Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Canavalia ensiformis
(jack bean)

Ventosa Febles E A, 2017. Canavalia ensiformis (jack bean). Invasive Species Compendium. Wallingford, UK: CABI. DOI:10.1079/ISC.14486.20203482789

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Datasheet

Canavalia ensiformis (jack bean)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 02 June 2020
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Host Plant
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Canavalia ensiformis
  • Preferred Common Name
  • jack bean
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Plantae
  •     Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •       Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •         Class: Dicotyledonae
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • Canavalia ensiformis is a vine native to South and Central America that has been introduced in the tropics and subtropics worldwide. It is grown for food, fodder and as a cover crop or green manure. It can grow on depleted soils under har...

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Canavalia ensiformis (jack bean); habit. India. November 2007.
TitleFlowers
CaptionCanavalia ensiformis (jack bean); habit. India. November 2007.
Copyright©Dinesh Valke/via flickr - CC BY-SA 2.0
Canavalia ensiformis (jack bean); habit. India. November 2007.
FlowersCanavalia ensiformis (jack bean); habit. India. November 2007.©Dinesh Valke/via flickr - CC BY-SA 2.0
Canavalia ensiformis (jack bean); habit. India. November 2007.
TitleFlowers
CaptionCanavalia ensiformis (jack bean); habit. India. November 2007.
Copyright©Dinesh Valke/via flickr - CC BY-SA 2.0
Canavalia ensiformis (jack bean); habit. India. November 2007.
FlowersCanavalia ensiformis (jack bean); habit. India. November 2007.©Dinesh Valke/via flickr - CC BY-SA 2.0
Canavalia ensiformis (jack bean); habit. India. November 2007.
TitleFlowers
CaptionCanavalia ensiformis (jack bean); habit. India. November 2007.
Copyright©Dinesh Valke/via flickr - CC BY-SA 2.0
Canavalia ensiformis (jack bean); habit. India. November 2007.
FlowersCanavalia ensiformis (jack bean); habit. India. November 2007.©Dinesh Valke/via flickr - CC BY-SA 2.0
Canavalia ensiformis (jack bean); habit. Trial Gardens, at the University of Georgia, Athens, Georgia, USA. September 2018.
TitleFruit and leaves
CaptionCanavalia ensiformis (jack bean); habit. Trial Gardens, at the University of Georgia, Athens, Georgia, USA. September 2018.
Copyright©Don McCulley/via wikipedia - CC BY-SA 4.0
Canavalia ensiformis (jack bean); habit. Trial Gardens, at the University of Georgia, Athens, Georgia, USA. September 2018.
Fruit and leavesCanavalia ensiformis (jack bean); habit. Trial Gardens, at the University of Georgia, Athens, Georgia, USA. September 2018.©Don McCulley/via wikipedia - CC BY-SA 4.0
Canavalia ensiformis (jack bean); habit. Trial Gardens, at the University of Georgia, Athens, Georgia, USA. September 2018.
TitleFruit and leaves
CaptionCanavalia ensiformis (jack bean); habit. Trial Gardens, at the University of Georgia, Athens, Georgia, USA. September 2018.
Copyright©Don McCulley/via wikipedia - CC BY-SA 4.0
Canavalia ensiformis (jack bean); habit. Trial Gardens, at the University of Georgia, Athens, Georgia, USA. September 2018.
Fruit and leavesCanavalia ensiformis (jack bean); habit. Trial Gardens, at the University of Georgia, Athens, Georgia, USA. September 2018.©Don McCulley/via wikipedia - CC BY-SA 4.0
Canavalia ensiformis (jack bean); habit. Trial Gardens, at the University of Georgia, Athens, Georgia, USA. September 2018.
TitleFruit and leaves
CaptionCanavalia ensiformis (jack bean); habit. Trial Gardens, at the University of Georgia, Athens, Georgia, USA. September 2018.
Copyright©Don McCulley/via wikipedia - CC BY-SA 4.0
Canavalia ensiformis (jack bean); habit. Trial Gardens, at the University of Georgia, Athens, Georgia, USA. September 2018.
Fruit and leavesCanavalia ensiformis (jack bean); habit. Trial Gardens, at the University of Georgia, Athens, Georgia, USA. September 2018.©Don McCulley/via wikipedia - CC BY-SA 4.0
Canavalia ensiformis (jack bean); habit. Trial Gardens, at the University of Georgia, Athens, Georgia, USA. September 2018.
TitleHabit
CaptionCanavalia ensiformis (jack bean); habit. Trial Gardens, at the University of Georgia, Athens, Georgia, USA. September 2018.
Copyright©Don McCulley/via wikipedia - CC BY-SA 4.0
Canavalia ensiformis (jack bean); habit. Trial Gardens, at the University of Georgia, Athens, Georgia, USA. September 2018.
HabitCanavalia ensiformis (jack bean); habit. Trial Gardens, at the University of Georgia, Athens, Georgia, USA. September 2018.©Don McCulley/via wikipedia - CC BY-SA 4.0
Canavalia ensiformis (jack bean); habit. India. November 2007.
TitleFlower and leaves
CaptionCanavalia ensiformis (jack bean); habit. India. November 2007.
Copyright©Dinesh Valke/via flickr - CC BY-SA 2.0
Canavalia ensiformis (jack bean); habit. India. November 2007.
Flower and leavesCanavalia ensiformis (jack bean); habit. India. November 2007.©Dinesh Valke/via flickr - CC BY-SA 2.0
Canavalia ensiformis (jack bean); habit. India. November 2007.
TitleLeaves
CaptionCanavalia ensiformis (jack bean); habit. India. November 2007.
Copyright©Dinesh Valke/via flickr - CC BY-SA 2.0
Canavalia ensiformis (jack bean); habit. India. November 2007.
LeavesCanavalia ensiformis (jack bean); habit. India. November 2007.©Dinesh Valke/via flickr - CC BY-SA 2.0
Canavalia ensiformis (jack bean); dried pods and seeds, ‘jack beans’. Museum specimen. Note scale.
TitleSeedpod and seeds
CaptionCanavalia ensiformis (jack bean); dried pods and seeds, ‘jack beans’. Museum specimen. Note scale.
Copyright©Muséum de Toulouse/Roger Culos - CC BY-SA 3.0
Canavalia ensiformis (jack bean); dried pods and seeds, ‘jack beans’. Museum specimen. Note scale.
Seedpod and seedsCanavalia ensiformis (jack bean); dried pods and seeds, ‘jack beans’. Museum specimen. Note scale.©Muséum de Toulouse/Roger Culos - CC BY-SA 3.0

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Canavalia ensiformis

Preferred Common Name

  • jack bean

Other Scientific Names

  • Canavalia ensiformis var. alba Makino
  • Canavalia ensiformis var. albida DC
  • Canavalia ensiformis var. gladiata (Jacq.) Kuntze
  • Canavalia ensiformis var. mollis (Wight & Arn.) Baker
  • Canavalia ensiformis var. mucunoides Baill.
  • Canavalia ensiformis var. truncata Ricker
  • Canavalia ensiformis var. turgida Baker
  • Canavalia ensiformis var. versicolor Kuntze
  • Canavalia ensiformis var. virosa (Roxb.) Baker
  • Dolichos ensiformis L.

International Common Names

  • English: giant stock-bean; gotani bean; horse-bean; jackbean; seaside-bean; swordbean; wonder bean
  • Spanish: frijol espada; haba de burro; judía sable
  • French: feve jacques; haricot de Madagascar; haricot sabre; pois gogane

Local Common Names

  • Brazil: fava-branca; feijao-bravo; feijao-de-cobra; feijão-de-porco; mangolo
  • Cuba: bejuco de bibijaguas; canavalia; frijol de bibijagua; frijol de china; haba de caballo; soplillo
  • Germany: Jackbohne; Schwertbohne
  • Haiti: garde place; pois maldioc
  • Italy: canavalia
  • Jamaica: horse bean; overlook bean
  • Puerto Rico: canavalia; haba de burro; habichuela playera; mato de playa
  • Sweden: jackbona
  • West Indies Associated States: one-eye bean

EPPO code

  • CNAEN (Canavalia ensiformis)

Summary of Invasiveness

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Canavalia ensiformis is a vine native to South and Central America that has been introduced in the tropics and subtropics worldwide. It is grown for food, fodder and as a cover crop or green manure. It can grow on depleted soils under harsh environmental conditions and become established in disturbed areas. It is listed in a database of invasive plants in Taiwan and has been identified as a transformer species with the potential to become invasive in Cuba.

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Plantae
  •         Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •             Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •                 Class: Dicotyledonae
  •                     Order: Fabales
  •                         Family: Fabaceae
  •                             Subfamily: Papilionoideae
  •                                 Genus: Canavalia
  •                                     Species: Canavalia ensiformis

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

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Canavalia is a pantropical genus in the Fabaceae, containing approximately 50 species of vines (World Flora Online, 2020). The genus is believed to have originated in the New World based on the high diversity in the fossil record in this region (Saur and Kaplan, 1969).

Description

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The following description is adapted from Acevedo-Rodríguez (2005):

Slightly woody vine, twining, attaining 1-2 m in length. Stems cylindrical, puberulent, glabrescent, with the pith hollow. Leaves alternate, trifoliolate; leaflets chartaceous, broadly ovate or broadly elliptical, 6-20 × 5-12 cm, the apex obtuse or rounded, short-apiculate, the base obtuse, asymmetrical on the lateral leaflets, the margins entire; both surfaces strigulose, punctate; petiole and rachis cylindrical, glabrescent; petiolules swollen, ca. 8 mm long. Inflorescences of axillary pseudoracemes, 25-36 cm long, with 2-3 flowers grouped on the nodal swellings along the rachis; pedicels 1-2 mm long, glabrescent. Calyx green, campanulate, 12-14 mm long, bilabiate; corolla pale violet, ca. 2 cm, the standard and the wings white at the base, violet on the distal portion. Legume linear, up to 30 × 3.5 cm, woody, slightly curved toward the apex, each valve with three longitudinal ribs. Seeds 15-20, ellipsoid, up to 3 cm long, white or cream-coloured.

Plant Type

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Annual
Herbaceous
Seed propagated
Vine / climber

Distribution

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Canavalia ensiformis is native to South and Central America and has been found at archaeological sites in Mexico dating from approximately 3000 BC (Smartt, 1985; Chee et al., 1992, USDA-ARS, 2016). It occurs in the tropics of both hemispheres, usually in cultivation, although it has escaped and become naturalized in some areas outside of its native range (Skerman et al., 1991; USDA-ARS, 2016).

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 25 Feb 2021
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

MadagascarPresentIntroducedCultivated
MozambiquePresentIntroducedCultivated
ZimbabwePresentIntroducedCultivated

Asia

ChinaPresentIntroducedCultivated
-GuangdongPresentIntroducedCultivated
-HainanPresentIntroducedCultivated
IndiaPresentIntroduced
-Tamil NaduPresent
JapanPresentIntroduced
MalaysiaPresentIntroduced
PhilippinesPresentIntroduced
TaiwanPresentIntroducedInvasive

North America

BarbadosPresentIntroducedCultivated
BelizePresentIntroducedCavo
Costa RicaPresentIntroduced
CubaPresentIntroducedNaturalized
DominicaPresentIntroducedCultivated
Dominican RepublicPresentNative
El SalvadorPresentIntroducedSan Salvador
GrenadaPresentIntroduced
GuadeloupePresentIntroducedBasse Terre. Pointe a Pitre
GuatemalaPresentIntroducedAlta Verapaz, Jutiapa
HaitiPresentIntroducedCultivated
HondurasPresentIntroducedAtl?ntida, Francisco Moraz?n
JamaicaPresentIntroduced
MartiniquePresentIntroducedCultivated
MexicoPresentNativeCampeche, Chiapas, Oaxaca, Quintana Roo, Tabasco, Veracruz?
NicaraguaPresentIntroducedCultivated
PanamaPresentIntroducedFort Clayton, Panama, Canal area. Cultivated
Puerto RicoPresentIntroducedCultivated
Saint LuciaPresentIntroducedCultivated
Trinidad and TobagoPresent
U.S. Virgin IslandsPresentIntroducedCultivated
United StatesPresentIntroduced
-AlabamaPresentIntroduced
-ArizonaPresentIntroduced
-ArkansasPresentIntroduced
-District of ColumbiaPresentIntroduced
-FloridaPresentIntroduced
-GeorgiaPresentIntroduced
-HawaiiPresentIntroduced
-KansasPresentIntroduced
-MississippiPresentIntroduced
-OklahomaPresentIntroducedNear Perkins
-TexasPresentIntroduced

Oceania

Papua New GuineaPresent

South America

ArgentinaPresentIntroducedMisiones
BoliviaPresentIntroducedBolivia, La Paz, Santa Cruz. Cultivated
BrazilPresentIntroducedMato Grosso. C?ceres. Villa Maria.
-AmazonasPresentManaus. Estrada Manaus-Itacoatiara
-BahiaPresent
-Distrito FederalPresentLagoa Feia, ca. 10 km E. of Sobradinho
-Minas GeraisPresent
-ParaPresentTom?-Acu. INATAM
-ParanaPresent
-PernambucoPresent
-Rio de JaneiroPresent
ColombiaPresentIntroducedAntioquia, Caldas, Cundinamarca, Guadalupe, Medell?n, Meta, Santo Domingo
EcuadorPresentNativeEsmeraldas, Guayas, Manab?. Cultivated
French GuianaPresentIntroducedEscaped from cultivation?
GuyanaPresentIntroducedEscaped from cultivation?
ParaguayPresentIntroduced
PeruPresentIntroducedLoreto. Requena Province. Yanallpa, Rio Ucayali. Rio Mamon., Amazonas, Cajamarca, Hu?nuco, Jun?n, La Libertad, Lima, San Mart?n. Cultivated
SurinamePresentIntroduced
VenezuelaPresentIntroducedBarinas, Cojedes, Distrito Federal, Lara, Monagas, Portuguesa, Sucre, Zulia

Habitat

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While it thrives in humid lowland tropics, C. ensiformis can also be found at altitudes up to 1800 m. Optimal annual rainfall is between 800-2000 mm but its deep rooting system allows it to withstand dry periods. It grows best at temperatures between 13 and 27°C. It can become established in disturbed areas (National Academy of Sciences, 1979).

Habitat List

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CategorySub-CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Terrestrial ManagedCultivated / agricultural land Principal habitat Natural
Terrestrial ManagedCultivated / agricultural land Principal habitat Productive/non-natural
Terrestrial ManagedDisturbed areas Present, no further details Natural
Terrestrial ManagedDisturbed areas Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalNatural forests Present, no further details Natural
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalScrub / shrublands Present, no further details Natural

Biology and Ecology

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Genetics

The chromosome count for C. ensiformis is 2n=22 (Missouri Botanical Garden, 2016)

Reproductive Biology

Canavalia ensiformis is primarily self-pollinated, but is also pollinated by ants, solitary bees and carpenter bees (Sheahan, 2012; Liu et al., 2014). It has low fruit set as only the two or three lowest flowers of the inflorescence node produce pods (Liu et al., 2014

Longevity

Canavalia ensiformis is an annual or very short-lived perennial (Sheahan 2012).

Environmental Requirements

Canavalia ensiformis can grow continuously under harsh conditions (Udedibie and Carlini, 1998), even in nutrient-depleted, highly leached, acidic soils (National Academy of Sciences, 1979). C. ensiformis is resistant to drought and pests but does not grow well in excessively wet soil (Bunch, 1985). It will drop its leaves under extremely high temperatures, and can tolerate light frosts (Florentin et al., 2004). C. ensiformis tolerates a wide range of rainfall (650-2000mm) evenly distributed throughout the year.

Climate

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ClimateStatusDescriptionRemark
Af - Tropical rainforest climate Tolerated > 60mm precipitation per month
Am - Tropical monsoon climate Preferred Tropical monsoon climate ( < 60mm precipitation driest month but > (100 - [total annual precipitation(mm}/25]))
As - Tropical savanna climate with dry summer Preferred < 60mm precipitation driest month (in summer) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
Aw - Tropical wet and dry savanna climate Preferred < 60mm precipitation driest month (in winter) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])

Air Temperature

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Parameter Lower limit Upper limit
Mean annual temperature (ºC) 15 30

Rainfall

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ParameterLower limitUpper limitDescription
Mean annual rainfall8002000mm; lower/upper limits

Soil Tolerances

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Soil reaction

  • acid
  • alkaline
  • neutral

Soil texture

  • heavy
  • light
  • medium

Notes on Natural Enemies

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Canavalia ensiformis contains a number of compounds that increase its resistance to pests and disease. Concanavalin A is a lectin that protects against diseases caused by microorganism infections (NatureServe 2015). The seeds contain high levels of canavanine as a defense against herbivory. Canavanine is toxic as, when consumed, it can take the place of L-arginine during protein synthesis and cause proteins to become malformed. The beetle Caryedes brasiliensis thrives on C. ensiformis seeds as it contains an arginyl-T-RNA synthase that can discriminate between canavanine and L-arginine, allowing it to avoid the toxic effects (Rosenthal 2001).

Impact Summary

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CategoryImpact
Economic/livelihood Positive
Environment (generally) Positive
Human health Positive

Risk and Impact Factors

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Invasiveness
  • Proved invasive outside its native range
  • Has a broad native range
  • Highly adaptable to different environments
  • Tolerant of shade
  • Fast growing
  • Has high genetic variability

Uses

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Economic Value

Concanavalin A, a lectin in C. ensiformis, has been used by biochemists to isolate blood group substances (immunoglobulin and glycoprotein), thus becoming an important tool in medical analysis.

Detoxified C. ensiformis seed has been used successfully as a high protein fish meal substitute in tilapia aquaculture (Martinez-Palacios et al., 1988).

Social Benefit

The beans and pods of C. ensiformis are edible, the young pods being cooked as a vegetable (Brücher, 1989) and the whole plant, the pods and seeds are also used to feed animals (Heuzé and Tran, 2015). The beans are mildly toxic, however boiling will remove toxicity if done properly (Sturtevant and Hedrick, 1919). Historically, it was used by native tribes for food and forage in droughty regions of Arizona and Mexico (Sheahan 2012). Now, while commonly consumed in Asia and Japan, C. ensiformis seem to be unpopular elsewhere (National Academy of Sciences, 1979). C. ensiformis, is one of a number of tropical legumes investigated for their potential as an alternative food source to help solve problems of food insecurity and global hunger, as it is extremely hardy (Vargas et al., 1991). C. ensiformis seed has been promoted in developing nations as a potential source of affordable and abundant protein. It has 29.0% protein content (Adebowale and Lawal, 2004).

In Nigeria, C. ensiformis seed is used as an antibiotic and antiseptic (Olowokudejo et al., 2008).

There is also pharmaceutical interest in the use of C. ensiformis as a source for the anti-cancer agent trigonelline and canavanine (Morris, 1999).

Leaves are spread on leafcutter anthills to eliminate ants (Bunch, 1985).

Environmental Services

Canavalia ensiformis is used as a soil improver and is planted for erosion control (Smartt, 1985; Heuzé and Tran, 2015; Madalão et al., 2017). It is used in conservation agriculture with maize and cassava and in Mauritius, it is used as a green manure in sugar cane (Heuzé and Tran, 2015). It has been reported as being antagonistic or suppressive of nematodes, particularly when used for intercropping in banana plantations (Vargas-Ayala et al., 2000), but this effect is disputed (Ternisien et al., 1989; Kashaija et al., 2004).

Uses List

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Animal feed, fodder, forage

  • Forage

Environmental

  • Erosion control or dune stabilization
  • Revegetation
  • Soil conservation
  • Soil improvement

Human food and beverage

  • Pulse
  • Vegetable

Materials

  • Pesticide

Medicinal, pharmaceutical

  • Source of medicine/pharmaceutical

References

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Acevedo-Rodríguez, P., 2005. Contributions from the United States National Herbarium, Washington, USA: Department of Systematic Biology - Botany, National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution 51, 483 pp.

Acevedo-Rodríguez, P., Strong, M. T., 2012. Catalogue of the Seed Plants of the West Indies, Washington, DC, USA: Smithsonian Institution.1192 pp. http://botany.si.edu/Antilles/WestIndies/catalog.htm

Adebowale KO, Lawal OS, 2004. Comparative study of the functional properties of bambarra groundnut (Voandzeia subterranean), jack bean (Canavalia ensiformis), and mucuna bean (Mucuna pruriens) flours. Food Research International, 37(4), 355-365. doi: 10.1016/j.foodres.2004.01.009

Andrews, F. W., 1956. The flowering plants of the Sudan. Vol. III (Compositae-Gramineae), Arbroath, Scotland, UK: T. Buncle and Co. Ltd., Arbroath.viii + 579 pp.

Brücher, H., 1989. Useful plants of neotropical origin and their wild relatives, Berlin, Germany: Springer Verlag.296 pp.

Bunch R, 1985. Green manure crops. Echo technical note. North Ft. Myers, FL, USA: ECHO.http://people.umass.edu/~psoil370/Syllabus-files/Green_Manure_Crops.pdf

Catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Ecuador, 2016. Catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Ecuador. In: Catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Ecuador St. Louis, Missouri, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden.http://tropicos.org/Project/CE

Chee YK, Hacker JB, Ramirez L, Chen CP, 1992. Canavalia ensiformis (L.) DC. In: Proseabase, [ed. by Mannetje L't, Jones RM]. Bogor, Indonesia: PROSEA (Plant Resources of South-East Asia) Foundation.http://proseanet.org/prosea/e-prosea_detail.php?frt=&id=1852

Eke, C. N. U., Asoegwu, S. N., Nwandikom, G. I., 2007. Some physical properties of jackbean seed (Canavalia ensiformis). Agricultural Engineering International, 9, Manuscript FP 07 014. http://www.cigrjournal.org/index.php/Ejounral/article/view/896/890

Flora of Nicaragua, 2016. Flora of Nicaragua. (Flora de Nicaragua). In: Flora de Nicaragua St. Louis, Missouri, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden.http://tropicos.org/Project/FN

Flora of Panama, 2016. Flora of Panama (WFO). In: Flora of Panama (WFO) St. Louis, Missouri and Cambridge, MA, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden and Harvard University Herbaria.http://www.tropicos.org/Project/FOPWFO

Florentin MA, Penalva M, Calegari A, Derpsch R, 2004. Green manure/cover crops and crop rotation in the no-tillage system on small farms. Ministry of Agriculture and Livestock of the Republic of Paraguay and the German Technical Cooperation.http://www.fidafrique.net/IMG/pdf/No-Till_SmProp_Chptr_1AF912.pdf

Florentín, M. A., Peñalva, M., Calegari, A., Derpsch, R., McDonald, M. J., 2010. Integrated Crop Management, Rome, Italy: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) 12, vii + 97 pp.

Funk, V., Hollowell, T., Berry, P., Kelloff, C., Alexander, S. N., 2007. Contributions from the United States National Herbarium, Washington, USA: Department of Systematic Biology - Botany, National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution 55, 584 pp.

Heuzé V, Tran G, 2015. Jack bean (Canavalia ensiformis). In: Feedipedia, INRA, CIRAD, AFZ and FAO.http://www.feedipedia.org/node/327

Hokche, O., Berry, P. E., Huber, O., 2008. Nuevo Catálogo de la Flora Vascular de Venezuela, Caracas, Venezuela: Fundación Instituto Botánico de Venezuela.860 pp.

Howard RA, 1988. Leguminosae. In: Flora of the Lesser Antilles, Leeward and Windward Islands, Volume 4. Dicotyledoneae Part 1, Jamaica Plain, MA, USA: Arnold Arboretum, Harvard University. 334-538.

Jørgensen, P. M., Nee, M. H., Beck, S. G., 2014. Catálogo de las plantas vasculares de Bolivia, St. Louis, Missouri, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden Press.1741 pp.

Kashaija, I. N., McIntyre, B. D., Ssali, H., Kizito, F., 2004. Spatial distribution of roots, nematode populations and root necrosis in highland banana in Uganda. Nematology, 6(1), 7-12. doi: 10.1163/156854104323072865

Liu MingQian, Ding MeiMei, Chen LiJun, Ouyang KunXi, Hui WenKai, Li JunCheng, Chen XiaoYang, 2014. Genetic diversity and relationships among Canavalia ensiformis (L.) DC. accessions as revealed by sequence-related amplified polymorphism markers. Biochemical Systematics and Ecology, 57, 242-249. doi: 10.1016/j.bse.2014.08.005

Madalão, J. C., Souza, M. F. de, Silva, A. A., Silva, D. V., Jakelaitis, A., Pereira, G. A. M., 2017. Action of Canavalia ensiformis in remediation of contaminated soil with sulfentrazone. Bragantia, 76(2), 292-299. http://www.scielo.br/pdf/brag/v76n2/0006-8705-brag-1678-4499526.pdf

Martinez-Palacios, C. A., Galván Cruz, R., Olvera Novoa, M. A., Chávez-Martinez, C., 1988. The use of jack bean (Canavalia ensiformis Leguminosae) meal as a partial substitute for fish meal in diets for tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus Cichlidae). Aquaculture, 68(2), 165-175. doi: 10.1016/0044-8486(88)90239-6

Missouri Botanical Garden, 2016. Missouri Botanical Garden Plant Finder. In: Missouri Botanical Garden Plant Finder St. Louis, MO, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden.http://www.missouribotanicalgarden.org/plantfinder/plantfindersearch.aspx

Morris JB, 1999. Legume genetic resources with novel “value added” industrial and pharmaceutical use. In: Perspectives on new crops and new uses, [ed. by Janick J]. Alexandria, VA, USA: ASHS Press. 196–201. http://www.hort.purdue.edu/newcrop/proceedings1999/v4-196.html

National Academy of Sciences, 1979. Tropical legumes: resources for the future, Washington, District of Columbia, USA: National Academy of Sciences.328pp.

NatureServe, 2015. NatureServe Explorer: An online encyclopedia of life. Version 7.1. Arlington, Virginia, USA: NatureServe.http://explorer.natureserve.org

New York Botanical Garden, 2016. The C.V. Starr Virtual Herbarium. In: The C. Starr Virtual Herbarium New York, USA: New York Botanical Garden.http://sweetgum.nybg.org/science/vh/

Olowokudejo JD, Kadiri AB, Travih VA, 2008. Ethnobotanical survey of herbal markets and medicinal plants in Lagos Nigeria. Ethnobotanical Leaflets, 12, 851-865. http://www.ethnoleaflets.com/leaflets/lagos.htm

Rosenthal, G. A., 2001. L-Canavanine: a higher plant insecticidal allelochemical. Amino Acids, 21(3), 319-330. doi: 10.1007/s007260170017

Sauer, J., 1964. Revision of Canavalia. Brittonia, 16(2), 106-81. doi: 10.2307/2805094

Saur J, Kaplan L, 1969. Canavalia beans in American prehistory. American AntiquitY, 34(4), 417- 424.

Sheahan CM, 2012. Plant guide for jack bean (Canavalia ensiformis). Cape May, NJ, USA: USDA-Natural Resources Conservation Service, Cape May Plant Materials Center.

Skerman PJ, Cameron DG, Riveros F, 1991. Leguminosas forrajeras tropicales, Rome, Italy: FAO.707 pp.

Smartt, J., 1985. Evolution of grain legumes. II. Old and New World pulses of lesser economic importance. Experimental Agriculture, 21(1), 1-18. doi: 10.1017/S0014479700012205

Sturtevant EL, Hedrick UP, 1919. Sturtevant's Notes on Edible Plants. Albany, New York, USA.http://www.henriettes-herb.com/eclectic/sturtevant/index.html

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USDA-ARS, 2009. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Online database. In: Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Online database Beltsville, Maryland, USA: National Germplasm Resources Laboratory.unpaginated. http://www.ars-grin.gov/cgi-bin/npgs/html/tax_search.pl

USDA-ARS, 2016. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Online Database. In: Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Online Database Beltsville, Maryland, USA: National Germplasm Resources Laboratory.https://npgsweb.ars-grin.gov/gringlobal/taxon/taxonomysimple.aspx

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World Flora Online, 2020. World Flora Online. In: World Flora Online : World Flora Online Consortium.http://www.worldfloraonline.org

Distribution References

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Queiroz J V J, Inokuti E M, Tsuji S S, Câmara M P S, Michereff S J, 2017. First report of collar rot on jack bean (Canavalia ensiformis) caused by Sclerotium rolfsii in Brazil. Plant Disease. 101 (2), 388. DOI:10.1094/PDIS-05-16-0622-PDN

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Taiwan Invasive Species Database, 2020. Taiwan Invasive Species Database. In: Taiwan Invasive Species Database, St Louis, Missouri, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden and Harvard University Herbaria. http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=102

Links to Websites

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GISD/IASPMR: Invasive Alien Species Pathway Management Resource and DAISIE European Invasive Alien Species Gatewayhttps://doi.org/10.5061/dryad.m93f6Data source for updated system data added to species habitat list.

Contributors

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22/02/17 Original text by:

Eduardo A. Ventosa Febles, Consultant, Puerto Rico

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