Cinnamomum burmanni (padang cassia)
- Summary of Invasiveness
- Taxonomic Tree
- Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature
- Plant Type
- Distribution Table
- History of Introduction and Spread
- Risk of Introduction
- Habitat List
- Biology and Ecology
- Soil Tolerances
- Means of Movement and Dispersal
- Pathway Causes
- Pathway Vectors
- Plant Trade
- Impact Summary
- Environmental Impact
- Threatened Species
- Risk and Impact Factors
- Uses List
- Similarities to Other Species/Conditions
- Prevention and Control
- Distribution Maps
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PicturesTop of page
IdentityTop of page
Preferred Scientific Name
- Cinnamomum burmanni (Nees & T.Nees) Blume
Preferred Common Name
- padang cassia
Other Scientific Names
- Cinnamomum chinense Blume
- Cinnamomum hainanense Nakai
- Cinnamomum macrostemon Hayata
- Cinnamomum mindanaense Elmer
- Cinnnamomum mutabile Blume ex Miq.
- Laurus burmanni Nees & T.Nees
- Laurus dulcis Roxb.
International Common Names
- English: batavia cinnamon; batavia-cassia; cassia; cassia vera; indonesian cinnamon; indonesian-cassia; java-cassia; malayan cinnamon; malaysian cinnamon; padang cassia; padang cinnamon; padang-cassia
- Spanish: canela china; canelero de china; cannelier de malaisie
- Chinese: yin xiang
- Portuguese: falsa-canforeira; falsa-canforeira
Local Common Names
- France: cannelier de malaisie
- Germany: Birmazimt; Birmazimtbaum; Padangzimt; Padangzimtbaum; Zimtbaum
- Indonesia: kayu manis; ki amis; manis jangan
- Netherlands: korintje
- Philippines: kaliñgag; kami
- Thailand: suramarit
Summary of InvasivenessTop of page
Originally from Asia, C. burmanni has been introduced to several wet tropical and subtropical areas such as Hawaii and Florida. It produces a large number of small (8–10 mm) dark fruit which are dispersed by birds. It most commonly establishes in moist to mesic sites but its potential range may be broader, in at least one case it has established in dry forests in lowland Hawaii (Medeiros et al., 2014). As a shade tolerant, canopy tree with dense shading foliage and fast growth, C. burmanni can form monocultures which outcompete native flora and has been found to impact on several endangered species in Hawaii where it is regarded as a harmful invasive species and is subject to control in a few sites.
Taxonomic TreeTop of page
- Domain: Eukaryota
- Kingdom: Plantae
- Phylum: Spermatophyta
- Subphylum: Angiospermae
- Class: Dicotyledonae
- Order: Laurales
- Family: Lauraceae
- Genus: Cinnamomum
- Species: Cinnamomum burmanni
Notes on Taxonomy and NomenclatureTop of page
The genus Cinnamomum (family Lauraceae) contains about 350 species indigenous to the Asia-Pacific Region and tropical America. The basionym for C. burmanni is Laurus burmannii (Wuu-Kuang, 2011). The specific epithet is probably related to either J. Burmann (1707–1779), physician, or Nicolaus Burmann (1733–1793), professor of botany at Amsterdam (Gledhill, 2008), as opposed to it being from Burma as claimed elsewhere (Motooka et al., 2002).
One author has recently made the case that due to rules about naming priority, Laurus nitida and Cinnamomum nitidum are the correct basionym and name for C. burmanni. The author however proposed to reject these names in order to maintain the accepted nomenclature of this important spice plant (Turner, 2013a, 2013b).
The original epithet was burmanni and subsequent use of the epithet burmannii (with a second “i” at the end) is an error (Turner, 2013b).
DescriptionTop of page
C. burmanni are trees to 20 m tall, 12–30 cm in diameter. Bark smooth, greyish brown; inner bark fragrant; sapwood yellowish. Twigs slender, terete, 2–3 mm diam, apically subangular, glabrous, dark brown to blackish. Terminal buds not perulate, conical, c. 2 mm long, densely covered with straight appressed hairs. Leaves opposite or subopposite, pale greenish brown, triplinerved, chartaceous, glabrous below; blade not bullate, without domatia, lanceolate, (6–)8–12(–15) by 2–4.5 cm, base cuneate, apex acute with blunt tip, tapering gradually, acumen indistinct; midrib raised on both sides, less than 1 mm broad; lateral veins raised on both sides, extending to about 2/3 – 3/4 the length of blade; major intercostal veins slender, subscalariform, c. 2 mm apart, less prominent than midrib; minor intercostal veins faint, reticulate; petiole slender, distinctly grooved above, glabrous, 1–1.5 cm long, less than 1 mm diam. Inflorescences axillary or subterminal, slender, paniculate-cymose with first order branching, 2–12 cm long; rachis to 1 mm broad, minutely appressed hairy. Flowers minutely appressed hairy; pedicels slender, 3–5 mm long; hypanthium 1–1.5 mm high; perianth lobes oblanceolate, c. 5 mm long, appressed hairy on both sides; fertile stamens 3–3.5 mm long, anthers 4-locular, oblong with truncate apex, filaments c. 3/4 the length of the stamen; glands shortly stalked or subsessile attached on each side at the middle or lower half of filaments; staminodes c. 1.5 mm long, sagittate; ovary ellipsoid, c. 1 mm across, stigma trilobed. Infructescences 4–8 cm long. Fruits ellipsoid or oblanceoloid with pointed tip, c. 10 by 5 mm; cupule funnel-shaped, shallow, c. 2 mm high, c. 3 mm diam, glabrous; perianth lobes partially persistent, abscised at c. 1/3 the length of the perianth lobes, leaving behind truncate apex, 1–1.5 mm long; pedicel, 5–8 mm long, c. 1 mm diam, glabrous (Wuu-Kuang, 2011).
Documented cases showed trees could reach 50 cm in diameter (Horcher, 2000). This exceeds species descriptions compiled by authors working in its native range and raises the possibility that when invasive, C. burmanni may grow to larger sizes.
Plant TypeTop of page Broadleaved
DistributionTop of page
C. burmanni is native to China and Vietnam. This species has been introduced throughout Asia, into the Réunion islands and into Central, South and North America.
C. burmanni has been recorded as introduced and present in Mauritius (Wuu-Kuang, 2011); it is likely that this record is invalid and a result of a misidentification with C. verum, a troublesome invasive already present in Mauritius (Kueffer et al., 2007; C. Kueffer Geobotanical Institute ETH Zurich, Switzerland, personal communication, 2015).
The status of C. burmanni in the Philippines is vague in some references implying it could be native; however it seems to be a plantation escapee (Pelser et al., 2015). It is also cultivated in Indonesia (Java, Sumatra). C. burmanni is also present in Malesia.
Distribution TableTop of page
The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.
|Continent/Country/Region||Distribution||Last Reported||Origin||First Reported||Invasive||Reference||Notes|
|China||Present||Present based on regional distribution.|
|-Fujian||Present||Native||Not invasive||Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2014|
|-Guangdong||Present||Native||Not invasive||Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2014|
|-Guangxi||Present||Native||Not invasive||Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2014|
|-Hainan||Present||Native||Not invasive||Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2014|
|-Hong Kong||Present||Not invasive||Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2014|
|-Yunnan||Present||Native||Not invasive||Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2014|
|India||Present||Native||Not invasive||Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2014|
|Indonesia||Present||Present based on regional distribution.|
|-Java||Present||Native||Not invasive||Blume, 1825; Pelser et al., 2015|
|-Kalimantan||Localised||Introduced||Wuu-Kuang, 2011||Naturalized from abandoned plantations on Borneo|
|Malaysia||Present||Present based on regional distribution.|
|-Sabah||Localised||Introduced||Wuu-Kuang, 2011||Naturalized from abandoned plantations on Borneo|
|Philippines||Present||Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2014; Kew, 2015; Pelser et al., 2015||Jolo(Mt Dajo), Mindanao: Zamboanga, Davao (Mt Apo), and Surigao. In low and medium elevation forming thickets and forests|
|Singapore||Present only in captivity/cultivation||Introduced||Not invasive||Chong et al., 2009|
|Taiwan||Present only in captivity/cultivation||Introduced||Not invasive||Wuu-Kuang, 2011|
|Vietnam||Present||Native||Not invasive||WCMC, 1997; Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2014|
|Mauritius||Present||Introduced||Wuu-Kuang, 2011||Likely that this record is invalid and a result of a misidentification with C. verum|
|USA||Present||Present based on regional distribution.|
|-Florida||Present||Introduced||Franck, 2012||Early stages of naturalization in Sarasota County|
|-Hawaii||Present||Introduced||Invasive||Wester, 1992; Meidell et al., 1997; Starr et al., 2003||Invasive forestry escape on the islands of Kaui, Oahu,Lanai, Maui and Hawaii. Serious pest on Northern West Maui Honokohau Valley|
Central America and Caribbean
|Cuba||Present only in captivity/cultivation||Introduced||Not invasive||Acevedo-Rodríguez and Strong, 2012|
|Puerto Rico||Present only in captivity/cultivation||Introduced||Not invasive||Acevedo-Rodríguez and Strong, 2012|
|Brazil||Present||Present based on regional distribution.|
|-Rio Grande do Sul||Present||1988||Introduced||New York Botanical Garden, 2015|
|-Santa Catarina||Present||Introduced||Missouri Botanical Garden, 2015|
|Peru||Present||1947||Introduced||New York Botanical Garden, 2015|
History of Introduction and SpreadTop of page
C. burmanni has naturalized in Kalimantan and Sabah from plantations in Borneo (Sabah and Kalimantan), the Philippines, Taiwan and Hawaii and appears to be naturalized in Florida from an unknown source (Meidell et al., 1997; Woodcock, 2003; Lee et al., 2010; Wuu-Kuang, 2011; Franck, 2012; Pelser et al., 2015). Where escaped from plantations they were established in the early 1900s or earlier. Introductions elsewhere may have occurred at a similar time.
C. burmanni is listed as introduced in cultivation in Cuba and Puerto Rico (Acevedo-Rodríguez and Strong, 2012) and is also known to occur in Peru and Brazil (Missouri Botanical Garden, 2015; New York Botanical Garden, 2015). It could easily be naturalized in the latter countries and not recorded as such.
IntroductionsTop of page
Risk of IntroductionTop of page
The various uses (wood, spice, medicine, essential oils) of C. burmanni may be enough incentive for intentional introduction of this species into new areas. C. burmanni produces a large number of fruits which are readily dispersed and remain viable after ingestion by birds. The Pacific Weed Risk Assessment (PIER, 2015) resulted in this species being given a high risk score of 12.
HabitatTop of page
In general C. burmanni occurs in tropical or subtropical mesic to wet climates, but one account from Hawaii suggests it can also grow in dry forests (Medeiros et al., 2014). C. burmanni is typically planted as a forestry tree.
Habitat ListTop of page
|Terrestrial – Managed||Managed forests, plantations and orchards||Principal habitat||Harmful (pest or invasive)|
|Managed forests, plantations and orchards||Principal habitat||Natural|
|Managed forests, plantations and orchards||Principal habitat||Productive/non-natural|
|Terrestrial ‑ Natural / Semi-natural||Natural forests||Principal habitat||Harmful (pest or invasive)|
|Natural forests||Principal habitat||Natural|
|Natural forests||Principal habitat||Productive/non-natural|
Biology and EcologyTop of page
Flowers (small green-whitish flowers in panicles) are thought to be pollinated by bees. Regeneration under the parent tree from fall fruit or bird dispersed seed can lead to abundant seedling regeneration even in dense shade (Starr et al., 2003). A large number of fruits are produced with an average of 33760 fruits per tree (Laughlin, 2000). Trees can produce fruit within four years of germinating and seedling and sapling densities have averaged at 291 per m2 (Horcher, 2000).
Physiology and Phenology
In Hawaii, C. burmanni is known to germinate in both full shade or full sun (Starr et al., 2003).
In Indonesia it occurs from sea level to 2000 m altitude, but in the important production area of Padang it grows best between 500 and 1500 m, with an evenly distributed annual rainfall of 2000–2500 mm. Light, rich sandy loams yield the best bark.
ClimateTop of page
|A - Tropical/Megathermal climate||Preferred||Average temp. of coolest month > 18°C, > 1500mm precipitation annually|
|Af - Tropical rainforest climate||Preferred||> 60mm precipitation per month|
|Am - Tropical monsoon climate||Preferred||Tropical monsoon climate ( < 60mm precipitation driest month but > (100 - [total annual precipitation(mm}/25]))|
Soil TolerancesTop of page
Means of Movement and DispersalTop of page
Seeds are dispersed locally from fallen fruits which can regenerate under parent trees.
In Hawaii, the large numbers of shiny fleshy fruits of C. burmanni are dispersed by birds (Laughlin, 2000). Birds known to disperse the fruit and pass viable seed include the red-vented Bulbil (Pycnonotus cafer), red-whiskered Bulbul (Pycnonotus jocosus), Japanese white-eye (Zosterops japonicus) and spotted dove (Steptopelia chinensis) and less frequently the red-billed Leiothrix (Leiothrix lutea) and common Myna (Acridotheres tristis) (Laughlin, 2000). Laughlin (2000) also found that P. cafer had the longest exit flight distances and so may be the most important species for long distance dispersers.
Accidental introductions may occur via the movement of seeds in the soil.
C. burmanni was intentionally introduced into many countries worldwide for its utility as a spice, essential oils and as lumber (Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2014).
Pathway CausesTop of page
|Crop production||Yes||Yes||Franck, 2012|
|Escape from confinement or garden escape||Yes||Yes|
|Forestry||Planted as forestry tree, escaped in wet windward sites on Hawaiian Islands||Yes||Yes||Wagner et al., 1999|
|Intentional release||Yes||Yes||Franck, 2012|
|Ornamental purposes||Yes||Yes||Franck, 2012|
Pathway VectorsTop of page
Plant TradeTop of page
|Plant parts liable to carry the pest in trade/transport||Pest stages||Borne internally||Borne externally||Visibility of pest or symptoms|
|Leaves||fruiting bodies; hyphae||Yes||Yes||Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye|
|Seedlings/Micropropagated plants||fruiting bodies; hyphae||Yes||Yes||Pest or symptoms usually invisible|
Impact SummaryTop of page
|Cultural/amenity||Positive and negative|
|Economic/livelihood||Positive and negative|
Environmental ImpactTop of page
Impact on Habitats
On Oahu, Hawaii, C. burmanni is one of the major invasive species at the Manoa Cliff Native Forest Restoration project (G. Metzler, Manoa Cliff Native Restoration Project, Oahu, USA, personal communication, 2015). On Maui it is spreading in the Puu Kukui Watershed Preserve where it is one of a suite of species altering lowland mesic and wet habitats (Horcher, 2000). C. burmanni can coppice permitting the formation of dense monocultures in which other trees cannot establish underneath (Horcher, 2000) and changes the composition of native forest community types (USFWS, 2012).
Impact on Biodiversity
A federal review of endangered species on the island of Maui, Hawaii, lists C. burmanni and several other invasive species as a threat to more than a dozen species (USFWS, 2012). However, C. burmanni is spreading most significantly into wet lowland valleys in close proximity of the Puu Kukui Watershed area. It is in this area where C. burmanni is impacting upon the following endangered species; Santalum haleakalae var. lanaiense, Ctenitis squamigera, Cyanea asplenifolia, Cyanea lobata, Cyanea magnicalyx, Cyrtandra filipes, Cyrtandra munroi and one snail, Newcombia cumingi. Although not the main source of decline, the alteration of habitats contributes to the demise of endemic Hawaiian bird species (USFWS, 2012).
Threatened SpeciesTop of page
|Threatened Species||Conservation Status||Where Threatened||Mechanism||References||Notes|
|Ctenitis squamigera||CR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered) CR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered)||Hawaii||Competition - monopolizing resources; Competition - shading||USFWS, 2012|
|Cyanea asplenifolia (haha)||CR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered) CR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered); National list(s) National list(s); USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered species||Hawaii||Competition - monopolizing resources; Competition - shading||USFWS, 2012|
|Cyanea lobata||National list(s) National list(s)||Hawaii||Competition - monopolizing resources; Competition - shading||USFWS, 2012|
|Cyanea magnicalyx||CR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered) CR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered); National list(s) National list(s); USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered species||Hawaii||Competition - monopolizing resources; Competition - shading||USFWS, 2012|
|Cyrtandra filipes||NatureServe NatureServe; USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered species||Hawaii||Competition - monopolizing resources; Competition - shading||USFWS, 2012|
|Cyrtandra munroi||USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered species||Hawaii||Competition - monopolizing resources; Competition - shading||USFWS, 2012|
|Newcombia cumingi (Newcomb's tree snail)||EN (IUCN red list: Endangered) EN (IUCN red list: Endangered); USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered species||Hawaii||Competition - monopolizing resources; Competition - shading||USFWS, 2012|
|Santalum haleakalae var. lanaiense (Lanai sandalwood)||NatureServe NatureServe; USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered species||Hawaii||Competition - monopolizing resources; Competition - shading||USFWS, 2012|
Risk and Impact FactorsTop of page Invasiveness
- Proved invasive outside its native range
- Has a broad native range
- Abundant in its native range
- Pioneering in disturbed areas
- Tolerant of shade
- Highly mobile locally
- Benefits from human association (i.e. it is a human commensal)
- Fast growing
- Has high reproductive potential
- Ecosystem change/ habitat alteration
- Increases vulnerability to invasions
- Modification of successional patterns
- Monoculture formation
- Reduced native biodiversity
- Threat to/ loss of endangered species
- Threat to/ loss of native species
- Competition - monopolizing resources
- Competition - shading
- Interaction with other invasive species
- Rapid growth
- Highly likely to be transported internationally accidentally
- Highly likely to be transported internationally deliberately
- Difficult/costly to control
UsesTop of page
The culinary uses of Indonesian cassia are similar to those of Chinese cassia and cinnamon. Indonesian cinnamon is a widely used spice, mostly in the USA. For spice use, the bark is marketed as quills, chips, sheets, powder and as extract (oleoresin). It has an aromatic taste and a spicy fragrance. Cinnamon powder is widely used in home cooking and the extract is mostly used in processed foods, in which Indonesian cinnamon (as well as other cinnamon and Chinese cassia) improves the overall aromatic flavour and palatability. In the food industry, it is used in bakery products such as cakes, buns, biscuits, steamed puddings, pies, candies and chewing gums; it is also used in marinades, beverages, ice creams and many other products all over the world, most prevalently in North America. It is a component of the spice mixes used in Indonesian cooking and also in various South-east Asian countries. Bark and leaf oils are used in flavouring pharmaceutical products, perfumes and also in processed foods and beverages. In home cooking, it is used widely in many types of meat and fish dishes and also vegetable cuisines (Ravindran, 2017). The essential oil content of the bark is recorded as between 1 and 4%. The bark oil is colourless to brownish-yellow, mainly consisting of cinnamaldehyde and lacking eugenol. The leaf oil mainly consists of cinnamaldehyde, but the main constituent of the root bark is camphor.
In Hawaii this species is cultivated for forestry plantations. C. burmanni has some medicininal properties where it is used as a tonic and stimulant. In Indonesia, it is a very popular medicinal plant and is used for curing a variety of ailments. Dried bark, twigs and leaves are used in local and traditional medicine. The therapeutic effect of the bark is believed to be due to the phenolic compounds, as well as tannins and condensed tannins present in the bark. Dried bark is used in the treatment of ailments such as: inflammation, headache, pyrexia, diarrhoea, nausea, flatulence and also as a tonic. The medicinal properties are very similar to those given for Chinese cinnamon (Ravindran, 2017).
Uses ListTop of page
- Sociocultural value
Human food and beverage
- Beverage base
- Leaves (for beverage)
- Spices and culinary herbs
- Source of medicine/pharmaceutical
Similarities to Other Species/ConditionsTop of page
In Taiwan C. burmanni is morphologically similar to C. osmophloeum and can hybridize with it (Lee et al., 2010). Similarities with C. calciphilum, C. grandifolium, C. kinabaluense, C. sintoc and C. verum have also been recorded (Wuu-Kuang, 2011).
Within the genus the following features are important for identification of C. burmanni; persistent perianth lobes when in fruit, being triplinerved, glabrous leaves, axillary or subterminal paniculate inflorescences shorter than the leaf, toothed perianth cup on fruit and basal lateral veins extending up to 3/4 of leaf blade or evanescent near apex and minutely appressed hairy flowers.
Prevention and ControlTop of page
Due to forestry style plantings and significant spread in Hawaii no attempts have been made to eradicate this species completely from individual islands (Kraus and Duffy, 2010). But such eradications could be valuable in certain cases where spread has not been prohibitively extensive.
Cultural Control and Sanitary Measures
Plants of this species should be prohibited from sale as ornamentals in warm tropical climates.
Seedlings and saplings of C. burmanni can be pulled by hand.
High concentrations of triclopyr applied to machete hacks (frills) around the circumference of trees can be effective in controlling C. burmanni (Motooka et al., 2002).
Control by Utilization
Logging of large stands could be an effective means of reducing propagule pressure on surrounding areas.
Monitoring and Surveillance
In certain situations the distinctive dark green leaves of C. burmanni could stand out from surrounding vegetation in satellite or areal imagery.
Wherever control of C. burmanni is attempted it is advised to plant desirable species of trees and shrubs. This can be an effective means of preventing regeneration of non-native invasive species (Medeiros et al., 2014).
ReferencesTop of page
Acevedo-Rodríguez P, Strong MT, 2012. Catalogue of Seed Plants of the West Indies. Washington, D.C., USA: Smithsonian Institution Scholarly Press, 1192 pp. [Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98.]
Blume CL, 1825. Bijdragen tot de flora van Nederlandsch Indië /uitgegeven door C.L. Blume [English title not available]. Batavia, The Netherlands: Ter Lands Drukkerij
Boufford DE, Ohashi H, Huang TC, Hsieh CF, Tsai JL, Yang KC, Hsiao A, 2003. A checklist of the vascular plants of Taiwan. In: Flora of Taiwan, 2nd edn. Taipei, Taiwan: Editorial Committee, Department of Botany, National Taiwan University, 15-139
Chong KY, Tan HT, Corlett RT, 2009. A checklist of the total vascular plant flora of Singapore: native, naturalised and cultivated species. Singapore: Raffles Museum of Biodiversity Research, National University of Singapore, 273 pp
Dugoua JJ, Seely D, Perri D, Cooley K, Forelli T, Mills E, Koren G, 2007. From type 2 diabetes to antioxidant activity: a systematic review of the safety and efficacy of common and cassia cinnamon bark. Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology, 85(9):837-847
Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2014. Flora of China. St. Louis, Missouri and Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden and Harvard University Herbaria. http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2
Franck AR, 2012. Guide to Agave, Cinnamomum, Corymbia, Eucalyptus, Pandanus, and Sansevieria in the flora of Florida. Phytoneuron, 102:1-23
Gledhill D, 2008. The names of plants. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 436 pp
Gordon DR, Mitterdorfer B, Pheloung PC, Ansari S, Buddenhagen C, Chimera C, Daehler CC, Dawson W, Denslow JS, LaRosa A, Nishida T, Onderdonk DA, Panetta FD, Pysek P, Randall RP, Richardson DM, Tshidada NJ, Virtue JG, Williams PA, 2010. Guidance for addressing the Australian Weed Risk Assessment questions. Plant Protection Quarterly, 25(2):56-74
Horcher AT, 2000. Stand dynamics of Cinnamomum burmannii, an invasive tree, on O'ahu, Hawaii. Masters Thesis. Montana, USA: University of Montana
Imada CT, 2012. Hawaiian Native and Naturalized Vascular Plants Checklist. Bishop Musem Technical Report. Honolulu, Hawaii, USA: Bishop Museum
Kew, 2015. Herbarium Royal Botanical Garden at Kew (online). London, UK. http://www.kew.org/
Kueffer C, Schumacher E, Fleischmann K, Edwards PJ, Dietz H, 2007. Strong below-ground competition shapes tree regeneration in invasive Cinnamomum verum forests. Journal of Ecology (Oxford), 95(2):273-282
Laughlin SE, 2000. Avian seed dispersal of Cinnamomum burmannii in Nuuanu Valley, O'ahu, Hawaii and its implications for alien species invasion. Masters Thesis. Montana, USA: University of Montana
Lee S-C, Lee C-H, Lin M-Y, Ho K-Y, 2010. Genetic Identification of Cinnamomum species based on partial internal transcribed spacer 2 of ribosomal DNA. Journal of Food and Drug Analysis, 18(4):225-231
Missouri Botanical Garden, 2015. Tropicos database. St. Louis, Missouri, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden. http://www.tropicos.org/
Motooka P, Ching L, Nagai G, 2002. Herbicidal weed control methods for pastures and natural areas of Hawaii. Weed Control Nov. 2002 - WC-8. p1-35. http://www2.ctahr.hawaii.edu/oc/freepubs/pdf/WC-8.pdf
New York Botanical Garden, 2015. The C. Starr Virtual Herbarium. New York, USA: The New York Botanical Garden. http://sciweb.nybg.org/Science2/vii2.asp
Pelser P, Barcelona JF, Nickrent DL, 2015. Co's digital flora of the Philippines. www.philippineplants.org
PIER, 2015. Pacific Islands Ecosystems at Risk. Honolulu, USA: HEAR, University of Hawaii. http://www.hear.org/pier/index.html
Ravindran, P. N., 2017. The encyclopedia of herbs & spices. Volumes 1 and 2, [ed. by Ravindran, P. N.]. Wallingford, UK: CAB International.xlv + 1128 pp. http://www.cabi.org/cabebooks/ebook/20173378261 doi:10.1079/9781780643151.0000
Starr F, Starr K, Loope L, 2003. Cinnamomum burmannii Padang cassia. Haleakala Field Station, Maui, Hawaii, USA: United States Geological Survey - Biological Resources Division, 5. http://www.hear.org/starr/hiplants/reports/pdf/cinn
Turner IM, 2013. Proposal to reject the name Laurus nitida (Lauraceae). Taxon, 62(1):179-179
Turner IM, 2013. Robinson a century on: the nomenclatural relevance of Roxburgh's Hortus Bengalensis. Taxon, 62(1):152-172
USFWS, 2012. Endangered and threatened wildlife and plants; listing 38 species on Molokai, Lanai, and Maui as endangered and designating critical habitat on Molokai, Lanai, Maui, and Kahoolawe for 135 species; proposed rule 34464-34775. USA: US Deparment of Fish and Wildlife Service
Wagner WL, Herbst DR, Sohmer SH, 1999. Manual of the flowering plants of Hawaii. Revised edition. Honolulu, Hawai'i, USA: Bishop Museum Press, 1919 pp
WCMC, 1997. Conservation and sustainable management of trees, report of the third regional workshop. Army Hotel, Hanoi, Viet Nam, 18-21 August, 1997. UNEP World Conservation Monitoring Centre
Wester L, 1992. Origin and distribution of adventive alien plants in Hawaii. In: Stone CP, Smith CW, Tunison JT, eds, Alien plant invasions in native ecosystems of Hawaii: management and research. Honolulu, Hawaii, USA: University of Hawaii Press, 99-154. http://www.hear.org/books/apineh1992/pdfs/apineh1992ii1wester.pdf
Wuu-Kuang S, 2011. Taxonomic revision of Cinnamomum (Lauraceae) in Borneo. Blumea-Biodiversity Evolution and Biogeography of Plants, 56(3):241-264
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Distribution MapsTop of page
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