Invasive Species Compendium

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Datasheet

Cleome viscosa
(Asian spiderflower)

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Datasheet

Cleome viscosa (Asian spiderflower)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 22 November 2019
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Pest
  • Host Plant
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Cleome viscosa
  • Preferred Common Name
  • Asian spiderflower
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Plantae
  •     Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •       Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •         Class: Dicotyledonae
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • C. viscosa is a fast-growing herb of humid and warm habitats. It is commonly found growing as a weed in disturbed sites, gardens, rice paddies, pastures, orchards, abandoned lands, and along roadsides (...

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
TitleFlowering plant of Cleome viscosa.
Caption
CopyrightMaria C. Duarte
Flowering plant of Cleome viscosa.Maria C. Duarte
Cleome viscosa: a1, a2, flower (two views); b, seed.
TitleLine drawing of Cleome viscosa.
CaptionCleome viscosa: a1, a2, flower (two views); b, seed.
CopyrightSEAMEO-BIOTROP
Cleome viscosa: a1, a2, flower (two views); b, seed.
Line drawing of Cleome viscosa.Cleome viscosa: a1, a2, flower (two views); b, seed.SEAMEO-BIOTROP

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Cleome viscosa L.

Preferred Common Name

  • Asian spiderflower

Other Scientific Names

  • Arivela viscosa (L.) Raf.
  • Arivela viscosa var. deglabrata (Backer) M.L.Zhang & G.C.Tucker
  • Cleome acutifolia Elmer
  • Cleome icosandra L.
  • Cleome viscosa f. deglabrata (Backer) Jacobs
  • Cleome viscosa var. nagarjunakondensis Sundararagh.
  • Cleome viscosa var. parviflora Kuntze
  • Cleome viscosa var. viscosa
  • Polanisia icosandra (L.) Wight & Arn.
  • Polanisia microphylla Eichler
  • Polanisia viscosa (L.) Blume
  • Polanisia viscosa (L.) DC.
  • Polanisia viscosa var. deglabrata Backer
  • Polanisia viscosa var. icosandra (L.) Schweinf. ex Oliv.
  • Sinapistrum viscosum (L.) Moench

International Common Names

  • English: caia; cleome; dog mustard; ground dove feed; tickweed; wild mustard; yellow cleome; yellow mesambay
  • Spanish: barba de chivo; frijolillo; jitomate; malva pegajosa; plantanillo; sambo; tabaquillo
  • French: acaya jaune; brède caya; collant; mouzambe jaune

Local Common Names

  • China: huang hua cao
  • Dominican Republic: frijol cimarrón; jitomate
  • Germany: Klebrige Spinnenpflanze
  • Indonesia: ancang ancang; mamang
  • Jamaica: wild caia
  • Japan: hime-futyoso
  • Laos: sa phac son tien
  • Malaysia: mamang kebo; mamang laki; mamang utan
  • Philippines: apoi-apoian; silisian, hulaya
  • Thailand: phak sian phee; phak som sian phee

EPPO code

  • CLEVI (Cleome viscosa)
  • PONVI (Polanisia viscosa)

Summary of Invasiveness

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C. viscosa is a fast-growing herb of humid and warm habitats. It is commonly found growing as a weed in disturbed sites, gardens, rice paddies, pastures, orchards, abandoned lands, and along roadsides (Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2015; PROTA, 2015). This species is included in the Global Compendium of Weeds where it is listed as an environmental and agricultural weed with moderate economic impacts principally in rice paddies and sugarcane plantations (Randall, 2012). It produces large numbers of sticky seeds which can be dispersed by wind, water, and as a contaminant in farm machinery, farm produce, soil, or adhered to clothes and animal fur (Smith, 1981; PROTA, 2015). Currently, C. viscosa is listed as invasive in India, Singapore, Dominican Republic, Puerto Rico, the Virgin Islands, Galapagos Islands, and on several islands in the Pacific Ocean such Fiji, French Polynesia, Guam, and Papua New Guinea among others (Waterhouse, 1993; Kairo et al., 2003; Chandra, 2012; PIER, 2015; Rojas-Sandoval and Acevedo-Rodriguez, 2015). 

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Plantae
  •         Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •             Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •                 Class: Dicotyledonae
  •                     Order: Capparidales
  •                         Family: Capparaceae
  •                             Genus: Cleome
  •                                 Species: Cleome viscosa

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

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Cleome is a genus of flowering plants in the family Cleomaceae. Previously this genus had been placed in the family Capparaceae, until DNA studies found that Cleomaceae genera are more closely related to Brassicaceae than Capparaceae (Stevens, 2012). The APGII System allowed for Cleomaceae to be included in the Brassicaceae, and APGIII still recognises Cleomaceae for the genus Cleome. [N.B. Taxonomic tree is awaiting updating from Capparaceae to Cleomaceae.]

The family Cleomaceae includes about 12 genera and 250 species distributed in tropical and warm temperate regions (The Plant List, 2013). Members of this family are herbaceous or shrubby plants with palmately compound leaves; the flowers have four clawed petals, six stamens, and two carpels; the gynoecium has a gynophore, the stamens have long filaments, and the dehiscent fruit has a persistent, loop-like woody placenta that remains on the plant after the fruit valves have fallen off (Stevens, 2012).

Description

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The following description is taken from Flora of China Editorial Committee (2015):

C. viscosa is an annual herb, up to 160 cm tall. Stems simple or branched, ± glandular hirsute, viscous. Petiole 1.5–4.5(–8) cm, glandular hirsute; leaflets 3 or 5; leaflet blades ovate to oblanceolate-elliptic, (0.6–)2–6 × 0.5–3.5 cm, both surfaces glandular hirsute, margin entire to glandular ciliate, apex acute to obtuse. Inflorescences 5–10 cm but 10–15 cm in fruit; bracts 1–2.5 cm, palmately compound, 3-foliolate, often deciduous, glandular hirsute. Pedicel 0.6–3 cm, glandular hirsute. Inflorescences 3–6-flowered. Sepals green, equal, distinct, 5–10 × 0.8–1.2 mm, lanceolate, persistent, glandular hirsute, base cuneate, margin entire. Petals bright yellow, basally sometimes purple, arranged in an adaxial semicircle before anthesis but radially arranged at anthesis, 7–14 × 3–4 mm, oblong to ovate, clawed. Stamens (dimorphic, 4–10 adaxial ones much shorter with a swelling below anthers) green, 5–9 mm; anthers green, 1.4–3 mm. Pistil 6–10 mm, densely glandular; style 1–1.2 mm; stigma capitate. Fruit capsule 3–10 cm × 2–4 mm, strongly ridged longitudinally, dehiscing only partway from apex to base, glandular pubescent or essentially glabrous. Seeds 25–40 (up to 100) per capsule, light brown, 1.2–1.8 × 1–1.2 mm, compressed spherical, transversely finely ridged. 

Plant Type

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Annual
Herbaceous
Seed propagated

Distribution

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C. viscosa is probably native to Asia, but now has a pantropical distribution and is naturalized in tropical and subtropical regions in Asia, Africa, the Americas, and Oceania (Acevedo-Rodriguez and Strong, 2012; Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2015; PIER, 2015; USDA-ARS, 2015).

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 25 Feb 2021
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

BeninPresent
Cabo VerdePresent
CameroonPresent
ChadPresent
EgyptPresent
EthiopiaPresent
GambiaPresent
GhanaPresent
GuineaPresent
Guinea-BissauPresent
MadagascarPresent
MaliPresent
MauritaniaPresent
MauritiusPresentWeed
NigerPresent
NigeriaPresent
SenegalPresent
SeychellesPresentIntroducedInvasive
SudanPresent

Asia

BhutanPresentNative
British Indian Ocean Territory
-Chagos ArchipelagoPresentIntroducedInvasive
CambodiaPresentNative and IntroducedListed as both native and introduced
ChinaPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-AnhuiPresentNative
-FujianPresentNative
-GuangdongPresentNative
-GuangxiPresentNative
-HainanPresentNative
-HubeiPresentNative
-HunanPresentNative
-JiangxiPresentNative
-YunnanPresentNative
-ZhejiangPresentNative
Hong KongPresentNative
IndiaPresent
-Arunachal PradeshPresentIntroducedInvasive
-AssamPresentIntroducedInvasive
-Himachal PradeshPresentIntroducedInvasive
-Jammu and KashmirPresentIntroducedInvasive
-ManipurPresentIntroducedInvasive
-MeghalayaPresentIntroducedInvasive
-MizoramPresentIntroducedInvasive
-NagalandPresentIntroducedInvasive
-OdishaPresent
-PunjabPresent
-SikkimPresentIntroducedInvasive
-TripuraPresentIntroducedInvasive
-UttarakhandPresentIntroducedInvasive
IndonesiaPresent
JapanPresentIntroducedInvasive
-Ryukyu IslandsPresentIntroducedInvasive
LaosPresent
MalaysiaPresentNative and IntroducedListed as both native and introduced
MaldivesPresent
NepalPresent
PakistanPresent
PhilippinesPresent
SingaporePresentIntroducedInvasive
Sri LankaPresent
TaiwanPresentNative
ThailandPresent
VietnamPresent

Europe

FrancePresent

North America

Antigua and BarbudaPresent, WidespreadIntroduced
ArubaPresentIntroduced
BarbadosPresent, WidespreadIntroduced
BelizePresentIntroducedNaturalizedNaturalized
Bonaire, Saint Eustatius and Saba
-BonairePresentIntroduced
-SabaPresentIntroduced
-Sint EustatiusPresentIntroduced
British Virgin IslandsPresentIntroducedInvasiveGuana, Tortola, Virgin Gorda
Cayman IslandsPresentIntroduced
Costa RicaPresentIntroducedNaturalizedNaturalized
CubaPresentIntroduced
CuraçaoPresentIntroduced
DominicaPresent, WidespreadIntroduced
Dominican RepublicPresentIntroducedInvasive
El SalvadorPresentIntroducedNaturalizedNaturalized
GrenadaPresent, WidespreadIntroduced
GuadeloupePresent, WidespreadIntroduced
GuatemalaPresentIntroducedNaturalizedNaturalized
HaitiPresentIntroduced
HondurasPresentIntroducedNaturalizedNaturalized
JamaicaPresentIntroduced
MartiniquePresent, WidespreadIntroduced
MexicoPresentIntroducedNaturalizedNaturalized in Campeche, Chiapas, Colima, Oaxaca, Sinaloa, Sonora, Veracruz, Yucatan
MontserratPresent, WidespreadIntroduced
NicaraguaPresentIntroducedNaturalizedNaturalized
PanamaPresentIntroducedNaturalizedNaturalized
Puerto RicoPresentIntroducedInvasive
Saint Kitts and NevisPresent, WidespreadIntroduced
Saint LuciaPresent, WidespreadIntroducedNaturalizedNaturalized- very common
Saint Vincent and the GrenadinesPresent, WidespreadIntroduced
Sint MaartenPresentIntroduced
Trinidad and TobagoPresentIntroduced
U.S. Virgin IslandsPresentIntroducedInvasiveSt Croix. St John, St Thomas
United StatesPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-AlabamaPresentIntroducedNaturalizedNaturalized
-FloridaPresentIntroducedNaturalizedNaturalized
-GeorgiaPresentIntroducedNaturalizedNaturalized
-LouisianaPresentIntroducedNaturalizedNaturalized
-MarylandPresentIntroducedNaturalizedNaturalized
-New JerseyPresentIntroducedNaturalizedNaturalized
-PennsylvaniaPresentIntroducedNaturalizedNaturalized
-VirginiaPresentIntroducedNaturalizedNaturalized

Oceania

Christmas IslandPresentNative
Cook IslandsPresentIntroduced
Federated States of MicronesiaPresentIntroduced
FijiPresentIntroducedInvasive
French PolynesiaPresentIntroducedInvasive
GuamPresentIntroducedInvasive
KiribatiPresentIntroducedInvasive
NauruPresentIntroducedInvasive
New CaledoniaPresentIntroducedInvasive
New ZealandPresent
NiuePresentIntroducedInvasive
Northern Mariana IslandsPresentIntroducedInvasive
PalauPresentIntroducedInvasive
Papua New GuineaPresentIntroducedInvasive
SamoaPresent
Solomon IslandsPresentIntroducedInvasive

South America

EcuadorPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-Galapagos IslandsPresentIntroducedInvasive
VenezuelaPresent

History of Introduction and Spread

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There is very little information available about the history of introduction of C. viscosa, but it is highly probable that this species was introduced accidentally as a contaminant or as a weed in nursery materials (Holm et al., 1979). In the USA, it was recorded in the late 1800s. In the West Indies, herbarium collections shown that this species was first collected in 1878 in Martinique; 1882 in the U.S. Virgin Islands (i.e., St Thomas) and in 1892 in Guadeloupe (US Herbarium Collection). C. viscosa was already established on the Windward Caribbean Islands at the beginning of the 20th century (Burg et al., 2012). 

Risk of Introduction

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The risk of introduction of C. viscosa is moderate to high. This species produces large numbers of sticky seeds that can be easily dispersed by wind, water and machinery associated to human activities and has the potential to grow as a weed in ruderal areas, and agricultural and pasture lands. Thus, C. viscosa has the potential to spread much further into new habitats.

Habitat

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C. viscosa grows in warm and wet conditions on sandy soils, but sometimes on calcareous and rocky soils (Graveson, 2012; PROTA, 2015). It is naturalized in arid and dry lowlands in the Galápagos Islands (McMullen, 1999). It is locally abundant as a naturalized weed in cultivated fields and in ruderal areas and grasslands from sea level up to 1000 m (PIER, 2015). 

Habitat List

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CategorySub-CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Terrestrial ManagedCultivated / agricultural land Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial ManagedCultivated / agricultural land Present, no further details Natural
Terrestrial ManagedManaged forests, plantations and orchards Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial ManagedManaged forests, plantations and orchards Present, no further details Natural
Terrestrial ManagedManaged grasslands (grazing systems) Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial ManagedManaged grasslands (grazing systems) Present, no further details Natural
Terrestrial ManagedDisturbed areas Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial ManagedDisturbed areas Present, no further details Natural
Terrestrial ManagedRail / roadsides Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial ManagedRail / roadsides Present, no further details Natural
Terrestrial ManagedUrban / peri-urban areas Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial ManagedUrban / peri-urban areas Present, no further details Natural
Terrestrial ManagedUrban / peri-urban areas Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalNatural grasslands Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalNatural grasslands Present, no further details Natural
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalWetlands Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalWetlands Present, no further details Natural

Hosts/Species Affected

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C. viscosa is a weed in ruderal areas, woodland, grassland, rice paddies, and sugarcane plantations (Holm et al., 1979; Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2015; PROTA, 2015).

Host Plants and Other Plants Affected

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Plant nameFamilyContextReferences
Oryza sativa (rice)PoaceaeMain
    pasturesMain
      Saccharum officinarum (sugarcane)PoaceaeMain

        Growth Stages

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        Flowering stage, Fruiting stage, Vegetative growing stage

        Biology and Ecology

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        Genetics

        The chromosome number reported for C. viscosa varies from 2n = 20, 2n = 34, to 2n = 60 (Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2015).

        Reproductive Biology and Phenology

        C. viscosa has hermaphroditic small yellow flowers. The flowers are ephemeral, opening in the morning and closing in the afternoon and they are visited and likely pollinated by bees (USDA-NRCS, 2015). In China, C. viscosa has been recorded flowering from July to September and fruiting in October (Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2015).

        Longevity

        C. viscosa is a fast-growing annual herb. The seeds have no dormancy and germinate readily after shedding. Plants start flowering 3–4 weeks after germination and the life cycle is about 3 months (USDA-ARS, 2015; PROTA, 2015).

        Environmental Requirements

        C. viscosa grows best in humid and hot habitats on sandy soils, but also on calcareous and rocky soils.

        Climate

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        ClimateStatusDescriptionRemark
        Af - Tropical rainforest climate Preferred > 60mm precipitation per month
        Am - Tropical monsoon climate Preferred Tropical monsoon climate ( < 60mm precipitation driest month but > (100 - [total annual precipitation(mm}/25]))
        As - Tropical savanna climate with dry summer Preferred < 60mm precipitation driest month (in summer) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
        Aw - Tropical wet and dry savanna climate Preferred < 60mm precipitation driest month (in winter) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
        BS - Steppe climate Tolerated > 430mm and < 860mm annual precipitation

        Air Temperature

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        Parameter Lower limit Upper limit
        Mean annual temperature (ºC) 14 28

        Rainfall

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        ParameterLower limitUpper limitDescription
        Mean annual rainfall3002000mm; lower/upper limits

        Soil Tolerances

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        Soil reaction

        • acid
        • neutral

        Soil texture

        • light
        • medium

        Means of Movement and Dispersal

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        C. viscosa spreads by seeds, which can be dispersed by wind, gravity, water, and as a contaminant in farm machinery, farm produce and soil, or adhered to human clothes or animal fur (Holm et al., 1979; PIER, 2015; PROTA, 2015). 

        Pathway Causes

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        CauseNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
        Crop productionWeed on rice and sugarcane plantations Yes Yes PROTA, 2015
        DisturbanceCommon in grassy slopes, wasteland and along roadsides Yes Yes Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2015
        Escape from confinement or garden escape Yes Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2015

        Pathway Vectors

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        VectorNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
        Clothing, footwear and possessionsSticky seeds Yes Yes
        Debris and waste associated with human activitiesSeed contaminant Yes Yes Holm et al., 1979

        Impact Summary

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        CategoryImpact
        Economic/livelihood Negative
        Environment (generally) Positive and negative
        Human health Positive and negative

        Economic Impact

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        C. viscosa is a weed with economic impacts in crops such as rice and sugarcane, as well as being a problem in pastures and gardens (PIER, 2015; PROTA, 2015). 

        Environmental Impact

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        C. viscosa is an environmental weed in woodlands, grasslands, ruderal sites, roadsides, and coastal forests where it has the potential to outcompete native vegetation (Kairo et al., 2003; Chandra, 2012; Randall, 2012; PIER, 2015; Rojas-Sandoval and Acevedo-Rodriguez, 2015).

        Risk and Impact Factors

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        Invasiveness
        • Proved invasive outside its native range
        • Has a broad native range
        • Abundant in its native range
        • Highly adaptable to different environments
        • Is a habitat generalist
        • Tolerates, or benefits from, cultivation, browsing pressure, mutilation, fire etc
        • Pioneering in disturbed areas
        • Highly mobile locally
        • Benefits from human association (i.e. it is a human commensal)
        • Fast growing
        • Has high reproductive potential
        Impact outcomes
        • Damaged ecosystem services
        • Ecosystem change/ habitat alteration
        • Loss of medicinal resources
        • Modification of successional patterns
        • Monoculture formation
        • Negatively impacts agriculture
        • Reduced amenity values
        • Reduced native biodiversity
        • Threat to/ loss of native species
        Impact mechanisms
        • Competition - monopolizing resources
        • Competition - smothering
        • Rapid growth
        Likelihood of entry/control
        • Highly likely to be transported internationally accidentally
        • Difficult to identify/detect as a commodity contaminant
        • Difficult to identify/detect in the field

        Uses

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        In tropical Africa, C. viscosa is occasionally used as a leaf vegetable. The bitter leaves are eaten fresh, dried or cooked. In India the seeds, which have a pleasant flavour, are used as a condiment substitute for mustard seed and cumin in the preparation of pickling spices, sausages, vegetables, curries and pulses. In Sumatra, the dried and powdered leaves and seeds are added to tobacco to enhance its narcotic properties (Windadri, 2001). In Asia (southern China, Guam, India), leaves and seeds are used medicinally to treat infections, fever, rheumatism and headaches (PROTA, 2015). 

        Uses List

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        Human food and beverage

        • Food additive
        • Spices and culinary herbs

        Medicinal, pharmaceutical

        • Traditional/folklore

        Prevention and Control

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        Due to the variable regulations around (de)registration of pesticides, your national list of registered pesticides or relevant authority should be consulted to determine which products are legally allowed for use in your country when considering chemical control. Pesticides should always be used in a lawful manner, consistent with the product's label.

        Small infestations of C. viscosa can be controlled by hand. Herbicide control includes the use of mono-linuron, trifluralin, chlorbromuron, atrazine, prometryne, terbutryne, metribuzin, diuron, and oxadiazon.

        References

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        Chandra SK, 2012. Invasive Alien Plants of Indian Himalayan Region- Diversity and Implication. American Journal of Plant Sciences, 3:177-184.

        Charles Darwin Foundation, 2008. Database inventory of introduced plant species in the rural and urban zones of Galapagos. Database inventory of introduced plant species in the rural and urban zones of Galapagos. Galapagos, Ecuador: Charles Darwin Foundation, unpaginated.

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        McMullen CK, 1999. Flowering plants of the Galápagos. Ithaca, New York, USA: Comstock Publisher Assoc., 370 pp.

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        Orchard AE, 1993. Flora of Australia. Vol. 50, Oceanic islands 2. Canberra: Australian Government Publishing Service.

        PIER, 2015. Pacific Islands Ecosystems at Risk. Honolulu, USA: HEAR, University of Hawaii. http://www.hear.org/pier/index.html

        PROTA, 2015. PROTA4U web database. Grubben GJH, Denton OA, eds. Wageningen, Netherlands: Plant Resources of Tropical Africa. http://www.prota4u.info

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        Schotman CYL, 1989. Plant pests of quarantine importance to the Caribbean. RLAC-PROVEG, No. 21:80 pp.

        Smith AC, 1981. Flora Vitiensis nova: a new flora of Fiji (spermatophytes only). Volume 2. 1981, 818 pp.; many pl. (8 col.).

        Space JC; Imada CT, 2004. Report to the Republic of Kiribati on invasive plant species on the islands of Tarawa, Abemama, Butaritari and Maiana. Cont. no. 2003-006 to the Pac. Biol. Surv. USDA Forest Service and Bishop Museum, Honolulu.

        Space JC; Waterhouse BM; Miles JE; Tiobech J; Rengulbai K, 2003. Report to the Republic of Palau on invasive plant species of environmental concern. Honolulu, USA: USDA Forest Service.

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        The Plant List, 2013. The Plant List: a working list of all plant species. Version 1.1. London, UK: Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. http://www.theplantlist.org

        Tucker GC; Vanderpool SS, 2010. Cleomaceae in Flora of North America North of Mexico, vol. 7. http://www.efloras.org/florataxon.aspx?flora_id=1&taxon_id=10199

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        Wu TL, 2001. Check List of Hong Kong Plants. In: Hong Kong Herbarium and the South China Institute of Botany. Agriculture, Fisheries and Conservation Department Bulletin 1 (revised), 384 pp. http://www.hkflora.com/v2/flora/plant_check_list.php

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        30/04/15 Original text by:

        Julissa Rojas-Sandoval, Department of Botany-Smithsonian NMNH, Washington DC, USA

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