Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Cinchona pubescens
(quinine tree)

Toolbox

Datasheet

Cinchona pubescens (quinine tree)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 22 November 2019
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Host Plant
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Cinchona pubescens
  • Preferred Common Name
  • quinine tree
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Plantae
  •     Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •       Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •         Class: Dicotyledonae
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • C. pubescens has been widely introduced throughout the tropics over the past 150 years because of its medicinal properties. However, it is only in small island systems, notably the Galapagos and Hawaii, that it has become invasive, after...

Don't need the entire report?

Generate a print friendly version containing only the sections you need.

Generate report

Pictures

Top of page
PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Leaf form and fruits of C. pubescens. Santa Cruz Island, Galapagos.
TitleLeaves and fruits
CaptionLeaf form and fruits of C. pubescens. Santa Cruz Island, Galapagos.
Copyright©CABI/Harry C. Evans
Leaf form and fruits of C. pubescens. Santa Cruz Island, Galapagos.
Leaves and fruitsLeaf form and fruits of C. pubescens. Santa Cruz Island, Galapagos.©CABI/Harry C. Evans
C. pubescens invading Miconia zone. Santa Cruz Island, Galapagos.
TitleHabit
CaptionC. pubescens invading Miconia zone. Santa Cruz Island, Galapagos.
Copyright©CABI/Harry C. Evans
C. pubescens invading Miconia zone. Santa Cruz Island, Galapagos.
HabitC. pubescens invading Miconia zone. Santa Cruz Island, Galapagos.©CABI/Harry C. Evans
Dense forest of C. pubescens invading the volcanic slopes of Santa Cruz Island, Galapagos.
TitleHabit
CaptionDense forest of C. pubescens invading the volcanic slopes of Santa Cruz Island, Galapagos.
Copyright©CABI/Harry C. Evans
Dense forest of C. pubescens invading the volcanic slopes of Santa Cruz Island, Galapagos.
HabitDense forest of C. pubescens invading the volcanic slopes of Santa Cruz Island, Galapagos.©CABI/Harry C. Evans
Maturing fruits of C. pubescens. Santa Cruz Island, Galapagos. February, 2004.
TitleFruits
CaptionMaturing fruits of C. pubescens. Santa Cruz Island, Galapagos. February, 2004.
Copyright©CABI/Harry C. Evans
Maturing fruits of C. pubescens. Santa Cruz Island, Galapagos. February, 2004.
FruitsMaturing fruits of C. pubescens. Santa Cruz Island, Galapagos. February, 2004.©CABI/Harry C. Evans
Developing flower shoots of C. pubescens. Santa Cruz Island, Galapagos. February, 2004.
TitleFlower shoots
CaptionDeveloping flower shoots of C. pubescens. Santa Cruz Island, Galapagos. February, 2004.
Copyright©CABI/Harry C. Evans
Developing flower shoots of C. pubescens. Santa Cruz Island, Galapagos. February, 2004.
Flower shoots Developing flower shoots of C. pubescens. Santa Cruz Island, Galapagos. February, 2004.©CABI/Harry C. Evans
Open flower of C. pubescens. Santa Cruz Island, Galapagos. February, 2004.
TitleFlower
CaptionOpen flower of C. pubescens. Santa Cruz Island, Galapagos. February, 2004.
Copyright©CABI/Harry C. Evans
Open flower of C. pubescens. Santa Cruz Island, Galapagos. February, 2004.
FlowerOpen flower of C. pubescens. Santa Cruz Island, Galapagos. February, 2004.©CABI/Harry C. Evans
Open flower of C. pubescens. Santa Cruz Island, Galapagos. February, 2004.
TitleFlower
CaptionOpen flower of C. pubescens. Santa Cruz Island, Galapagos. February, 2004.
Copyright©CABI/Harry C. Evans
Open flower of C. pubescens. Santa Cruz Island, Galapagos. February, 2004.
FlowerOpen flower of C. pubescens. Santa Cruz Island, Galapagos. February, 2004.©CABI/Harry C. Evans

Identity

Top of page

Preferred Scientific Name

  • Cinchona pubescens Vahl

Preferred Common Name

  • quinine tree

Other Scientific Names

  • Cinchona asperifolia Wedd.
  • Cinchona caloptera Miq.
  • Cinchona chomeliana Wedd.
  • Cinchona hirsuta Ruiz & Pavon
  • Cinchona lechleriana Schlecht.
  • Cinchona succirubra Pav. ex Klotzsch
  • Quinquina pubescens (Vahl) Kuntze

International Common Names

  • English: Jesuits' Peruvian-bark; red Cinchona; red Peruvian-bark; sacred Peruvian-bark
  • Spanish: cascarilla amarga; cascarilla gallinazo; varona
  • French: quinquina rouge

Local Common Names

  • Brazil: quina-do-Amazonas
  • Ecuador: cascarilla; roja-roja

EPPO code

  • CIHPU (Cinchona pubescens)

Summary of Invasiveness

Top of page

C. pubescens has been widely introduced throughout the tropics over the past 150 years because of its medicinal properties. However, it is only in small island systems, notably the Galapagos and Hawaii, that it has become invasive, after a relatively long period of adaptation. In the moist upland regions of these islands, it is beginning to have a significant impact on biodiversity affecting endemic species in both the flora and fauna.

Taxonomic Tree

Top of page
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Plantae
  •         Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •             Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •                 Class: Dicotyledonae
  •                     Order: Gentianales
  •                         Family: Rubiaceae
  •                             Genus: Cinchona
  •                                 Species: Cinchona pubescens

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

Top of page

Andersson (1998) finally resolved and simplified the taxonomy of the genus Cinchona and, in particular, the confusion surrounding the identification of the quinine species of commerce. His was the first revision since 1878 (Prendergast and Dolley, 2001). One of these, collected by the botanist and explorer Richard Spruce from the western slopes of the Ecuadorian Andes (Drew, 1996; Naranjo, 1996) was, until recently, more commonly known as C. succirubra, particularly in its invasive range (Cronk and Fuller, 1995; Macdonald et al., 1988). Andersson (1998) determined this as C. pubescens and, thus far, 104 synonyms have been cited (Missouri Botanical Garden, 2003). Obviously, only a selection of the more commonly quoted synonyms can be included here under the non-preferred scientific names. Earlier, Purseglove (1968) had suggested that C. succirubra probably represented a form or variety of the highly variable species C. pubescens. The genus was named after the Countess of Chinchón, wife of the Viceroy of Peru, but was mis-spelled by Linnaeus in his description of the type species, Cinchona officinalis (Naranjo, 1996; Prendergast and Dolley, 2001).

Description

Top of page

C. pubescens is a large, erect, rapidly growing evergreen tree; up to 30 m tall, but most frequently reported as 4-10 m in height, attaining heights of 15 m on Santa Cruz, Galapagos (Shimizu, 1997); sparsely branched as lower branches shed, with young branches glabrous or pubescent. Bark brown, smooth; inner bark reddening when cut. Leaves deciduous, opposite, large, broadly elliptic-ovate to broadly oblong, 20-40 (-50) x 10-30 (-40) cm; upper surface light green, puberulent or glabrate, rather thin, membranous to papery, conspicuously veined (9-11 lateral pairs), margins entire, apex rounded, base broadly to narrowly cuneate, petioles 1.5-4.5 cm long, stipules ovate, caducous; lower surface with tufts of hairs in axils of lateral veins; old leaves reddish-orange. Flower numerous, in large panicles, rose-pink, fragrant; calyx densely appressed, pubescent, teeth deltate: heterostylous; in microstyled plants 5 exerted anthers alternate with corolla lobes and bifid stigma reaches half length of corolla tube; in macrostyled plants the situation is reversed with the stigma being exserted and the stamens hidden in pale pink corolla tube (1.0-1.2 cm long), which is villous within and comprising 5 spreading lobes, 4-5 mm long. Capsules ovoid-fusiform to oblong, 2-3 cm long; dehiscent from base to apex. Seeds 7-10 x 2-3 mm, with a broad ciliate wing. Note that this species description is a composite from several sources which vary considerably, especially in dimensions of the tree, leaves and seeds, emphasizing the variability of this species.

Plant Type

Top of page
Broadleaved
Perennial
Seed propagated
Tree
Woody

Distribution

Top of page

C. pubescens has a natural range extending from Bolivia, through Peru, Ecuador and Colombia to Costa Rica in Central America. It was widely distributed throughout the tropics as a source of quinine, particularly by the British during the latter half of the 1800s (Moureau, 1945). It is still held in many tropical botanical gardens worldwide for its medicinal interest.

Distribution Table

Top of page

The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 25 Feb 2021
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Planted Reference Notes

Africa

BurundiPresentIntroduced
CameroonPresentIntroducedPlantedOriginal citation: Prendergast and (2001)
Congo, Democratic Republic of thePresentIntroduced
Congo, Republic of thePresentIntroducedPlanted
KenyaPresentIntroducedPlanted
NigeriaPresentIntroducedPlanted
RéunionPresentIntroducedPlanted
RwandaPresentIntroduced
Saint HelenaPresent, LocalizedIntroducedInvasivePlanted
TanzaniaPresentIntroduced1900
UgandaPresentIntroduced1918

Asia

IndiaPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-AssamPresentIntroducedPlanted
-SikkimPresentIntroducedPlanted
-Tamil NaduPresentIntroducedFirst reported: ca. 1865
-West BengalPresent
IndonesiaPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-JavaPresentIntroducedPlantedFirst reported: ca. 1865
PhilippinesPresentIntroducedPlanted
Sri LankaPresentIntroducedPlanted

North America

Costa RicaPresentNative
GuatemalaPresentIntroducedPlanted
JamaicaPresentIntroducedPlanted
PanamaPresentNative
Puerto RicoPresentIntroducedPlanted
United StatesPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-HawaiiPresent, LocalizedIntroduced1868InvasiveHawaii (Big Island), Maui, Oahu

Oceania

French PolynesiaPresent, LocalizedIntroduced1940InvasivePlantedTahiti
PalauAbsent, Formerly present

South America

BoliviaPresentNative
ColombiaPresentNative
EcuadorPresent, LocalizedNative
-Galapagos IslandsPresent, LocalizedIntroduced1925InvasivePlantedSanta Cruz
PeruPresentNative
VenezuelaPresentNative1925

History of Introduction and Spread

Top of page

Richard Spruce's collections from western Ecuador were sent to Kew in the late 1850s and thence to the British colonies, particularly India and Sri Lanka to establish plantations for quinine production (Drew, 1996; Naranjo, 1996). By 1880, Indian plantations were producing approximately 500,000 kg of cinchona bark (Purseglove, 1968). The Dutch also introduced C. pubescens into Java during this period, but this was soon replaced by the yellow-barked Cinchona (C. calisaya = C. ledgeriana) because of its much higher quinine content. However, C. pubescens was still used as a rootstock (Drew, 1996). According to Tye (2001), C. pubescens was first introduced into the Galapagos sometime before 1925, specifically for quinine production, and not in 1946 as cited by Macdonald et al. (1988). In Hawaii, plantations were established as early as 1868 on Maui Island (Starr et al., 2003) and on Oahu and the island of Hawaii in the early twentieth century (Starr et al., 2006) Invasive spread from such plantations seems to have occurred only in small island systems, such as the Galapagos where spread was first recorded in 1965-66 (Tye, 2001) and Hawaii where it was reported as becoming naturalized from 1978-87 (Starr et al., 2003) and now occupying about 6000 ha on Maui (Buddenhagen et al., 2004). There are no corroborated reports of C. pubescens spreading from the much larger cultivated areas in Africa and Asia and becoming invasive. To reduce the reliance on quinine from the East Indies, plantations were established at or near the sites of the plant’s origin in the New World beginning in the 1930s. C. pubescens was introduced to Tahiti in the 1940s and observed to be naturalized by the 1970s (Meyer, 2004).  It has naturalized on St. Helena island in the south Atlantic, although currently occupying a limited distribution there (Cronk, 1989; Cronk and Fuller, 1995).  Quinine was first artificially synthesized in 1944, resulting in a reduced demand for bark from C. pubescens (Starr et al., 2003).  Large quinine tree plantations were established in Africa during World War II, and by 1998 Zaire was the world’s top supplier, along with contributions from Burundi, Cameroon and Kenya (Bruce-Chwatt, 1988; Dagani, 2005).  Limited production continues in South America, Indonesia and India.

Introductions

Top of page
Introduced toIntroduced fromYearReasonIntroduced byEstablished in wild throughReferencesNotes
Natural reproductionContinuous restocking
French Polynesia South America 1940 Crop production (pathway cause) Yes No Meyer (2004)
Galapagos Islands South America 1925 Crop production (pathway cause) Yes No Tye (2001)
Hawaii South America 1868 Crop production (pathway cause) Yes No Starr et al. (2003); Wagner et al. (1999)
Saint Helena South America 1870s Crop production (pathway cause) Yes No Cronk and Fuller (1995); Cronk and Fuller (1995)

Risk of Introduction

Top of page
There remains a possibility that it could still be transported between countries and continents for cultivation as a herbal or ornamental plant (PIER, 2002), but the phytosanitary risk is perceived as low.

Habitat

Top of page

The native range extends from Andean South America in Bolivia north to Costa Rica. Unusually, it occurs on both sides of the Cordillera in sub-montane rainforest, predominately at altitudes of 800-2800 m but can be found up to 3500 m. There are also reports of its occurrence in the lowland Amazonian rainforest of Peru at altitudes of 120-160 m (Missouri Botanical Garden, 2003). This wide geographic and altitudinal native range explains the high variability of this species and the plethora of synonyms. It was first cultivated in similar moist montane habitats in the Indian states of Tamil Nadu (Nilgiri Hills) and Sikkim (Himalayan foothills) at 700-1800 m altitude (Purseglove, 1968), but is now cultivated through a broad range in the tropics, although it fails to produce an economic harvest in some of its introduced range (Tye et al., 2003). Similarly moist, fertile habitats favour growth and spread in its introduced range (Itow, 2003; Starr et al., 2003).

Habitat List

Top of page
CategorySub-CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Terrestrial ManagedCultivated / agricultural land Present, no further details
Terrestrial ManagedManaged forests, plantations and orchards Principal habitat Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial ManagedManaged forests, plantations and orchards Principal habitat Productive/non-natural
Terrestrial ManagedDisturbed areas Secondary/tolerated habitat Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial ManagedRail / roadsides Present, no further details
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalNatural forests Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalNatural forests Present, no further details Natural
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalScrub / shrublands Principal habitat Harmful (pest or invasive)

Hosts/Species Affected

Top of page

C. pubescens is not a weed of agricultural crops, although there are reports of it invading Eucalyptus plantations in Hawaii (Wagner et al., 1999; Starr et al., 2003). In the Galapagos, it has invaded two of the upper vegetation zones (500-700 m), posing a threat to the endemic flora (Macdonald et al., 1988; Cronk and Fuller, 1995).

Host Plants and Other Plants Affected

Top of page
Plant nameFamilyContextReferences
Eucalyptus spp.MyrtaceaeOther

    Biology and Ecology

    Top of page

    Genetics

    The chromosome number is 2n=34, which appears to be shared by most, if not all, Cinchona species (Purseglove, 1968). C. pubescens is a highly variable taxa which is compounded by its ability to readily hybridize, examples being C. pubescens x C. calisaya = C. hybrida; C. pubescens x C. officinalis = C. robusta (Purseglove, 1968).  Molecular analysis by Andersson and Antonelli (2005) confirmed close relationships among Cinchona species, with the genus representing a distinct clade.

    Physiology and Phenology

    Seeds require light for germination, which can take 2-3 weeks (Moureau, 1945), although seedlings can also grow under shade which suggests that it is a pioneer species in its montane forest habitat. Seedling shade tolerance also enables C. pubescens to produce high density stands (Eliasson, 1982; Jager et al., 2009).  In its exotic range, C. pubescens flowers and sets seeds throughout the year (Purseglove, 1968) and can seed copiously from about 5 years of age (Tye, 2001).

    Reproductive Biology

    C. pubescens is a hermaphrodite and insect-pollinated, with high heterozygosity. Pollinating insects are purportedly non-specialized, such as bees, butterflies and various dipterans attracted to the fragrant flowers, but this is speculative rather than confirmed (Starr et al., 2003). Attempts at self pollination in both flower types have not been successful. Plants mature early, and can flower after 1-2 years, with prolific seed production numbering in the thousands per tree (Schofield, 1989). Seeds are surrounded by a paper-like wing which aids wind dispersal. However, observations in Hawaii suggest that the seeds do not travel long distances since most seedlings are found within 100 m of the parent tree (Starr et al., 2003). Seeds are short-lived and quickly lose viability (Purseglove, 1968). C. pubescens can re-grow from root fragments (Macdonald et al., 1988); the species also produces root suckers and readily re-sprouts from cut or damaged stems (Starr et al., 2003). Thus C. pubescens may spread vigorously by vegetative means (Hamann, 1974).

    Environmental Requirements

    In its natural habitat, predominately montane rainforest, C. pubescens favours precipitous, well-drained slopes with a well-distributed annual rainfall of over 2000 mm with an average minimum temperature of 14ºC. It can, however, tolerate more extremes of temperature since as herbarium records show it has been collected occasionally from both cloud and lowland rainforest (Missouri Botanical Garden, 2003). Although associated primarily with moist environments, C. pubescens does persist under drier conditions (Itow, 2003).  It grows best on light, virgin forest soil, rich in organic matter and preferably of volcanic origin. It cannot tolerate waterlogging and grows poorly on soils exposed to fire. Where invasive, it appears to favour mesic wet forest and moist tropical montane scrub always based on volcanic soil, as shown in the Galapagos, at 600-800 m altitude and with an even rainfall of 2000-3000 mm per annum. It inhabits high elevation cloud forests in Tahiti, 1000 to 2200 m in altitude (Vanquin, 2006).

    Associations

    C. pubescens was shown to have high levels of vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in its roots in the Galapagos ecosystem (Schmidt and Scow, 1986), unlike many natives in the same system (Henderson et al., 2006).

    Climate

    Top of page
    ClimateStatusDescriptionRemark
    A - Tropical/Megathermal climate Tolerated Average temp. of coolest month > 18°C, > 1500mm precipitation annually
    Af - Tropical rainforest climate Preferred > 60mm precipitation per month
    Am - Tropical monsoon climate Tolerated Tropical monsoon climate ( < 60mm precipitation driest month but > (100 - [total annual precipitation(mm}/25]))

    Latitude/Altitude Ranges

    Top of page
    Latitude North (°N)Latitude South (°S)Altitude Lower (m)Altitude Upper (m)
    28 21 120 3500

    Air Temperature

    Top of page
    Parameter Lower limit Upper limit
    Absolute minimum temperature (ºC) 0 5
    Mean annual temperature (ºC) 15 21
    Mean maximum temperature of hottest month (ºC) 25 30
    Mean minimum temperature of coldest month (ºC) 12 16

    Rainfall

    Top of page
    ParameterLower limitUpper limitDescription
    Dry season duration04number of consecutive months with <40 mm rainfall
    Mean annual rainfall12003500mm; lower/upper limits

    Rainfall Regime

    Top of page
    Bimodal
    Winter

    Soil Tolerances

    Top of page

    Soil drainage

    • free

    Soil reaction

    • acid

    Soil texture

    • light
    • medium

    Notes on Natural Enemies

    Top of page

    There have few studies on the natural enemies of Cinchona spp. in their native ranges. A specific and damaging disease on C. pubescens is caused by Elsinoe cinchonae Jenkins (Elsinoaceae, Ascomycota) resulting in leaf spots, stem cankers and fruit scab (Jenkins, 1945). Cinchona species are infected by Phytophthora quininea in Central America (Guatemala), the Caribbean Islands (Puerto Rico), and South America (Bolivia, Peru) (Crandall, 1947; Cline et al., 2008). In contrast, there are a number of reports from its exotic, cultivated range of natural enemies, which are invariably generalist opportunistic pests and diseases of plantation tree crops in the tropics. For example, both Purseglove (1968) and Frohlich and Rodewald (1970) list damping-off of nursery seedlings due to Rhizoctonia solani Kuhn (Corticiaceae, Basidiomycota), as well as various root rots in the plantation trees caused by the honey fungus, Armillaria mellea (Fr.) Quel. (Tricholomataceae, Basidiomycota), and grey root rot, Rosellinia arcuata Petch (Xylariaceae, Ascomycota). However, Frohlich and Rodewald (1970) considered that Phytophthora species, especially P. cinnamomi Rands (root rot and stripe canker) and P. parasitica Dastur (tip blight and girdle canker) were the most destructive pathogens. The most serious pest was listed as Helopeltis (Miridae) by Purseglove (1968) but Frohlich and Rodewald (1970) also included mites of the genera Brevipalpus, Taponemus and Tetranychus; with mealybugs (Planococcus citri Risso) and scale insects, such as Coccus hesperidum L., Coccus viridus Green and Saissetia coffeae Walk, especially important since they affected bark quality. Earlier, Butler (1918) reported the occurrence of pink disease, Corticium salmonicolor Berk. & Broome in Cinchona plantations in India and noted that the dense bushy trees of C. ledgeriana (= C. calisaya) suffered severely from the disease whilst the more open, sparsely branched C. pubescens was rarely affected.

    Means of Movement and Dispersal

    Top of page

    Major spread is by wind-dispersed seed which are produced in large numbers; anecdotal evidence from both Hawaii and the Galapagos suggests that dispersal is localized (GISP, 2002) and in Hawaii most seedlings are found within 100 m of the parent tree (Starr et al., 2003). Meyer (2004) observed isolated trees naturalized in upland areas of Tahiti. On Santa Cruz, Galapagos, the species was able to spread rapidly in treeless area since the 1940s and by the beginning of the twenty-first century it occupied approximately 10% of the island (Buddenhagen et al., 2004).  There are no documented examples of biotic transmission, spread via agricultural practices and it is unlikely to be introduced accidentally or as a contaminant of crop seed or produce. There are recommendations in Hawaii that C. pubescens should not be sold or planted. There remains a possibility that it could still be transported between countries and continents for cultivation as a herbal or ornamental plant (PIER, 2008).

    Pathway Causes

    Top of page
    CauseNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
    Medicinal useSaint Helena, Hawaii, Galapagos Islands, French Polynesia Yes Cronk and Fuller, 1995; Meyer, 2004; Starr et al., 2003; Tye, 2001; Wagner et al., 1999

    Pathway Vectors

    Top of page
    VectorNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
    Plants or parts of plantsSeeds planted to produce quinine plantations Yes Starr et al., 2003
    WindWinged seeds aid in naturalization and spread locally Yes Buddenhagen et al., 2004; Starr et al., 2003

    Plant Trade

    Top of page
    Plant parts liable to carry the pest in trade/transportPest stagesBorne internallyBorne externallyVisibility of pest or symptoms
    Fruits (inc. pods) seeds
    Plant parts not known to carry the pest in trade/transport
    Bark
    Bulbs/Tubers/Corms/Rhizomes
    Flowers/Inflorescences/Cones/Calyx
    Growing medium accompanying plants
    Leaves
    Roots
    Seedlings/Micropropagated plants
    Stems (above ground)/Shoots/Trunks/Branches
    True seeds (inc. grain)
    Wood

    Wood Packaging

    Top of page
    Wood Packaging not known to carry the pest in trade/transport
    Loose wood packing material
    Processed or treated wood
    Solid wood packing material with bark
    Solid wood packing material without bark

    Impact Summary

    Top of page
    CategoryImpact
    Animal/plant collections None
    Animal/plant products None
    Biodiversity (generally) Negative
    Crop production None
    Cultural/amenity Positive and negative
    Economic/livelihood Positive and negative
    Environment (generally) Negative
    Fisheries / aquaculture None
    Forestry production None
    Human health Positive
    Livestock production None
    Native fauna Negative
    Native flora Negative
    Rare/protected species Negative
    Tourism Negative
    Trade/international relations None
    Transport/travel None

    Economic Impact

    Top of page

    There are no records of direct impact on crops. The species is said to be invading Eucalyptus plantations in Hawaii (Starr et al., 2003) but there are no economic data. Tye (2001) gave estimates for eradication costs in the Galapagos at US$2 million over 15 years.  Buddenhagen and Yanez (2005) estimated that eradicating the 11000 ha infestation on the Galapagos Island of Santa Cruz would cost US $1.65 million. Costs ranged from $14 to $2225 per ha depending on stem density. The initial knockdown alone would require more than 275 000 man-hours of effort, equivalent to employing 75 people for two years; further search and control effort would be required in later years.

    Environmental Impact

    Top of page

    Impact on Habitats

    C. pubescens has now become the most common invasive alien plant in the Miconia vegetation zone on the Galapagos island of Santa Cruz, and forests of the red quinine tree cover the upper volcanic slopes (Mauchamp, 1997). It was listed among 32 land plants within a listing of “100 of the world’s worst invasive alien species” (Lowe et al., 2000).  It would seem that after a prolonged lag phase, C. pubescens has moved into an explosive invasive phase within the last two decades (Macdonald et al., 1988; Schofield, 1989; Moll, 1998; Mack et al., 2000; Tye, 2001), making it the major threat to biodiversity and habitat stability in the highland region of Santa Cruz Island. In Hawaii, C. pubescens has shown an ability to invade both disturbed forests and primary moist or mesic forests. The dense canopy and rapid growth rate (1-2 m per year) out-competes and shades out native vegetation, impacting  forest structure severely, with a reduction in photosynthetically active radiation of 87% recorded on Santa Cruz (Jager et al., 2009). More litter was produced under Cinchona trees in Santa Cruz and the litter decomposed quickly, impacting the soil environment and in turn the vegetation cover (Capa, 2006). Water cycle modifications via enhanced fog interception were also observed due to the thick C. pubescens canopy on Santa Cruz (Jager et al., 2009).  Despite these pronounced impacts on some locations where it occurs, to date C. pubescens is naturalized on relatively few islands (Meyer, 2004).

    Impact: Biodiversity

    Top of page

    On St. Helena, C. pubescens invaded tree-fern thickets (Cronk, 1989). C. pubescens apparently has impacted the biodiversity of upland Hawaiian forest reserves, out-competing indigenous plants, from understorey trees such as Acacia koa, to herbs such as the Uluhe fern, Dichanopteris linearis (Wagner et al., 1999; Starr et al., 2003).  However, more in-depth study by Fischer et al. (2009) indicated that C. pubescens actually facilitated higher diversity of endemic species in the three forest types studied: Pinus plantations, Eucalyptus plantations and “near-natural” Acacia koa forests. Fischer et al. (2009) attributed the 20% increase in species richness and 50% increase in the proportion of endemic species to shading by C. pubescens in these simplified ecosystems.

    In the Galapagos, areas invaded by C. pubescens on Santa Cruz went from open shrubland to forest within a few decades (Buddenhagen et al., 2004; Jager et al., 2007). See Itow (2003) for photographs showing the successive invasion from 1970 to 1991 to 2001. Itow (1990; 2003) identified 11 community types in the Santa Cruz highlands, all of which were altered by the invasion of C. pubescens. Species composition of the native community type dominated Miconia robinsoniana shrubs has been less impacted than the fern-sedge zone, likely because Miconia communities were already adapted to somewhat shaded conditions (Jager et al., 2007).  The invasion of the Santa Cruz highlands has impacted endemic shrubs such as M. robinsoniana, and endemic herbs notably Justicia galapagana and Pilea baurii reducing percentage cover of most plant species by 50%, as well as on several endemic arthropods and birds such as the Galapagos rail, Laterallus spilonotus or the Galapagos petrel, Pterodroma galapagensis (Macdonald et al., 1988; Cruz and Cruz, 1996; Caraval, 2002; Gibbs et al., 2003; Jager et al., 2003; Buddenhagen et al., 2004; Jager et al., 2009). Gibbs et al. (2003) observed that the Galapagos rail avoided C. pubescens, even though the tree was found at 75% of points surveyed in 2000. Many species impacted by C. pubescens on Santa Cruz are red-listed by IUCN (Jager et al., 2007). Even if C. pubescens is controlled in these areas, other non-native species thriving in the shade of the quinine tree might continue to spread (Jager et al., 2007). The demonstrated transformation of the habitat itself by C. pubescens likely leads to drastic and unpredictable biodiversity changes over the long-term (Jager et al., 2009).

    Threatened Species

    Top of page
    Threatened SpeciesConservation StatusWhere ThreatenedMechanismReferencesNotes
    Cyathea weatherbyanaEN (IUCN red list: Endangered)Galapagos IslandsJäger et al., 2009
    Miconia robinsonianaEN (IUCN red list: Endangered)Galapagos IslandsJäger et al., 2009
    Scalesia pedunculataEN (IUCN red list: Endangered)Galapagos IslandsJäger et al., 2009; Shimizu, 1997

    Social Impact

    Top of page

    Further invasion poses a threat of long-term impact on tourism in affected islands.  Tourism is the leading source of income in both the Hawaiian Islands and the Galapagos. The promotion of the Galapagos as a world “showcase for evolution” is jeopardized (Trillmich, 1992). Yet there is not enough funding available to adequately manage the populations present on Santa Cruz, Galapagos, or the infestations on the Hawaiian islands.

    Risk and Impact Factors

    Top of page
    Invasiveness
    • Proved invasive outside its native range
    • Abundant in its native range
    • Highly adaptable to different environments
    • Tolerant of shade
    • Benefits from human association (i.e. it is a human commensal)
    • Long lived
    • Fast growing
    • Has high reproductive potential
    • Reproduces asexually
    Impact outcomes
    • Damaged ecosystem services
    • Ecosystem change/ habitat alteration
    • Increases vulnerability to invasions
    • Modification of hydrology
    • Modification of nutrient regime
    • Modification of successional patterns
    • Monoculture formation
    • Negatively impacts forestry
    • Negatively impacts tourism
    • Reduced amenity values
    • Reduced native biodiversity
    • Threat to/ loss of endangered species
    • Threat to/ loss of native species
    Impact mechanisms
    • Competition - monopolizing resources
    • Competition - shading
    • Competition - smothering
    • Rapid growth
    Likelihood of entry/control
    • Highly likely to be transported internationally deliberately
    • Difficult/costly to control

    Uses

    Top of page

    Cinchona bark was being used in Europe as a treatment for malaria as early as the 1650s before the plant was authenticated botanically (Raintree, 2003). The Jesuits had introduced it from the New World, hence the name Jesuit's bark or powder (Prendergast and Dolley, 2001). The bark was collected in its native Andean range and probably comprised a mixture of species including C. pubescens. One area of supply came from the western slopes of the Ecuadorian Andes in Cotapaxi Province, and that was where Richard Spruce was commissioned by the British Government to collect germplasm of the red quinine tree in the 1850s (Drew, 1996; Naranjo, 1996). It was this material which formed the basis of the plantations established by the British in the Indian subcontinent in the 1860s, and in Indonesia by the Dutch. However, it was soon discovered by the Dutch that the yellow-barked Cinchona from Peru gave much higher yields of the active alkaloid quinine (Purseglove, 1968), which was used both as a prophylactic and for treatment of malaria. Since the 1940s, new synthetic drugs replaced quinine but production still continues, principally in Africa, and an estimated 300-500 t are produced annually from 5,000 – 10,000 t of raw bark (Starr et al., 2003; Dagani, 2005), mainly for use in the food industry for tonic water and as an FDA-approved bitter food additive. Quinine producing countries in other parts of the world include Indonesia, Sri Lanka, Bolivia, Colombia, Costa Rica and India (Husain, 1991). It also has minor uses in the pharmaceutical industry for sunburn lotions, antiseptics and insecticides. Extracts from C. pubescens were found to have some activity against the fungus Candida albicans (Nino et al., 2003). It is still much favoured in herbal medicine worldwide. Recently, natural quinine is making a comeback for the management of new strains of malaria which have developed resistance to the synthesized quinine drugs. An impressive list of current uses for natural quinine was produced recently by Raintree (2007), from treatment of anaemia to muscle spasms to cancer. Quinine is also used as an additive in some carbonated beverages.

    Uses List

    Top of page

    Environmental

    • Graft stock

    General

    • Botanical garden/zoo
    • Sociocultural value

    Human food and beverage

    • Spices and culinary herbs

    Materials

    • Bark products
    • Chemicals

    Medicinal, pharmaceutical

    • Source of medicine/pharmaceutical
    • Traditional/folklore

    Similarities to Other Species/Conditions

    Top of page

    C. pubescens has been separated from the three other species of economic importance: C. calisaya Wedd., C. ledgeriana Moens ex Tremen. and C. officinalis L., on bark colour, hence the vernacular epithets red quinine, roja-roja and quinquina rouge. C. calisaya, with which C. ledgeriana has now been synonymized (Andersson, 1998), has thick whitish bark which yields the yellow Peruvian bark of commerce; whilst C. officinalis has rough brown bark and is a much less robust, slender tree.

    Prevention and Control

    Top of page

    Due to the variable regulations around (de)registration of pesticides, your national list of registered pesticides or relevant authority should be consulted to determine which products are legally allowed for use in your country when considering chemical control. Pesticides should always be used in a lawful manner, consistent with the product's label.

    Control

    Cultural control

    In the Galapagos, recommendations have been made to plant other non-invasive tree species in place of invaders like C. pubescens (Richardson, 1998). On Hawaii recommendation has been to discourage further planting of C. pubescens as a crop (Starr et al., 2003). Although the plant is highly susceptible to fire, this method is untenable in the delicate island ecosystems typically invaded by C. pubescens. C. pubescens appears to spread less rapidly in forested areas than in open areas (Buddenhagen et al., 2004).

    There remains a possibility that it could still be transported between countries and continents for cultivation as a herbal or ornamental plant (PIER, 2008), but the phytosanitary risk is perceived as low.

    Mechanical control

    Manual removal has been practiced in the Galapagos, but this is labour intensive and hence expensive (Macdonald et al., 1988) since it includes felling, grubbing out the stumps and hand-pulling seedlings. Tens of thousands of trees were removed on the Galapagos in the 1980s by this method within a 1000 ha area of Santa Cruz (Macdonald et al., 1988). Nevertheless, the plant can regrow from root fragments and also resprouts vigorously from cut stumps. Ring-barking appears ineffective because of rapid bark regeneration.

    Biological control

    No targeted natural enemy surveys have been undertaken in the native range of C. pubescens and thus classical biological control has not been pursued. Hoffmann and Moran (1998) have advocated that biocontrol agents that reduce seed set should be used routinely as a first line of attack to prevent further invasions. Limited evaluation of indigenous wood-rotting fungi for stump-treatment application to prevent resprouting has been undertaken recently in the Galapagos, an approach successfully exploited in The Netherlands for the management of invasive alien tree species (de Jong, 2000).

    Chemical control

    C. pubescens is resistant to many herbicides but initial attempts to develop chemical control methods were largely ineffective (Macdonald et al., 1988; Starr et al., 2003; Buddenhagen et al., 2004). More recent research on Santa Cruz in the Galapagos concluded that the most effective herbicide combination was metsulfuron-methyl and picloram applied to a trunk cut with a machete (Buddenhagen et al., 2004). This combination was 80% effective, and was less labour intensive than five other methods tested. Some combinations with triclopyr also produced satisfactory control (Buddenhagen et al., 2004). Although a previous report claimed glyphosate was effective as a foliar application to small trees, Buddenhagen et al. (2004) observed no more than 2% control when applying glyphosate via the machete method. 

    Integrated control

    There is an on-going campaign in the Galapagos to eradicate C. pubescens on Santa Cruz Island but thus far less than 2% of the 11,000 ha area has been controlledusing a combination of manual and chemical measures (Macdonald et al., 1988; Tye, 2001; Caraval, 2002; Buddenhagen and Yanez, 2005). An estimated 110 ha was controlled within the Galapagos National Park between 1998 and 2003 (Buddenhagen et al., 2004).  For eradication purposes, Buddenhagen and Yanez (2005) recommended repeating control measures every two years because of the approximately 2 years taken by quinine trees to mature, and continuing an eradication program for 10-20 years. Despite these challenges, the development of techniques for its control, its isolation on a single island, ease of identification and consensus on its control make C. pubescens a good target for eradication in the Galapagos (Tye et al., 2003). In Hawaii, eradication is considered to be a difficult option because of the dense infestations and rough terrain (Starr et al., 2003). Spot control of invasive pockets in selected areas with a high biodiversity is being proposed to slow the invasion and preserve rare native species.

    Monitoring and Surveillance

    Some surveying has been conducted in the Hawaiian Islands on a roadside basis (Starr et al., 2006) but there is a need to collect more data on local distribution there. The distribution is well characterized in the Galapagos Islands (Buddenhagen et al., 2004) where the trees are more visible.

    Ecosystem Restoration

    Recommendations have been made to plant other species in the areas affected by C. pubescens on Santa Cruz in the Galapagos (Richardson, 1998). Although cover of native plant species on Santa Cruz has been severely reduced in many cases, there is no evidence that any plant species have been extirpated from the area (Jager et al., 2009).  Because the species pool for the affected habitat is still complete, if cover of C. pubescens can be reduced, the prognosis for eventual restoration of the ecosystem is good.

    Gaps in Knowledge/Research Needs

    Top of page

    More research is needed on distribution, abundance and impacts in the Hawaiian Islands, St. Helena and Tahiti. Now that control methods have been better developed for Santa Cruz, Galapagos, research is needed to verify that proposed steps towards eradication can be effective.

    References

    Top of page

    Alejandro G, Liede S, 2000. The Philippine Rubiaceae Genera: Cinchona Linn. http://www.uni.bayreuth.de/departments/planta 2/egl/delta-N/www/cinchona.htm

    Alejandro G, Liede S, 2007. The current status of the Philippine Rubiaceae Genera: Cinchona Linn. The current status of the Philippine Rubiaceae Genera: Cinchona Linn. unpaginated. http://www.philjol.info/index.php/PJSB/article/viewFile/908/834

    Andersson L, 1998. A revision of the genus Cinchona (Rubiaceae-Cinchoneae). Memoirs of the New York Botanical Garden, 80:1-75

    Andersson L, Antonelli A, 2005. Phylogeny of the tribe Cinchoneae (Rubiaceae), its position in Cinchoideae, and description of a new genus, Ciliosemina. Taxon, 54(1):17-28

    Bruce-Chwatt LJ, 1988. Cinchona and its alkaloids: 350 years. New York State Journal of Medicine, 88(6):318-322

    Buddenhagen C, Yanez P, 2005. The cost of quinine Cinchona pubescens control on Santa Cruz Island, Galapagos. Galapagos Research, 63:32-36. http://datazone.darwinfoundation.org/media/pdf/63/GR_63_2005_Buddenhagen%26Yanez_Cinchona_pubescens.pdf

    Buddenhagen CE, Renteria JL, Gardener M, Wilkinson SR, Soria M, Yánez P, Tye A, Valle R, 2004. The control of a highly invasive tree Cinchona pubescens in Galapagos. Weed Technology [Invasive plants in natural and managed systems (IPINAMS) conference, Fort Lauderdale, Florida, USA, November 2003.], 18(Suppl.):1194-1202

    Butler EJ, 1918. Fungi and Diseases in Plants. London, UK: Spink & Co

    Capa PRC, 2006. Impact of Cinchona pubescens litter on the native vegetation of the Island Santa Cruz, Galapagos (Preliminary Data). Lyonia, 9(2):69-79

    Caraval C, 2002. Controlling the quinine tree. http://www.galapagospark.org/en/news/020411a.htm

    Cline ET, Farr DF, Rossman AY, 2008. A synopsis of Phytophthora with accurate scientific names, host range, and geographic distribution. Plant Health Progress, March:0318-01. http://www.plantmanagementnetwork.org/sub/php/review/2008/phytophthora/

    CRANDALL BS, 1947. A new Phytophthora causing root and collar rot of Cinchona in Peru. Mycolooza, 39(2):218-223 pp

    Cronk QCB, 1989. The past and present vegetation of St Helena. Journal of Biogeography, 16:47-64

    Cronk QCB, Fuller JL, 1995. Plant invaders: the threat to natural ecosystems. London, UK; Chapman & Hall Ltd, xiv + 241 pp

    Cruz JB, Cruz F, 1996. Conservation of the dark-ringed petrel Pterodroma phaepygia of the Galapagos Islands. Bird Conservation International, 6:23-32

    Dagani R, 2005. Quinine. The top pharmaceuticals that changed the world. Chemical & Engineering News, 83(25):unpaginated. http://pubs.acs.org/cen/coverstory/83/8325/8325quinine.html

    Drew WB, 1996. Cinchona work in Ecuador by Richard Spruce, and by United States botanists in the 1940s. In: Seaward MRD, Fitzergerald, SMD, eds. Richard Spruce (1817-1893): Botanist and Explorer. Kew, UK: Royal Botanical Gardens, 158-161

    Eliasson U, 1982. Changes and constancy in the vegetation of the Galapagos Islands. Noticias de Galapagos, 36:7-12

    Fischer LK, Lippe Mvon der, Kowarik I, 2009. Tree invasion in managed tropical forests facilitates endemic species. Journal of Biogeography, 36(12):2251-2263. http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/loi/jbi

    Fosberg FR, Sachet MH, Oliver RL, 1993. Flora of Micronesia. Part 5. Bignoniaceae-Rubiaceae. Smithsonian Contributions to Botany, 81:54

    Frohlich G, Rodewald W, 1970. Pests and Diseases of Tropical Crops and their Control. Oxford, UK: Pergamon Press

    Gibbs JP, Shriver WG, Vargas H, 2003. An assessment of a Galapagos Rail population over thirteen years (1986 to 2000). Journal of Field Ornithology, 74(2):136-140

    GISP, 2002. Global Invasive Species Database: Ecology of Cinchona pubescens. Global Invasive Species Programme http://jasper.stanford.edu/GISP

    Hamann O, 1974. Contribution to the flora and vegetation of the Galapagos Islands. III. Five new floristic records. Botaniska Notiser, 127:309-316

    Harmann O, 1984. Changes and threats to the vegetation. In: Perry R, ed. Key Environments: Galapagos. Oxford, UK: Pergamon Press, 115-131

    Harper RE, Winters HF, 1946. Cinchona investigations in Puerto Rico. Agriculture in Americas, 6:30-32

    Henderson S, Dawson TP, Whittaker RJ, 2006. Progress in invasive plants research. Progress in Physical Geography, 30(1):25-46. http://www.pipgjournal.com

    Hoffmann JH, Moran VC, 1998. The population dynamics of an introduced tree, Sesbania punicea, in South Africa, in response to long-term damage caused by different combinations of three species of biological control agents. Oecologia, 114(3):343-348; 36 ref

    Husain A, 1991. Economic aspects of exploitations of medicinal plants. In: Conservation of medicinal plants [ed. by Akerele, O.\Heywood, V.\Synge, H.]. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, unpaginated

    Itow S, 1990. Herbaceous and ericaceous communities in the highlands of Santa Cruz, the Galápagos Islands. Botanical Research and Management in Galápagos, 32 [ed. by Lawesson, J. E.\Hamann, O.\Rogers, G.\Reck, G.\Ochoa, H.]. 47-58. [Monograph in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden.]

    Itow S, 2003. Zonation pattern, succession process and invasion by aliens in species-poor insular vegetation of the Galapagos Islands. Global Environmental Research, 7:39-58

    Jager H, Tye A, Gerlach A, 2003. Impacto de Cinchona pubescens sobre la vegetacion nativa en la parte alta de la isla Santa Cruz (Islas Galapagos). Unpublished Report of the Charles Darwin Research Station, Santa Cruz, Galapagos

    Jenkins AE, 1945. Scab of Cinchona in South America caused by Elsinoe. Journal of the Washington Academy of Science, 35:344-352

    Jong MDde, 2000. The BioChon story: deployment of Chondrostereum purpureum to suppress stump sprouting in hardwoods. Mycologist, 14(2):58-62; 7 ref

    Jäger H, Kowarik I, Tye A, 2009. Destruction without extinction: long-term impacts of an invasive tree species on Galápagos highland vegetation. Journal of Ecology (Oxford), 97(6):1252-1263. http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/loi/jec

    Jäger H, Tye A, Kowarik I, 2007. Tree invasion in naturally treeless environments: impacts of quinine (Cinchona pubescens) trees on native vegetation in Galápagos. Biological Conservation, 140(3/4):297-307. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/00063207

    Lowe S, Browne M, Boudjelas S, Poorter M De, 2000. 100 of the world's worst invasive alien species: a selection from the global invasive species database. 100 of the world's worst invasive alien species: a selection from the global invasive species database. The Invasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG), Species Survival Commission (SSC), World Conservation Union (IUCN), 12 pp. http://www.issg.org/pdf/publications/worst_100/english_100_worst.pdf

    Macdonald IAW, Ortiz L, Lawesson JE, Nowak JB, 1988. The invasion of highlands in Galapagos by the red quinine-tree Cinchona succirubra. Environmental Conservation, 15(3):215-220

    Mack RN, Simberloff D, Lonsdale WM, Evans H, Clout M, Bazzaz FA, 2000. Biotic invasions: causes, epidemiology, global consequences, and control. Ecological Applications, 10(3):689-710; many ref

    Mauchamp A, 1997. Threats from alien plant species in the Galapagos Islands. Conservation Biology, 11(1):260-263; 26 ref

    Meyer JY, 2000. Preliminary review of the invasive plants in the Pacific islands (SPREP Member Countries). In: Sherley G, tech. ed. Invasive species in the Pacific: a technical review and draft regional strategy. South Pacific Regional Environment Programme, Samoa

    Meyer JY, 2004. Threat of invasive alien plants to native flora and forest vegetation of Eastern Polynesia. Pacific Science, 58(3):357-375

    Missouri Botanical Garden, 2003. VAScular Tropicos database. St. Louis, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden. http://mobot.mobot.org/W3T/Search/vast.html

    Moll EJ, 1998. A further report on the distribution of introduced plants on Santa Cruz Island, Galapagos. Occasional Paper of the University of Queensland School of Natural and Rural Systems Management, 51:1-82

    Moureau RE, 1945. An Annotated Bibliography of Chinchona - Growing from 1883-1943. Nairobi, Kenya: Government Printer

    Naranjo P, 1996. Spruce's great contribution to health. In: Seawards MRD, FitzGerald SMD, eds. Richard Spruce (1817-1893): Botanist and Explorer. Kew, UK: Royal Botanical Gardens, 164-170

    Nino J, Espinal CM, Mosquera OM, Correa YM, 2003. Antimycotic activity of 20 plants from Columbian flora. Pharmaceutical Biology, 41:491-496

    Okonkwo JO, Msonthi JD, 1995. Preliminary studies on the effect of Nigerian "bloodwort" on experimentally induced liver damage. Fitoterapia, 66:387-389

    PIER, 2002. Plant threats to Pacific ecosystems. Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER). http://www.hear.org/pier/threats.htm

    PIER, 2008. Pacific Islands Ecosystems at Risk. USA: Institute of Pacific Islands Forestry. http://www.hear.org/pier/index.html

    Popenoe W, 1941. Cinchona in Guatemala. Tropical Agriculture Trin., 18:70-74

    Prendergast R, Dolley D, 2001. Jesuit's bark (Cinchona [Rubiaceae]) and other medicines. Economic Botany, 55:3-6

    Purseglove JW, 1968. Tropical crops. Dicotyledons. 1. London:Longmans, Green & Co.Ltd., 225-236

    Raintree, 2003. Quinine bark. Raintree Nutrition, Tropical Plant Database. http://www.rain_tree.com.quinine.htm

    Richardson DM, 1998. Forestry trees as invasive aliens. Conservation Biology, 12(1):18-26; 37 ref

    Schmidt SK, Scow KM, 1986. Mycorrhizal fungi on the Galapagos Islands. Biotropica, 18(3):236-240

    Schofield EK, 1989. Effects of introduced plants and animals on island vegetation: examples from the Galapagos Archipelago. Conservation Biology, 3:227-238

    Sejourne M, Resplandy G, Viel C, Chenieux JC, Rideau M, 1986. Bioproduction of quinoline alkaloids by Cinchona succirubra strains cultured in vitro. Fitoterapia, 57:121-123

    Shimizu Y, 1997. Competitive relationships between tree species of Scalesia (S. pedunculata, S. cordata, S. microcephala) and introduced plants (cinchona succirubra, Psidium guajava, Lantana camara) with reference to regeneration mechanism of Scalesia forests in the Galapagos Islands. Regional Views, 11:23-172

    Standley PL, Williams LO, 1975. Flora of Guatemala. Chicago, Illinois: Field Museum of Natural History, unpaginated

    Starr F, Starr K, Loope L, 2003. Cinchona pubescens: quinine tree, Rubiaceae. Plants of Hawaii Report. http://www.starrenvironmental.com/publications/species_reports/pdf/cinchona_pubescens.pdf

    Starr F, Starr K, Loope L, 2006. Roadside survey and expert interviews for selected plants on Maui, Hawaii. Roadside survey and expert interviews for selected plants on Maui, Hawaii. unpaginated. http://hear.org/starr/publications/2006_maui_roadside_botanical_survey.pdf

    Trillmich F, 1992. Conservation problems on Galapagos: the showcase of evolution in danger. Die Naturwissenschaften, 79(1):1-6. http://repositories.ub.uni-bielefeld.de/biprints/voltexte/2009/2859

    Tye A, 2001. Invasive plant problems and requirements for weed risk assessment in the Galapagos Islands. In: Groves RH, Panetta FD, Virtue JG, eds. Weed Risk Assessment. Collingwood, Victoria, Australia CSIRO Publishing, 153-175

    Tye A, Soria MC, Gardener MR, 2003. A strategy for Galapagos weeds. In: Turning the tide: the eradication of invasive species: Proceedings of the International Conference on eradication of island invasives [ed. by Veitch, C. R.\Clout, M. N.]. Gland, Switzerland: IUCN-The World Conservation Union, 336-341

    USDA-ARS, 2003. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Online Database. Beltsville, Maryland, USA: National Germplasm Resources Laboratory. https://npgsweb.ars-grin.gov/gringlobal/taxon/taxonomysearch.aspx

    USDA-ARS, 2009. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Online Database. Beltsville, Maryland, USA: National Germplasm Resources Laboratory. https://npgsweb.ars-grin.gov/gringlobal/taxon/taxonomysearch.aspx

    Vanquin V, 2006. [English title not available]. (Ecologie et dynamique de l'invasion de l'arbre à quinine Cinchona pubescens (Rubiacées) dans les forêts humides de l'île de Tahiti (Polynésie française). Rapport de stage de licence 2006-2006.) Ecologie et dynamique de l'invasion de l'arbre à quinine Cinchona pubescens (Rubiacées) dans les forêts humides de l'île de Tahiti (Polynésie française). Rapport de stage de licence 2006-2006. unpaginated

    Wagner WL, Herbst DR, Sohmer SH, 1999. Manual of the Flowering Plants of Hawaii, Revised ed. Honolulu, USA: University of Hawaii Press

    Distribution References

    Alejandro G, Liede S, 2000. The Philippine Rubiaceae Genera: Cinchona Linn., http://www.uni.bayreuth.de/departments/planta 2/egl/delta-N/www/cinchona.htm

    CABI, Undated. Compendium record. Wallingford, UK: CABI

    CABI, Undated a. CABI Compendium: Status inferred from regional distribution. Wallingford, UK: CABI

    CABI, Undated b. CABI Compendium: Status as determined by CABI editor. Wallingford, UK: CABI

    Cronk Q C B, Fuller J L, 1995. Plant invaders: the threat to natural ecosystems. London, UK: Chapman & Hall Ltd. xiv + 241 pp.

    Debalina Mandal, Gupta S K, Debnath N, 2015. Mites infesting medicinal plants in eastern Himalayan region of West Bengal. Environment and Ecology. 33 (1A), 257-260. http://www.environmentandecology.com/

    Debalina Mandal, Gupta S K, Sanyal A K, 2016. A report on new records of phytophagous mites on medicinal plants from Eastern Himalayan Region. Records of the Zoological Survey of India. 116 (4), 367-371.

    Fosberg FR, Sachet MH, Oliver RL, 1993. Flora of Micronesia. Part 5. Bignoniaceae-Rubiaceae. In: Smithsonian Contributions in Botany, 81 (5) 1-135.

    Harmann O, 1984. Changes and threats to the vegetation. In: Key Environments: Galapagos, [ed. by Perry R]. Oxford, UK: Pergamon Press. 115-131.

    Harper R E, Winters H F, 1946. Cinchona investigations in Puerto Rico. Agriculture in Americas. 30-32.

    Husain A, 1991. Economic aspects of exploitations of medicinal plants. In: Conservation of medicinal plants, [ed. by Akerele O, Heywood V, Synge H]. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.

    Meyer J Y, 2004. Threat of invasive alien plants to native flora and forest vegetation of Eastern Polynesia. Pacific Science. 58 (3), 357-375. DOI:10.1353/psc.2004.0032

    Missouri Botanical Garden, 2003. Vascular Tropicos database., St. Louis, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden. http://mobot.mobot.org/W3T/Search/vast.html

    Moureau R E, 1945. An Annotated Bibliography of Chinchona - Growing from 1883-1943. Nairobi, Kenya: Government Printer.

    Naranjo P, 1996. Spruce's great contribution to health. In: Richard Spruce (1817-1893) Botanist and Explorer, [ed. by Seawards MRD, FitzGerald SMD]. Kew, UK: Royal Botanical Gardens. 164-170.

    Okonkwo J O, Msonthi J D, 1995. Preliminary study on the effect of Nigerian "blood wort" on experimentally induced liver damage. Fitoterapia. 66 (5), 387-389.

    PURSEGLOVE J W, 1968. Tropical Crops. Dicotyledons. Vol. I, II. Tropical Crops. Dicotyledons. Vol. I, II. xiv+ 719 pp.

    Sejourne M, Resplandy G, Viel C, Chénieux J C, Rideau M, 1986. Bioproduction of quinoline alkaloids by Cinchona succirubra strains cultured in vitro. Fitoterapia. 57 (2), 121-123.

    Standley PL, Williams LO, 1975. Flora of Guatemala., Chicago, Illinois, Field Museum of Natural History. unpaginated.

    Starr F, Starr K, Loope L, 2003. (Cinchona pubescens: quinine tree, Rubiaceae). In: Plants of Hawaii Report, http://www.starrenvironmental.com/publications/species_reports/pdf/cinchona_pubescens.pdf

    Tye A, 2001. Invasive plant problems and requirements for weed risk assessment in the Galapagos islands. In: Weed risk assessment. [ed. by Groves R H, Panetta F D, Virtue J G]. Collingwood, Australia: CSIRO Publishing. 153-175.

    USDA-ARS, 2009. Cornus sericea. In: Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN), Online Database, Beltsville, Maryland, USA: National Germplasm Resources Laboratory. http://www.ars-grin.gov/cgi-bin/npgs/html/tax_search.pl

    Wagner WL, Herbst DR, Sohmer SH, 1999. Manual of the Flowering Plants of Hawaii, Revised ed., Honolulu, USA: University of Hawaii Press.

    Links to Websites

    Top of page
    WebsiteURLComment
    Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)http://www.hear.org/Pier/index.html
    Plants of Hawaii Reporthttp://www.hear.org/starr/hiplants/reports/html/cinchoma_pubescens.htm
    Raintree Nutritionhttp://www.rain-tree.com/quinine.htm

    Organizations

    Top of page

    USA: Haleakala Field Station, HFS P.O. Box 246, Makawao, (Maui) HI 96768, http://www.hear.org/usgs-brd-pierc-hfs/index.html

    Galapagos Islands: Charles Darwin Research Station (CDRS), run by the Charles Darwin Foundaton, Puerto Ayora, Isla Santa Cruz, Galapagos, http://www.darwinfoundation.org/english/pages/index.php

    Contributors

    Top of page

    15/12/2009 Updated by:

    David Clements, Biology and Environmental Studies, Trinity Western University, 7600 Glover Road,  Langley, British Columbia, V2Y 1Y1, Canada

    Distribution Maps

    Top of page
    You can pan and zoom the map
    Save map
    Select a dataset
    Map Legends
    • CABI Summary Records
    Map Filters
    Extent
    Invasive
    Origin
    Third party data sources: