Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Cinnamomum burmanni
(padang cassia)

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Datasheet

Cinnamomum burmanni (padang cassia)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 07 February 2019
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Host Plant
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Cinnamomum burmanni
  • Preferred Common Name
  • padang cassia
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Plantae
  •     Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •       Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •         Class: Dicotyledonae
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • Originally from Asia, C. burmanni has been introduced to several wet tropical and subtropical areas such as Hawaii and Florida. It produces a large number of small (8–10 mm) dark fruit which are dispersed by bi...

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Cinnamomum burmanni (padang cassia); habit, bark and foliage. West Poelua, West Maui, Maui, Hawaii, USA. May, 2009.
TitleHabit
CaptionCinnamomum burmanni (padang cassia); habit, bark and foliage. West Poelua, West Maui, Maui, Hawaii, USA. May, 2009.
Copyright©Forest Starr & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Cinnamomum burmanni (padang cassia); habit, bark and foliage. West Poelua, West Maui, Maui, Hawaii, USA. May, 2009.
HabitCinnamomum burmanni (padang cassia); habit, bark and foliage. West Poelua, West Maui, Maui, Hawaii, USA. May, 2009.©Forest Starr & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Cinnamomum burmannii (Padang cassia); canopy and trunk. Kahana, Maui, Hawaii, USA. October, 2011.
TitleCanopy and trunk
CaptionCinnamomum burmannii (Padang cassia); canopy and trunk. Kahana, Maui, Hawaii, USA. October, 2011.
Copyright©Forest Starr & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Cinnamomum burmannii (Padang cassia); canopy and trunk. Kahana, Maui, Hawaii, USA. October, 2011.
Canopy and trunkCinnamomum burmannii (Padang cassia); canopy and trunk. Kahana, Maui, Hawaii, USA. October, 2011.©Forest Starr & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Cinnamomum burmannii (Padang cassia); foliage. Kahana, Maui, Hawaii, USA. October, 2011.
TitleFoliage
CaptionCinnamomum burmannii (Padang cassia); foliage. Kahana, Maui, Hawaii, USA. October, 2011.
Copyright©Forest Starr & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Cinnamomum burmannii (Padang cassia); foliage. Kahana, Maui, Hawaii, USA. October, 2011.
FoliageCinnamomum burmannii (Padang cassia); foliage. Kahana, Maui, Hawaii, USA. October, 2011.©Forest Starr & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Cinnamomum burmannii (Padang cassia); young leaves. Haiku, Maui, Hawaii, USA. February, 2009.
TitleLeaves
CaptionCinnamomum burmannii (Padang cassia); young leaves. Haiku, Maui, Hawaii, USA. February, 2009.
Copyright©Forest Starr & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Cinnamomum burmannii (Padang cassia); young leaves. Haiku, Maui, Hawaii, USA. February, 2009.
LeavesCinnamomum burmannii (Padang cassia); young leaves. Haiku, Maui, Hawaii, USA. February, 2009.©Forest Starr & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Cinnamomum burmannii (Padang cassia); leaves and shoots. West Poelua, West Maui, Maui, Hawaii, USA. May, 2009.
TitleLeaves and shoots
CaptionCinnamomum burmannii (Padang cassia); leaves and shoots. West Poelua, West Maui, Maui, Hawaii, USA. May, 2009.
Copyright©Forest Starr & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Cinnamomum burmannii (Padang cassia); leaves and shoots. West Poelua, West Maui, Maui, Hawaii, USA. May, 2009.
Leaves and shootsCinnamomum burmannii (Padang cassia); leaves and shoots. West Poelua, West Maui, Maui, Hawaii, USA. May, 2009.©Forest Starr & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Cinnamomum burmanni (Nees & T.Nees) Blume

Preferred Common Name

  • padang cassia

Other Scientific Names

  • Cinnamomum chinense Blume
  • Cinnamomum hainanense Nakai
  • Cinnamomum macrostemon Hayata
  • Cinnamomum mindanaense Elmer
  • Cinnnamomum mutabile Blume ex Miq.
  • Laurus burmanni Nees & T.Nees
  • Laurus dulcis Roxb.

International Common Names

  • English: batavia cinnamon; batavia-cassia; cassia; cassia vera; indonesian cinnamon; indonesian-cassia; java-cassia; malayan cinnamon; malaysian cinnamon; padang cassia; padang cinnamon; padang-cassia
  • Spanish: canela china; canelero de china; cannelier de malaisie
  • Chinese: yin xiang
  • Portuguese: falsa-canforeira; falsa-canforeira

Local Common Names

  • France: cannelier de malaisie
  • Germany: Birmazimt; Birmazimtbaum; Padangzimt; Padangzimtbaum; Zimtbaum
  • Indonesia: kayu manis; ki amis; manis jangan
  • Netherlands: korintje
  • Philippines: kaliñgag; kami
  • Thailand: suramarit

EPPO code

  • CINBU

Summary of Invasiveness

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Originally from Asia, C. burmanni has been introduced to several wet tropical and subtropical areas such as Hawaii and Florida. It produces a large number of small (8–10 mm) dark fruit which are dispersed by birds. It most commonly establishes in moist to mesic sites but its potential range may be broader, in at least one case it has established in dry forests in lowland Hawaii (Medeiros et al., 2014). As a shade tolerant, canopy tree with dense shading foliage and fast growth, C. burmanni can form monocultures which outcompete native flora and has been found to impact on several endangered species in Hawaii where it is regarded as a harmful invasive species and is subject to control in a few sites.

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Plantae
  •         Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •             Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •                 Class: Dicotyledonae
  •                     Order: Laurales
  •                         Family: Lauraceae
  •                             Genus: Cinnamomum
  •                                 Species: Cinnamomum burmanni

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

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The genus Cinnamomum (family Lauraceae) contains about 350 species indigenous to the Asia-Pacific Region and tropical America. The basionym for C. burmanni is Laurus burmannii (Wuu-Kuang, 2011). The specific epithet is probably related to either J. Burmann (1707–1779), physician, or Nicolaus Burmann (1733–1793), professor of botany at Amsterdam (Gledhill, 2008), as opposed to it being from Burma as claimed elsewhere (Motooka et al., 2002).

One author has recently made the case that due to rules about naming priority, Laurus nitida and Cinnamomum nitidum are the correct basionym and name for C. burmanni. The author however proposed to reject these names in order to maintain the accepted nomenclature of this important spice plant (Turner, 2013a, 2013b).

The original epithet was burmanni and subsequent use of the epithet burmannii (with a second “i” at the end) is an error (Turner, 2013b).

Description

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C. burmanni are trees to 20 m tall, 12–30 cm in diameter. Bark smooth, greyish brown; inner bark fragrant; sapwood yellowish. Twigs slender, terete, 2–3 mm diam, apically subangular, glabrous, dark brown to blackish. Terminal buds not perulate, conical, c. 2 mm long, densely covered with straight appressed hairs. Leaves opposite or subopposite, pale greenish brown, triplinerved, chartaceous, glabrous below; blade not bullate, without domatia, lanceolate, (6–)8–12(–15) by 2–4.5 cm, base cuneate, apex acute with blunt tip, tapering gradually, acumen indistinct; midrib raised on both sides, less than 1 mm broad; lateral veins raised on both sides, extending to about 2/3 – 3/4 the length of blade; major intercostal veins slender, subscalariform, c. 2 mm apart, less prominent than midrib; minor intercostal veins faint, reticulate; petiole slender, distinctly grooved above, glabrous, 1–1.5 cm long, less than 1 mm diam. Inflorescences axillary or subterminal, slender, paniculate-cymose with first order branching, 2–12 cm long; rachis to 1 mm broad, minutely appressed hairy. Flowers minutely appressed hairy; pedicels slender, 3–5 mm long; hypanthium 1–1.5 mm high; perianth lobes oblanceolate, c. 5 mm long, appressed hairy on both sides; fertile stamens 3–3.5 mm long, anthers 4-locular, oblong with truncate apex, filaments c. 3/4 the length of the stamen; glands shortly stalked or subsessile attached on each side at the middle or lower half of filaments; staminodes c. 1.5 mm long, sagittate; ovary ellipsoid, c. 1 mm across, stigma trilobed. Infructescences 4–8 cm long. Fruits ellipsoid or oblanceoloid with pointed tip, c. 10 by 5 mm; cupule funnel-shaped, shallow, c. 2 mm high, c. 3 mm diam, glabrous; perianth lobes partially persistent, abscised at c. 1/3 the length of the perianth lobes, leaving behind truncate apex, 1–1.5 mm long; pedicel, 5–8 mm long, c. 1 mm diam, glabrous (Wuu-Kuang, 2011).

Documented cases showed trees could reach 50 cm in diameter (Horcher, 2000). This exceeds species descriptions compiled by authors working in its native range and raises the possibility that when invasive, C. burmanni may grow to larger sizes.

Plant Type

Top of page Broadleaved
Perennial
Seed propagated
Tree
Woody

Distribution

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C. burmanni is native to China and Vietnam. This species has been introduced throughout Asia, into the Réunion islands and into Central, South and North America.

C. burmanni has been recorded as introduced and present in Mauritius (Wuu-Kuang, 2011); it is likely that this record is invalid and a result of a misidentification with C. verum, a troublesome invasive already present in Mauritius (Kueffer et al., 2007; C. Kueffer Geobotanical Institute ETH Zurich, Switzerland, personal communication, 2015).

The status of C. burmanni in the Philippines is vague in some references implying it could be native; however it seems to be a plantation escapee (Pelser et al., 2015). It is also cultivated in Indonesia (Java, Sumatra). C. burmanni is also present in Malesia. 

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasiveReferenceNotes

Asia

ChinaPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-FujianPresentNative Not invasive Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2014
-GuangdongPresentNative Not invasive Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2014
-GuangxiPresentNative Not invasive Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2014
-HainanPresentNative Not invasive Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2014
-Hong KongPresent Not invasive Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2014
-YunnanPresentNative Not invasive Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2014
IndiaPresentNative Not invasive Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2014
IndonesiaPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-JavaPresentNative Not invasive Blume, 1825; Pelser et al., 2015
-KalimantanLocalisedIntroducedWuu-Kuang, 2011Naturalized from abandoned plantations on Borneo
-SumatraPresentKew, 2015
MalaysiaPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-SabahLocalisedIntroducedWuu-Kuang, 2011Naturalized from abandoned plantations on Borneo
PhilippinesPresentFlora of China Editorial Committee, 2014; Kew, 2015; Pelser et al., 2015Jolo(Mt Dajo), Mindanao: Zamboanga, Davao (Mt Apo), and Surigao. In low and medium elevation forming thickets and forests
SingaporePresent only in captivity/cultivationIntroduced Not invasive Chong et al., 2009
TaiwanPresent only in captivity/cultivationIntroduced Not invasive Wuu-Kuang, 2011
VietnamPresentNative Not invasive WCMC, 1997; Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2014

Africa

MauritiusPresentIntroducedWuu-Kuang, 2011Likely that this record is invalid and a result of a misidentification with C. verum
RéunionLocalisedIntroduced Invasive PIER, 2015

North America

USAPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-FloridaPresentIntroducedFranck, 2012Early stages of naturalization in Sarasota County
-HawaiiPresentIntroduced Invasive Wester, 1992; Meidell et al., 1997; Starr et al., 2003Invasive forestry escape on the islands of Kaui, Oahu,Lanai, Maui and Hawaii. Serious pest on Northern West Maui Honokohau Valley

Central America and Caribbean

CubaPresent only in captivity/cultivationIntroduced Not invasive Acevedo-Rodríguez and Strong, 2012
Puerto RicoPresent only in captivity/cultivationIntroduced Not invasive Acevedo-Rodríguez and Strong, 2012

South America

BrazilPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-Rio Grande do SulPresent1988IntroducedNew York Botanical Garden, 2015
-Santa CatarinaPresentIntroducedMissouri Botanical Garden, 2015
PeruPresent1947IntroducedNew York Botanical Garden, 2015

History of Introduction and Spread

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C. burmanni has naturalized in Kalimantan and Sabah from plantations in Borneo (Sabah and Kalimantan), the Philippines, Taiwan and Hawaii and appears to be naturalized in Florida from an unknown source (Meidell et al., 1997; Woodcock, 2003; Lee et al., 2010; Wuu-Kuang, 2011; Franck, 2012; Pelser et al., 2015). Where escaped from plantations they were established in the early 1900s or earlier. Introductions elsewhere may have occurred at a similar time.

C. burmanni is listed as introduced in cultivation in Cuba and Puerto Rico (Acevedo-Rodríguez and Strong, 2012) and is also known to occur in Peru and Brazil (Missouri Botanical Garden, 2015; New York Botanical Garden, 2015). It could easily be naturalized in the latter countries and not recorded as such.

Introductions

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Introduced toIntroduced fromYearReasonIntroduced byEstablished in wild throughReferencesNotes
Natural reproductionContinuous restocking
Hawaii Asia 1910-1960 Forestry (pathway cause) Yes Starr et al. (2003) Invasive forestry escape on the islands of Kaui, Oahu, Maui and Hawaii

Risk of Introduction

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The various uses (wood, spice, medicine, essential oils) of C. burmanni may be enough incentive for intentional introduction of this species into new areas. C. burmanni produces a large number of fruits which are readily dispersed and remain viable after ingestion by birds. The Pacific Weed Risk Assessment (PIER, 2015) resulted in this species being given a high risk score of 12.

Habitat

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In general C. burmanni occurs in tropical or subtropical mesic to wet climates, but one account from Hawaii suggests it can also grow in dry forests (Medeiros et al., 2014). C. burmanni is typically planted as a forestry tree.

Habitat List

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CategorySub-CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Terrestrial
 
Terrestrial – ManagedManaged forests, plantations and orchards Principal habitat Harmful (pest or invasive)
Managed forests, plantations and orchards Principal habitat Natural
Managed forests, plantations and orchards Principal habitat Productive/non-natural
Terrestrial ‑ Natural / Semi-naturalNatural forests Principal habitat Harmful (pest or invasive)
Natural forests Principal habitat Natural
Natural forests Principal habitat Productive/non-natural

Biology and Ecology

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Genetics

The diploid chromosome number for C. burmanni is 2n = 24 (Weiss, 2002). C. burmanni can hybridize with a number of Cinnamomum species including C. osmophloeum (Lee et al., 2010).

Reproductive Biology

Flowers (small green-whitish flowers in panicles) are thought to be pollinated by bees. Regeneration under the parent tree from fall fruit or bird dispersed seed can lead to abundant seedling regeneration even in dense shade (Starr et al., 2003). A large number of fruits are produced with an average of 33760 fruits per tree (Laughlin, 2000). Trees can produce fruit within four years of germinating and seedling and sapling densities have averaged at 291 per m2 (Horcher, 2000).

Physiology and Phenology

In Hawaii, C. burmanni is known to germinate in both full shade or full sun (Starr et al., 2003).

Environmental Requirements

In Indonesia it occurs from sea level to 2000 m altitude, but in the important production area of Padang it grows best between 500 and 1500 m, with an evenly distributed annual rainfall of 2000–2500 mm. Light, rich sandy loams yield the best bark.

Climate

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ClimateStatusDescriptionRemark
A - Tropical/Megathermal climate Preferred Average temp. of coolest month > 18°C, > 1500mm precipitation annually
Af - Tropical rainforest climate Preferred > 60mm precipitation per month
Am - Tropical monsoon climate Preferred Tropical monsoon climate ( < 60mm precipitation driest month but > (100 - [total annual precipitation(mm}/25]))

Soil Tolerances

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Soil texture

  • heavy
  • light
  • medium

Means of Movement and Dispersal

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Natural Dispersal

Seeds are dispersed locally from fallen fruits which can regenerate under parent trees.

Vector Transmission

In Hawaii, the large numbers of shiny fleshy fruits of C. burmanni are dispersed by birds (Laughlin, 2000). Birds known to disperse the fruit and pass viable seed include the red-vented Bulbil (Pycnonotus cafer), red-whiskered Bulbul (Pycnonotus jocosus), Japanese white-eye (Zosterops japonicus) and spotted dove (Steptopelia chinensis) and less frequently the red-billed Leiothrix (Leiothrix lutea) and common Myna (Acridotheres tristis) (Laughlin, 2000). Laughlin (2000) also found that P. cafer had the longest exit flight distances and so may be the most important species for long distance dispersers.

Accidental Introduction

Accidental introductions may occur via the movement of seeds in the soil.

Intentional Introduction

C. burmanni was intentionally introduced into many countries worldwide for its utility as a spice, essential oils and as lumber (Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2014). 

Pathway Causes

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CauseNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Crop production Yes Yes Franck, 2012
Escape from confinement or garden escape Yes Yes
ForestryPlanted as forestry tree, escaped in wet windward sites on Hawaiian Islands Yes Yes Wagner et al., 1999
Horticulture Yes Yes Franck, 2012
Intentional release Yes Yes Franck, 2012
Ornamental purposes Yes Yes Franck, 2012

Pathway Vectors

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VectorNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Plants or parts of plants Yes Yes Franck, 2012
Soil, sand and gravel Yes Yes

Plant Trade

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Plant parts liable to carry the pest in trade/transportPest stagesBorne internallyBorne externallyVisibility of pest or symptoms
Leaves fruiting bodies; hyphae Yes Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Seedlings/Micropropagated plants fruiting bodies; hyphae Yes Yes Pest or symptoms usually invisible

Impact Summary

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CategoryImpact
Cultural/amenity Positive and negative
Economic/livelihood Positive and negative
Environment (generally) Negative
Human health Positive

Environmental Impact

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Impact on Habitats

On Oahu, Hawaii, C. burmanni is one of the major invasive species at the Manoa Cliff Native Forest Restoration project (G. Metzler, Manoa Cliff Native Restoration Project, Oahu, USA, personal communication, 2015). On Maui it is spreading in the Puu Kukui Watershed Preserve where it is one of a suite of species altering lowland mesic and wet habitats (Horcher, 2000). C. burmanni can coppice permitting the formation of dense monocultures in which other trees cannot establish underneath (Horcher, 2000) and changes the composition of native forest community types (USFWS, 2012).

Impact on Biodiversity

A federal review of endangered species on the island of Maui, Hawaii, lists C. burmanni and several other invasive species as a threat to more than a dozen species (USFWS, 2012). However, C. burmanni is spreading most significantly into wet lowland valleys in close proximity of the Puu Kukui Watershed area. It is in this area where C. burmanni is impacting upon the following endangered species; Santalum haleakalae var. lanaiense, Ctenitis squamigera, Cyanea asplenifolia, Cyanea lobata, Cyanea magnicalyx, Cyrtandra filipes, Cyrtandra munroi and one snail, Newcombia cumingi. Although not the main source of decline, the alteration of habitats contributes to the demise of endemic Hawaiian bird species (USFWS, 2012).

Threatened Species

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Threatened SpeciesConservation StatusWhere ThreatenedMechanismReferencesNotes
Ctenitis squamigeraCR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered) CR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered)HawaiiCompetition - monopolizing resources; Competition - shadingUSFWS, 2012
Cyanea asplenifolia (haha)CR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered) CR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered); National list(s) National list(s); USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiCompetition - monopolizing resources; Competition - shadingUSFWS, 2012
Cyanea lobataNational list(s) National list(s)HawaiiCompetition - monopolizing resources; Competition - shadingUSFWS, 2012
Cyanea magnicalyxCR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered) CR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered); National list(s) National list(s); USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiCompetition - monopolizing resources; Competition - shadingUSFWS, 2012
Cyrtandra filipesNatureServe NatureServe; USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiCompetition - monopolizing resources; Competition - shadingUSFWS, 2012
Cyrtandra munroiUSA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiCompetition - monopolizing resources; Competition - shadingUSFWS, 2012
Newcombia cumingi (Newcomb's tree snail)EN (IUCN red list: Endangered) EN (IUCN red list: Endangered); USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiCompetition - monopolizing resources; Competition - shadingUSFWS, 2012
Santalum haleakalae var. lanaiense (Lanai sandalwood)NatureServe NatureServe; USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiCompetition - monopolizing resources; Competition - shadingUSFWS, 2012

Risk and Impact Factors

Top of page Invasiveness
  • Proved invasive outside its native range
  • Has a broad native range
  • Abundant in its native range
  • Pioneering in disturbed areas
  • Tolerant of shade
  • Highly mobile locally
  • Benefits from human association (i.e. it is a human commensal)
  • Fast growing
  • Has high reproductive potential
Impact outcomes
  • Ecosystem change/ habitat alteration
  • Increases vulnerability to invasions
  • Modification of successional patterns
  • Monoculture formation
  • Reduced native biodiversity
  • Threat to/ loss of endangered species
  • Threat to/ loss of native species
Impact mechanisms
  • Competition - monopolizing resources
  • Competition - shading
  • Interaction with other invasive species
  • Rapid growth
Likelihood of entry/control
  • Highly likely to be transported internationally accidentally
  • Highly likely to be transported internationally deliberately
  • Difficult/costly to control

Uses

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Culinary uses

The culinary uses of Indonesian cassia are similar to those of Chinese cassia and cinnamon. Indonesian cinnamon is a widely used spice, mostly in the USA. For spice use, the bark is marketed as quills, chips, sheets, powder and as extract (oleoresin). It has an aromatic taste and a spicy fragrance. Cinnamon powder is widely used in home cooking and the extract is mostly used in processed foods, in which Indonesian cinnamon (as well as other cinnamon and Chinese cassia) improves the overall aromatic flavour and palatability. In the food industry, it is used in bakery products such as cakes, buns, biscuits, steamed puddings, pies, candies and chewing gums; it is also used in marinades, beverages, ice creams and many other products all over the world, most prevalently in North America. It is a component of the spice mixes used in Indonesian cooking and also in various South-east Asian countries. Bark and leaf oils are used in flavouring pharmaceutical products, perfumes and also in processed foods and beverages. In home cooking, it is used widely in many types of meat and fish dishes and also vegetable cuisines (Ravindran, 2017). The essential oil content of the bark is recorded as between 1 and 4%. The bark oil is colourless to brownish-yellow, mainly consisting of cinnamaldehyde and lacking eugenol. The leaf oil mainly consists of cinnamaldehyde, but the main constituent of the root bark is camphor.

Medicinal uses

In Hawaii this species is cultivated for forestry plantations. C. burmanni has some medicininal properties where it is used as a tonic and stimulant. In Indonesia, it is a very popular medicinal plant and is used for curing a variety of ailments. Dried bark, twigs and leaves are used in local and traditional medicine. The therapeutic effect of the bark is believed to be due to the phenolic compounds, as well as tannins and condensed tannins present in the bark. Dried bark is used in the treatment of ailments such as: inflammation, headache, pyrexia, diarrhoea, nausea, flatulence and also as a tonic. The medicinal properties are very similar to those given for Chinese cinnamon (Ravindran, 2017).

Uses List

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Environmental

  • Agroforestry

Fuels

  • Fuelwood

General

  • Sociocultural value

Human food and beverage

  • Beverage base
  • Leaves (for beverage)
  • Spices and culinary herbs

Materials

  • Wood/timber

Medicinal, pharmaceutical

  • Source of medicine/pharmaceutical
  • Traditional/folklore

Similarities to Other Species/Conditions

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In Taiwan C. burmanni is morphologically similar to C. osmophloeum and can hybridize with it (Lee et al., 2010). Similarities with C. calciphilum, C. grandifolium, C. kinabaluense, C. sintoc and C. verum have also been recorded (Wuu-Kuang, 2011).

Within the genus the following features are important for identification of C. burmanni; persistent perianth lobes when in fruit, being triplinerved, glabrous leaves, axillary or subterminal paniculate inflorescences shorter than the leaf, toothed perianth cup on fruit and basal lateral veins extending up to 3/4 of leaf blade or evanescent near apex and minutely appressed hairy flowers.

Prevention and Control

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Prevention

Eradication

Due to forestry style plantings and significant spread in Hawaii no attempts have been made to eradicate this species completely from individual islands (Kraus and Duffy, 2010). But such eradications could be valuable in certain cases where spread has not been prohibitively extensive.

Control

Cultural Control and Sanitary Measures

Plants of this species should be prohibited from sale as ornamentals in warm tropical climates.

Physical/Mechanical Control

Seedlings and saplings of C. burmanni can be pulled by hand.

Chemical Control

High concentrations of triclopyr applied to machete hacks (frills) around the circumference of trees can be effective in controlling C. burmanni (Motooka et al., 2002).

Control by Utilization

Logging of large stands could be an effective means of reducing propagule pressure on surrounding areas.

Monitoring and Surveillance

In certain situations the distinctive dark green leaves of C. burmanni could stand out from surrounding vegetation in satellite or areal imagery.

Ecosystem restoration

Wherever control of C. burmanni is attempted it is advised to plant desirable species of trees and shrubs. This can be an effective means of preventing regeneration of non-native invasive species (Medeiros et al., 2014).

References

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Acevedo-Rodríguez P, Strong MT, 2012. Catalogue of Seed Plants of the West Indies. Washington, D.C., USA: Smithsonian Institution Scholarly Press, 1192 pp. [Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98.]

Blume CL, 1825. Bijdragen tot de flora van Nederlandsch Indië /uitgegeven door C.L. Blume [English title not available]. Batavia, The Netherlands: Ter Lands Drukkerij

Boufford DE, Ohashi H, Huang TC, Hsieh CF, Tsai JL, Yang KC, Hsiao A, 2003. A checklist of the vascular plants of Taiwan. In: Flora of Taiwan, 2nd edn. Taipei, Taiwan: Editorial Committee, Department of Botany, National Taiwan University, 15-139

Chong KY, Tan HT, Corlett RT, 2009. A checklist of the total vascular plant flora of Singapore: native, naturalised and cultivated species. Singapore: Raffles Museum of Biodiversity Research, National University of Singapore, 273 pp

Dugoua JJ, Seely D, Perri D, Cooley K, Forelli T, Mills E, Koren G, 2007. From type 2 diabetes to antioxidant activity: a systematic review of the safety and efficacy of common and cassia cinnamon bark. Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology, 85(9):837-847

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10/03/2015 Original text by:
 
Christopher E. Buddenhagen, Department of Biological Sciences, Florida State University, Florida, USA

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