introduction and Spread
- Habitat List
- Natural enemies
- Means of Movement and Dispersal
- Pathway Causes
- Impact Summary
- Economic Impact
- Environmental Impact
- Social Impact
- Risk and Impact Factors
- Uses List
- Prevention and Control
- Distribution Maps
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PicturesTop of page
IdentityTop of page
Preferred Scientific Name
- Coccinia grandis (L.) Voigt
Preferred Common Name
- scarlet-fruited ivy gourd
Other Scientific Names
- Bryonia acerifolia D.Dietr.
- Bryonia alceifolia Willd.
- Bryonia barbata Buch.-Ham. ex Cogn.
- Bryonia grandis L.
- Bryonia sinuosa Wall.
- Cephalandra grandis Kurz
- Cephalandra indica (Wight & Arn.) Naudin
- Cephalandra moghadd (Asch.) Broun & Massey
- Cephalandra schimperi Naudin
- Coccinia cordifolia Cogn.
- Coccinia grandis var. wightiana (M.Roem.) Greb.
- Coccinia helenae Buscal. & Muschl.
- Coccinia indica Wight & Arn.
- Coccinia loureiriana M.Roem.
- Coccinia moghadd (J.F.Gmel.) Asch.
- Coccinia moimoi M.Roem.
- Coccinia palmatisecta Kotschy
- Coccinia schimperi Naudin
- Coccinia wightiana M.Roem.
- Cucumis pavel Kostel.
- Cucurbita dioica Roxb. ex Wight & Arn.
- Momordica bicolor Blume
International Common Names
- English: ivy gourd; kovai fruit; little gourd; scarlet gourd; tindora
- Spanish: pepino cimarrón
- Chinese: hong gua
Local Common Names
- Bangladesh: telakucha
- Germany: Scharlachranke; Tindola
- India: ban-kundri (Oriya); bimbika (Sanskrit); donda kaya (Telugu); kova (Malayalam); koval (Malayalam); kundree; kundru (Hindi); kunduru (Hindi); tindori; tondikay (Kannada); tondli (Marathi)
- Malaysia/Peninsular Malaysia: pepasan
- Marshall Islands: kiuri awai
- Micronesia, Federated states of: aipikohrd (Pohnpei)
- Pakistan: kanduri (Urdu); kundur (Urdu)
- Sweden: scharlakansgurka
- Tonga: kiukamapa ae initia
- COCGR (Coccinia grandis)
Summary of InvasivenessTop of page
The perennial vine C. grandis is originally native to East Africa and has been introduced to Australia, the Caribbean, southern USA and the Pacific region. It grows aggressivelyand can smother and kill native vegetation, including mature trees. It is particularly invasive in Saipan and Guam (Englberger, 2009).
Taxonomic TreeTop of page
- Domain: Eukaryota
- Kingdom: Plantae
- Phylum: Spermatophyta
- Subphylum: Angiospermae
- Class: Dicotyledonae
- Order: Violales
- Family: Cucurbitaceae
- Genus: Coccinia
- Species: Coccinia grandis
DescriptionTop of page
C. grandis is a dioecious, perennial, herbaceous vine that can grow between 9 and 28 m long. It has glabrous stems, an extensive tuberous root system and axillary tendrils.
The alternate, simple leaves have a broadly ovate, 5-lobed, 5-9 by 4-9 cm. The flowers are white, star-shaped with 5 petals. The fruit is a smooth, bright red, ovoid to ellipsoid berry, 5-7.1 cm long.
Plant TypeTop of page
Vine / climber
DistributionTop of page
C. grandis is originally native to north-central East Africa, but also grows wild in the Indo-Malayan region. It has been introduced to Australia, the Pacific region, the Caribbean and southern United States (Muniappan et al., 2009).
Distribution TableTop of page
The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.Last updated: 25 Feb 2021
|Continent/Country/Region||Distribution||Last Reported||Origin||First Reported||Invasive||Reference||Notes|
|Central African Republic||Present||Native|
|Congo, Democratic Republic of the||Present||Native|
|China||Present||Native||Thickets on mountain slopes and in forests; 100-1100 m|
|India||Present||Present based on regional distribution.|
|Saint Lucia||Present||Introduced||Invasive||Covering indigenous vegetation in Babonneau; risk in disturbed and burnt habitats|
|United States||Present||Introduced||Invasive||Invasive and cultivated on Sand Island, Midway Atoll|
|-Hawaii||Present||Introduced||Invasive||Big Island, Lana, Maui and Oahu Islands|
|Federated States of Micronesia||Present||Introduced||Invasive||Cultivated on Pohnpei|
|Fiji||Present||Introduced||Invasive||Invasive on Ovalu and Viti Levu Islands|
|Marshall Islands||Present||Introduced||Cultivated on Majuro Atoll|
|Northern Mariana Islands||Present||Introduced||Invasive||Saipan|
|Papua New Guinea||Present||Native|
|Samoa||Present||Introduced||Cultivated on Upolu Island|
|Tonga||Present||Introduced||Invasive||Cultivated on Eua and Tongatapu Islands|
|United States Minor Outlying Islands|
History of Introduction and SpreadTop of page
C. grandis has been introduced to Asia, Australia, the Pacific region, the Caribbean and southern United States, primarily as a food crop (Muniappan et al., 2009).
HabitatTop of page
Habitat ListTop of page
ClimateTop of page
|Af - Tropical rainforest climate||Preferred||> 60mm precipitation per month|
Natural enemiesTop of page
|Natural enemy||Type||Life stages||Specificity||References||Biological control in||Biological control on|
|Acythopeus burkhartorum||Herbivore||Adults||to species||Muniappan et al. (2009)||Hawaii|
|Acythopeus cocciniae||Herbivore||Adults/Larvae||to species||Muniappan et al. (2009)||Hawaii|
|Melittia oedipus||Herbivore||Larvae||to species||Muniappan et al. (2009)||Hawaii|
Means of Movement and DispersalTop of page
C. grandis can be spread by its seeds, which can be carried by birds, rodents and possibly pigs. It can also be spread by its tuberous roots and soil movement (Englberger, 2009). Stems of C. grandis readily strike roots at nodes when they come into contact with soil (Muniappan et al., 2009).
The plant is used in medicine and as food and so is often deliberately introduced by humans (Englberger, 2009). This has accounted for much of the long distance dispersal of C. grandis.
Pathway CausesTop of page
Impact SummaryTop of page
Economic ImpactTop of page
Adapted from Muniappan et al. (2009):
As well as covering agricultural areas, C. grandis hosts a number of insect species that are known to attack several commercially important Cucurbitaceae species. These insects include: Diaphania indica (Saunders) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), Aulacophora spp. (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett) (Diptera: Tephritidae), Aphis gossypii Glover (Hemiptera: Aphididae), Liriomyza spp. (Diptera: Agromyzidae), Leptoglossus australis (Fabricius) (Hemiptera: Coreidae) and Bemisia spp. (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae).
Environmental ImpactTop of page
C. grandis grows aggressively can smother and kill native vegetation, including mature trees. In Hawaii, where it is naturalized, it quickly spreads through disturbed sites, smothering both trees and understory vegetation (Muniappan et al., 2009).
Social ImpactTop of page
Risk and Impact FactorsTop of page
- Proved invasive outside its native range
- Has a broad native range
- Pioneering in disturbed areas
- Fast growing
UsesTop of page
C. grandis is used in cooking and medicine. The immature fruit and shoot tips are used in Asian cooking (Muniappan et al., 2009), and the fruit is eaten in India and Ethiopia (Addis, 2013; Rani et al., 2013). C. grandis is commonly used as a wild vegetable in rural areas of Kannauj districts in Uttar Pradesh, India (Kumar, 2013). The plant is high in protein (Addis, 2013).
C. grandis is reported to have a wide range of medicinal properties. Pekamwar et al. (2013) reported C. grandis to have ‘analgesic, antipyretic, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, antiulcer, antidiabetic, antioxidant, hypoglycemic, hepatoprotective, antimalarial, antidyslipidemic, anticancer, antitussive [and] mutagenic’ properties. Very low concentrations of crude extract of C. grandis were shown to have an inhibitory effect on the cervical cancer cell line HeLa (Varalakshmi, 2012).
Additionally, C. grandis fruit mucilage was shown to reduce water turbidity by 77.67% in a study by Gaurand and Punita (2012).
Uses ListTop of page
- Landscape improvement
Human food and beverage
- Source of medicine/pharmaceutical
Prevention and ControlTop of page
Due to the variable regulations around (de)registration of pesticides, your national list of registered pesticides or relevant authority should be consulted to determine which products are legally allowed for use in your country when considering chemical control. Pesticides should always be used in a lawful manner, consistent with the product's label.
Pulling plants and harvesting the underground tubers can be effective if done repeatedly for an extended period (Englberger, 2009). Cutting and slashing is less likely to be effective as C. grandis can regrow from any leftover stems and stubble; proper disposal of plant parts following mechanical removal is therefore essential (Muniappan et al., 2009). Additionally, C. grandis’ habit of growing over other plants makes it difficult to cut it without also damaging the plants it has overgrown.
Triclopyr can be used as a foliar spray (Englberger, 2009), and in Hawaii basal bark applications of 2,4-D or triclopyr have been recommended (Muniappan et al., 2009). However, the overgrowing habit of the vines means that chemical sprays are also likely to affect non-target plants, and finding basal stems in dense stands of C. grandis is difficult (Muniappan et al., 2009).
Three natural enemies of C. grandis have been identified as suitable biological control agents: the stem-boring moth Melittia oedipus Oberthur (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae); the leaf-mining weevil Acythopeus cocciniae O’Brien and Pakaluk (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) and the weevil Acythopeus burkhartorum O’Brien and Pakaluk (Muniappan et al., 2009).
M. oeidipus and A. cocciniae have significantly impacted the population of C. grandis in Hawaii, whereas A. burkhartorum has had very little or no effect. The effectiveness of A. cocciniae in Guam and Saipan was probably limited by parasitism. For more information, see Muniappan et al. (2009).
In Guam, C. grandis was controlled with A. burkhartorum and M. oedipus (Reddy et al., 2013).
ReferencesTop of page
Addis GG; Asfaw Z; Singh V; Woldu Z; Baidu-Forson JJ; Bhattacharya S, 2013. Dietary values of wild and semi-wild edible plants in southern Ethiopia. African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development, 13(2):7485-7503. http://www.ajfand.net/Volume13/No2/Addis11125.pdf
Akhilesh Kumar, 2013. Ethnobotanical study of wild vegetables used by rural communities of Kannauj district, Uttar Pradesh, India. Emirates Journal of Food and Agriculture, 25(10):760-766. http://ejfa.info/index.php/ejfa/article/view/16403/8845
Englberger K, 2009. Invasive weeds of Pohnpei: A guide for identification and public awareness. Conservation Society of Pohnpei, 29 pp.
Graveson RS, 2012. Survey of invasive alien plant species on Gros Piton, Saint Lucia. Project No. GFL / 2328- 2713-4A86, GF-1030-09-03. Project No. GFL / 2328- 2713-4A86, GF-1030-09-03, GFL / 2328- 2713-4A86, GF-1030-09-03. Catsries, Saint Lucia: Department of Forestry.
Krauss U; Seier M; Stewart J, 2008. Mitigating the Threats of Invasive Alien Species in the Insular Caribbean. Report on Project Development Grant (PPG) Stakeholder Meeting, GFL-2328-2740-4995. Piarco, Trinidad and Tobago: GEF, UNEP, CABI Caribbean and Latin America, 43 pp.
Muniappan R; Reddy GVP; Raman A, 2009. Coccinia grandis (L.) Voigt (Cucurbitaceae). In: Biological Control of Tropical Weeds using Arthropods [ed. by Muniappan R, Reddy GVP Raman A]. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 175-18.
Ocvirk S; Kistler M; Khan S; Talukder SH; Hauner H, 2013. Traditional medicinal plants used for the treatment of diabetes in rural and urban areas of Dhaka, Bangladesh - an ethnobotanical survey. Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine, 9(43):(24 June 2013). http://www.ethnobiomed.com/content/pdf/1746-4269-9-43.pdf
Parmar Gaurang; Parikh Punita, 2012. An evalution of turbidity removal from industrial waste by natural coagulents obtained from some plants. Journal of Environmental Research and Development, 7(2A):1043-1046. http://www.jerad.org/archiveabstract.php?vol=7&issue=2A
Pekamwar SS; Kalyankar TM; Kokate SS, 2013. Pharmacological activities of Coccinia grandis: review. Journal of Applied Pharmaceutical Science, 3(5):114-119. http://japsonline.com/admin/php/uploads/908_pdf.pdf
PIER, 2013. Pacific Islands Ecosystems at Risk. Honolulu, Hawaii, USA: HEAR, University of Hawaii. http://www.hear.org/pier/index.html
Rani TS; Abirami CVK; Alagusundaram K, 2013. Studies on respiration rates in Coccinia grandis (ivy gourd) at different temperatures. Journal of Food Processing and Technology, 4(4):217. http://www.omicsonline.org/2157-7110/2157-7110-4-217.php?aid=11885
Reddy GVP; Remolona JE; Legdesog CM; McNassar GJ, 2013. Effective biological control programs for invasive plants on Guam. In: Proceedings of the XIII International Symposium on Biological Control of Weeds, Waikoloa, Hawaii, USA, 11-16 September, 2011 [ed. by Wu Y, Johnson T, Sing S, Raghu S, Wheeler G, Pratt P, Warner K, Center T, Goolsby J, Reardon R]. Hilo, USA: USDA Forest Service, Pacific Southwest Research Station, Institute of Pacific Islands Forestry, 224-229.
USDA-ARS, 2013. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Online Database. Beltsville, Maryland, USA: National Germplasm Resources Laboratory. https://npgsweb.ars-grin.gov/gringlobal/taxon/taxonomysearch.aspx
CABI, Undated. CABI Compendium: Status inferred from regional distribution. Wallingford, UK: CABI
CABI, Undated a. CABI Compendium: Status as determined by CABI editor. Wallingford, UK: CABI
Devi M R, Madhavan S, Baskaran A, Thangaratham T, 2015. Ethno medicinal aspects of weeds from paddy field in Thiruvarur district, Tamil Nadu, India. World Journal of Pharmaceutical Research. 4 (11), 1909-1920. http://www.wjpr.net/dashboard/abstract_id/4153
Englberger K, 2009. Invasive weeds of Pohnpei: A guide for identification and public awareness., Conservation Society of Pohnpei. 29 pp.
Graveson RS, 2012. Survey of invasive alien plant species on Gros Piton, Saint Lucia. Project No. GFL / 2328- 2713-4A86, GF-1030-09-03. Project No. GFL / 2328- 2713-4A86, GF-1030-09-03, GFL / 2328- 2713-4A86, GF-1030-09-03., Castries, St. Lucia: Department of Forestry.
Jiji T, Anitha N, Aswathy Asokan, Akhila G V, 2016. Diversity of long horned beetle (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) pests in southern Kerala. Pest Management in Horticultural Ecosystems. 22 (1), 40-44. http://aapmhe.in/index.php/pmhe/article/view/702/655
Krauss U, Seier M, Stewart J, 2008. Mitigating the Threats of Invasive Alien Species in the Insular Caribbean. In: Report on Project Development Grant (PPG) Stakeholder Meeting, Piarco, Trinidad and Tobago: GEF, UNEP, CABI Caribbean and Latin America. 43 pp.
Lokeshwari D, Kumar N K K, Manjunatha H, 2015. Molecular diversity of the Aphis gossypii (Hemiptera: Aphididae): a potential vector of potyviruses (Potyviridae). Annals of the Entomological Society of America. 108 (4), 621-633. DOI:10.1093/aesa/sav034
Patil K P, Awadhiya G K, Pandey S R, 2017. Occurrence of powdery mildew on some plants from Raipur of Chhattisgarh state. Trends in Biosciences. 10 (32), 6818-6829. http://trendsinbiosciencesjournal.com/upload/23-8868_(K_P__Patila).pdf
PIER, 2013. Pacific Islands Ecosystems at Risk., Honolulu, Hawaii, USA: HEAR, University of Hawaii. http://www.hear.org/pier/index.html
Sunpapao A, 2014. Association of 'Candidatus Phytoplasma cynodontis' with the yellow leaf disease of ivy gourd in Thailand. Australasian Plant Disease Notes. 9 (1), 127. http://rd.springer.com/article/10.1007/s13314-014-0127-0 DOI:10.1007/s13314-014-0127-0
USDA-ARS, 2013. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Online Database. Beltsville, Maryland, USA: National Germplasm Resources Laboratory. https://npgsweb.ars-grin.gov/gringlobal/taxon/taxonomysimple.aspx
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