Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Chrysopogon aciculatus
(golden false beardgrass)

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Datasheet

Chrysopogon aciculatus (golden false beardgrass)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 19 November 2019
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Pest
  • Host Plant
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Chrysopogon aciculatus
  • Preferred Common Name
  • golden false beardgrass
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Plantae
  •     Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •       Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •         Class: Monocotyledonae
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • C. aciculatus is a widespread grass with nuisance value but limited capacity for widespread invasion. It is listed as a noxious weed in Florida, USA (USDA-ARS, 2...

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Chrysopogon aciculatus (golden false beardgrass); Foliage. Chemancheri, Kerala, India. July 2015.
TitleFoliage
CaptionChrysopogon aciculatus (golden false beardgrass); Foliage. Chemancheri, Kerala, India. July 2015.
Copyright©Vengolis/via Wikimedia Commons - CC BY-SA 3.0
Chrysopogon aciculatus (golden false beardgrass); Foliage. Chemancheri, Kerala, India. July 2015.
FoliageChrysopogon aciculatus (golden false beardgrass); Foliage. Chemancheri, Kerala, India. July 2015.©Vengolis/via Wikimedia Commons - CC BY-SA 3.0
Chrysopogon aciculatus (golden false beardgrass); Seedhead. Chemancheri, Kerala, India. July 2015.
TitleSeedhead
CaptionChrysopogon aciculatus (golden false beardgrass); Seedhead. Chemancheri, Kerala, India. July 2015.
Copyright©Vengolis/via Wikimedia Commons - CC BY-SA 3.0
Chrysopogon aciculatus (golden false beardgrass); Seedhead. Chemancheri, Kerala, India. July 2015.
SeedheadChrysopogon aciculatus (golden false beardgrass); Seedhead. Chemancheri, Kerala, India. July 2015.©Vengolis/via Wikimedia Commons - CC BY-SA 3.0
Chrysopogon aciculatus (golden false beardgrass); Leaves on spreading rhizome. Waikapu Valley, Maui, Hawaii. February 2012.
TitleLeaves
CaptionChrysopogon aciculatus (golden false beardgrass); Leaves on spreading rhizome. Waikapu Valley, Maui, Hawaii. February 2012.
Copyright©Forest and Kim Starr/via Starr Environmental - CC BY 4.0
Chrysopogon aciculatus (golden false beardgrass); Leaves on spreading rhizome. Waikapu Valley, Maui, Hawaii. February 2012.
LeavesChrysopogon aciculatus (golden false beardgrass); Leaves on spreading rhizome. Waikapu Valley, Maui, Hawaii. February 2012.©Forest and Kim Starr/via Starr Environmental - CC BY 4.0
Chrysopogon aciculatus (golden false beardgrass); Habit. Lipoa Pt, Maui, Hawaii. May 2018.
TitleHabit
CaptionChrysopogon aciculatus (golden false beardgrass); Habit. Lipoa Pt, Maui, Hawaii. May 2018.
Copyright©Forest and Kim Starr/via Starr Environmental - CC BY 4.0
Chrysopogon aciculatus (golden false beardgrass); Habit. Lipoa Pt, Maui, Hawaii. May 2018.
HabitChrysopogon aciculatus (golden false beardgrass); Habit. Lipoa Pt, Maui, Hawaii. May 2018.©Forest and Kim Starr/via Starr Environmental - CC BY 4.0
Chrysopogon aciculatus (golden false beardgrass); Habit. Nihoku Mokolea Pt Kilauea Pt NWR, Kauai, Hawaii. March 2013.
TitleHabit
CaptionChrysopogon aciculatus (golden false beardgrass); Habit. Nihoku Mokolea Pt Kilauea Pt NWR, Kauai, Hawaii. March 2013.
Copyright©Forest and Kim Starr/via Starr Environmental - CC BY 4.0
Chrysopogon aciculatus (golden false beardgrass); Habit. Nihoku Mokolea Pt Kilauea Pt NWR, Kauai, Hawaii. March 2013.
HabitChrysopogon aciculatus (golden false beardgrass); Habit. Nihoku Mokolea Pt Kilauea Pt NWR, Kauai, Hawaii. March 2013.©Forest and Kim Starr/via Starr Environmental - CC BY 4.0
Chrysopogon aciculatus (golden false beardgrass); Seeding habit. Waikapu Valley, Maui, Hawaii. April 2012.
TitleSeeding habit
CaptionChrysopogon aciculatus (golden false beardgrass); Seeding habit. Waikapu Valley, Maui, Hawaii. April 2012.
Copyright©Forest and Kim Starr/via Starr Environmental - CC BY 4.0
Chrysopogon aciculatus (golden false beardgrass); Seeding habit. Waikapu Valley, Maui, Hawaii. April 2012.
Seeding habitChrysopogon aciculatus (golden false beardgrass); Seeding habit. Waikapu Valley, Maui, Hawaii. April 2012.©Forest and Kim Starr/via Starr Environmental - CC BY 4.0
Chrysopogon aciculatus (golden false beardgrass); Seeding habit.
Kipahulu Forest Reserve, Maui, Hawaii. August 2018.
TitleSeeding habit
CaptionChrysopogon aciculatus (golden false beardgrass); Seeding habit. Kipahulu Forest Reserve, Maui, Hawaii. August 2018.
Copyright©Forest and Kim Starr/via Starr Environmental - CC BY 4.0
Chrysopogon aciculatus (golden false beardgrass); Seeding habit.
Kipahulu Forest Reserve, Maui, Hawaii. August 2018.
Seeding habitChrysopogon aciculatus (golden false beardgrass); Seeding habit. Kipahulu Forest Reserve, Maui, Hawaii. August 2018.©Forest and Kim Starr/via Starr Environmental - CC BY 4.0
Chrysopogon aciculatus (golden false beardgrass); Habit, plants spread freely by their rhizomes and can be used as a lawn. Peradeniya Royal Botanical Garden, Kandy, Sri Lanka. June 2014.
TitleHabit
CaptionChrysopogon aciculatus (golden false beardgrass); Habit, plants spread freely by their rhizomes and can be used as a lawn. Peradeniya Royal Botanical Garden, Kandy, Sri Lanka. June 2014.
Copyright©Gihan Jayaweera/via Wikimedia Commons - CC BY-SA 3.0
Chrysopogon aciculatus (golden false beardgrass); Habit, plants spread freely by their rhizomes and can be used as a lawn. Peradeniya Royal Botanical Garden, Kandy, Sri Lanka. June 2014.
HabitChrysopogon aciculatus (golden false beardgrass); Habit, plants spread freely by their rhizomes and can be used as a lawn. Peradeniya Royal Botanical Garden, Kandy, Sri Lanka. June 2014.©Gihan Jayaweera/via Wikimedia Commons - CC BY-SA 3.0
Chrysopogon aciculatus (golden false beardgrass); Seedhead. Chemancheri, Kerala, India. July 2013.
TitleSeedhead
CaptionChrysopogon aciculatus (golden false beardgrass); Seedhead. Chemancheri, Kerala, India. July 2013.
Copyright©Vengolis/via Wikimedia Commons - CC BY-SA 3.0
Chrysopogon aciculatus (golden false beardgrass); Seedhead. Chemancheri, Kerala, India. July 2013.
SeedheadChrysopogon aciculatus (golden false beardgrass); Seedhead. Chemancheri, Kerala, India. July 2013.©Vengolis/via Wikimedia Commons - CC BY-SA 3.0

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Chrysopogon aciculatus (Retz.) Trin.

Preferred Common Name

  • golden false beardgrass

Other Scientific Names

  • Andropogon aciculata Retz.
  • Rhaphis aciculatus (Retz.) Honda

International Common Names

  • English: lovegrass

Local Common Names

  • Malaysia: rumput jarum; temuchut
  • Philippines: tinloi

EPPO code

  • CYSAC (Chrysopogon aciculatus)

Summary of Invasiveness

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C. aciculatus is a widespread grass with nuisance value but limited capacity for widespread invasion. It is listed as a noxious weed in Florida, USA (USDA-ARS, 2003).

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Plantae
  •         Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •             Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •                 Class: Monocotyledonae
  •                     Order: Cyperales
  •                         Family: Poaceae
  •                             Genus: Chrysopogon
  •                                 Species: Chrysopogon aciculatus

Description

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C. aciculatus is a rhizomatous or stoloniferous, spreading perennial. Culm often erect, 15-25 cm tall, geniculate, branching; always rooting at the nodes. Leaves 3-15 cm long, 2-6 mm wide (15 to 20 times as long as wide), linear, often hairy at mouth only. Ligule membranous and truncate. Inflorescence a panicle, 5-10 cm long, 2.5 cm wide, composed of several whorls of short reddish branches which gradually spread horizontally when ripe. Each branch bearing at its end a group of three spikelets. Branch axis jointed below the spikelet group. Spikelets ternate and similar: one sessile hermaphrodite aproximately 4 mm long with a hairy oblique callus; two pedicelled, male or neuter. Glumes: G1 2-4 mm long, 3- to 2-nerved; G2 2-4 mm long, 3-nerved with 1.5- to 2-mm-long awn. Lemmas: L1 2-3 mm long, hyaline; L2 hyaline, 1-nerved, awned, awn 2.5-8 mm long, straight. Caryopsis oblong, 2 mm long.

Plant Type

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Grass / sedge
Perennial
Seed propagated

Distribution

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Häfliger and Scholz (1980) list Chrysopogon aciculatus as being present in Central and Western Africa, the Indian subcontinent, the South-East Asian subcontinent, China, Philippines, Indonesia, Australia and the Pacific Islands. It is native to South-East Asia, Australia and Fiji (USDA-ARS, 2003) and probably native elsewhere in the Pacific and an early introduction on other islands.

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 12 May 2022
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

NigeriaPresentIntroduced
UgandaPresentIntroduced

Asia

BangladeshPresent, Localized
CambodiaPresent, Localized
ChinaPresent, Localized
-HainanPresentNative
Hong KongPresent, Localized
IndiaPresent, Localized
-AssamPresent
-KarnatakaPresent
-OdishaPresent
-Uttar PradeshPresent
IndonesiaPresent, Localized
MalaysiaPresent, Localized
MyanmarPresent, Localized
NepalPresent
PhilippinesPresent, Localized
Sri LankaPresent, Localized
TaiwanPresent, Localized
ThailandPresent, Localized
VietnamPresent, Localized

North America

United StatesPresent, Localized
-FloridaPresent
-HawaiiPresentIntroduced1865

Oceania

American SamoaPresentNative
AustraliaPresent, Localized
Cook IslandsPresentNative
Federated States of MicronesiaPresentNative
FijiPresent, Localized
French PolynesiaPresentNative
GuamPresentNative
Marshall IslandsPresentNative
NauruPresentNative
New CaledoniaPresentNative
NiuePresentNative
Northern Mariana IslandsPresentNative
PalauPresentNative
Papua New GuineaPresent
SamoaPresentNative
Solomon IslandsPresentNative
TongaPresentNative
VanuatuPresentNative
Wallis and FutunaPresentNative

Habitat

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C. aciculatus is a tropical grassland species. Lehmkuhl (1992) noted that it dominated grazed pasture based on a study in lowland Nepal. It occurs throughout the Philippines in open grasslands (Pancho and Obien, 1983). It is an exotic in Nigeria where it is well established as a lawn grass (Stanfield, 1970).

Habitat List

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CategorySub-CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Terrestrial ManagedCultivated / agricultural land Present, no further details
Terrestrial ManagedManaged forests, plantations and orchards Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial ManagedManaged grasslands (grazing systems) Present, no further details
Terrestrial ManagedDisturbed areas Present, no further details
Terrestrial ManagedRail / roadsides Present, no further details
Terrestrial ManagedUrban / peri-urban areas Present, no further details

Hosts/Species Affected

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C. aciculatus is recorded as a weed species from tea fields in Assam, India (Barthakur et al., 1989), rubber plantations in Malaysia (Wycherley and Ahmad Azli bin Mohd, 1974) and from tobacco farms in the Philippines (Pancho and Obien, 1983).

Host Plants and Other Plants Affected

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Plant nameFamilyContextReferences
Camellia sinensis (tea)TheaceaeUnknown
Hevea brasiliensis (rubber)EuphorbiaceaeUnknown
Nicotiana tabacum (tobacco)SolanaceaeUnknown

Biology and Ecology

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In a study of vegetation dynamics, Mueller-Dombois (1981) recorded C. aciculatus from tropical grasslands with mediterranean seasonal rainfall on leeward Hawaii. Wycherley and Ahmad Azli bin Mohd (1974) describe it as prefering rather dry, open conditions although it can also persist in turf for a long time. It proliferates under heavy grazing regimes (Robertson and Humphrys, 1976; Partridge, 1986). Grasslands in Kalimantan, Indonesia, probably originated through shifting cultivation of forest land and subsequent burning. Cattle grazing on these grasslands resulted in the replacement of Imperata cylindrica by Axonopus compressus and C. aciculatus if sufficiently intensive (Seavoy, 1975).

Plant Trade

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Plant parts liable to carry the pest in trade/transportPest stagesBorne internallyBorne externallyVisibility of pest or symptoms
Flowers/Inflorescences/Cones/Calyx weeds/flowers; weeds/seeds
Growing medium accompanying plants weeds/seeds
Roots weeds/roots
Seedlings/Micropropagated plants weeds/whole plants
True seeds (inc. grain) weeds/seeds
Plant parts not known to carry the pest in trade/transport
Bark
Bulbs/Tubers/Corms/Rhizomes
Fruits (inc. pods)
Leaves
Stems (above ground)/Shoots/Trunks/Branches
Wood

Impact Summary

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CategoryImpact
Animal/plant collections None
Animal/plant products None
Biodiversity (generally) None
Crop production Negative
Environment (generally) Negative
Fisheries / aquaculture None
Forestry production None
Human health Negative
Livestock production Negative
Native fauna Negative
Native flora Negative
Rare/protected species None
Tourism None
Trade/international relations None
Transport/travel None

Threatened Species

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Threatened SpeciesConservation StatusWhere ThreatenedMechanismReferencesNotes
Schiedea spergulina var. leiopodaNational list(s); USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiCompetition - monopolizing resourcesUS Fish and Wildlife Service (2010)

Risk and Impact Factors

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Invasiveness
  • Tolerates, or benefits from, cultivation, browsing pressure, mutilation, fire etc
Impact outcomes
  • Negatively impacts agriculture
Impact mechanisms
  • Competition - monopolizing resources
  • Produces spines, thorns or burrs
Likelihood of entry/control
  • Highly likely to be transported internationally accidentally

Uses

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C. aciculatus has been used for erosion control, lawns, forage and medicines (USDA-ARS, 2003).

Uses List

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Animal feed, fodder, forage

  • Forage

Environmental

  • Erosion control or dune stabilization

General

  • Ornamental

Medicinal, pharmaceutical

  • Traditional/folklore

Prevention and Control

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Due to the variable regulations around (de)registration of pesticides, your national list of registered pesticides or relevant authority should be consulted to determine which products are legally allowed for use in your country when considering chemical control. Pesticides should always be used in a lawful manner, consistent with the product's label.

Cultural Control

Mueller-Dumbois (1981) noted the reduction in this species during a study in Hawaii where the grassland was protected from grazing goats.

References

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Bai CJ, 1994. Exploitation and utilization of wild sods. Pratacultural Science, 11(2):34-36.

Banerjee BC, 1985. On the occurrence of some grasses in Coorg district of Karnataka state. Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany, 7(2):479-480.

Barnes DE, Chandapillai MM, 1975. Common Malaysian Weeds and their Control. Malaysia: Shah Alam, Ancom.

Barthakur BK, Dutta P, Begum R, 1989. Vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhiza (VAM) is some weed species of tea fields. Two and a Bud, 36(1-2):8-9

Bhandari BS, Mehta JP, Tiwari SC, 1998. Impact of grazing and burning on growth, reproductive performance and crude protein content of some forage grasses in a submontane grazingland of Garhwal Himalaya. Range Management and Agroforestry, 19(1):1-12.

Chandrasena JPNR, Perera DN, 1987. The allelopathic potential of torpedograss (Panicum repens L.). Proceedings, 11th Asian Pacific Weed Science Society Conference Taipei, Taiwan; Asian Pacific Weed Science Society, No. 2:581-592

Clayton WD, Renvoize SA, 1982. Gramineae (Part 3). In: Polhill RM, ed. Flora of Tropical East Africa. Rotterdam, Netherlands: Balkema.

Datta SC, Bandyopadhyay AK, 1981. Allelopathic influences of three weeds on two crop plants. Proceedings of the Eighth Asian-Pacific Weed Science Society Conference., 391-399

EPPO, 2014. PQR database. Paris, France: European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization. http://www.eppo.int/DATABASES/pqr/pqr.htm

Fosberg FR, Sachet M-H, Oliver R, 1987. A geographical checklist of the Micronesian monocotyledonae. Micronesia 20: 1-2, 19-129.

Holm L, Pancho JV, Herberger JP, Plucknett DL, 1979. A Geographical Atlas of World Weeds. Toronto, Canada: John Wiley and Sons Inc.

Häfliger E, Scholz H, 1980. Grass Weeds 1: Weeds of the subfamily Panicoideae. Basle, Switzerland: Documenta CIBA GEIGY.

Ismail BS, Mah LS, 1993. Effects of Mikania micrantha H.B.K. on germination and growth of weed species. Plant and Soil, 157(1):107-113

Johnson SJ, Valentine PS, Lane DA, 1994. Notes on life histories and biology of the species of Neohesperilla Waterhouse and Lyell (Lepidoptera: Hesperiidae). Australian Entomologist, 21(2):55-59

Lehmkuhl JF, 1992. Above-ground production and response to defoliation on a native pasture in lowland Nepal. Tropical Grasslands, 26(2): 82-88.

Misra MK, Misra BN, 1981. Seasonal changes in leaf area index and chlorophyll in an Indian grassland. Journal of Ecology, 69(3):797-805.

Mueller-Dombois D, 1981. Vegetation dynamics in a coastal grassland of Hawaii. In: Poissonet P, et al., eds. Vegetation dynamics in grasslands, heathlands and mediterranean ligneous formations. Netherlands: Dr. W. Junk, 131-140.

Pancho JV, Obien SR, 1983. Manual of Weeds of Tobacco farms in the Philippines. Batac, Ilocos Norte, Philippines: Philippines Tobacco Research and Training Center, Mariano Marcos State University.

Partridge IJ, 1986. Effect of stocking rate and superphosphate level on an oversown fire climax grassland of mission grass (Pennisetum polystachyon) in Fiji. I. Botanical composition of pasture. Tropical Grasslands, 20(4):166-173; 12 ref.

Penafiel SR, 1988. Effects of three pasture plant extracts on germination of Benguet pine (Pinus kesiya Royle ex Gordon). Malaysian Forester 49(1-2):181-184.

Robertson AD, Humphreys LR, 1976. Effects of frequency of heavy grazing and of phosphorus supply on an Arundinaria ciliata association oversown with Stylosanthes humilis. Thai Journal of Agricultural Science, 9(3):181-188.

Room PM, 1975. Diversity and organization of the ground foraging ant faunas of forest, grassland and tree crops in Papua New Guinea. Australian Journal of Zoology, 23(1):71-89

Seavoy RE, 1975. The origin of tropical grasslands in Kalimantan, Indonesia. Journal of Tropical Geography, 40:48-52.

Space JC, Flynn T, 2000. Observations on invasive plant species in American Samoa. USDA Forest Service, Honolulu, 51.

Space JC, Waterhouse BM, Miles JE, Tiobech J, Rengulbai K, 2003. Report to the Republic of Palau on invasive plant species of environmental concern. Honolulu, USA: USDA Forest Service.

Stanfield DP, 1970. The Flora of Nigeria Grasses. Ibadan, Nigeria: Ibadan University Press.

Swarbrick JT, 1997. Weeds of the Pacific Islands. Technical paper No. 209. Noumea, New Caledonia: South Pacific Commission.

Sykes WR, 1970. Contributions to the flora of Niue. New Zealand Department of Scientific and Industrial Research Bulletin 200. p. 238.

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2010. In: Schiedea spergulina var. leiopoda (no common name). 5-Year Review: Summary and Evaluation. US Fish and Wildlife Service, 11 pp.

USDA-ARS, 2003. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Online Database. Beltsville, Maryland, USA: National Germplasm Resources Laboratory. https://npgsweb.ars-grin.gov/gringlobal/taxon/taxonomysearch.aspx

Welsh SL, 1998. Flora Societensis: A summary revision of the flowering plants of the Society Islands. Orem, Utah, USA: E.P.S. Inc.

Whistler WA, 1988. Checklist of the weed flora of Western Polynesia. An annotated list of the weed species of Samoa, Tonga, Niue, and Wallis and Futuna, along with the earliest dates of collection and the local names. Technical Paper, South Pacific Commission, No. 194:69 pp.

Wycherley PR, Ahmad Azli bin Mohd Y, 1974. Grasses in Malayan Plantations. Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia: Rubber Research Institute of Malaysia.

Yuncker TG, 1959. Plants of Tonga. B.P. Bishop Museum Bull., 220:165.

Distribution References

Agrawal A K, 1990. Floristic Composition and Phenology of Temperate Grasslands of Western Himalaya as Affected by Scraping, Fire and Heavy Grazing. Vegetatio. 177-187. DOI:10.1007/BF00044834

Anderson P J, 2012. Pest Alert: Chrysopogon aciculatus - golden false beardgrass, lovegrass, Mackie's pest, a noxious weed new to the continental United States., https://www.fdacs.gov/ezs3download/download/25061/515977/chrysopogon-aciculatus.pdf

Bai ChangJun, 1994. Exploitation and utilization of wild sods. Pratacultural Science. 11 (2), 34-36.

Banerjee B C, 1985. On the occurrence of some grasses in Coorg district of Karnataka state. Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany. 7 (2), 479-480.

Barthakur B K, Dutta P, Begum R, 1989. Vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhiza (VAM) is some weed species of tea fields. Two and a Bud. 36 (1-2), 8-9.

Bhandari B S, Mehta J P, Tiwari S C, 1998. Impact of grazing and burning on growth, reproductive performance and crude protein content of some forage grasses in a submontane grazingland of Garhwal Himalaya. Range Management & Agroforestry. 19 (1), 1-12.

CABI, Undated. Compendium record. Wallingford, UK: CABI

CABI, Undated a. CABI Compendium: Status as determined by CABI editor. Wallingford, UK: CABI

Clayton W D, Renvoize S A, 1982. Flora of Tropical East Africa. Gramineae (Part 3). Rotterdam, Netherlands: A.A. Balkema. 448pp.

EPPO, 2022. EPPO Global database. In: EPPO Global database, Paris, France: EPPO. 1 pp. https://gd.eppo.int/

Fosberg FR, Sachet M-H, Oliver R, 1987. A geographical checklist of the Micronesian monocotyledonae. In: Micronesia, 20 1-2, 19-129.

Holm L, Pancho JV, Herberger JP, Plucknett DL, 1979. A Geographical Atlas of World Weeds., Toronto, Canada: John Wiley and Sons Inc.

Kamal-Uddin M, Juraimi A S, Begum M, Ismail M R, Rahim A A, Othman R, 2009. Floristic composition of weed community in turf grass area of west peninsular Malaysia. International Journal of Agriculture and Biology. 11 (1), 13-20. http://www.fspublishers.org/

Kessler C C, 2003. Eradication of feral goats and pigs and consequences for other biota on Sarigan Island, Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands. In: Turning the tide: the eradication of invasive species: Proceedings of the International Conference on eradication of island invasives. [ed. by Veitch C R, Clout M N]. Gland, Switzerland: IUCN-The World Conservation Union. 132-140.

Kessler C C, 2011. Invasive species removal and ecosystem recovery in the Mariana Islands; challenges and outcomes on Sarigan and Anatahan. In: In C. R. Veitch, M. N. Clout, & D. R. Towns (Eds.), Island invasives: eradication and management. 320-324. http://www.issg.org/pdf/publications/Island_Invasives/pdfHQprint/3Kessler.pdf

Lehmkuhl J F, 1992. Above-ground production and response to defoliation on a native pasture in lowland Nepal. Tropical Grasslands. 26 (2), 82-88.

Misra M K, Misra B N, 1981. Seasonal changes in leaf area index and chlorophyll in an Indian grassland. Journal of Ecology. 69 (3), 797-805.

Mueller-Dombois D, 1981. Vegetation dynamics in a coastal grassland of Hawaii. In: Vegetation dynamics in grasslands, heathlands and mediterranean ligneous formations. [Vegetation dynamics in grasslands, heathlands and mediterranean ligneous formations.], [ed. by Poissonet P, et al]. The Hague, Netherlands: Dr. W. Junk. 131-140.

Pancho JV, Obien SR, 1983. Manual of Weeds of Tobacco farms in the Philippines., Batac, Ilocos Norte, Philippines: Philippines Tobacco Research and Training Center, Mariano Marcos State University.

Partridge I J, 1986. Effect of stocking rate and superphosphate level on an oversown fire climax grassland of mission grass (Pennisetum polystachyon) in Fiji. I. Botanical composition of pasture. Tropical Grasslands. 20 (4), 166-173.

Penafiel SR, 1988. Effects of three pasture plant extracts on germination of Benguet pine (Pinus kesiya Royle ex Gordon). In: Malaysian Forester, 49 (1-2) 181-184.

Room P M, 1975. Diversity and organization of the ground foraging ant faunas of forest, grassland and tree crops in Papua New Guinea. Australian Journal of Zoology. 23 (1), 71-89. DOI:10.1071/ZO9750071

Seavoy R E, 1975. The origin of tropical grasslands in Kalimantan, Indonesia. Journal of Tropical Geography. 48-52.

Seebens H, Blackburn T M, Dyer E E, Genovesi P, Hulme P E, Jeschke J M, Pagad S, Pyšek P, Winter M, Arianoutsou M, Bacher S, Blasius B, Brundu G, Capinha C, Celesti-Grapow L, Dawson W, Dullinger S, Fuentes N, Jäger H, Kartesz J, Kenis M, Kreft H, Kühn I, Lenzner B, Liebhold A, Mosena A (et al), 2017. No saturation in the accumulation of alien species worldwide. Nature Communications. 8 (2), 14435. http://www.nature.com/articles/ncomms14435

Space J C, Flynn T, 2000a. Report to the Government of Niue on Invasive Plant Species of Environmental Concern., USA: Institute of Pacific Islands Forestry. http://www.hear.org/pier/pdf/niue_report.pdf

Space J C, Flynn T, 2002. Report to the Government of the Cook Islands on invasive plant species of environmental concern. In: Report to the Government of the Cook Islands on invasive plant species of environmental concern. Honolulu, Hawaii, USA: USDA Forest Service. 146 pp. http://www.hear.org/pier/pdf/cook_islands_report.pdf

Space J C, Waterhouse B M, Miles J E, Tiobech J, Rengulbai K, 2003a. Report to the Republic of Palau on invasive plant species of environmental concern. In: Report to the Republic of Palau on invasive plant species of environmental concern. Honolulu, Hawaii, USA: USDA Forest Service, Pacific Southwest Research Station, Institute of Pacific Islands Forestry. https://www.sprep.org/att/IRC/eCOPIES/Countries/Palau/11.pdf

Space JC, Flynn T, 2000. Observations on invasive plant species in American Samoa., Honolulu, USDA Forest Service. 51.

Space JC, Waterhouse BM, Miles JE, Tiobech J, Rengulbai K, 2003. Report to the Republic of Palau on invasive plant species of environmental concern., Honolulu, USA: USDA Forest Service.

Stanfield DP, 1970. The Flora of Nigeria Grasses., Ibadan, Nigeria: Ibadan University Press.

Swarbrick JT, 1997. Weeds of the Pacific Islands. In: Technical paper No. 209, Noumea, New Caledonia, South Pacific Commission.

Sykes WR, 1970. Contributions to the flora of Niue. In: New Zealand Department of Scientific and Industrial Research Bulletin, 200 238.

Welsh SL, 1998. Flora Societensis: A summary revision of the flowering plants of the Society Islands., Orem, Utah, USA: E.P.S. Inc.

Whistler W A, 1988. Checklist of the weed flora of Western Polynesia. An annotated list of the weed species of Samoa, Tonga, Niue, and Wallis and Futuna, along with the earliest dates of collection and the local names. In: Technical Paper, South Pacific Commission, 69 pp.

Yuncker TG, 1959. Plants of Tonga. In: B.P. Bishop Museum Bull, 220 165.

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