Chrysodeixis chalcites (golden twin-spot moth)
- Summary of Invasiveness
- Taxonomic Tree
- Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature
- Distribution Table
- Risk of Introduction
- Habitat List
- Hosts/Species Affected
- Host Plants and Other Plants Affected
- Growth Stages
- List of Symptoms/Signs
- Biology and Ecology
- Natural enemies
- Notes on Natural Enemies
- Means of Movement and Dispersal
- Plant Trade
- Wood Packaging
- Detection and Inspection
- Similarities to Other Species/Conditions
- Prevention and Control
- Distribution Maps
Don't need the entire report?
Generate a print friendly version containing only the sections you need.Generate report
PicturesTop of page
IdentityTop of page
Preferred Scientific Name
- Chrysodeixis chalcites (Esper)
Preferred Common Name
- golden twin-spot moth
Other Scientific Names
- Autographa chalcites Esper
- Autographa chalcites Linnaeus
- Chrysodeixis chalcytes (Doubleday)
- Chrysodeixis chalcytes (Esper)
- Noctua chalcites Esper
- Noctua chalcytes Esper
- Noctua chalsytis Hubner
- Noctua questionis Fabricius
- Phalaena chalcites Esper
- Phytometra chalcites Esper
- Plusia buchholzi Plotz
- Plusia chalcites (Esper)
- Plusia chalcytes Saalmuller
- Plusia cohaerens Schultz
International Common Names
- English: garden, looper, green; golden twin spot; green garden looper; green looper; green semi-looper; groundnut semi-looper; tomato leafworm; tomato looper
- French: noctuelle de l'artichaut
Local Common Names
- Norway: gullmetallfly
- PLUSCH (Chrysodeixis chalcites)
Summary of InvasivenessTop of page Although C. chalcites has been recorded in northern Europe, winter mortality prevents its long-term establishment out of doors. However, it has been able to extend its natural distribution into northern Europe by establishing in glasshouses. This can be considered as a type of invasiveness.
Taxonomic TreeTop of page
- Domain: Eukaryota
- Kingdom: Metazoa
- Phylum: Arthropoda
- Subphylum: Uniramia
- Class: Insecta
- Order: Lepidoptera
- Family: Noctuidae
- Genus: Chrysodeixis
- Species: Chrysodeixis chalcites
Notes on Taxonomy and NomenclatureTop of page Chrysodeixis chalcites has been known by many names since Esper first described it in 1789 as Phalaena chalcites. The substitution of an 'i' for the 'y' in the spelling of the species name has increased the number of ways the name appears in the literature. The present genus name has also been spelt in different ways, including Chryodeicis, Chrysodixis and Chrysodeixia (Nye, 1975). The accepted spelling of the genus and species name is Chrysodeixis chalcites. The confusion between Chrysodeixis chalcites and C. eriosoma is unresolved although Kostrowicki (1961) described C. chalcites as a species in its own right and separated it from C. eriosoma Doubleday on the basis of differences in wing facies, forewing coloration and morphological differences in cornuti of male genitalia. Benn et al. (1982) suggested that C. chalcites and C. eriosoma may be vicariant species. Holloway (1985) disagreed and thought that although there were only slight differences in the characters separating the two species, they were indeed distinct species. Later Holloway et al. (1987) suggested that the relationship between the two species required clarification.
DescriptionTop of page Ovum/Egg
White to pale green and shiny. Dome-shaped with 28 to 32 vertical ribs from the micropyle to the base (Bretherton, 1983; Goodey, 1991).
Mature larvae are 34 to 38 mm long, pale yellow-green with a glassy green to grey head edged with a black streak. Above the spiracles on each side of the body is a thin dark green or black line stretching from the head to the seventh abdominal segment, below this is a thicker white line from the head to the tip of the anal proleg. Spiracles are black. The ventral region is speckled with white dots (Haggett, 1980; Bretherton, 1983; Passoa, 1995; Porter, 1997). Larvae have only three pairs of prolegs, instead of the normal five, resulting in the looping gait giving rise to some of the common names.
Haggett (1980) provides a detailed description and colour illustration of the final larval instar.
The pupa is 20 mm long, black in a white cocoon which turns brown then black (Harakly and Farag, 1975; Bretherton, 1983; Sannino et al. 1988).
The adult wingspan is approximately 40 mm. The forewing is 15-17 mm, usually gold, although some individuals have more of a bronze colour. There are two oval silver spots on the forewing although in some individuals these are united. The hindwing is more pale. There are two prominent crests on the thorax (Pinhey, 1979; Bretherton, 1983; Passoa, 1995).
DistributionTop of page C. chalcites is primarily distributed between 45°N and 35°S, from southern Europe and the Mediterranean and the Middle East to southern Africa. Literature referring to C. chalcites (= chalcytes) in southern or eastern Asia or Oceania actually refers to C. eriosoma (Zhang, 1994).
C. chalcites immigrants from North Africa or southern Europe, borne on strong southerly winds, are sometimes recorded in central and northern Europe (Austria, Denmark, Germany, Sweden, Switzerland and the UK) in the late summer or autumn (Jor, 1973; Bretherton, 1983; Hachler et al., 1998; Palmqvist, 1998, 2002). There are about 50 records of C. chalcites as a migrant to the UK between 1943 and 1990 (Bretherton, 1983). Outdoor breeding populations occur in Europe as far north as northern Spain and northern Italy. No successful breeding is reported out-of-doors in northern Europe.
Lempke (1982) and Vos and Rutten (1995) noted that C. chalcites is present all year round in glasshouses in the Netherlands. Veire (1993) reported populations established in glasshouses in Belgium. However, there is no evidence that C. chalcites can overwinter outdoors in the Netherlands (Lempke, 1982) or elsewhere in northern Europe.
Distribution TableTop of page
The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.Last updated: 10 Jan 2020
|Continent/Country/Region||Distribution||Last Reported||Origin||First Reported||Invasive||Reference||Notes|
|Algeria||Present||Native||UK, CAB International (1977); Soldan and Spitzer (1983)|
|Angola||Present||Native||UK, CAB International (1977)|
|Cabo Verde||Present||Native||UK, CAB International (1977); CABI (Undated);|
|Cameroon||Present||Native||UK, CAB International (1977); Pinhey (1979)|
|Comoros||Present||Native||UK, CAB International (1977); Dufay (1982); Zhang (1994)|
|Congo, Democratic Republic of the||Present||UK, CAB International (1977)|
|Côte d'Ivoire||Present||Native||Toguebaye and Bouix (1983)|
|Egypt||Present||Native||Harakly (1974); UK, CAB International (1977); Harakly et al. (1982); CABI (Undated)|
|Gambia||Present||Native||UK, CAB International (1977)|
|Guinea||Present||Native||UK, CAB International (1977)|
|Kenya||Present||Native||UK, CAB International (1977)|
|Libya||Present||Native||UK, CAB International (1977)|
|Madagascar||Present||Native||UK, CAB International (1977); Pinhey (1979)|
|Malawi||Present||Native||UK, CAB International (1977); Pinhey (1979)|
|Mauritius||Present, Few occurrences||Native||Dove and Williams (1971); UK, CAB International (1977); Zhang (1994); CABI (Undated)|
|Morocco||Present||Native||UK, CAB International (1977)|
|Nigeria||Present||Native||UK, CAB International (1977)|
|Réunion||Present||Native||UK, CAB International (1977)|
|Saint Helena||Present||Native||UK, CAB International (1977)|
|São Tomé and Príncipe||Present||Native||UK, CAB International (1977)|
|Senegal||Present, Few occurrences||Native||UK, CAB International (1977); Bhatnagar (1983)|
|Seychelles||Present||Native||UK, CAB International (1977)|
|Sierra Leone||Present||Native||UK, CAB International (1977)|
|South Africa||Present||Native||UK, CAB International (1977); Pinhey (1979); CABI (Undated)|
|Tunisia||Present||Native||UK, CAB International (1977)|
|Uganda||Present||Native||UK, CAB International (1977)|
|Zambia||Present||Native||UK, CAB International (1977); Pinhey (1979)|
|Zimbabwe||Present, Few occurrences||Native||UK, CAB International (1977); Pinhey (1979); Taylor (1980); Taylor and Kunjeku (1983); Lapointe et al. (1995)|
|India||Present||CABI (Undated a)||Present based on regional distribution.|
|-Punjab||Present||Sukhpalvir Singh et al. (2003)|
|Iran||Present||Native||UK, CAB International (1977)|
|Iraq||Present||Native||UK, CAB International (1977); Gasim and Younis (1989)|
|Israel||Present||Native||UK, CAB International (1977); Broza and Sneh (1994)|
|Jordan||Present||Native||UK, CAB International (1977)|
|Lebanon||Present||Native||UK, CAB International (1977)|
|Syria||Present||Native||UK, CAB International (1977)|
|Turkey||Present||Native||UK, CAB International (1977); Kornoșor (1987); Karsholt and Razowski (1996)|
|Albania||Present||Native||UK, CAB International (1977); Karsholt and Razowski (1996)|
|Austria||Present, Few occurrences||Karsholt and Razowski (1996)|
|Belgium||Present, Localized||Karsholt and Razowski (1996); CABI (Undated)|
|Bulgaria||Present, Localized||Loginova (1992); Karsholt and Razowski (1996)|
|Cyprus||Present||Native||UK, CAB International (1977)|
|Denmark||Present, Few occurrences||Jor (1973); Karsholt and Razowski (1996)|
|France||Present||Native||UK, CAB International (1977); Karsholt and Razowski (1996)|
|-Corsica||Present||Native||UK, CAB International (1977); Karsholt and Razowski (1996)|
|Germany||Present, Few occurrences||Karsholt and Razowski (1996)|
|Greece||Present||Native||UK, CAB International (1977); Karsholt and Razowski (1996)|
|Hungary||Present||Native||Karsholt and Razowski (1996)|
|Italy||Present||Native||UK, CAB International (1977); Karsholt and Razowski (1996)|
|-Sicily||Present||Garzia and Siscaro (2003)|
|Malta||Present||Native||Valletta (1973); UK, CAB International (1977); Karsholt and Razowski (1996)|
|Netherlands||Present, Localized||Lempke (1982); Vos and Rutten (1995); Karsholt and Razowski (1996)|
|Poland||Present||Napiórkowska-Kowalik and Gawłowska (2006)||in glasshouses|
|Portugal||Present||Native||UK, CAB International (1977); Karsholt and Razowski (1996); Marques et al. (1999)|
|-Madeira||Present||Native||UK, CAB International (1977)|
|Romania||Present||Native||UK, CAB International (1977); Karsholt and Razowski (1996)|
|Serbia||Present||Native||UK, CAB International (1977); Karsholt and Razowski (1996)|
|Serbia and Montenegro||Present||Native||UK, CAB International (1977); Karsholt and Razowski (1996)|
|Spain||Present||Native||UK, CAB International (1977); Karsholt and Razowski (1996)|
|-Canary Islands||Present||Native||UK, CAB International (1977); Zhang (1994); Spitzer and Jaroš (2004); Pino et al. (2013)|
|Sweden||Present, Few occurrences||Janzon (1998); Palmqvist (1998); Palmqvist (2002)|
|Switzerland||Present, Few occurrences||Karsholt and Razowski (1996); Hächler et al. (1998)|
|United Kingdom||Present, Few occurrences||Karsholt and Razowski (1996)|
|-Ontario||Present||Introduced||2008||Invasive||Murillo et al. (2013)|
Risk of IntroductionTop of page C. chalcites is on the A2 quarantine pest list for South Africa (EPPO, 2002). Larvae of C. chalcites can move on hosts traded internationally. For example, C. chalcites have been found carried with Pelargonium from Germany to Hungary (Meszaros and Tusnadi, 1994) and on Chrysanthemum morifolium and Pelargonium from the Canary Isles imported into the UK (Seymour and Kilby, 1978). C. chalcites has also been found in Italy on bananas from the Canary Isles (Jannone, 1966). C. chalcites is a tropical and subtropical pest although it has established in glasshouses in northern Europe, where out-of-doors the climate is unfavourable. There is a risk that it will establish in protected cultivation elsewhere, for example in the USA, where there have been findings in Ohio in glasshouses growing Pelargonium (Passoa, 1995).
Habitat ListTop of page
Hosts/Species AffectedTop of page C. chalcites is highly polyphagous, feeding on many fruit, vegetable and ornamental crops and weeds in many plant families including Acanthaceae, Asteraceae, Bignoniaceae, Boraginaceae, Brassicaceae, Convolvulaceae, Crassulaceae, Lamiaceae, Fabaceae, Malvaceae, Orchidaceae, Rosaceae, Scrophulariaceae, Solanaceae, Verbenaceae and Violaceae. It can be a pest of crops grown outdoors and in protection, including both shade and glasshouses.
Host Plants and Other Plants AffectedTop of page
|Anethum graveolens (dill)||Apiaceae||Other|
|Arachis hypogaea (groundnut)||Fabaceae||Other|
|Brassica oleracea var. botrytis (cauliflower)||Brassicaceae||Other|
|Brassica oleracea var. capitata (cabbage)||Brassicaceae||Other|
|Brassicaceae (cruciferous crops)||Brassicaceae||Other|
|Capsicum annuum (bell pepper)||Solanaceae||Other|
|Chrysanthemum indicum (chrysanthemum)||Asteraceae||Other|
|Cucumis sativus (cucumber)||Cucurbitaceae||Other|
|Cynara cardunculus var. scolymus (globe artichoke)||Asteraceae||Other|
|Echium vulgare ((common) viper's-bugloss)||Boraginaceae||Wild host|
|Ficus benjamina (weeping fig)||Moraceae||Other|
|Ficus carica (common fig)||Moraceae||Other|
|Ficus elastica (rubber plant)||Moraceae||Other|
|Glycine max (soyabean)||Fabaceae||Main|
|Gossypium herbaceum (short staple cotton)||Malvaceae||Main|
|Helianthus tuberosus (Jerusalem artichoke)||Asteraceae||Other|
|Hippeastrum hybrids (amaryllis)||Liliaceae||Other|
|Lactuca sativa (lettuce)||Asteraceae||Other|
|Marrubium (horehound)||Lamiaceae||Wild host|
|Medicago sativa (lucerne)||Fabaceae||Other|
|Nicotiana tabacum (tobacco)||Solanaceae||Main|
|Phaseolus vulgaris (common bean)||Fabaceae||Main|
|Salvia officinalis (common sage)||Lamiaceae||Other|
|Solanum lycopersicum (tomato)||Solanaceae||Main|
|Solanum tuberosum (potato)||Solanaceae||Main|
|Stachytarpheta jamaicensis (Jamaica vervain)||Verbenaceae||Other|
|Teucrium scorodonia (wood germander)||Lamiaceae||Wild host|
|Tradescantia zebrina (wandering jew)||Commelinaceae||Other|
|Trifolium repens (white clover)||Fabaceae||Other|
|Triticum aestivum (wheat)||Poaceae||Other|
|Urtica dioica (stinging nettle)||Urticaceae||Wild host|
|Zea mays (maize)||Poaceae||Other|
Growth StagesTop of page Flowering stage, Fruiting stage, Seedling stage, Vegetative growing stage
List of Symptoms/SignsTop of page
|Fruit / external feeding|
|Leaves / external feeding|
|Leaves / frass visible|
|Leaves / leaves rolled or folded|
|Leaves / webbing|
|Whole plant / external feeding|
|Whole plant / frass visible|
Biology and EcologyTop of page C. chalcites is a polyvoltine species, with up to eight or nine generations per year in Egypt (Rashid et al., 1971; Harakly and Farag, 1975). After emergence females mate then begin oviposition within 2 or 3 days (Gasim and Younis, 1989). Eggs are laid on upper and lower leaf surfaces at night, whilst females are on the wing, females only briefly touching the leaf to deposit one, two or a few eggs at a time (Harakly and Farag, 1975). Eggs are very widely scattered in the crop (Linden, 1996). At 20°C egg incubation lasts between 5 and 26 days (Gaumont and Moreau, 1961).
Reports in the literature show considerable variation in the number of eggs oviposited. Harakly and Farag (1975) reported females laying from 14 to 281 eggs with a mean of 149. In contrast, Gasim and Younis (1989) reported the mean number of eggs laid per female to be much higher with 385, 640 and 405 eggs at 20, 25 and 30°C, respectively.
Gasim and Younis (1989) studied the development rate of C. chalcites eggs at three temperatures, 20, 25 and 30°C. The mean length of time between oviposition and egg hatch decreased with increasing temperature. At the lower temperature eggs took 4.5 days to hatch, at 25°C they took an average of 3.0 days and at the upper temperature they took 2.0 days. In mild winters eggs are laid outdoors in northern Italy and development continues although larval mortality is often high (Tremblay, 1975).
First-instar larvae graze on the underside of leaves feeding on parenchyma. They can be quite difficult to detect. A larva will drop from the leaf and hang on a silken thread if disturbed (Goodey, 1991). During the second and third instars the larva begins to roll the edges of the leaves together and silken threads are spun on infested leaves (Rashid et al., 1971). Later instars eat through the leaves making infested leaves appear skeletonized. The last two larval instars are the most voracious feeders and will usually eat the entire leaf but may avoid the midrib, or other large veins. On legumes they may excavate deep into pods, sometimes cutting them in two. At the optimal temperature of 25°C there are six larval instars, each lasts approximately 2.5 to 3.5 days (Rashid et al., 1971; Harakly and Farag, 1975). At cooler temperatures the entire larval period lasts 44 to 50 days (Gaumont and Moreau, 1961).
The mature larva stops feeding and enters a prepupal stage. It spins a cocoon within which it pupates. The cocoon is usually attached to the underside of a leaf but can be in the soil (Harakly and Farag, 1975). Gaumont and Moreau (1961) reported that the pupal period lasted 15 to 26 days although at the optimal temperature of 25°C it averages 8.8 days (Rashid et al., 1971).
Adults emerge and soon begin to fly and mate. They rest with the wings folded over their back like a tent. Adults are semi-nocturnal and usually avoid strong sunlight. Generations continually breed through the year with no diapause. There are nine generations per year in Egypt (Harakly and Farag, 1975). In Spain the largest populations occur in August and September (Izquierdo et al., 1996) although in Bulgaria maximum densities are recorded between April and June (Lecheva and Loginova, 1988).
Natural enemiesTop of page
|Natural enemy||Type||Life stages||Specificity||References||Biological control in||Biological control on|
|Bacillus thuringiensis alesti||Pathogen||Larvae|
|Cotesia marginiventris||Parasite||Larvae||Cape Verde||cabbages; tomatoes|
|Cotesia ruficrus||Parasite||Larvae||New Zealand|
|Stomoxys calcitrans||Parasite||Larvae||not specific|
|Stomoxys calcitrans||Parasite||Sankar et al., 2005|
|Trichogramma achaeae||Parasite||Eggs||Cape Verde||Brassica; cabbages; tomatoes|
|Trichogramma canariensis||Parasite||Eggs||Pino et al., 2013|
Notes on Natural EnemiesTop of page The hymenopteran parasitoid Eulophus pennicornis was found in glasshouse sweet peppers in Belgium parasitizing C. chalcites (Veire, 1993). Two parasitoids are recorded from Spain, Cotesia kazak and Meteorus pulchricornis. In surveys, 31.4% of larvae were parasitized (Cabello, 1989). Parasitic wasps attacking C. chalcites prefer to target groups of eggs, where they can oviposit all their eggs in one go (Linden, 1996).
Means of Movement and DispersalTop of page C. chalcites is not recorded as a vector.
Plant TradeTop of page
|Plant parts liable to carry the pest in trade/transport||Pest stages||Borne internally||Borne externally||Visibility of pest or symptoms|
|Fruits (inc. pods)||eggs; larvae||Yes||Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye|
|Leaves||eggs; larvae||Yes||Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye|
Wood PackagingTop of page
|Wood Packaging not known to carry the pest in trade/transport|
|Loose wood packing material|
|Processed or treated wood|
|Solid wood packing material with bark|
|Solid wood packing material without bark|
ImpactTop of page C. chalcites is a polyphagous polyvoltine species that feeds on the foliage and fruit of vegetable, fruit and ornamental crops. It is considered as one of the most serious lepidopteran pests in many countries although quantitative data measuring damage is lacking.
C. chalcites is the major pest of tomato in Israel during the growing season (Broza and Sneh, 1994) causing considerable damage to the leaves and vegetative parts of the plant although it does not bore into the fruit (Harakly and Farag, 1975). In Israel it is also one of the most important noctuid pests of fodder crops such as lucerne and clover (Avidov and Harpaz, 1969). It also feeds on lucerne, maize and soyabean in Spain (Amate et al., 1998). In northern Italy, C. chalcites is one of the principal arthropod pests on soyabean (Zandigiacomo, 1990); it also attacks fields of artichokes (Ippolito and Parenzan, 1985). In Egypt, C. chalcites is considered as the most serious of all semi-looper pests attacking field fruit and vegetables. It is a serious pest of potato in Mauritius (Anon., 1984).
In protected cultivation, C. chalcites can occur at any time of the year (Linden, 1996) where it can reach high levels of infestation on vegetables and ornamental plants. It is reported as a serious pest in Bulgaria and Turkey (Loginova, 1992; Uygun and Ozgur, 1980) affecting tomato, cucumber and peppers. C. chalcites is one of the four main noctuid pests of glasshouse crops in Sicily (Inserra and Calabretta, 1985) and a continual pest in glasshouses in the Netherlands (Vos and Rutten, 1995) and Belgium (Veire, 1983).
Detection and InspectionTop of page Leaves should be examined on upper and lower surfaces for larvae. Damage symptoms such as skeletonized or rolled leaves with webbing may be easier to detect.
Similarities to Other Species/ConditionsTop of page In Africa and Europe, C. chalcites may be confused with C. acuta although C. acuta is larger and has a more pointed forewing. The silver spots are also larger (Bretherton, 1983).
In the USA immigrant C. chalcites appear similar to Pseudoplusia includens. Larvae should be reared to adulthood to confirm their identity (Passoa, 1995).
The relationship between C. chalcites and C. eriosoma needs clarification (Holloway et al., 1987).
Prevention and ControlTop of page
Due to the variable regulations around (de)registration of pesticides, your national list of registered pesticides or relevant authority should be consulted to determine which products are legally allowed for use in your country when considering chemical control. Pesticides should always be used in a lawful manner, consistent with the product's label.
Pyrethroids such as cypermethrin or deltamethrin can give control of C. chalcites. Bassi et al. (2000) reported effective control of C. chalcites using indoxacarb (an oxadiazine) on vegetable crops in open fields and plastic houses in Italy. Misappropriate use of chemicals can lead to the development of resistance.
The insect growth regulator cyromazine, gave good control of second- and fourth-instar larvae of C. chalcites in glasshouses on tomatoes, lettuce and ornamentals when applied as a foliar spray (Veire and Degheele, 1994).
Different strains of Bacillus thuringiensis gave full control (100% efficacy) of C. chalcites when sprayed on tomatoes grown under net protection or in non-heated greenhouses in Sicily, Italy (Vacante et al., 2001). B. thuringiensis var. kurstaki is used to control C. chalcites in Israel (Broza and Sneh, 1994).
Toguebaye and Bouix (1983) demonstrated that the entomopathogenic fungus Nosema manierae can kill C. chalcites larvae in a few days.
Pheromone trapping has been used in field experiments in Israel. The most effective lure was found to be a mixture of 1 mg (Z)-7-dodecenyl acetate and 0.2 mg (Z)-9-tetradecenyl acetate absorbed on rubber septa (Dunkelblum et al., 1981). Pheromone trapping has been tried in glasshouses in the Netherlands but has not proved successful (Bos, 1983).
There are reports of natural enemies providing some control in protected conditions. The natural enemies predate or parasitize eggs and larvae. In Italian glasshouses the predatory pentatomid heteropterans Podisus maculiventris and P. nigrispinus both from North America have been tested as control agents (Vacante et al., 1996). In the UK, under controlled conditions the endoparasitic braconid Meteorus gyrator showed considerable potential as a biocontrol agent against C. chalcites. Parasitized larvae showed an 80% reduction in the weight of tomato leaf-tissue eaten although this level of control was not shown under less controlled, commercial conditions (Bell et al., 2000). Research has shown that because the eggs are laid singly and widely apart, parasitization and predation cannot progress efficiently. However, there has been some success. For example, Pizzol et al. (1997) released 7000 Trichogramma evanescens in 800 m² of a tomato crop grown under glass in France, on three occasions, 15 days apart. This action resulted in 82% of C. chalcites eggs being parasitized. In the Cape Verde Islands, the solitary endoparasitoid Cotesia marginiventris was introduced with some success for the control of C. chalcites in the field (Lobo Lima and Harten, 1985).
It is not only invertebrates that can be used as natural control agents. Linden (2000) describes an experiment where Alcippe brunnea, a bird found in dense forest undergrowth in India, successfully controlled C. chalcites on sweet peppers grown in glasshouses in the Netherlands.
ReferencesTop of page
Amate J, Barranco P, Cabello T, 1998. Identification of larvae of the principal noctuid pest species in Spain (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Boletin de Sanidad Vegetal, Plagas, 24(1):101-106.
Anon., 1978. Annual report 1975-76. Plant Protection Research Institute Report, South Africa.
Anon., 1984. Annual report 1983. Mauritius Sugar Industry Research Institute, Reduit, Mauritius, 77 pp.
APPPC, 1987. Insect pests of economic significance affecting major crops of the countries in Asia and the Pacific region. Technical Document No. 135. Bangkok, Thailand: Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific region (RAPA).
Avidov Z, Harpaz I, 1969. Plant pests of Israel. Jerusalem, Israel: Israel Universities Press.
Bassi A, Cunsolo D, May L, Parente L, Turchiarelli V, Massasso W, Sandroni D, 2000. DPX-MP062 (Steward
Bell HA, Smethurst F, Marris GC, Edwards JP, 2000. Meteorus gyrator: a potential biocontrol agent against glasshouse noctuid pests?. The BCPC Conference: Pests and diseases, Volume 1. Proceedings of an international conference held at the Brighton Hilton Metropole Hotel, Brighton, UK, 13-16 November 2000, 291-296; 5 ref.
Benn MH, Galbreath RA, Holt VA, Young H, Down G, Priesner E, 1982. The sex pheromone of the silver Y moth Chrysodeixis eriosoma (Doubleday) in New Zealand. Zeitschrift für Naturforschung, C, 37(11/12):1130-1135
Bhatnagar VS, 1983. Biological control programme, Nioro du Rip laboratory. Report of activity (June
Bretherton RF, 1983. In: Heath J, Maitland Emmet A, eds. The moths and butterflies of Great Britain and Ireland. Volume 10, Noctuidae (Part ii) and Agaristidae. Colchester, UK: Harley Books.
Garzia GT, Siscaro G, 2003. Notes on natural enemies of armyworms infesting tomato protected crops in South-Eastern Sicily. Acta Horticulturae [Proceedings of the Sixth International Symposium on Protected Cultivation in Mild Winter Climate: Product and Process Innovation, Ragusa-Sicilia, Italy, 5-8 March, 2002.], No.614(Vol 2):837-841.
Gaumont R, Moreau R, 1961. Observations on the bionomics of Plusia chalcites Esp. (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae). Revue de Zoologie Agric., 60(1-3):31-36 (in French).
Goodey B, 1991. Chrysodeixis chalcites - observations on the life cycle in captivity. Entomologists Record, 103:111-118.
Hachler M, Jermini M, Brunetti R, 1998. [Two new harmful noctuids on tomatoes in glasshouse in South and Western Switzerland.] Revue Suisse de Viticulture, d'Arboriculture et d'Horticulture, 30(5):281-285 (in French).
Harten A van, Miranda AMC, 1985. Importation, rearing, release and recapture of parasites of pests in Cape Verde during the period March 1981
Izquierdo J, Arilla E, Ramirez M, Abad J, 1996. Plusiinae (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) on tomato: species, seasonal development and distribution on the plant. Plusiinae (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) en tomate: especies, evolucion en la campana y distribucion en la planta. Boletin de Sanidad Vegetal, Plagas, 22(4):803-810.
Jannone G, 1966. Results of phytosanitary inspections of foreign plants and plant products in the port of Genoa. IV. On the presence of larvae of three species of Lepidoptera in consignments of bananas originating from the Canary Islands. Rivista di Agricoltura Subtropicale e Tropicale, 60:5-34.
Karsholt O, Razowski J, 1996. The Lepidoptera of Europe: a distributional checklist. Stenstrup, Denmark: Apollo Books, 380 pp.
Kornosor S, 1987. Investigations on the distribution and systematics of Noctuinae and Plusiinae (Lep. Noctuidae) in the regions of south and south-east Anatolia. Turkiye I. Entomoloji Kongresi Bildirileri, 13-16 Ekim 1987, Ege Universitesi, Bornova, Izmir. Bornova/Izmir, Turkey: Ege Universitesi Ataturk Kultur Merkezi, 649-659
Kostrowicki AS, 1961. Studies on the Palaerctic species of the subfamily Plusiinae (Lepidoptera, Phalaenidae). Acta Zoologica Cracoviensia, 6:367-472.
Lempke BJ, 1982. [Interesting observations and catches of Lepidoptera in 1980]. Entomologische Berichten (Amsterdam), 42(8):116-119 (in Dutch).
Linden A van der, 1996. [On the caterpillar hunt]. Groenten und Fruit/Glasgroenten (in Dutch).
Linden Avan der, 2000. Biological control of caterpillars (Noctuidae) and other pests with insectivorous birds, Alcippe brunnea in glasshouses. Mededelingen - Faculteit Landbouwkundige en Toegepaste Biologische Wetenschappen, Universiteit Gent, 65(2a):235-243; 10 ref.
Lobo Lima ML, Harten A van, 1985. [Biological control of agricultural pests on the Cape Verde Islands. Present situation and prospects for the future]. Revista Investigacao Agraria. Centro de Estudos Agrarios, Series A, 1, 3-11 (in Portugese).
Loginova E, 1992. Some new pests of glasshouse crops in Bulgaria and their control by an IPM programme. Bulletin OEPP/EPPO Bulletin, 22:357-361.
Marques C, Nunes AP, Lurdes Almeida Mde, Céu Godinho Mdo, Figueiredo E, Amaro F, Carvalho P, Mexia A, 1999. Handbook for integrated pest management of protected horticultural crops: main pests and natural enemies in the Oeste region. Manual de proteccao integrada em culturas hortícolas protegidas: prrincipais pragas e auxiliares na regiia Oeste., 60 pp.
Meszaros Z, Tusnadi CK, 1994. [Damage of a rare migrant noctuid moth (Chrysodeixis chalcytes Esper, Lep.: Noctuidae) in a glasshouse.] Novenyvedelem, 30(2):83-84 (in Hungarian).
Murillo, H., Hunt, D. W. A, VanLaerhoven, S. L., 2013. First records of Chrysodeixis chalcites (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae: Plusiinae) for east-central Canada, The Canadian Entomologist, 145(3):338-342 https://doi.org/10.4039/tce.2012.106
Napiorkowska-Kowalik J, Gawowska J, 2006. Chrysodeixis chalcites (Esper 1789) (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae, Plusiinae) a new pest on tomatoes in glasshouses in Poland. (Chrysodeixis chalcites (Esper 1789) (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae, Plusiinae) nowy szkodnik pomidorów uprawianych w szklarniach.) Progress in Plant Protection, 46(1):295-299. http://www.ior.poznan.pl/wydaw/Wyd-PO.htm
Palmqvist G, 2002. Remarkable records of Macrolepidoptera in Sweden 2001. Entomologisk Tidskrift, 123(1/2):53-63; 20 ref.
Passoa S, 1995. Chrysodeixis chalcites (Esper) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). PPQ Alert List Fact Sheet 35, USDA, APHIS. World Wide Web page at (http://www.ceris.purdue.edu/napis/pests/gts/facts.txt).
Pinhey ECG, 1979. Moths of Southern Africa, descriptions and colour illustrations of 1183 species. Rotterdam, The Netherlands: AA Balkema.
Pino Mdel, Hernandez-Suarez E, Cabello T, Rugman-Jones P, Stouthamer R, Polaszek A, 2013. Trichogramma canariensis (Insecta: Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) a parasitoid of eggs of the twinspot moth Chrysodeixis chalcites (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in the Canary Islands. Arthropod Systematics & Phylogeny, 71(3):169-179. http://www.senckenberg.de/files/content/forschung/publikationen/arthropodsystematics/asp_71_3/02_asp_71_3_del_pino_169-179.pdf
Pizzol J, Voegele J, Marconi A, 1997. Efficiency of Trichogramma evanescens against Chrysodeixis chalcites (Lep., Noctuidae) in greenhouses on tomato crops. International conference on pests in agriculture, 6-8 January 1997, at le Corum, Montpellier, France. Volume 3., 751-757; 9 ref.
Rashid FF, Hammad SM, Hassan SM, 1971. The biology of Autographa chalcites L. in Alexandria region (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Bulletin de la Societe Entomologique d'Egypte, 55:419-426.
Sankar C, Dahiya B, Singh SP, 2005. Insect pests succession on cowpea, Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp., under Hisar (Haryana) agroclimatic conditions. Haryana Agricultural University Journal of Research, 34(1):63-68.
Sannino L, Balbiani A, Espinosa B, 1988. Comparative morphological study on the preimaginal stages of Lepidoptera attacking tobacco in Italy. 1. pupae and cocoons. Annali dell'Istituto Sperimentale per il Tabacco, 14:163-194
Sannino L, Espinosa B, Vicidomini S, Rotellini F, Caricato G, 2005. Chrysodeixis chalcites (Esper) harmful to greenhouse ornamental plants. (Attacchi di Chrysodeixis chalcites (Esper) su piante ornamentali in serre nel Senese.) Informatore Fitopatologico, 55(9):34-37.
Seymour PR, Kilby LJ, 1978. Insects and other invertebrates intercepted in check inspections of imported plant material in England and Wales during 1978. ADAS, Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food, Harpenden.
Taylor T, 1980. Soybean semiloopers. Zimbabwe Journal of Agricultural, 77(3):111-112.
Toguebaye BS, Bouix G, 1983. Nosema manierae n.sp. a microsporidian parasite of Chilo zacconius (natural host) and Heliothis armigera (experimental host): life cycle and ultrastucture. Zeitschrift fur Parasitenkunde, 69(2):191-205
Tremblay E, 1975. [Notes on the overwintering of several species of Noctuid and Tortricid moths]. Bollettino del laboratorio di Entomologia Agraria "Filippo Silvestri", Portici 1972-1973, 30:117-130 (in Italian).
Uygun N, Ozgur F, 1980. Identification of pests of greenhouse vegetables in the Icel and Adana regions, and the effects of endosulfan smoke tablets and pirimicarb on Myzus persicae (Sulz.). Turkiye Bitki Koruma Dergisi, 4(3):185-192
Vacante V, Benuzzi M, Palmeri V, Brafa G, 2001. Experimental trials of microbiological control of the Turkey moth (Chrysodeixis chalcites (Esper)) in Sicilian greenhouse crops. Informatore Fitopatologico, 51(7/8):73-76; 11 ref.
Valletta A, 1973. The Moths of the Maltese Islands, Malta.
Veire M van de, Degheele D, 1994. Toxicity of the insect growth regulator cyromazine on the tomato looper Chrysodexis chalcites (Esper) (Lep.: Plusiinae). Parasitica, 50(3/4):131-133.
Vos R de, Rutten ALM, 1995. Migrating Lepidoptera in 1992 (fifty-third report). Entomologische Berichten, 55(3):37-46.
Broza M, Sneh B, 1994. Bacillus thuringiensis spp. kurstaki as an effective control agent of lepidopteran pests in tomato fields in Israel. Journal of Economic Entomology. 87 (4), 923-928. DOI:10.1093/jee/87.4.923
CABI, Undated. Compendium record. Wallingford, UK: CABI
CABI, Undated a. CABI Compendium: Status inferred from regional distribution. Wallingford, UK: CABI
CABI, Undated b. CABI Compendium: Status as determined by CABI editor. Wallingford, UK: CABI
Dufay C, 1982. The Plusiinae of the Comoro archipelago (Lep. Noctuidae). (Les Plusiinae de l'archipel des Comores (Lep. Noctuidae).). Bulletin de la Société Entomologique de France. 87 (5/6), 220-228.
Gasim G Y, Younis H T, 1989. Biological studies on tomato leafworm Plusia chalcytes L. (Noctuidae: Lepidoptera) under effect of constant temperatures. Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture. 21 (2), 325-334.
Hächler M, Jermini M, Brunetti R, 1998. Two new harmful noctuids on tomatoes in glasshouse in South and Western Switzerland. (Deux nouvelles noctuelles, ravageurs des cultures de tomate sous abri au Tessin et en Suisse romande.). Revue Suisse de Viticulture, d'Arboriculture et d'Horticulture. 30 (5), 281-285.
Janzon L Ǻ, 1998. First record of Golden Twinspot, Chrysodeixis chalcites (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in Sweden. (Första fyndet av tvillingfläckat metallfly, Chrysodeixis chalcites (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) i Sverige.). Entomologisk Tidskrift. 119 (3/4), 131-134.
Karsholt O, Razowski J, 1996. The Lepidoptera of Europe: a distributional checklist., Stenstrup, Denmark: Apollo Books. 380 pp.
Kornoșor S, 1987. Investigations on the distribution and systematics of Noctuinae and Plusiinae (Lep. Noctuidae) in the regions of south and south-east Anatolia. (Güney ve Güneydoğu Anadolu Bölgesinde Noctuinae ve Plusiinae (Lep. Noctuidae) türlerinin yayılıșları ve sistematiği üzerinde araștırmalar.). In: Türkiye I. Entomoloji Kongresi Bildirileri, 13-16 Ekim 1987, Ege Üniversitesi, Bornova, Izmir. [Türkiye I. Entomoloji Kongresi Bildirileri, 13-16 Ekim 1987, Ege Üniversitesi, Bornova, Izmir.], Bornova/Izmir, Turkey: Ege Üniversitesi Atatürk Kültür Merkezi. 649-659.
Lapointe R, Giga D P, Stewart R K, Canhao J, 1995. Determination of economic thresholds for semiloopers (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) on four soyabean cultivars in Zimbabwe. African Entomology. 3 (1), 13-22.
Lempke BJ, 1982. Interesting observations and catches of Lepidoptera in 1980]. In: Entomologische Berichten (Amsterdam), 42 (8) 116-119.
Loginova E, 1992. Some new pests of glasshouse crops in Bulgaria and their control by an IPM programme. In: Bulletin OEPP/EPPO Bulletin, 22 357-361.
Marques C, Nunes A P, Lurdes Almeida M de, Céu Godinho M do, Figueiredo E, Amaro F, Carvalho P, Mexia A, 1999. Handbook for integrated pest management of protected horticultural crops: main pests and natural enemies in the Oeste region. (Manual de protecção integrada em culturas hortícolas protegidas: prrincipais pragas e auxiliares na regiiã Oeste.). In: Manual de protecção integrada em culturas hortícolas protegidas: prrincipais pragas e auxiliares na regiiã Oeste. Lisboa, Portugal: Instituto Superior de Agronomia. 60 pp.
Murillo H, Hunt DWA, VanLaerhoven SL, 2013. First records of Chrysodeixis chalcites (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae: Plusiinae) for east-central Canada. In: The Canadian Entomologist, 145 (3) 338-342. https://doi.org/10.4039/tce.2012.106
Napiórkowska-Kowalik J, Gawłowska J, 2006. Chrysodeixis chalcites (Esper 1789) (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae, Plusiinae) a new pest on tomatoes in glasshouses in Poland. (Chrysodeixis chalcites (Esper 1789) (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae, Plusiinae) nowy szkodnik pomidorów uprawianych w szklarniach.). Progress in Plant Protection. 46 (1), 295-299. http://www.ior.poznan.pl/wydaw/Wyd-PO.htm
Pinhey ECG, 1979. Moths of Southern Africa, descriptions and colour illustrations of 1183 species., Rotterdam, The Netherlands: AA Balkema.
Pino M del, Hernandez-Suarez E, Cabello T, Rugman-Jones P, Stouthamer R, Polaszek A, 2013. Trichogramma canariensis (Insecta: Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) a parasitoid of eggs of the twinspot moth Chrysodeixis chalcites (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in the Canary Islands. Arthropod Systematics & Phylogeny. 71 (3), 169-179. http://www.senckenberg.de/files/content/forschung/publikationen/arthropodsystematics/asp_71_3/02_asp_71_3_del_pino_169-179.pdf
Taylor T, 1980. Soybean semiloopers. In: Zimbabwe Journal of Agricultural, 77 (3) 111-112.
Toguebaye B S, Bouix G, 1983. Nosema manierae n.sp. a microsporidian parasite of Chilo zacconius (natural host) and Heliothis armigera (experimental host): life cycle and ultrastucture. (Nosema manierae sp.n., microsporidie parasite de Chilo zacconius Blezenski 1970 (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), hote naturel, et Heliothis armigera (Huber 1808) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), hote experimental: cycle evolutif et ultrastructure.). Zeitschrift fur Parasitenkunde. 69 (2), 191-205.
Valletta A, 1973. The Moths of the Maltese Islands., Malta:
Distribution MapsTop of page
Unsupported Web Browser:
One or more of the features that are needed to show you the maps functionality are not available in the web browser that you are using.
Please consider upgrading your browser to the latest version or installing a new browser.
More information about modern web browsers can be found at http://browsehappy.com/