Cirsium vulgare (spear thistle)
- Summary of Invasiveness
- Taxonomic Tree
- Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature
- Plant Type
- Distribution Table
- History of Introduction and Spread
- Risk of Introduction
- Habitat List
- Hosts/Species Affected
- Host Plants and Other Plants Affected
- Growth Stages
- Biology and Ecology
- Latitude/Altitude Ranges
- Air Temperature
- Rainfall Regime
- Soil Tolerances
- Natural enemies
- Notes on Natural Enemies
- Means of Movement and Dispersal
- Pathway Vectors
- Plant Trade
- Impact Summary
- Environmental Impact
- Impact: Biodiversity
- Threatened Species
- Social Impact
- Risk and Impact Factors
- Uses List
- Similarities to Other Species/Conditions
- Prevention and Control
- Distribution Maps
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PicturesTop of page
IdentityTop of page
Preferred Scientific Name
- Cirsium vulgare (Savi) Ten.
Preferred Common Name
- spear thistle
Other Scientific Names
- Ascalea lanceolata (L.) Hill
- Carduus lanceolatus L.
- Carduus vulgaris Savi
- Cirsium lanceolatum (L.) Scop.
- Cirsium vulgare (Savi) Airy-Shaw
- Cnicus lanceolatus (L.) Willd.
International Common Names
- English: bank thistle; bell thistle; bird thistle; blue thistle; bull thistle; bur thistle; burr thistle; button thistle; common burr thistle; Fuller's thistle; lance-leaved thistle; plum thistle; roadside thistle
- Spanish: cardo lanceolado
- French: chardon lancéolé; cirse a feuilles lanceolees
- Russian: bodyak obiknovennii
Local Common Names
- Argentina: cardo negro
- Australia: black thistle; spear thistle
- Chile: cardo negro
- Denmark: horsetodsel
- Finland: piikkiohdake
- Germany: Gemeine Kratzdistel; Karmedik; Lanzettblaettrige Kratzdistel; Speerdistel
- Italy: cardo asinino; cardo lanceolato
- Japan: Amerikaoniazami; Amerika-oni-azami
- Netherlands: shaapdissel; speerdistel
- New Zealand: scotch thistle
- South Africa: scotch thistle
- Sweden: vaegtistel
- Uruguay: cardo negro
- USA/Hawaii: spear thistle
- CIRVU (Cirsium vulgare)
Summary of InvasivenessTop of page
Taxonomic TreeTop of page
- Domain: Eukaryota
- Kingdom: Plantae
- Phylum: Spermatophyta
- Subphylum: Angiospermae
- Class: Dicotyledonae
- Order: Asterales
- Family: Asteraceae
- Genus: Cirsium
- Species: Cirsium vulgare
Notes on Taxonomy and NomenclatureTop of page
DescriptionTop of page
Plant TypeTop of page
DistributionTop of page
Distribution TableTop of page
The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.Last updated: 25 Feb 2021
|Continent/Country/Region||Distribution||Last Reported||Origin||First Reported||Invasive||Reference||Notes|
|Bosnia and Herzegovina||Present||Native|
|Netherlands||Present||Native||Original citation: Klinkhamer & de Jong, 1993|
|Canada||Present||Introduced||Invasive||First reported: before 1821|
|-British Columbia||Present, Widespread||Introduced|
|-Newfoundland and Labrador||Present||Introduced||Invasive|
|-Prince Edward Island||Present||Introduced|
|Saint Pierre and Miquelon||Present||Introduced|
|-New South Wales||Present||Introduced|
|-Tasmania||Present||Introduced||First reported: 1830s|
History of Introduction and SpreadTop of page
Risk of IntroductionTop of page
HabitatTop of page
Habitat ListTop of page
|Terrestrial||Managed||Cultivated / agricultural land||Present, no further details||Harmful (pest or invasive)|
|Terrestrial||Managed||Managed forests, plantations and orchards||Present, no further details||Harmful (pest or invasive)|
|Terrestrial||Managed||Managed grasslands (grazing systems)||Present, no further details||Harmful (pest or invasive)|
|Terrestrial||Managed||Disturbed areas||Present, no further details||Harmful (pest or invasive)|
|Terrestrial||Managed||Rail / roadsides||Present, no further details||Harmful (pest or invasive)|
|Terrestrial||Managed||Urban / peri-urban areas||Present, no further details||Harmful (pest or invasive)|
|Terrestrial||Natural / Semi-natural||Natural grasslands||Present, no further details||Harmful (pest or invasive)|
|Terrestrial||Natural / Semi-natural||Riverbanks||Present, no further details||Harmful (pest or invasive)|
|Littoral||Coastal areas||Present, no further details||Harmful (pest or invasive)|
Hosts/Species AffectedTop of page
Host Plants and Other Plants AffectedTop of page
|Allium cepa (onion)||Liliaceae||Other|
|Avena sativa (oats)||Poaceae||Main|
|Brassica napus var. napus (rape)||Brassicaceae||Other|
|Citrus sinensis (navel orange)||Rutaceae||Other|
|Fragaria ananassa (strawberry)||Rosaceae||Other|
|Gossypium herbaceum (short staple cotton)||Malvaceae||Other|
|Hordeum vulgare (barley)||Poaceae||Main|
|Linum usitatissimum (flax)||Other|
|Medicago sativa (lucerne)||Fabaceae||Main|
|Oryza sativa (rice)||Poaceae||Main|
|Pinus ponderosa (ponderosa pine)||Pinaceae||Other|
|Pisum sativum (pea)||Fabaceae||Other|
|Solanum tuberosum (potato)||Solanaceae||Other|
|Sorghum bicolor (sorghum)||Poaceae||Main|
|Triticum aestivum (wheat)||Poaceae||Main|
|Vitis vinifera (grapevine)||Vitaceae||Other|
|Zea mays (maize)||Poaceae||Main|
Growth StagesTop of page
Biology and EcologyTop of page
The chromosome number for C. vulgare is 2n=68 (Moore and Frankton, 1962; Grime et al., 1988). This number is not shared by other Cirsium species, as they have half or lower numbers of chromosomes than 68 (Moore and Frankton, 1974). Natural hybrids have been described between C. vulgare and other Cirsium species, including: C. x bipontinum, C. x breunium, C. x csepeliense, C. dissectum x C. vulgare, C. x gerhardtii (= C. x grandiflorum), C. x narbonese, C. x reyi, C. x sabaudum and C. x subspinuligerum (Klinkhamer and Jong, 1993).
Physiology and Phenology
C. vulgare achenes germinate throughout the year, with a small peak in autumn and large peak in spring (Klinkhamer and Jong, 1993). Some achenes germinate as soon as they reach the soil in late summer or early autumn if adequate germination conditions are met. In the first year, a basal rosette is formed that becomes vernalized after experiencing a winter season. If the rosette has attained a large enough size in spring it then bolts and flowers (Wesselingh et al., 1994). Vernalization is usually required for flower initiation (Groves and Kaye, 1989; Downs, 1998). Wesselingh et al. (1994) found that genotypes that flowered without cold in their first year were annuals, originating mainly from the south of Europe, while genotypes that flowered after experiencing winter cold in their second year were biennials, originating from the northern European populations. Under nutrient-rich conditions, C. vulgare behaved as a biennial (Jong et al., 1987) whereas some individuals require 4-5 years to flower and set achenes (Forcella and Randall, 1994). Achenes of C. vulgare have a wide range of germination responses depending on the geographic location of the population from which the achenes have been collected. In Australia, fresh seeds had 10-20% germination whereas those stored for three and six months had 50% and 80% germination, respectively (Forcella and Wood, 1986a). Fresh seeds collected from German and British populations had 26-42% germination (Tothill and Berry, 1981), 60-90% from the Netherlands (Klinkhamer and Jong, 1993) and 90-100% from Canada (Doucet and Cavers, 1997). Germination of C. vulgare seed can be affected by moisture, light availability, gap size and temperature (Cavers et al., 1998). Germination can be delayed by prolonged attachment to the pappus (Manku, 1998), leaf litter cover (Downs and Cavers, 2002), wetting and drying in the soil (Downs and Cavers, 2000) and overwintering at chilling temperatures in darkness (Doucet and Cavers, 1997). Under laboratory conditions, achene coat microorganisms from an undisturbed site promoted germination of C. vulgare. Mortality of seedlings was higher in undisturbed sites than in disturbed sites (van Leeuwen, 1981). The seeds germinate over a wide range of temperatures from as low as 5°C (Doucet and Cavers, 1997) to as high as 30°C (Lincoln, 1981). Fresh seeds have a higher optimum temperature for germination than stored seeds (23.5°C vs. 20.0°C) (Michaux, 1989b). C. vulgare is less sensitive to low water potential than other thistle species (Groves and Kaye, 1989). Seed require light to germinate (Klinkhamer and Jong, 1993; van Staden et al., 1995) and seeds that are induced into secondary dormancy by storing them under moist conditions in the darkness will not germinate in the absence of light (Klinkhamer and Jong, 1993; Doucet and Cavers, 1997). Seeds that do not germinate upon dispersal enter the seed bank and germinate at a later time (Forcella and Randall, 1994). Some authors support the formation of a persistent seed bank (Clark and Wilson, 1994; Doucet and Cavers, 1996, 1997) although others do not (van Breeman and van Leeuwen, 1983; Klinkhamer et al., 1988). In different years, the seed bank of C. vulgare was estimated at 1480-26371 seed per m² (Forcella and Wood, 1986a). About 20% of the seed bank can be lost through rodent consumption (Mitich, 1998). Various secondary metabolites including flavonoids (McGowan and Wallace, 1972; Wagner, 1977), phenolic acids (McGowan and Wallace, 1972) and alkaloids (Hultin and Torssell, 1965) have been extracted from this species.
C. vulgare flowers from late July to October and sets seed from August to October in the northern hemisphere (Grime et al., 1988). In the southern hemisphere, C. vulgare flowers and sets seed from late January (Groves and Kaye, 1989) to late May (Forcella and Wood, 1986b). Ovule fertilization occurs by self- or cross-pollination that can be accomplished by wind and insects. The flowers are pollinated by a variety of insects which feed on the nectar present at the base of the corolla. Bees (Apis spp. and Bombus spp.) are the most important pollinators, but butterflies and hoverflies have also been observed to serve as pollinators (Forcella and Randall, 1994). In the UK, a dawn-to-dusk study showed that C. vulgare flowers were visited by shorter-tongued bumblebees and honey bees (Fussell and Corbet, 1991). Self-pollination results in the production of fewer, heavier achenes than does cross-pollination (van Leeuwen, 1981). C. vulgare reproduces only by seed (Parsons and Cuthbertson, 1992). Depending on size and duration of flowering, a single C. vulgare plant can produce from one to over 400 capitula (Forcella and Randall, 1994), each capitulum containing 100-700 achenes (Manku, 1998). Overall, a plant can produce from 1600 (Jong et al., 1987) to 8400 achenes (Forcella and Wood, 1986a), a healthy plant may produce 5000 achenes, while an exceptional individual can produce up to 50000 achenes (Holm et al., 1997). Achenes from the centre of the capitulum are heavier, longer and wider than those from the periphery (Manku, 1998). The central achenes are flat, whereas the peripheral ones are curved (Manku, 1998). Achenes are dispersed by water, wind, animals and machinery. The most important means of dispersal is hay contaminated with see (Parsons and Cuthbertson, 1992). After dispersal and before germination, achenes reside briefly on or just below the soil surface, remaining viable for one year or longer, and some achenes may persist for five years (Mitich, 1998). C. vulgare achenes buried at 0-2, 5 or 20 cm, when collected and germinated three years later, had 1.4, 30.9 and 50.5% viability, respectively (Anon., 1986).
C. vulgare is generally a species of open areas with large amounts of light but can also occur in shaded areas on south-facing slopes (Grime et al., 1988; Klinkhamer and Jong, 1993). It grows in mesic habitats but can survive in dry sites on north-facing slopes (Klinkhamer and Jong, 1993). It grows in soils with different textures (light, medium and heavy) and with wide pH ranges, from very acid (pH3) to alkaline (pH8), but it is most common on soils of pH>5 (Grime et al., 1988). It is less common in sand and on soils with more than 30% humus content and is almost absent from pure clay (Klinkhamer and Jong, 1993). C. vulgare performs optimally at high nutrient concentrations (Austin et al., 1985) and prefers heavy soils of reasonable fertility and grows well under irrigation (Parsons and Cuthbertson, 1992). It proliferates and thrives in heavily grazed pastures subject to nitrogen fertilization (Doing et al., 1969; Michael, 1970). However, soil potassium and phosphorus levels do not seem to influence its distribution (Klinkhamer and Jong, 1993). C. vulgare is not a wetland species but sometimes can be found on exposed mud at the margin of open water (Grime et al., 1988). It generally grows at altitudes up to 400 m, but suitable habitats are more common at lower altitudes (Grime et al., 1988). However, infestations have been found as high as 2800 m in Utah, USA (Dewey, 1991) and 3100 m in Ecuador (Missouri Botanical Garden, 2003).
C. vulgare is often associated with perennial communities (e.g., grasslands) as well as species of disturbed habitats. In New Zealand, the fauna associated with C. vulgare were collected from rosettes, flowers and seed heads. This fauna is characterized as non-specific, non-damaging and impoverished with respect to Diptera and Coleoptera when compared with European and Asiatic faunas collected from C. vulgare (Michaux, 1989a). Symbiotic associations between C. vulgare and vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi have been found (Berch et al., 1988; Harris and Clapperton, 1997; Wilson and Hartnett, 1998). American goldfinches (Carduelis tristis) feed on the achenes and use the pappi to build nests (Mariani et al., 1993) and the plant also provides good cover for nesting birds (Wilson, 1981).
Latitude/Altitude RangesTop of page
|Latitude North (°N)||Latitude South (°S)||Altitude Lower (m)||Altitude Upper (m)|
Air TemperatureTop of page
|Parameter||Lower limit||Upper limit|
|Absolute minimum temperature (ºC)||-24|
|Mean annual temperature (ºC)||2||15|
|Mean maximum temperature of hottest month (ºC)||14||29|
|Mean minimum temperature of coldest month (ºC)||-12||2|
RainfallTop of page
|Parameter||Lower limit||Upper limit||Description|
|Dry season duration||1||2||number of consecutive months with <40 mm rainfall|
|Mean annual rainfall||500||2000||mm; lower/upper limits|
Rainfall RegimeTop of page
Soil TolerancesTop of page
Special soil tolerances
Natural enemiesTop of page
|Natural enemy||Type||Life stages||Specificity||References||Biological control in||Biological control on|
|Ceutorhyncus trimaculatus||Herbivore||Growing point|
|Rhinocyllus conicus||Herbivore||Inflorescence/Seeds||South Africa|
|Urophora stylata||Herbivore||Inflorescence||British Columbia; South Africa|
Notes on Natural EnemiesTop of page
Means of Movement and DispersalTop of page
The only significant method of dispersal is by achenes, each of which is equipped with a pappus. Since the pappus often becomes detached before the achene leaves the head, it is not well dispersed by wind. Nevertheless, air currents may carry occasional achenes with pappus firmly attached several kilometres (Parsons and Cuthbertson, 1992; Mitich, 1998). However, half of the achenes produced are dispersed to within 1 m of the parent plant, and only 11% are dispersed outside of the local population no matter what method of dispersal operates (Klinkhamer et al., 1988).
Vector Transmission (Biotic)
Achenes can be moved long distances by attachment to vehicles and farm machinery (Parsons and Cuthbertson, 1992). Achenes can also be carried on the fur and feathers of animals and in the manure of animals carried on hooves (Hyde-Wyatt and Morris, 1980; Holm et al., 1997). The presence of elaiosomes (fleshy appendages) on C. vulgare achenes facilitates their dispersal by ants (Pemberton and Irving, 1990).
Seeding plants contaminate hay, which can be carried to new areas and serves as an important means of dispersal (Parsons and Cuthbertson, 1992).
C. vulgare achenes can contaminate crop seeds, and flowering plants may contaminate hay, which serve as accidental pathways for the introduction of this weed to new locations (Hyde-Wyatt and Morris, 1980; Parsons and Cuthbertson, 1992; Forcella and Randall, 1994).
C. vulgare was probably introduced deliberately as an ornamental plant or for other purposes (Mitich, 1998).
Pathway VectorsTop of page
Plant TradeTop of page
|Plant parts liable to carry the pest in trade/transport||Pest stages||Borne internally||Borne externally||Visibility of pest or symptoms|
|Fruits (inc. pods)||seeds|
|Growing medium accompanying plants||seeds|
|True seeds (inc. grain)||seeds|
|Plant parts not known to carry the pest in trade/transport|
|Stems (above ground)/Shoots/Trunks/Branches|
Impact SummaryTop of page
|Fisheries / aquaculture||None|
ImpactTop of page
Environmental ImpactTop of page
Impact: BiodiversityTop of page
Threatened SpeciesTop of page
|Threatened Species||Conservation Status||Where Threatened||Mechanism||References||Notes|
|Centrocercus minimus (Gunnison sage-grouse)||USA ESA listing as threatened species||Colorado; Utah||Ecosystem change / habitat alteration||US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2013|
|Cirsium pitcheri (Pitcher's thistle)||NatureServe; USA ESA listing as threatened species||Illinois; Indiana; Michigan; Wisconsin||Hybridization||US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2010a|
|Cirsium vinaceum (Sacramento Mountains thistle)||NatureServe; USA ESA listing as threatened species||New Mexico||Competition (unspecified); Ecosystem change / habitat alteration||US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2010b|
|Cirsium wrightii (Wright's marsh thistle)||NatureServe; USA ESA candidate species||Arizona; New Mexico||Competition (unspecified); Ecosystem change / habitat alteration||US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2015|
|Speyeria callippe callippe (callippe silverspot butterfly)||USA ESA listing as endangered species||California||Ecosystem change / habitat alteration||US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2009|
Social ImpactTop of page
Risk and Impact FactorsTop of page
- Invasive in its native range
- Proved invasive outside its native range
- Highly adaptable to different environments
- Tolerates, or benefits from, cultivation, browsing pressure, mutilation, fire etc
- Highly mobile locally
- Has high reproductive potential
- Has propagules that can remain viable for more than one year
- Damaged ecosystem services
- Ecosystem change/ habitat alteration
- Negatively impacts agriculture
- Negatively impacts human health
- Negatively impacts animal health
- Negatively impacts tourism
- Reduced amenity values
- Reduced native biodiversity
- Competition - monopolizing resources
- Competition (unspecified)
- Pest and disease transmission
- Produces spines, thorns or burrs
- Highly likely to be transported internationally accidentally
- Highly likely to be transported internationally deliberately
- Difficult/costly to control
UsesTop of page
Uses ListTop of page
- Host of pest
Similarities to Other Species/ConditionsTop of page
Prevention and ControlTop of page
Due to the variable regulations around (de)registration of pesticides, your national list of registered pesticides or relevant authority should be consulted to determine which products are legally allowed for use in your country when considering chemical control. Pesticides should always be used in a lawful manner, consistent with the product's label.Cultural Control
The ability of thistles to invade pastures can be changed by grazing management (Sindel, 1991), primarily by changing the competitiveness of the desirable pasture species (Sindel, 1996). Sheep, goats and horses, but not cattle, have a significant effect on thistles in the early stages of infestation when they eat young plants (Wheatley, 1981; Olson and Lacey, 1994). In one study, J. Leigh (in Davidson, 1990) showed that goats, which have a reputation for eating everything, tend to avoid thistle foliage but ate all capitula of C. vulgare available to them and thus completely prevented seed dispersal from mature plants. Sheep grazing can reduce competition from neighbouring plants and increase seedling survival, growth, flowering and achene production in C. vulgare (Forcella and Wood, 1986a; Silvertown and Smith, 1989). The percentage of seedlings that survived through to the rosette stage was 1% under grazed conditions and 0.2% in ungrazed pastures (Forcella and Wood, 1986a). Bullock et al. (1994) found no effects of grazing on achene number per capitula, post-dispersal achene survival or between-year survivals in the seed bank. In New Zealand, frequent grazing and sowing of prairie grass cv. Matua, increased the establishment of C. vulgare (Pineiro and Harris, 1987). Establishing and maintaining dense, vigorous and competitive pasture can effectively prevent C. vulgare establishment as shown in swards of pasture species and legumes (Wardle et al., 1992). Stocking pastures is an essential step in thistle control. In Australia, conservation of ryegrass (Lolium rigidum) in pastures infested with C. vulgare has been recommended (Forcella and Wood, 1986a). An increase in ryegrass sowing density caused a decrease in C. vulgare biomass and increased time to flowering (Seefeldt and Armstrong, 2000). However, sowing C. vulgare achenes 12 months after the establishment of ryegrass did not affect emergence and survival of C. vulgare (Armstrong et al., 2002).
In pastures previously given weed control treatments, cultivation and cropping was a successful control method. Small areas can be eradicated by excavating the rosettes. Mowing and slashing can only be effective if done either immediately prior to flowering or when plants are just starting to flower (Sindel, 1991) otherwise flowering is merely delayed (Harris and Wilkinson, 1984). Cutting can reduce the number of thistles primarily by reducing achene input (Randall, 1990). The plants must be cut off below the soil surface and no leaves can remain attached or it will grow back. When mowing is carried out too early it may only delay flowering, however, if plants are cut too late in the flowering process viable seed may still develop in the capitula following cutting. As there can be a wide variation in the maturity of plants, a single mowing is unlikely to provide satisfactory control (Sindel, 1991) and repeated mowing throughout the entire growing season has proved successful (Wheatley, 1981). In addition, reduced vegetative matter from mowing will allow autumn use of herbicides to be more effective. Hand-pulling, hoeing and tillage can be successful if these operations are performed before the reproductive growth stages to prevent cypsela production (Beck, 1999). Besides encouraging competing vegetation where possible, every effort should be made to prevent established plants from going to seed. It is worth mentioning that this kind of control is very labour-intensive.
Most herbicides give temporary control of thistles. Effective herbicides include dicamba (Wheatley, 1981), MCPA, 2,4-D and 2,4-D ester, (Harris and Wilkinson, 1984; Anon., 1986), or mixtures of 2,4-D + diuron, 2,4-D + triclopyr, or glyphosate + clopyralid (Leys et al., 1990; Parsons and Cuthbertson, 1992). Also, picloram, metsulfuron, chlorsulfuron (Beck, 1999), bentazon (Fellows, 1973), imazapyr (van Cantford et al., 1985), or mixtures of MCPA + terbutryne (Patterson, 1973) are used to control C. vulgare. In alfalfa fields, non-selective control can be achieved effectively by glyphosate or dicamba, with or without MCPA, in situations where legume damage is acceptable. In a strawberry plantation, 3,6-dichloropicolinic acid in gel formulation was effective at killing C. vulgare in autumn (Lawson and Wiseman, 1982). Cyanazine can be used selectively to remove C. vulgare in peas (Pisum sativum), onions (Allium cepa) and potatoes (Solanum tuberosum) (Parsons and Cuthbertson, 1992). Application rates can vary, depending on stand density and environmental conditions. Herbicides should be applied to rosettes in autumn or in the spring before the plants bolt (Beck, 1991).
Biological control programmes against C. vulgare have been initiated in North America as a result of its invasiveness and associated economic losses. These include the release of a gall forming fruit fly, Urophora stylata (Tephritidae), and a thistle head weevil, Rhinocyllus conicus (Curculionidae) (Forcella and Randall, 1994). In Canada, U. stylata was released in 1973 and led to a 65% reduction in achene formation in some areas after three years (Parsons and Cuthbertson, 1992). This fruit fly is effective in controlling C. vulgare in central and western Europe, but results in North America show that fly dispersal is slow and the agent only survives in dense stands of C. vulgare (Harris and Wilkinson, 1984). R. conicus has a wide host range and can be a potential threat to native thistle species in North America (Turner et al., 1987). Its potential as a biocontrol agent has been investigated in Australia (Parsons and Cuthbertson, 1992). Two rosette-feeding weevils, Ceutorhynchus trimaculatus and Trichosirocalus horridus, were released in 1974 to control other carduine thistles in North America and have now spread to C. vulgare (Kok et al., 1979; McAvoy et al., 1987). None of these insects have provided adequate control of C. vulgare (Forcella and Randall, 1994). In Czechoslovakia, Terellia serratulae and U. stylata were recommended as biocontrol agents for C. vulgare. U. stylata produces galls in the flower heads of C. vulgare causing a reduction in the number of cypselas. T. serratulae does not produce galls but larvae of this species feeding on cypselas decrease seed production of the host plant. Larvae of both species can develop in the same flower head (Kinkorova, 1991). In South Africa, U. stylata from Germany and France and R. conicus from France were released on infestations of C. vulgare on several occasions from 1983 onwards. Initially, both herbivores became established and the results were modest (Zimmermann, 1990; 1991). However, the latest survey (Hodson et al., 2003) indicates that the contribution of R. conicus has been slight due to unidentified constraints, at least in the two localized areas that the weevils currently occupy. The fungus Sclerotinia sclerotiorum has been shown to have potential as a biological herbicide for controlling C. vulgare in pastures (Bourdôt and Harvey, 1996).
Control methods that have been used to date are either not very effective and just temporarily remove C. vulgare from the site, or can be costly and detrimental to crops (Wheatley, 1981). The methods that are currently applied create many practical problems (Minehan, 1996), however, a combination of these methods may help prevent this species from further invasion. Pulling out the plants by hand, grazing young plants with goats or using herbicide on young plants to prevent seed set, seeding disturbed areas with competitive native perennials (Parsons and Cuthbertson, 1992) and soil solarization (Nasr-Esfahani, 1993) could all play a part of integrated management and control. Also, disturbance of soil and vegetation can advance germination (Klinkhamer and Jong, 1988) which may help synchronize the germination of C. vulgare and improve the effectiveness of chemical control.
ReferencesTop of page
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Anon., 1986. Spear thistle and variegated thistle. Journal of Agriculture, Tasmania, 49:187-191.
Armstrong ML, Harrington KC, Seefeldt SS, 2002. Weed establishment in the second year after high pasture sowing rates. New Zealand Plant Protection Volume 55, 2002. Proceedings of a conference, Centra Hotel, Rotorua, New Zealand, 13-15 August 2002, 116-120; 8 ref
Ashton DH, 1981. Fire in tall open-forests (wet sclerophyll forests). In: Gill AM, Groves RH, Noble IR, eds. Fire and the Australian biota. Canberra, Australia: The Australian Academy of Science, 339-366
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Barrow DA, Pickard RS, 1984. Size-related selection of food plants by bumblebees. Ecological Entomology, 9:369-373
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Bullock JM, Hill BC, Silvertown J, 1994. Demography of Cirsium vulgare in a grazing experiment. Journal of Ecology, 82:101-111
Clark DL, Wilson MV, 1994. Heat-treatment effects on seed bank species of an old-growth douglas-fir forest. Northwest Science, 68:1-5
Crow TR, Mroz GD, Gale MR, 1991. Regrowth and nutrient accumulations following whole-tree harvesting of a maple-oak forest. Canadian Journal of Forest Research, 21:1305-1315
Darbyshire SJ, 2003. Inventory of Canadian agricultural weeds. Ottawa, Canada: Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada
Dawe RS, Green CM, MacLead TM, Ferguson J, 1996. Daisy, dandelion and thistle contact allergy in the photosensitivity dermatitis and actinic reticuloid syndrome. Contact Dermatitis, 35:109-110
Dewey SA, 1991. Weed thistles of the western United States. In: James LF, Evans JO, Ralphs MH, Child RD, eds. Noxious Range Weeds. Boulder, Colorado, USA: Westview Press, 247-253
Doing H, Biddiscombe EF, Knedlhans S, 1969. Ecology and distribution of the Carduus nutans group (nodding thistles) in Australia. Vegetatio, 17:313-351
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