Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide


Opuntia elatior
(red-flower prickly pear)



Opuntia elatior (red-flower prickly pear)


  • Last modified
  • 21 November 2019
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Opuntia elatior
  • Preferred Common Name
  • red-flower prickly pear
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Plantae
  •     Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •       Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •         Class: Dicotyledonae
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • O. elatior, commonly known as the red flower prickly pear, is one of many invasive Opuntia cacti but is less widespread than most. It is native to northern South America, southern Central America and the southern Lesser Antilles....

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Opuntia elatior Mill.

Preferred Common Name

  • red-flower prickly pear

Other Scientific Names

  • Cactus elatior (Mill.) Willd.
  • Cactus tuna var. elatior (Mill.) Sims
  • Opuntia bergeriana F.A.C.Weber ex A.Berger
  • Opuntia megalantha Griffiths
  • Opuntia nigricans (Haw.) Haw.

International Common Names

  • English: broad prickly pear

Local Common Names

  • Australia: red-flower prickly pear
  • Netherlands Antilles: chau; shangran; tuna; tuna di baca; tuna spañó
  • Sweden: rivieraopuntia

Summary of Invasiveness

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O. elatior, commonly known as the red flower prickly pear, is one of many invasive Opuntia cacti but is less widespread than most. It is native to northern South America, southern Central America and the southern Lesser Antilles. It was introduced to Indonesia, India and South Africa in the 1800s where it quickly spread. Control of O. elatior in India and Indonesia in the early 1900s was one of the first successes of biological control indicating that it could be effectively controlled elsewhere. As it is dispersed easily by birds and capable of forming dense thickets O. elatior is considered a potential environmental weed or ‘sleeper weed’ in Australia in semi-arid areas and drier coastal habitats.

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Plantae
  •         Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •             Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •                 Class: Dicotyledonae
  •                     Order: Caryophyllales
  •                         Family: Cactaceae
  •                             Genus: Opuntia
  •                                 Species: Opuntia elatior

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

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Opuntia is a large genus with almost 200 species, as described by Scheinvar (1995) who stated that the name Opuntia comes from an ancient Greek village (Opus) where Tournefort found a spiny plant which reminded him of the American opuntias. Tribe Opuntieae of subfamily Opuntioideae includes 7 genera: Brasiliopuntia, Consolea, Miqueliopuntia, Opuntia, Salmiopuntia, Tacinga, and Tunilla. Tribe Cylindropuntieae includes the genera: Cylindropuntia, Grusonia, Micropuntia, Pereskiopsis, and Quiabentia. Tribe Tephrocacteae includes the genera: Austrocylindropuntia, Cumulopuntia, Maihueniopsis, Punotia, and Tephrocactus. All of these taxa previously were recognized under the Opuntia genus which was more broadly circumscribed at the time, but now have been separated into different genera (Wallace and Dickie, 2001; Griffith and Porter, 2009; Majure et al., 2012; Bárcenas, 2015). 

Opuntiaeichlamii Rose is listed as a synonym by some sources, but is an accepted species in The Plant List (2013) and is accepted as such for the purposes of this datasheet.


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O. elatior is shrubby or arborescent, forming dense, much branched clumps or plants with a well-defined primary trunk up to 5 m tall. Cladodes are olive green and oblong shaped, 10-40 cm long. Flowers are yellow-orange with red stripes or totally orange-red, the style is expanded at the base forming a nectary, the filaments are reddish-pink, and the stigma lobes are green. Fruit is egg shaped as with most opuntias, and reddish to reddish-pink when ripe; the outer surface of the fruit is typically tuberculate, as a result of the raised areoles; small spines may develop from the areoles of the fruit. Spines are clustered in groups of two to eight, each 2-4 cm long, needle-like and bright white aging darker grey to brown (Government of Australia, 2015).

Plant Type

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Seed propagated
Vegetatively propagated


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The native distribution of O. elatior is disputed. It is certainly native to Colombia and Venezuela, but records from Panama and Costa Rica are questioned, and Caribbean islands may be more recent introductions. However, the broader native range limits according to Hunt et al. (2006) and USDA-ARS (2014), are Colombia, Venezuela, Panama, and the Caribbean (Netherlands Antilles and Lesser Antilles). 
In Colombia, it has been reported in the semi-arid Andean region of La Tatacoa in Huila Department (Figueroa and Galeano, 2007), and in the state of Bolivar in Venezuela (Ponce, 1989; Díaz and Chitty, 2007). In the Caribbean, USDA-ARS (2014) records the islands of Curacao and Saba (Netherlands Antilles), Montserrat, and Redonda (Antigua and Barbuda). Missouri Botanical Garden (2014) includes records from Venezuela, Colombia, Panama and Costa Rica. 
Majure et al. (2013), however, dispute the distribution in Central America and the eastern Lesser Antilles. Although a few individuals or small populations have been recorded in Palo Verde National Park, Costa Rica (Chavarría et al., 2001) it is clear that the species was misidentified and actually is Opuntia lutea (Hammel, 2000; LC Majure, Desert Botanical Garden, Arizona, USA, personal observation). The Panama record is also noted as improbable by Majure et al. (2013), but they include it in the native range list: Colombia; Venezuela; Panama; Aruba and Bonaire (Netherlands Antilles); Saba, Sint Eustatius and Sint Maarten (Netherlands Antilles) in the Lesser Antilles.
O. elatior has been introduced in Australia, India and Java, Indonesia (USDA-ARS, 2014) and also to South Africa, Thailand and Ascension Island (Royal Botanic Gardens Kew, 2014). This species is scattered throughout southern and central Australia (Weeds of Australia, 2014), in southeastern Queensland, southern Northern Territory, some parts of South Australia and New South Wales, and Victoria. It is also noted that “its distribution may be more widespread than herbarium collections would indicate (e.g. there are also reports that it is naturalized on offshore islands in Western Australia)” (Weeds of Australia, 2014). The Council of Heads of Australasian Herbaria (2014) map of distribution in Australia notes a concentration of reports from southeastern South Australia, and isolated records from Western Australia, Queensland and New South Wales.

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 17 Feb 2021
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes


Saint HelenaPresentIntroducedAscension Island, “ halfway up Green Mountain”. Introduced before 1987.
South AfricaPresentIntroducedCape Town. Introduced before 1892.


IndiaPresentIntroducedIntroduced before 1872
IndonesiaPresentIntroducedIntroduced before 1867
ThailandPresentIntroducedIntroduced before 1920. Location listed as "Srinaka" on herbarium record.

North America

Antigua and BarbudaPresentNativeRedonda
Netherlands AntillesPresentNativeCuracao and Saba


AustraliaPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-New South WalesPresentIntroduced
-Northern TerritoryPresentIntroduced
-South AustraliaPresentIntroduced
-Western AustraliaPresentIntroduced

South America


History of Introduction and Spread

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O. elatior was introduced to Indonesia, India and South Africa in the 1800s along with many other Opuntia species. The Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew (2014) records specimens collected from Indonesia in 1867, India 1872, Cape Town, South Africa 1892 and Thailand 1920. A later collection from Ascension Island in 1987 is also reported.

Risk of Introduction

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O. elatior, commonly known as the red-flower prickly pear, is regarded as a potential environmental weed or 'sleeper weed' in many parts of Australia. It is spread by bird-dispersed seeds and as it is capable of forming dense thickets, it is considered a potential problem in semi-arid areas and drier coastal habitats (Weeds of Australia, 2014).

A number of cacti in their native ranges are threatened by overexploitation and habitat destruction. O. elatior has been assessed by the IUCN but is classified as a species of ‘least concern’ because it has a wide range, has been distributed widely by humans, and is not facing any major threats at present (Majure et al., 2013).


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O. elatior occupies open areas and dry gullies in semi-arid regions of Colombia (Majure et al., 2013), and dry regions and coastal areas in Venezuela (Moreno Álvarez et al., 2008).

Habitat List

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Terrestrial ManagedCultivated / agricultural land Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial ManagedManaged grasslands (grazing systems) Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial ManagedDisturbed areas Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial ManagedUrban / peri-urban areas Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalNatural grasslands Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalScrub / shrublands Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalScrub / shrublands Present, no further details Natural
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalDeserts Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalDeserts Present, no further details Natural
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalArid regions Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalArid regions Present, no further details Natural
LittoralCoastal areas Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
LittoralCoastal areas Present, no further details Natural

Biology and Ecology

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Reproductive Biology

Clonal propagation from areoles has been reported for O. elatior (Vargas and García, 1999).

Physiology and Phenology

Immediately after unfolding, Winter et al. (2011) described how cotyledons of the tropical platyopuntoid cactus, O. elatior, exhibited a C3-type carbon dioxide exchange pattern characterized by net CO2 uptake in the light. Significant nocturnal increases in crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) were not detected at this early developmental stage, but only as cotyledons matured and the first cladode (flattened stem) developed. Reduced soil water availability led to an up-regulation of net dark CO2 fixation. C3 photosynthesis, drought-stress-related facultative CAM, and developmentally controlled constitutive CAM can all contribute to the early growth of O. elatior in contrast with mature plants in which obligate CAM is the major pathway of carbon acquisition (Winter et al., 2011).

O. elatior (also misidentified as O. dillenii) was found growing as an epiphyte in Utterkhand, India (Pande and Joshi, 1984; 1985). O. elatior is not normally an epiphyte and it is suggested that it may have been found growing on trees from seed dropped by crows, which feed on its succulent fruits. Species include Cedrus deodara and C. australis (Pande and Joshi, 1984) and Aesculus indica, Lagerstroemia indica, Pinus roxburghii, Sapium insigne, Toona ciliata and Toona serrata (Pande and Joshi, 1985).

Environmental Requirements

O. elatior is native to seasonal wet and dry tropical areas, also savannahs and monsoon climates. It is tolerant to a wide range of rainfall, though prefers moister regions as compared to many other Opuntia species. 


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Am - Tropical monsoon climate Preferred Tropical monsoon climate ( < 60mm precipitation driest month but > (100 - [total annual precipitation(mm}/25]))
As - Tropical savanna climate with dry summer Preferred < 60mm precipitation driest month (in summer) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
Aw - Tropical wet and dry savanna climate Preferred < 60mm precipitation driest month (in winter) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])

Air Temperature

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Parameter Lower limit Upper limit
Absolute minimum temperature (ºC) 5


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ParameterLower limitUpper limitDescription
Dry season duration04number of consecutive months with <40 mm rainfall
Mean annual rainfall6002600mm; lower/upper limits

Soil Tolerances

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Soil drainage

  • free

Soil reaction

  • acid
  • alkaline
  • neutral

Soil texture

  • heavy
  • light
  • medium

Special soil tolerances

  • infertile
  • saline
  • shallow

Natural enemies

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Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Glomerella cingulata Pathogen Leaves Velazhahan et al. (1992)

Notes on Natural Enemies

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Glomerella cingulata was isolated from O. elatior plants with necrotic spots, growing in the forest areas of Mettupalayam, Tamil Nadu, India (Velazhahan et al., 1992).

Means of Movement and Dispersal

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Natural Dispersal

Cladodes break off easily from the parent plants and can be spread by water in floods.

Vector Transmission

Like other opuntias, seed is dispersed by many different bird species that relish the ripe fruit that other animals cannot reach.

Intentional Introduction

It has been introduced as an ornamental species, and may also have been one of several Opuntia species introduced for the production of cochineal in the 1700s and 1800s.

Pathway Vectors

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VectorNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Floating vegetation and debris Yes
Water Yes

Impact Summary

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Cultural/amenity Positive
Environment (generally) Negative

Environmental Impact

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O. elatior was known as one of the first important invasive weeds in South and South East Asia, where it was already widespread having formed dense stands by the mid-1800s, before it was brought under control following one of the first successful attempts at biological control (Ooi et al., 1994; Royal Botanic Gardens Kew, 2014). Currently it is thought to have minimal impact in the affected areas.

Social Impact

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O. elatior is still used as an ornamental species.

Risk and Impact Factors

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  • Proved invasive outside its native range
  • Abundant in its native range
  • Highly adaptable to different environments
  • Is a habitat generalist
  • Tolerates, or benefits from, cultivation, browsing pressure, mutilation, fire etc
  • Pioneering in disturbed areas
  • Highly mobile locally
  • Long lived
  • Fast growing
  • Has high reproductive potential
  • Has propagules that can remain viable for more than one year
  • Reproduces asexually
Impact outcomes
  • Ecosystem change/ habitat alteration
  • Modification of successional patterns
  • Monoculture formation
  • Negatively impacts agriculture
  • Negatively impacts animal health
  • Negatively impacts livelihoods
  • Reduced native biodiversity
  • Threat to/ loss of native species
Impact mechanisms
  • Competition - monopolizing resources
  • Competition - shading
  • Rapid growth
  • Produces spines, thorns or burrs
Likelihood of entry/control
  • Highly likely to be transported internationally deliberately
  • Difficult to identify/detect in the field
  • Difficult/costly to control


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Economic Value

O. elatior is not browsed by sheep, but if cladodes (stem fragments) are burned to remove the spines, chopped and sun-dried, they could be used as a component of feed supplements (Tien and Beynen, 2005).

Moreno Álvarez et al. (2008) provide detailed composition and chemical analysis, and concluded that O. elatior is an important alternative material for Venezuelan agro-alimentary industry. Pulp has been assessed as part of a stability evaluation of citric beverages pigmented with natural sources of betalains (Moreno et al., 2007).

O. elatior is grown and sold as an ornamental plant. It is also reported to have been planted in Java, Indonesia as a boundary and barrier/support (USDA-ARS, 2014).

Social Benefit

O. elatior is an important plant used as medicine due to beneficial health promoting properties (Ramyashree and Shivabasavaiah, 2012). The fruits are used in several indigenous systems of medicine for the treatment of various ailments, including anaemia, asthma, inflammatory disorders and diabetes. The speedy and progressive recovery of anaemia in the treatment of prickly pear may be due to increased erythropoiesis and/or antioxidant property of betacyanin (Chauhan et al., 2014).

Uses List

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  • Boundary, barrier or support


  • Ornamental

Medicinal, pharmaceutical

  • Source of medicine/pharmaceutical
  • Traditional/folklore

Similarities to Other Species/Conditions

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O. elatior can be distinguished by the red stripes on its flowers and needle-like, dark brown spines. For more information refer to Queensland Government (2015) and Government of Australia (2015).

Prevention and Control

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Due to the variable regulations around (de)registration of pesticides, your national list of registered pesticides or relevant authority should be consulted to determine which products are legally allowed for use in your country when considering chemical control. Pesticides should always be used in a lawful manner, consistent with the product's label.

Physical/Mechanical Control

There are no specific reports of cutting, burning, ploughing or other mechanical methods being used to control O. elatior but it is probable that this species is as difficult to control as other Opuntia.

Biological Control

Rao et al. (1971) reported that Dactylopius ceylonicus was first introduced into India (Madras) in 1795 and was widespread on wild Opuntia vulgaris in central and northern India by the mid-1800s. Although it was deemed to have brought O. vulgaris under control it was tried on O. elatior and Opuntiadillenni in southern India in the late 1800s but apparently failed because it would not feed on them.

But O. elatior is one of the two success stories of biological control in Southeast Asia. O. elatior was successfully controlled in Indonesia using Dactylopius opuntiae (Ooi et al., 1994), where it was first introduced to Sulawesi in 1934. It was reported to have also been introduced to Palu valley in North Celebes in 1935 from a consignment from Australia (Rao et al., 1971). It spread rapidly on O. elatior with many plants dying by 1936 and the cactus had disappeared from the valley by 1939, giving place to new growth of other plants including Leucaena glauca (Rao et al., 1971).

Dactylopius opuntiae also gave good control of O. elatior and O. dillenii in India as well as O. elatior in Indonesia (Rao et al., 1971). Dactylopius tomentosus [Dactylopiusopuntiae] was also reported to destroy the common prickly pear (Opuntia elatior) in India by Burns (1940).

Deshpande (1935) reported the introduction and spread of D. opuntiae in India between 1931 and 1934. D. opuntiae was able to control O. elatior and probably O. dillenii in many areas after a consignment received from Madras became well established under favourable conditions and the organism multiplied rapidly after rain. A small number were observed to cause severe injury, and a fungus of the genus Phoma was also isolated from dying parts of the plant. 


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Anderson EF, 2001. The Cactus Family. Portland, Oregon, USA: Timber Press

Barcenas RT, 2015. A molecular phylogenetic approach to the systematics of Cylindropuntieae (Opuntioideae, Cactaceae). Cladistics:1-9

Britton NL, Rose JN, 1919. The Cactaceae. Washington DC, USA: Carnegie Institute

Burns W, 1940. The future of spineless cactus in India. Indian Farming, 1:160-1

Chauhan SP, Sheth NR, Suhagia BN, 2014. Haematinic evaluation of fruits of Opuntia elatior Mill. on mercuric chloride induced anemia in rats. International Journal of Research in Ayurveda and Pharmacy (IJRAP), 5(1):115-122.

Chavarria U, Gonzalez-Ramirez J, Zamora-Villalobos NA, Quesada NA, Feeny C, 2001. Arboles comunes del Parque Nacional Palo Verde, Costa Rica (Common Trees of Palo Verde National Park, Costa Rica). San Jose, Costa Rica: Instituto Nacional de Biodiversidad

Council of Heads of Australasian Herbaria, 2014. Australia's virtual herbarium, Australia.

Deshpande VG, 1935. Eradication of Prickly Pear by Cochineal Insects in the Bombay Presidency. Agriculture and Live-stock in India, 5(pt. 1):36-42 pp

Diaz WA, Chitty FD, 2007. Catalogo de plantas vasculares de Ciudad Bolivar y sus alrededores. (Catalog of vascular plants and around Ciudad Bolivarrededores.) Acta Botanica Venezuelica, 30(1):99-161

Figueroa CY, Galeano G, 2007. Checklist of the vascular plants of Andean arid region of La Tatacoa (Huila, Colombia). (Lista comentada de las plantas vasculares del enclave seco interandino de La Tatacoa (Huila, Colombia). Caldasia, 29(2):263-281.

Government of South Australia, 2015. Weed of national significance: invasive cacti - a prickly problem. Opuntia. Australia: Government of South Australia, Biosecurity SA.

Griffith MP, Porter JM, 2009. Phylogeny of Opuntioideae (Cactaceae). International Journal of Plant Sciences, 170(1):107-116.

Hammel BE, 2000. Cactaceae. Plants of Costa Rica manual (Cactaceae. Manual de Plantas de Costa Rica).

Hunt D, 2006. The New Cactus Lexicon., England: Dh Books

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Lenzi M, Orth AI, 2012. Floral visitors of the Opuntia monacantha (Cactaceae) in sandbank of the Florianópolis, SC, Brazil. (Visitantes florais de Opuntia monacantha (Cactaceae) em restingas de Florianópolis, SC, Brasil.) Acta Biológica Paranaense, 40(1/2):19-32.

Majure L, Griffith P, Nassar J, 2013. Opuntia elatior. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.2. IUCN

Majure LC, Puente R, Griffith MP, Judd WS, Soltis PS, Soltis DE, 2012. Phylogeny of Opuntia s.s. (Cactaceae): clade delineation, geographic origins, and reticulate evolution. American Journal of Botany, 99(5):847-864.

Mann J, 1970. Cacti naturalised in Australia and their control. Queensland, Australia: Publications Department of Lands., 128 pp

Missouri Botanical Garden, 2015. Tropicos database. St. Louis, Missouri, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden.

Moreno Âlvarez MJ, García Pantaleón D, Belén Camacho D, Medina Martínez C, Muñoz Ojeda N, 2008. Bromatological evaluation of tune Opuntia elatior Miller (Cactaceae). Revista de la Facultad de Agronomía, Universidad del Zulia, 25(1):68-80.

Moreno M, Betancourt M, Pitre A, García D, Belén D, Medina C, 2007. Stability evaluation of citric beverages pigmented with natural sources of betalains: tuna pulp and beetroot. (Evaluación de la estabilidad de bebidas cítricas acondicionadas con dos fuentes naturales de betalaínas: tuna y remolacha.) Bioagro, 19(3):149-159.

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Ooi PAC, 1994. Biological control of weeds in Southeast Asia. Appropriate weed control in Southeast Asia. Proceedings of an FAO-CAB International workshop, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, 17-18 May 1994 [edited by Sastroutomo, S.S.; Auld, B.A.] Wallingford, UK; CAB International, 11-17

Pande PC, Joshi GC, 1984. Opuntia elatior Mill - an epiphyte on Cedrus deodara (Roxb. ex Lam) G. Don and Celtis eriocarpa Decaisne. Indian Journal of Forestry, 7(2):161-162

Pande PC, Joshi GC, 1985. Further contribution to the host range of Opuntia elatior Mill. Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany, 7(1):219-220

Ponce M, 1989. Distribucion de cactaceas en Venezuela y su ambito mundial (Distribution of cacti in Venezuela and worldwide). Venezuala, South America: Facultad de Agronomia, Universidad Central de Venezuela

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Ramyashree M, Shivabasavaiah, Ram HK, 2012. Ethnomedicinal value of Opuntia elatior fruits and its effects in mice. Journal of Pharmacy Research, 5(8):4554-4558.

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Scheinvar L, 1995. Taxonomy of utilized opuntias. FAO Plant Production and Protection Paper, No. 132:20-27

The Plant List, 2013. The Plant List: a working list of all plant species. Version 1.1. London, UK: Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

Tien DV, Beynen AC, 2005. Growth performance of lambs in Phangrang, Vietnam: effects of a dietary supplement containing prickly-pear cactus. Tropical Animal Health and Production, 37(3):237-244.

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Vargas TE, García Ede, 1999. Clonal propagation of Opuntia elatior (Miller) from areoles. (Propagación clonal de Opuntia elatior (Miller) a partir de aureolas.) Anales de Botánica Agrícola, 6:67-71

Velazhahan R, Marimuthu T, Dinakaran D, Jeyarajan R, 1992. A new disease of Opuntia elatior in Tamil Nadu. Indian Phytopathology, 45(2):280

Wallace RS, Dickie SL, 2001. Systematic implications of chloroplast DNA sequence variation in the Opuntioideae. In: Studies in the Opuntioideae (Cactaceae) (Succulent plant research, version 6) [ed. by Hunt, D. R. \Taylor, N. P.]. The Manse, Chapel Lane, Milborne Port Sherborne, UK: David Hunt, 9-24

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Winter K, Garcia M, Holtum JAM, 2011. Drought-stress-induced up-regulation of CAM in seedlings of a tropical cactus, Opuntia elatior, operating predominantly in the C3 mode. Journal of Experimental Botany, 62(11):4037-4042

Witt, A., Luke, Q., 2017. Guide to the naturalized and invasive plants of Eastern Africa, [ed. by Witt, A., Luke, Q.]. Wallingford, UK: + 601 pp. doi:10.1079/9781786392145.0000

Zimmermann HG, Moran VC, Hoffmann JH, 2009. Invasive cactus species (Cactaceae). In: Biological control of tropical weeds using arthropods [ed. by Muniapan, R. \Reddy, G. V. P. \Raman, A.]. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 108-129

Distribution References

CABI, Undated. CABI Compendium: Status inferred from regional distribution. Wallingford, UK: CABI

CABI, Undated a. CABI Compendium: Status as determined by CABI editor. Wallingford, UK: CABI

Council of Heads of Australasian Herbaria, 2014. Australia's virtual herbarium., Australia:

Royal Botanic Gardens Kew, 2014. Kew Herbarium Catalogue., London, UK: Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

USDA-ARS, 2014. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Online Database. Beltsville, Maryland, USA: National Germplasm Resources Laboratory.

Witt A, Beale T, Wilgen B W van, 2018. An assessment of the distribution and potential ecological impacts of invasive alien plant species in eastern Africa. Transactions of the Royal Society of South Africa. 73 (3), 217-236. DOI:10.1080/0035919X.2018.1529003

Witt A, Luke Q, 2017. Guide to the naturalized and invasive plants of Eastern Africa. [ed. by Witt A, Luke Q]. Wallingford, UK: CABI. vi + 601 pp. DOI:10.1079/9781786392145.0000

Links to Websites

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GISD/IASPMR: Invasive Alien Species Pathway Management Resource and DAISIE European Invasive Alien Species Gateway source for updated system data added to species habitat list.


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26/08/15 Original text by:

Nick Pasiecznik, Agroforestry Enterprises, France

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