Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Clerodendrum quadriloculare
(bronze-leaved clerodendrum)

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Datasheet

Clerodendrum quadriloculare (bronze-leaved clerodendrum)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 21 November 2019
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Clerodendrum quadriloculare
  • Preferred Common Name
  • bronze-leaved clerodendrum
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Plantae
  •     Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •       Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •         Class: Dicotyledonae
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • C. quadriloculare is a highly invasive perennial shrub. This species produces large amounts of viable seed and can also grow rapidly by sprouts and root suckers. Seeds are mostly dispersed by birds and other animals. This species is liste...

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Clerodendrum quadriloculare (bronze-leaved clerodendrum); flowers with Tahoe at Kailua, Maui.  February 13, 2009
TitleHabit
CaptionClerodendrum quadriloculare (bronze-leaved clerodendrum); flowers with Tahoe at Kailua, Maui. February 13, 2009
Copyright©Forest & Kim Starr Images. CC-BY-3.0
Clerodendrum quadriloculare (bronze-leaved clerodendrum); flowers with Tahoe at Kailua, Maui.  February 13, 2009
HabitClerodendrum quadriloculare (bronze-leaved clerodendrum); flowers with Tahoe at Kailua, Maui. February 13, 2009©Forest & Kim Starr Images. CC-BY-3.0
Clerodendrum quadriloculare (bronze-leaved clerodendrum); plant over stream at Kailua, Maui.  February 13, 2009.
TitleHabit near water
CaptionClerodendrum quadriloculare (bronze-leaved clerodendrum); plant over stream at Kailua, Maui. February 13, 2009.
Copyright©Forest & Kim Starr Images. CC-BY-3.0
Clerodendrum quadriloculare (bronze-leaved clerodendrum); plant over stream at Kailua, Maui.  February 13, 2009.
Habit near waterClerodendrum quadriloculare (bronze-leaved clerodendrum); plant over stream at Kailua, Maui. February 13, 2009.©Forest & Kim Starr Images. CC-BY-3.0
Clerodendrum quadriloculare (clerodendrum), leaves at Hana Hwy Kailua, Maui.  January 07, 2005
TitleLeaves
CaptionClerodendrum quadriloculare (clerodendrum), leaves at Hana Hwy Kailua, Maui. January 07, 2005
Copyright©Forest & Kim Starr Images. CC-BY-3.0
Clerodendrum quadriloculare (clerodendrum), leaves at Hana Hwy Kailua, Maui.  January 07, 2005
LeavesClerodendrum quadriloculare (clerodendrum), leaves at Hana Hwy Kailua, Maui. January 07, 2005©Forest & Kim Starr Images. CC-BY-3.0
Clerodendrum quadriloculare (bronze-leaved clerodendrum); leaves, note red undersides. Iao Tropical Gardens of Maui, Maui.  May 22, 2012
TitleLeaves
CaptionClerodendrum quadriloculare (bronze-leaved clerodendrum); leaves, note red undersides. Iao Tropical Gardens of Maui, Maui. May 22, 2012
Copyright©Forest & Kim Starr Images. CC-BY-3.0
Clerodendrum quadriloculare (bronze-leaved clerodendrum); leaves, note red undersides. Iao Tropical Gardens of Maui, Maui.  May 22, 2012
LeavesClerodendrum quadriloculare (bronze-leaved clerodendrum); leaves, note red undersides. Iao Tropical Gardens of Maui, Maui. May 22, 2012©Forest & Kim Starr Images. CC-BY-3.0
Clerodendrum quadriloculare (bronze-leaved clerodendrum); flowers at KiHana Nursery Kihei, Maui.  February 15, 2011
TitleFlower spike
CaptionClerodendrum quadriloculare (bronze-leaved clerodendrum); flowers at KiHana Nursery Kihei, Maui. February 15, 2011
Copyright©Forest & Kim Starr Images. CC-BY-3.0
Clerodendrum quadriloculare (bronze-leaved clerodendrum); flowers at KiHana Nursery Kihei, Maui.  February 15, 2011
Flower spikeClerodendrum quadriloculare (bronze-leaved clerodendrum); flowers at KiHana Nursery Kihei, Maui. February 15, 2011©Forest & Kim Starr Images. CC-BY-3.0
Clerodendrum quadriloculare (bronze-leaved clerodendrum), flower at Kailua, Maui.  February 13, 2009
TitleClose-up of flower
CaptionClerodendrum quadriloculare (bronze-leaved clerodendrum), flower at Kailua, Maui. February 13, 2009
Copyright©Forest & Kim Starr Images. CC-BY-3.0
Clerodendrum quadriloculare (bronze-leaved clerodendrum), flower at Kailua, Maui.  February 13, 2009
Close-up of flowerClerodendrum quadriloculare (bronze-leaved clerodendrum), flower at Kailua, Maui. February 13, 2009©Forest & Kim Starr Images. CC-BY-3.0

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Clerodendrum quadriloculare (Blanco) Merr

Preferred Common Name

  • bronze-leaved clerodendrum

Other Scientific Names

  • Ligustrum quadriloculare Blanco

International Common Names

  • English: firecracker; fireworks; Philippine glory-bower; shooting star; starburst bush; winter starburst
  • Spanish: mil flores

Local Common Names

  • Marshall Islands: risel; tirooj in belle
  • Micronesia, Federated states of: tuhkehn palau (Pohnpei)
  • Palau: kleuang
  • Philippines: bagauac; bagawak morado

Summary of Invasiveness

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C. quadriloculare is a highly invasive perennial shrub. This species produces large amounts of viable seed and can also grow rapidly by sprouts and root suckers. Seeds are mostly dispersed by birds and other animals. This species is listed as an invasive plant in Hawaii, American Samoa, Micronesia, Northern Mariana Islands, French Polynesia, Palau, and Western Samoa (PIER, 2012). On these islands, this species grows commonly along roadsides, waste grounds, disturbed areas, and is cultivated in yards and gardens (Space and Flynn, 2002). On Pohnpei (Micronesia), it was seen growing in full shade areas under the forest canopy in a dense monospecific understory (Space and Falanruw, 1999).

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Plantae
  •         Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •             Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •                 Class: Dicotyledonae
  •                     Order: Lamiales
  •                         Family: Lamiaceae
  •                             Genus: Clerodendrum
  •                                 Species: Clerodendrum quadriloculare

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

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The family Lamiaceae includes mostly herbs or shrubs and comprises about 236 genera and 7173 species (Stevens, 2012). Species within this family commonly are aromatic plants with quadrangular stems and verticillate inflorescences. Leaves are opposite or whorled, and are simple or occasionally pinnately compound; stipules are absent. Flowers are bisexual and zygomorphic. Currently, the genus Clerodendrum is classified in the subfamily Ajugoideae, being one of several genera reassigned from Verbenaceae to Lamiaceae in the 1990s, based on phylogenetic analysis of morphological and molecular data. The genus Clerodendrum includes about 150 species that are distributed worldwide in tropical and subtropical areas (Stevens, 2012).

Description

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Shrubs 2-5 m high, finely pubescent throughout. Leaves paired, oblong, 15-20 cm long, apex acuminate, base rounded, the upper surface green, the lower surface usually dark-purple. Flowers in many-flowered terminal panicled cymes, in showy large clusters with a narrow pink tube to 7 cm long, ending in 5-lobed white oblong-elliptic lobes about 1.5 cm long (PIER, 2012; USDA-NRCS, 2012).

Plant Type

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Perennial
Seed propagated
Shrub
Vegetatively propagated

Distribution

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C. quadriloculare is native to Papua New Guinea and the Philippines (USDA-ARS, 2012). The invasive nature of this species has allowed it to become established on islands in the Pacific Ocean (American and Western Samoa, Micronesia, Northern Mariana Islands, French Polynesia, and Palau), Hawaii, Singapore, and Puerto Rico.

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 10 Jan 2020
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Asia

PhilippinesPresentNative
SingaporePresent, Only in captivity/cultivationIntroduced

North America

Puerto RicoPresentIntroducedInvasive
United StatesPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-FloridaPresent, Only in captivity/cultivationIntroducedOriginal citation: http://www.floridagardening.com
-HawaiiPresentIntroducedInvasive

Oceania

American SamoaPresentIntroducedNaturalizedCultivated and naturalized
Federated States of MicronesiaPresentIntroducedInvasiveInvasive in Pohnpei. Also present in Chuuk, Kosrae and Yap
French PolynesiaPresentIntroducedInvasiveCultivated
GuamPresentIntroducedNaturalizedCultivated and naturalized
Marshall IslandsPresentIntroducedCultivated
Northern Mariana IslandsPresentIntroducedInvasiveRota and Tinian Islands
PalauPresentIntroducedInvasiveAngaur, Babeldaob, Koror, Pepelie and Ngercheu Islands
Papua New GuineaPresentNative
SamoaPresentIntroducedInvasiveSavaii and Upolu Islands; Original citation: Space and Flynn (2002)

History of Introduction and Spread

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C. quadriloculare was introduced as an ornamental and rapidly has become an invasive plant on islands in the South-Western Pacific including Hawaii, American Samoa, Micronesia, Northern Mariana Islands, French Polynesia, Palau, and Western Samoa (PIER, 2012). The year of introduction of this species on these islands is very difficult to determine. In Puerto Rico this species is planted commonly in gardens throughout the islands and it is starting to escape from cultivated areas into adjacent natural areas (personal observations). McConnell and Muniappan (1991) list it among the ornamental plants now considered as weeds on Guam.

Risk of Introduction

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The risk of introduction of C. quadriloculare is very high. This species produces large amounts of root suckers and sprouts which grow rapidly and form dense thickets. It is very tolerant of shaded environments. The risk of introduction of sprouts and root suckers as a contaminant of garden soils remains high especially in areas where this species is cultivated. Additionally, C. quadriloculare has the ability to invade intact or relatively intact native forests, and it also benefits from mutilation, cultivation, and/or fire (Space and Flynn, 2000; USDA-NRCS, 2012). This species is an attractive ornamental and is commonly planted for that purpose, but considering the invasive nature of the species, its use for nurseries, gardens, and landscaping should be discouraged and it should be monitored closely.

Habitat

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This species is a rapidly growing shrub that can be found planted in gardens and yards and has the potential to rapidly invade pastures, forest edges, roadsides, waste grounds and even intact or relatively intact native forests. C. quadriloculare can form dense monospecific thickets in open and shaded areas, and is able to grow beneath the forest canopy. The species is easily propagated by cuttings, seeds, and root suckers.

Habitat List

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CategorySub-CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Terrestrial ManagedManaged forests, plantations and orchards Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial ManagedDisturbed areas Principal habitat Natural
Terrestrial ManagedRail / roadsides Principal habitat Natural
Terrestrial ManagedUrban / peri-urban areas Principal habitat Natural
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalNatural forests Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalRiverbanks Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
LittoralCoastal areas Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)

Biology and Ecology

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Genetics

There are no specific genetic studies based on this species. However, for many Clerodendrum species, studies available indicate that they are polyploids with a high chromosome number (2n = 46, 48, or 52; Yuan et al., 2010).

Reproductive Biology

Species in the genus Clerodendrum have an unusual pollination syndrome which avoids self-pollination. The mating system in this genus combines dichogamy and herkogamy. Clerodendrum species have flowers that are protandrous. In these flowers, the stamens and the style are curled upwards tightly inside the flower bud. When the flowers open, the filaments and style start uncoiling. While the filaments project to the centre, the style continues to bend down towards the lower side of the flower. This is the functional male phase. After pollen has been released, the filaments curl back sideways and the style with its receptive stigma (female phase) projects back to the centre, taking the position occupied by the stamens in the male phase (Yuan et al., 2010). C. quadriloculare has very long corolla tubes and requires specialist pollinators.

Longevity

C. quadriloculare is a rapidly growing perennial shrub.

Environmental Requirements

C. quadriloculare grows in moist environments in tropical and subtropical areas. It is able to grow in areas with full sunlight exposure as well as in shaded areas beneath canopy cover, and prefers fertile soils.

Climate

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ClimateStatusDescriptionRemark
A - Tropical/Megathermal climate Preferred Average temp. of coolest month > 18°C, > 1500mm precipitation annually
Af - Tropical rainforest climate Preferred > 60mm precipitation per month
Am - Tropical monsoon climate Tolerated Tropical monsoon climate ( < 60mm precipitation driest month but > (100 - [total annual precipitation(mm}/25]))
Aw - Tropical wet and dry savanna climate Tolerated < 60mm precipitation driest month (in winter) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
Cf - Warm temperate climate, wet all year Tolerated Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, wet all year

Rainfall Regime

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Bimodal

Soil Tolerances

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Soil drainage

  • free
  • seasonally waterlogged

Soil reaction

  • acid
  • neutral

Soil texture

  • light
  • medium

Special soil tolerances

  • saline
  • shallow

Means of Movement and Dispersal

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C. quadriloculare is dispersed by seeds, sprouts, and root suckers. Fruits produce large amounts of seeds that are mostly dispersed by birds. Sprouts and root suckers are dispersed easily in areas where it is planted.

Pathway Causes

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CauseNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Garden waste disposal Yes PIER (2012)

Pathway Vectors

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VectorNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Plants or parts of plants Yes Yes PIER (2012); USDA-NRCS (2012)
Soil, sand and gravel Yes Yes PIER (2012)

Impact Summary

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CategoryImpact
Cultural/amenity Positive and negative
Environment (generally) Negative
Human health Positive

Environmental Impact

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C. quadriloculare has been identified as an invasive weed. It is a very aggressive shrub that grows rapidly and form dense tickets displacing native vegetation and preventing the establishment of native species. This species is shade-tolerant and consequently it is able to invade intact or relatively intact native forests.

Risk and Impact Factors

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Invasiveness
  • Invasive in its native range
  • Proved invasive outside its native range
  • Has a broad native range
  • Abundant in its native range
  • Highly adaptable to different environments
  • Tolerant of shade
  • Highly mobile locally
  • Fast growing
  • Has high reproductive potential
  • Has propagules that can remain viable for more than one year
  • Reproduces asexually
Impact outcomes
  • Altered trophic level
  • Damaged ecosystem services
  • Ecosystem change/ habitat alteration
  • Loss of medicinal resources
  • Modification of successional patterns
  • Monoculture formation
  • Negatively impacts tourism
  • Reduced native biodiversity
  • Threat to/ loss of endangered species
  • Threat to/ loss of native species
Impact mechanisms
  • Competition - shading
  • Rapid growth
  • Rooting
Likelihood of entry/control
  • Highly likely to be transported internationally accidentally
  • Highly likely to be transported internationally deliberately

Uses

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This species is still sold in the nursery and landscape trade. People frequently utilize the plant in gardens because it is attractive to bees, butterflies, and birds. It is also used in traditional Philippine medicine to treat wounds and ulcers, and employed in tonic baths (Quisumbing, 1978).

Uses List

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Medicinal, pharmaceutical

  • Source of medicine/pharmaceutical
  • Traditional/folklore

Ornamental

  • Potted plant
  • Propagation material

Prevention and Control

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Due to the variable regulations around (de)registration of pesticides, your national list of registered pesticides or relevant authority should be consulted to determine which products are legally allowed for use in your country when considering chemical control. Pesticides should always be used in a lawful manner, consistent with the product's label.

Physical/Mechanical control

Mechanical control is difficult: continual mowing will slow spread, but not prevent it (PIER, 2012).

Chemical Control

There are no detailed studies evaluating the use of chemicals and herbicides to control C. quadriloculare. A study performed on the Pohnpei Islands suggests that for young plants, 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinyloxyacetic acid butoxyethyl ester can be used as foliar application and for large plants, dilutions of the same herbicide can be applied to cut stems (Englberger, 2009).

Gaps in Knowledge/Research Needs

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1) Distribution and colonization paths on Pacific islands and West Indies.

2) Studies on physiological and environmental requirements.

3) Genetic studies to determine variability.

4) Studies assessing the impact of this exotic species on native plants are needed.

5) Recommendations for management and control (biological and chemical control) in invaded areas.

References

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Acevedo-Rodríguez P; Strong MT, 2012. Catalogue of the Seed Plants of the West Indies. Smithsonian Contributions to Botany, 98:1192 pp. Washington DC, USA: Smithsonian Institution. http://botany.si.edu/Antilles/WestIndies/catalog.htm

Chong KY; Tan HTW; Corlett RT, 2009. A checklist of the total vascular plant flora of Singapore: native, naturalised and cultivated species. Singapore: Raffles Museum of Biodiversity Research, National University of Singapore, 273 pp. http://lkcnhm.nus.edu.sg/nus/pdf/PUBLICATION/LKCNH%20Museum%20Books/LKCNHM%20Books/flora_of_singapore_tc.pdf

Englberger K, 2009. Invasive weeds of Pohnpei: A guide for identification and public awareness. Conservation Society of Pohnpei, 29 pp.

McConnell J; Muniappan R, 1991. Introduced ornamental plants that have become weeds on Guam. Mironesica Supplement, 3:47-50.

PIER, 2012. Pacific Islands Ecosystems at Risk. Honolulu, USA: HEAR, University of Hawaii. http://www.hear.org/pier/index.html

Quisumbing E, 1978. Medicinal Plants of the Philippines. Manila: Katha Publishing Co., Inc.

Space JC; Falanruw M, 1999. Observations on invasive plant species in Micronesia. Honolulu, Hawaii: USDA Forest Service, 32 pp.

Space JC; Flynn T, 2000. Report to the Government of Niue on invasive plant species of environmental concern. USDA Forest Service, Honolulu, 34.

Space JC; Flynn T, 2002a. Report to the Government of Samoa on invasive plant species of environmental concern. Honolulu, USA: USDA Forest Service, 83 pp.

Space JC; Lorence DH; LaRosa AM, 2009. Report to the Republic of Palau: 2008 update on Invasive Plant Species. Hilo, Hawaii, USA: USDA Forest Service, 227. http://www.sprep.org/att/irc/ecopies/countries/palau/48.pdf

Space JC; Waterhouse B; Denslow J; Nelson D; Waguk EE, 2000. Invasive plant species on Kosrae, Federated States of Micronesia. Honolulu, USA: USDA Forest Service, 43 pp.

Staples GW; Herbst D; Imada CT, 2000. Survey of invasive or potentially invasive cultivated plants in Hawaii. Bishop Museum Occasional Papers, 65:35 pp.

Stevens PF, 2012. Angiosperm Phylogeny Website. http://www.mobot.org/MOBOT/research/APweb/

USDA-ARS, 2012. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Online Database. Beltsville, Maryland, USA: National Germplasm Resources Laboratory. https://npgsweb.ars-grin.gov/gringlobal/taxon/taxonomysearch.aspx

USDA-NRCS, 2012. The PLANTS Database. Baton Rouge, USA: National Plant Data Center. http://plants.usda.gov/

Yuan YW; Mabberley DJ; Steane DA; Olmstead RG, 2010. Further disintegration and redefinition of Clerodendrum (Lamiaceae): implications for the understanding of the evolution of an intriguing breeding strategy. Taxon, 59(1):125-133.

Distribution References

CABI, Undated. Compendium record. Wallingford, UK: CABI

CABI, Undated a. CABI Compendium: Status inferred from regional distribution. Wallingford, UK: CABI

CABI, Undated b. CABI Compendium: Status as determined by CABI editor. Wallingford, UK: CABI

Chong K Y, Tan H T W, Corlett R T, 2009. A checklist of the total vascular plant flora of Singapore: native, naturalised and cultivated species. Singapore: Raffles Museum of Biodiversity Research, National University of Singapore. 273 pp. https://lkcnhm.nus.edu.sg/app/uploads/2017/04/flora_of_singapore_tc.pdf

Englberger K, 2009. Invasive weeds of Pohnpei: a guide for identification and public awareness. In: Invasive weeds of Pohnpei: a guide for identification and public awareness, Kolonia, Federated States of Micronesia: Conservation Society of Pohnpei (CSP). 29 pp.

PIER, 2012. Pacific Islands Ecosystems at Risk., Honolulu, USA: HEAR, University of Hawaii. http://www.hear.org/pier/index.html

Space JC, Lorence DH, LaRosa AM, 2009. Report to the Republic of Palau: 2008 update on Invasive Plant Species., Hilo, Hawaii, USA: USDA Forest Service. 227. http://www.sprep.org/att/irc/ecopies/countries/palau/48.pdf

Staples GW, Herbst D, Imada CT, 2000. Survey of invasive or potentially invasive cultivated plants in Hawaii. In: Bishop Museum Occasional Papers, 65 35 pp.

USDA-NRCS, 2012. The PLANTS Database. Greensboro, North Carolina, USA: National Plant Data Team. https://plants.sc.egov.usda.gov

Links to Websites

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WebsiteURLComment
Flora of the West Indieshttp://botany.si.edu/antilles/WestIndies/
Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)http://www.hear.org/Pier/index.html

Contributors

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21/09/12 Original text by:

Julissa Rojas-Sandoval, Department of Botany-Smithsonian NMNH, Washington DC, USA

Pedro Acevedo-Rodríguez, Department of Botany-Smithsonian NMNH, Washington DC, USA

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