Invasive Species Compendium

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Datasheet

Iva xanthiifolia
(Marsh-elder)

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Datasheet

Iva xanthiifolia (Marsh-elder)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 06 December 2018
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Iva xanthiifolia
  • Preferred Common Name
  • Marsh-elder
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Plantae
  •     Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •       Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •         Class: Dicotyledonae
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • I. xanthiifolia is a summer to autumn flowering annual herb native to North America. It produces allergenic pollen, which can induce allergenic diseases and moreover it is a competitive weed in agriculture. It...

  • Principal Source
  • Draft datasheet under review

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Iva xanthiifolia (giant sumpweed, marsh-elder); on a ruderal site, next to a warehouse. Galanta, Slovakia. August, 2012.
TitleInvasive habit
CaptionIva xanthiifolia (giant sumpweed, marsh-elder); on a ruderal site, next to a warehouse. Galanta, Slovakia. August, 2012.
Copyright©Swen Follak-2012
Iva xanthiifolia (giant sumpweed, marsh-elder); on a ruderal site, next to a warehouse. Galanta, Slovakia. August, 2012.
Invasive habitIva xanthiifolia (giant sumpweed, marsh-elder); on a ruderal site, next to a warehouse. Galanta, Slovakia. August, 2012.©Swen Follak-2012
Iva xanthiifolia (giant sumpweed, marsh-elder); light greyish-green leaves, with lobed to double serrated leaf margins.
TitleLeaves
CaptionIva xanthiifolia (giant sumpweed, marsh-elder); light greyish-green leaves, with lobed to double serrated leaf margins.
Copyright©Swen Follak-2009
Iva xanthiifolia (giant sumpweed, marsh-elder); light greyish-green leaves, with lobed to double serrated leaf margins.
LeavesIva xanthiifolia (giant sumpweed, marsh-elder); light greyish-green leaves, with lobed to double serrated leaf margins.©Swen Follak-2009
Iva xanthiifolia (giant sumpweed, marsh-elder); developing flowers.
TitleDeveloping flowers
CaptionIva xanthiifolia (giant sumpweed, marsh-elder); developing flowers.
Copyright©Swen Follak-2014
Iva xanthiifolia (giant sumpweed, marsh-elder); developing flowers.
Developing flowersIva xanthiifolia (giant sumpweed, marsh-elder); developing flowers.©Swen Follak-2014
Iva xanthiifolia (giant sumpweed, marsh-elder); close-up of developing flowers.
TitleDeveloping flowers
CaptionIva xanthiifolia (giant sumpweed, marsh-elder); close-up of developing flowers.
Copyright©Swen Follak-2014
Iva xanthiifolia (giant sumpweed, marsh-elder); close-up of developing flowers.
Developing flowersIva xanthiifolia (giant sumpweed, marsh-elder); close-up of developing flowers.©Swen Follak-2014
Iva xanthiifolia (giant sumpweed, marsh-elder); plant in full bloom.
TitleFlowering habit
CaptionIva xanthiifolia (giant sumpweed, marsh-elder); plant in full bloom.
Copyright©Swen Follak-2009
Iva xanthiifolia (giant sumpweed, marsh-elder); plant in full bloom.
Flowering habitIva xanthiifolia (giant sumpweed, marsh-elder); plant in full bloom.©Swen Follak-2009
Iva xanthiifolia (giant sumpweed, marsh-elder); ripening seed-heads.
TitleRipening seed-heads
CaptionIva xanthiifolia (giant sumpweed, marsh-elder); ripening seed-heads.
Copyright©Swen Follak-2009
Iva xanthiifolia (giant sumpweed, marsh-elder); ripening seed-heads.
Ripening seed-headsIva xanthiifolia (giant sumpweed, marsh-elder); ripening seed-heads.©Swen Follak-2009
Iva xanthiifolia (giant sumpweed, marsh-elder); mature plant in maize crop. Plant >300cm in height. Surany, Slovakia. September, 2009.
TitleInvasive habit
CaptionIva xanthiifolia (giant sumpweed, marsh-elder); mature plant in maize crop. Plant >300cm in height. Surany, Slovakia. September, 2009.
Copyright©Swen Follak-2014
Iva xanthiifolia (giant sumpweed, marsh-elder); mature plant in maize crop. Plant >300cm in height. Surany, Slovakia. September, 2009.
Invasive habitIva xanthiifolia (giant sumpweed, marsh-elder); mature plant in maize crop. Plant >300cm in height. Surany, Slovakia. September, 2009.©Swen Follak-2014
Iva xanthiifolia (giant sumpweed, marsh-elder); mature plants on edge of a harvested cereal field. Nove Samke, Slovakia. August, 2013.
TitleInvasive habit
CaptionIva xanthiifolia (giant sumpweed, marsh-elder); mature plants on edge of a harvested cereal field. Nove Samke, Slovakia. August, 2013.
Copyright©Swen Follak-2013
Iva xanthiifolia (giant sumpweed, marsh-elder); mature plants on edge of a harvested cereal field. Nove Samke, Slovakia. August, 2013.
Invasive habitIva xanthiifolia (giant sumpweed, marsh-elder); mature plants on edge of a harvested cereal field. Nove Samke, Slovakia. August, 2013.©Swen Follak-2013
Iva xanthiifolia (giant sumpweed, marsh-elder); on wasteland, adjacent Warszawa Zachodnia railway station. Warszawa, Poland. August, 2014.
TitleInvasive habit
CaptionIva xanthiifolia (giant sumpweed, marsh-elder); on wasteland, adjacent Warszawa Zachodnia railway station. Warszawa, Poland. August, 2014.
Copyright©Swen Follak
Iva xanthiifolia (giant sumpweed, marsh-elder); on wasteland, adjacent Warszawa Zachodnia railway station. Warszawa, Poland. August, 2014.
Invasive habitIva xanthiifolia (giant sumpweed, marsh-elder); on wasteland, adjacent Warszawa Zachodnia railway station. Warszawa, Poland. August, 2014.©Swen Follak
Iva xanthiifolia (giant sumpweed, marsh-elder); small plant at six leaf stage.
TitleSeedling
CaptionIva xanthiifolia (giant sumpweed, marsh-elder); small plant at six leaf stage.
Copyright©Swen Follak-2011
Iva xanthiifolia (giant sumpweed, marsh-elder); small plant at six leaf stage.
SeedlingIva xanthiifolia (giant sumpweed, marsh-elder); small plant at six leaf stage.©Swen Follak-2011

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Iva xanthiifolia Nutt.

Preferred Common Name

  • Marsh-elder

Other Scientific Names

  • Cyclachaena xanthiifolia (Nutt.) Fresen.
  • Cyclachaena xanthiifolia Georg Fresenius

International Common Names

  • English: burweed; burweed marsh elder; burweed marshelder; burweed marshelder; carelessweed; false ragweed; giant marshelder; giant sumpweed; horseweed; marsh elder; marshelder; rag sumpweed; sumpweed
  • French: ive à feuilles de lampourde

Local Common Names

  • Czech Republic: pouva řepňolistá
  • Germany: rispenkraut; schlagkraut
  • Hungary: parlagi rézgyom
  • Poland: iwa rzepieniolistna
  • Slovakia: iva voškovníkovitá

Summary of Invasiveness

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I. xanthiifolia is a summer to autumn flowering annual herb native to North America. It produces allergenic pollen, which can induce allergenic diseases and moreover it is a competitive weed in agriculture. It has been introduced to several European countries and occurs most frequently in the warm and continental parts of central and eastern Europe. Because of its significant potential impact on public health and land use, future spread of the species should be monitored and management strategies (e.g. raising awareness, early control) should be implemented (Follak et al., 2013).

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Plantae
  •         Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •             Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •                 Class: Dicotyledonae
  •                     Order: Asterales
  •                         Family: Asteraceae
  •                             Species: Iva xanthiifolia

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

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I. xanthiifolia causes contact dermatitis and its pollen is a known agent of hay fever. That this species causes hay fever may be inferred from its common name of "false ragweed" (Pruski et al., 2005). The other frequently used names (marsh-elder, sumpweed) indicate its occurrence in its native range on sandy and silty river alluvials in dry river and stream beds (“in arid soils, near Fort Manden, etc, on the bank of the Missouri”; Jackson, 1960).

Description

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I. xanthiifolia is a summer annual species of 30–200 cm tall. The stem is thick, coarse branching, greyish-green, and arising from a taproot. Leaves are broad, mostly opposite, light grayish-green, ovate, 5-20 cm long and 2.5-15 cm wide, and coarsely toothed. Flowers are greenish-yellow, with greatly reduced corollas, crowded on branching spikes at the top of the stem and upper leaf axils. Male and female flowers are found on the same spike. The achenes are grey to black, triangular with a ridged surface and 2.3-3.8 mm long. In its native range in the north central and north-eastern states, pollen anthesis occurs from July to September. Pollen grains are tricolporate, spheroid to oblate, ranging in size from 18-20 μm in diameter. Furrows are long, approximately 10-14 μm in length, with pores 2.0 μm in longitudinal diameter (Flora of North America Editorial Committee, 2014; Weber, 2002).

Plant Type

Top of page Annual
Broadleaved
Herbaceous
Seed propagated

Distribution

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I. xanthiifolia occurs particularly in western North America (Prairie States) and it can occasionally be found southwards near the Mexican border and in California. It has spread to eastern North America, where it may be found in the northern USA and adjacent Canada. It is found in the more temperate zones of the southern USA, but not in the Gulf Coast subtropical zone (Jackson 1960; Canadensys, 2014; USDA-NRCS, 2014).

Since the middle of the nineteenth century, and in particular the middle of the twentieth century the plant was introduced to many countries throughout Europe. Today, I. xanthiifolia is present in warm continental lowlands (Danubian Lowland and the Pannonian Basin) of Eastern Europe. Invasion hotspots are in southern and eastern Slovakia (districts Bratislava, Nitra, Košice), northern Serbia (Vojvodina), south-eastern Hungary (counties Csongrád and Békés) and eastern Germany (e.g. Dresden Basin) (Follak et al., 2013). Larger populations can be found in the Ukraine and southern and central Russia (Protopopova, 2006; Afonin et al., 2008; Abramova and Nurmieva, 2014).

Throughout most of the other countries in western and northern Europe, I. xanthiifolia is uncommon except for some large cities and areas along main rivers like Rhine (Ruhr, Mainz, and Mannheim) and Elbe (Hamburg). In mountainous regions in the Alps (Switzerland, western Austria) and Carpathians the species is nearly absent (Follak et al., 2013). Further introductions have been recorded for the Far East of Russia (Aistova et al., 2011), the Caucasus (Armenia; Pruski et al., 2005) and New Zealand (Heenan, 2004).

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasiveReferenceNotes

Asia

ArmeniaPresent, few occurrencesIntroduced2003 Not invasive Pruski, 2005Shirak Region, near Arax River
ChinaPresentIntroducedZhi-dong et al., 2012Northeast of China. Not listed in the Flora of China, 2014

North America

CanadaPresentIntroduced Not invasive Canadensys, 2014; GBIF, 2014
-AlbertaPresentIntroduced Not invasive Canadensys, 2014
-British ColumbiaPresentIntroduced Not invasive Canadensys, 2014
-ManitobaPresentIntroduced Not invasive Canadensys, 2014
-New BrunswickPresentIntroduced Not invasive Canadensys, 2014
-Nova ScotiaPresentIntroduced Not invasive Canadensys, 2014
-OntarioPresentIntroduced Not invasive Canadensys, 2014
-QuebecPresentIntroduced Not invasive Canadensys, 2014
-SaskatchewanPresentIntroduced Not invasive Canadensys, 2014; Canadensys, 2014
-SaskatchewanPresentIntroduced Not invasive Canadensys, 2014; Canadensys, 2014
USAPresentNative Not invasive Jackson, 1960; USDA, 1971; BONAP, 2014; Flora of North America Editorial Committee, 2014; GBIF, 2014; USDA-NRCS, 2014Disturbed sites: abandoned fields, bottomlands, flood plains, stream banks, arable land
-ArizonaPresentNative Not invasive USDA-NRCS, 2014
-CaliforniaPresentNative Not invasive BONAP, 2014
-ColoradoPresentNative Not invasive USDA-NRCS, 2014
-ConnecticutPresentNative Not invasive USDA-NRCS, 2014
-District of ColumbiaPresentNative Not invasive USDA-NRCS, 2014
-IdahoPresentNative Not invasive USDA-NRCS, 2014
-IllinoisPresentNative Not invasive USDA-NRCS, 2014
-IndianaPresentNative Not invasive USDA-NRCS, 2014
-IowaPresentNative Not invasive USDA-NRCS, 2014
-KansasPresentNative Not invasive USDA-NRCS, 2014
-KentuckyPresentNative Not invasive USDA-NRCS, 2014
-MainePresentNative Not invasive USDA-NRCS, 2014
-MassachusettsPresentNative Not invasive USDA-NRCS, 2014
-MichiganPresentNative Not invasive USDA-NRCS, 2014
-MinnesotaPresentNative Not invasive USDA-NRCS, 2014
-MissouriPresentNative Not invasive USDA-NRCS, 2014
-MontanaPresentNative Not invasive USDA-NRCS, 2014
-NebraskaPresentNative Not invasive USDA-NRCS, 2014
-NevadaPresentNative Not invasive USDA-NRCS, 2014
-New HampshirePresentNative Not invasive USDA-NRCS, 2014
-New JerseyPresentNative Not invasive USDA-NRCS, 2014
-New MexicoPresentNative Not invasive USDA-NRCS, 2014
-New YorkPresentNative Not invasive USDA-NRCS, 2014
-North DakotaPresentNative Not invasive USDA-NRCS, 2014
-OhioPresentNative Not invasive USDA-NRCS, 2014
-OklahomaPresentNative Not invasive USDA-NRCS, 2014
-OregonPresentNative Not invasive USDA-NRCS, 2014
-PennsylvaniaPresentNative Not invasive USDA-NRCS, 2014
-Rhode IslandPresentNative Not invasive USDA-NRCS, 2014
-South CarolinaPresentNative Not invasive USDA-NRCS, 2014
-South DakotaPresentNative Not invasive USDA-NRCS, 2014
-TexasPresentNative Not invasive USDA-NRCS, 2014
-UtahPresentNative Not invasive USDA-NRCS, 2014
-VermontPresentNative Not invasive USDA-NRCS, 2014
-VirginiaPresentNative Not invasive USDA-NRCS, 2014
-WashingtonPresentNative Not invasive USDA-NRCS, 2014
-WisconsinPresentNative Not invasive USDA-NRCS, 2014
-WyomingPresentNative Not invasive USDA-NRCS, 2014

Europe

AustriaPresent, few occurrencesIntroduced1942 Not invasive Follak, 2009; Follak et al., 2013'only rarely ... as a ruderal plant mainly in towns, train stations and along railway tracks'
BelarusPresentIntroducedDAISIE, 2014; Plants of Belarus, 2014
BelgiumPresent, few occurrencesIntroduced1908 Not invasive Verloove, 2006; Manual of the Alien Plants of Belgium, 2014'A regular but usually ephemeral plant (although often surviving for some time)'
BulgariaLocalisedIntroduced1996Milanova, 1999; Milanova and Valkova, 2004Kostinbrod/Sofia Province
CroatiaPresent, few occurrencesIntroduced1976Markovic, 1978; Zivanovic et al., 2012; Follak et al., 2013; FCD, 2014Ðurdancima
Czech RepublicPresent, few occurrencesIntroduced1947Pysek et al., 2012; Follak et al., 2013Large cities and their vicinities (Olomouc, Prague)
DenmarkPresent, few occurrencesIntroduced1906Virtuella Herbariet, 2014
EstoniaAbsent, formerly presentIntroduced1958Gudzhinskas, 1991
FinlandAbsent, formerly presentIntroduced1932Gudzhinskas, 1991
FrancePresent, few occurrencesIntroduced Not invasive GBIF, 2014; Tela botanica, 2014
GermanyPresent, few occurrencesIntroduced1858Follak et al., 2013; FloraWeb, 2014Eastern Germany (e.g. Dresden Basin), along the rivers Rhine and Elbe
HungaryLocalisedIntroduced1950Hodi, 2005; Zalai and Nemeth, 2007; Follak et al., 2013South-eastern Hungary (counties Csongrád and Békés)
LatviaAbsent, formerly presentIntroduced1960Gudzhinskas, 1991; NOBANIS, 2014
LithuaniaAbsent, formerly presentIntroduced1947Gudzhinskas, 1991Casual occurrences scattered over the country and Kaunsa, Vlinius
MontenegroPresentIntroducedSteševic and Jovanovic, 2008Podgorica
NetherlandsPresentIntroducedGBIF, 2014
NorwayAbsent, formerly presentIntroduced1917 Not invasive Ouren, 1987; Gederaas et al., 2012Oslo, Larvik; ‘observed in Norway, but that [is] not thought to be able to reproduce in Norwegian Nature.’
PolandLocalisedIntroducedGuzik, 1989; Moraczewski and Sudnik-Wójcikowska, 2007e.g. Warszawa, Lublin, Gdansk; scattered over the country
RomaniaWidespreadIntroduced1942 Invasive Dihoru, 2004; Sirbu, 2008In all regions of the country
Russian FederationWidespreadIntroduced1926Tzvelev, 2002; Afonin et al., 2008; NOBANIS, 2014
-Central RussiaWidespreadIntroduced1985Abramova and Nurmieva, 2014Chuvash; 'Today there are 60 foci of C. xanthiifolia invasion in the Cisural and Transural RB ' (i.e. Republic of Bashkortostan)
-Russian Far EastWidespreadIntroducedAistova et al., 2011; Aistova, 2012Primorje (Amurskaya Oblast)
-Southern RussiaWidespreadIntroducedAfonin et al., 2008; Abramova and Nurmieva, 2014Orenburg , Smara
SerbiaLocalisedIntroduced1966 Invasive Vrbnicanin et al., 2009; Radanovic et al., 2012; List of invasive species in AP Vojvodina, 2013Northern Serbia (Vojvodina)
SlovakiaLocalisedIntroduced1934Medvecká et al., 2012; Follak, 2014Eastern (Košický kraj) and southwestern part of Slovakia (Nitriansky kraj), Bratislava
SloveniaPresent, few occurrencesIntroduced1970Wraber, 1971; Jogan, 2001; Follak et al., 2013
SpainPresentIntroducedGBIF, 2014Basque Country
SwedenPresentIntroduced1913NOBANIS, 2014; Virtuella Herbariet, 2014Skåne län, Uppland
SwitzerlandPresent, few occurrencesIntroduced1902 Not invasive Schmid-Hollinger, 1994; Infoflora, 2014Basel, Brigerbad
UKPresent, few occurrencesIntroduced1905Stace, 2010; Online Atlas of the British and Irish flora, 2014Scattered in Britain
UkraineWidespreadIntroduced1842 Invasive Prokhorova, 2004; Protopopova et al., 2006

Oceania

New ZealandPresentIntroduced1974Heenan et al., 2004; NZVH, 2014Wellington, Manawatu Plains, Waverley; growing in a carrot crop

History of Introduction and Spread

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The invasion of I. xanthiifolia in Europe two main causes: (1) planting in botanical gardens and accidental dispersal and (2) introduction by and transportation of contaminated grain and oil seeds.

I. xanthiifolia first appeared in the Ukraine in 1842 and in Germany in 1858 in the area of Kiev and Potsdam and their vicinity, respectively, through seed dispersal from specimens grown in the local Botanical gardens (Swies and Soroka, 1998; Follak et al., 2013). In Germany, these early introductions were most likely temporary, whereas in Ukraine, the plant expanded its range and became occasionally naturalised building up a secondary distribution area (Guzik and Sudnik-Wojcikowska, 1989; Swies and Soroka, 1998). In other European countries, this species was detected much later. These introductions have been caused by the mass import of grain and oil-seeds (feeding material, but also for human consumption) contaminated with seeds of I. xanthiifolia from infested regions of North America and from its secondary range in the former USSR (Jehlík and Dostálek, 2008). Early records were from the beginning of the twentieth century in Switzerland, UK and Belgium ( Verloove, 2006; Stace, 2010; Follak et al., 2013). In Poland (in its contemporary borders), the plant was first collated in 1931 (Wroclaw), in Austria in 1942 (Vienna), in Slovakia in 1934 (Šurany and Ciky), in the Czech Republic in 1947 (Prague), in Hungary in 1950 (Mezohegyes) and in Serbia in 1966 (Novi Sad). In Slovenia and Croatia, I. xanthiifolia was first recorded as late as in 1970 (Škofije) and 1976 (Ðurdanci), respectively (Follak et al., 2013). One of the latest findings was from 1996 in Kostinbrod/Bulgaria (Milanova, 1999).The rapid invasion of I. xanthiifolia  has continued across Eastern Europe (Follak et al., 2013).

Introductions

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Introduced toIntroduced fromYearReasonIntroduced byEstablished in wild throughReferencesNotes
Natural reproductionContinuous restocking
Czech Republic Ukraine 1950-1990 Seed trade (pathway cause) Yes No Jehlik (1995); Jehlik and Dostalek (2008); Jehlik and Hejny (1974) Accidental introductions via contaminated grain and oil seeds
Czech Republic USA  1950-1990 Seed trade (pathway cause) Yes No Jehlik (1995); Jehlik and Dostalek (2008); Jehlik and Hejny (1974) Accidental introductions via contaminated grain and oil seeds
Lithuania Ukraine 1950-1990 Seed trade (pathway cause) No No Gudzhinskas (1991) Accidental introductions via contaminated grain and oil seeds
Lithuania USA 1950-1990 Seed trade (pathway cause) No No Gudzhinskas (1991) Accidental introductions via contaminated grain and oil seeds
Slovakia USA 1950-1990 Seed trade (pathway cause) Yes No Jehlik (1995); Jehlik and Dostalek (2008); Jehlik and Hejny (1974) Accidental introductions via contaminated grain and oil seeds
Slovakia Ukraine 1950-1990 Seed trade (pathway cause) Yes No Jehlik (1995); Jehlik and Dostalek (2008); Jehlik and Hejny (1974) Accidental introductions via contaminated grain and oil seeds

Risk of Introduction

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New introductions of I. xanthiifolia may occur through contaminated grain and oils-seeds although propagule pressure by this pathway may be less important, due to effective seed cleaning, high quality standards and changed terms of transport. Currently, the movement of soil and gravel contaminated with seeds of I. xanthiifolia by agricultural machinery or machinery used for construction work is presumed to be an active pathway of dispersal.

The spread of I. xanthiifolia in Eastern Europe appears to be associated with land use, with the species increasingly found in ruderal habitats associated with transport infrastructure (Follak et al., 2013). It is therefore possible that I. xanthiifolia will spread further via roadsides and along railways. In the Vojvodina region of Serbia, Radanovic et al. (2012) found roads and railways to be the primary routes for range expansion for I. xanthiifolia. It has also been frequently found along the rivers Rhine and Elbe, where ship ports provided a point of entry.

Follak et al. (2013) predicted that I. xanthiifolia is most likely to spread further in the lowland regions in the east and south of Eastern Europe, as opposed to the cool mountainous regions in the Alps and most parts of western Germany and Croatia. They listed invasion hotspots as southern and eastern Slovakia (Bratislava, Nitra and Košice districts), northern Serbia (Vojvodina), south-eastern Hungary (Csongrád and Békés counties), the easternmost part of Austria (Burgenland, Lower Austria) and eastern Germany (such as the Dresden Basin).

Edler and Steinmann (2012) concluded that further establishment of I. xanthifolia in northern Germany was most likely in humus-rich soils, although they noted that under changing climatic conditions the spread of the plant in northern Germany may be hampered. Conversely, Follak et al. (2013) reported that even moderate climate warming would result in a significant distribution increase of I. xanthiifolia in Central and Eastern Europe.

 

Habitat

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Records of I. xanthiifolia are predominately associated with anthropogenically disturbed areas. Most populations grow on waste land, dump sites, along fences and on waste heaps. Moreover, ruderal habitats associated with transport infrastructure like roads and railway areas are regularly invaded by this species (e.g. Guzik and Sudnik-Wójcikowska, 1989; Swies, 1993; Jehlík, 1995; Swies and Soroka, 1998; Radovanovic et al., 2012; Follak et al., 2013; Follak, 2014). As a segetal weed, I. xanthiifolia was probably first found 1925 in the Ukraine (Guzik and Sudnik-Wójcikowska, 1989). In other European countries, it started to invade crop fields since the late 1960s. Early records in crop fields have been observed in 1968 in Slovakia by Krippelová (1969), in 1970 in Hungary by Terpo-Pomogyi (1975) and in 1974 in Serbia by Sainovic and Koljadzinski (1978). It is currently a common agricultural weed in the Slovakian Danubian lowland, Vojvodina and the Southern Great Plain in Hungary, Ukraine and Russia (Afonin et al., 2008; Vrbnicanin et al., 2009; Novak et al., 2009; Follak, 2014). I. xanthiifolia rarely colonizes river banks or other natural and semi-natural habitats (i.e grassland, forest edges) (Jehlík et al., 2005; Radovanovic et al., 2012).

Habitat List

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CategorySub-CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Terrestrial
 
Terrestrial – ManagedCultivated / agricultural land Principal habitat Harmful (pest or invasive)
Cultivated / agricultural land Principal habitat Natural
Disturbed areas Principal habitat Natural
Rail / roadsides Principal habitat Natural
Urban / peri-urban areas Principal habitat Natural
Terrestrial ‑ Natural / Semi-naturalNatural grasslands Secondary/tolerated habitat Natural
Riverbanks Secondary/tolerated habitat Natural

Hosts/Species Affected

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I. xanthifolia has been recorded infesting sugarbeet fields in Serbia (Marisavljevic et al., 2005). In Hungary, encroaching I. xanthifolia threatens spring-sown row crops, such as sunflower, maize and sugarbeet (Zalai and Németh, 2007). It can also cause considerable damage to sunflower plantations in Hungary (Hódi and Torma, 2000).

Host Plants and Other Plants Affected

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Plant nameFamilyContext
Beta vulgaris (beetroot)ChenopodiaceaeMain
Brassica napusBrassicaceaeOther
Glycine max (soyabean)FabaceaeMain
Helianthus annuus (sunflower)AsteraceaeMain
Hordeum vulgare (barley)PoaceaeOther
Triticum aestivum (wheat)PoaceaeOther
Zea mays (maize)PoaceaeMain

Growth Stages

Top of page Flowering stage, Fruiting stage, Seedling stage, Vegetative growing stage

Biology and Ecology

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Genetics:

The chromosome number of I. xanthiifolia is 2n=26.

Reproductive Biology

I. xanthiifolia reproduces by seeds. The plant has a high fecundity under controlled conditions with a production of 90,000 to 120,000 seeds per plant as demonstrated by Hunyadi et al. (1998). Milanova (2001) showed that the number of seeds per plant varied approximately from 35,000 to 50,000 with a maximum of 105,000 seeds. Seeds remain viable in the soil for up to six years (Abramova and Nurmieva, 2014). Under field-grown conditions, seed production was on average 6,500 in central Russia (Republic of Bashkortostan) (Abramova and Nurmieva, 2014).

Physiology and Phenology

Seedlings emerge from late March to end of April under Central European conditions (Csongrád/Hungary). The seeds require burial for maximum emergence, with optimal burial depths from 1 to 3 cm (Hodi and Torma, 2002). According to Jehlík (1998) seeds start to germinate at a minimum temperature of 6°C to 10°C. The plant is very competitive and a fast growing species with the highest biomass increase in the second half of June and the first half of July (Hodi 2005).

In the lowlands of Slovakia (Šurany, Košice), individual plants reached a height of >300 cm (Krippelová, 1969; Follak, 2014). Lower plant heights have been recorded in central Russia ranging from 72.2 cm (Transural Republic of Bashkortostan) to 128.9 cm (Cisural Republic of Bashkortostan) (Abramova and Nurmieva, 2014).

Associations

The association of I. xanthiifolia to ruderal and segetal plant communities has been studied for different European countries (incl. Russian Federation), e.g. Froebe and Oesau (1969), Krippelová (1969), Šainovic and Koljadzinski (1978), Sudnik-Wójcikowska (1987), Swies and Soroka (1998), Kropác and Mochnacký (2009) and Abramova and Nurmieva (2014). These studies show that I. xanthiifolia prefers ruderal annual pioneer communities (Sisymbrietea, Chenopodietea) and, to a lesser extent, communities dominated by perennial herbs and grasses (Artemisietea). It has been suggested that occurrences with a large presence of I. xanthiifolia may be distinguished as a vegetation community in the rank of an association (Ivaetum xanthiifoliae). However, Sudnik-Wójcikowska (1987) and Swies (1993) suggested that those occurrences should be regarded as a derivative plant community, i.e. a poorly characterized rankless plant community devoid of any character or differential species.

Environmental Requirements

I. xanthiifolia is a summer to autumn flowering annual herb and is susceptible to frost. In Slovakia, I.xanthiifolia is most favoured by conditions of at least 540 to 680 mm precipitation per year, as well as high summer temperatures in July and August (average temperature in July 18.5°C to 20.5°C) (Lhotská and Slavík, 1969). The authors concluded that the plant needs more than 100 days above 15°C to complete its life-cycle. The physico-chemical soil properties have been studied by Swies (1993) for ruderal communities in Lublin/Poland. There, plants grew most often on newly-laid heaps composed of loam, silt and sand formation mixed with concrete and bricks, rich in humus and calcium, potassium, phosphate and magnesium compounds. The soil pH was between 7.3 and 8.3. I. xanthiifolia requires full light and will not grow under shade. In its introduced range, in the former Czechoslovakia, the majority of records were found below 250 m a.s.l (Lhotská and Slavík 1969). In Vojvodina, 80% of the recorded populations by Marisavljevic et al. (2007) were below 100 m a.s.l. However, individuals have been found at altitudes ranging from 1040 m (Austria; Janchen, 1951) to 1450 m (Armenia; Pruski et al., 2005). Milanova (2001) found that the optimum soil depth required for emergence of the seeds is 1-2 cm in sandy loam soils.

Climate

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ClimateStatusDescriptionRemark
Cs - Warm temperate climate with dry summer Preferred Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry summers
Cw - Warm temperate climate with dry winter Preferred Warm temperate climate with dry winter (Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry winters)
Ds - Continental climate with dry summer Tolerated Continental climate with dry summer (Warm average temp. > 10°C, coldest month < 0°C, dry summers)

Soil Tolerances

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Soil drainage

  • free
  • impeded

Soil reaction

  • alkaline
  • neutral

Soil texture

  • light
  • medium

Natural enemies

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Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Plasmopara halstedii Pathogen not specific N/A
Sclerotinia sclerotiorum Pathogen not specific N/A

Means of Movement and Dispersal

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Natural Dispersal

Seeds of I. xanthiifolia lack adaptation to specific modes of natural dispersal. Most seeds fall near the parent plant. Dispersal may occur by water (hydrochory) as seeds are able to float (Froebe and Oesau, 1969; Milanova and Valkova, 2004).

Accidental Introduction

In the past, import of grain and oils-seeds from infested regions in North America and the former Soviet Union and its trade within European countries was most responsible for the accidental introduction of I. xanthiifolia (Jehlík and Hejný, 1974; Jehlík and Dostálek, 2008). New introductions of I. xanthiifolia may occur by this pathway although propagule pressure may be less important, due to effective seed cleaning, high quality standards and changed terms of transport. The movement of soil and gravel contaminated with seeds of I. xanthiifolia is presumed to be a very active pathway of dispersal. Seeds of I. xanthiifolia can be spread from field to field by agricultural machinery (harvester, plough). In the Vojvodina region of Serbia, Radanovic et al. (2012) found roads and railways to be the primary routes for range expansion for I. xanthiifolia.

Pathway Causes

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CauseNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Seed trade Yes Jehlik and Dostalek, 2008; Jehlik and Hejny, 1974

Pathway Vectors

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VectorNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Machinery and equipmentAgricultural and construction machinery (e. g. harvester, plough) Yes Yes Follak, 2014
Soil, sand and gravel Yes Yes Follak, 2014
Water Yes Froebe and Oesau, 1969; Milanova and Valkova, 2004

Plant Trade

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Plant parts liable to carry the pest in trade/transportPest stagesBorne internallyBorne externallyVisibility of pest or symptoms
True seeds (inc. grain) Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Plant parts not known to carry the pest in trade/transport
Bark

Impact Summary

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CategoryImpact
Economic/livelihood Negative
Human health Negative

Economic Impact

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I. xanthiifolia can locally invade several crops and may cause substantial yield losses. It has become an important agricultural weed in the Slovakian Danubian Lowland, Vojvodina in Serbia and the Southern Great Plain in Hungary, whereas in other countries in Central and Eastern Europe it only occasionally colonizes fields (Follak et al., 2013).

In North America, I. xanthiifolia is a competitive weed mainly in sunflower and soybean in the Midwestern States (USDA, 1971; Olson et al., 2011). In Europe, the plant is a weed in several countries (e.g. Novak et al., 2009; Vrbnicanin et al., 2009; Follak, 2014). It occurs mainly in sunflower, maize, soybean and sugar beet, because these crops are sown late in spring, have wide row spacing and a late crop covering, which favours germination and growth of I. xanthiifolia. It may be also found in winter and spring cereals and winter rape (Týr and Vereš, 2012). If not controlled, I. xanthiifiolia is a competitive and vigorous plant, which overgrows the crop and thus can induce high yield loss. However, interference studies are almost not available either from North America or from Europe. Effects of various densities of I. xanthiifolia on yield of maize and sunflower have only been documented by Hodi (2005). They looked at maize and sunflower in Hungary and found that as few as four weed plants/m2 could result in a yield reduction in maize of 50% and the presence of 12 plants/m2 resulted in an 80% loss in yield when compared to the control. The damage assessment in sunflower showed that 12 weed plants/m2 reduced the yield by nearly 60%. Lactating cows that ingest I. xanthiifolia leaves produce bitter-tasting milk (CBIF, 2009).

Environmental Impact

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As I. xanthiifolia is restricted to ruderal habitats and arable land, which are of minor importance for biodiversity, no impact on nature conservation is expected.

Social Impact

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I. xanthiifolia is an important inducer of allergic diseases like rhinitis, conjunctivitis, and asthma according to Wodehouse (1971) and Weber (2002). It is characterised as a “severe allergen” by Pollenlibary.com (2014). Contact dermatitis from this plant was reported by Huber and Harsh (1932) and Frain-Bell and Johnson (1979). Unfortunately, specific pollen hypersensitivity studies for Europe are not available (Mari et al., 2009). However, recent spread of I. xanthiifolia in Lublin (Swies, 1993) was reflected by the occurrence of significant pollen concentrations in the air as demonstrated by Weryszko-Chmielewska et al. (2003). Likewise Ado et al. (1980) showed that the aerial spectrum of Saratov/Russia has been found to contain high pollen concentrations of I. xanthiifolia. Along with Ambrosioa artemisiifolia it is the primary source of allergens in Romania in the summer (Hodis¸an, 2009). 

Risk and Impact Factors

Top of page Invasiveness
  • Proved invasive outside its native range
  • Has a broad native range
  • Abundant in its native range
  • Highly adaptable to different environments
  • Pioneering in disturbed areas
  • Has propagules that can remain viable for more than one year
Impact outcomes
  • Negatively impacts agriculture
  • Negatively impacts human health
Impact mechanisms
  • Causes allergic responses
  • Competition - monopolizing resources
  • Competition - shading
  • Pest and disease transmission
Likelihood of entry/control
  • Highly likely to be transported internationally accidentally

Uses

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Wang et al. (2007) suggested that I. xanthifolia could be used to substitute some components of young rabbit forage, as it was palatable to them and had no toxic effects.

Detection and Inspection

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I. xanthiifolia can be easily detected in the field and identification keys can be found in the Flora of North America Editorial Committee (2014). It can be confused with species of the genera Ambrosia or Xanthium. Although the inflorescence of Xanthium strumarium agg. and I. xanthiifolia is completely different, young plants can be confused due to the similarity of leaf shape and habitus. 

Prevention and Control

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Control

Experimental field studies on the chemical control of I. xanthiifolia have been conducted in the USA, Serbia, Hungary and Slovenia in different crops such as sugar beet, soybean, sunflower and maize (e.g. Hodi and Torma, 2002; Hodi, 2005; Konstantinovic and Meseldžija, 2006; Marisavljevic et al., 2006; Macek, 2011Olson et al., 2011). The authors concluded that I. xanthiifolia can be effectively controlled with standard applications of pre- (PRE) or post-emergence (POST) herbicides in these crops with herbicides with different mode of actions (e.g. acetochlor, metribuzin, imazamox, dimethenamid + phenmedipham + ethofumesate, tembotrione, sulfentrazone).

However, in North America, the widespread use of acetolactate synthase (ALS)-inhibiting herbicides (imazamox, tribenuron-methyl) has already resulted in the selection of resistant I. xanthiifolia biotypes (Heap, 2015).

Physical/Mechanical Control

The choice of physical and mechanical options depends on the population size and phenological state. Mechanical options include uprooting, cutting, and hoeing. Uprooting of plants before flowering and seed ripening is efficient for small to medium sized populations. Mowing is used to prevent seed production and exhaust plants in large populations. Time of mowing or cutting is crucial, as the plant may recover and produce seeds. 

Gaps in Knowledge/Research Needs

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From Follak et al. (2013):

'Because of their significant potential impact on public health, future spread of I. xanthiifolia [in Central and Eastern Europe] should be monitored and management strategies (e.g. raising awareness, early control) should urgently be implemented.'

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Links to Websites

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WebsiteURLComment
GISD/IASPMR: Invasive Alien Species Pathway Management Resource and DAISIE European Invasive Alien Species Gatewayhttps://doi.org/10.5061/dryad.m93f6Data source for updated system data added to species habitat list.
Global register of Introduced and Invasive species (GRIIS)http://griis.org/Data source for updated system data added to species habitat list.

Principal Source

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Draft datasheet under review

Contributors

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07/01/15 Original text by:

Swen Follak, Austrian Agency of Health and Food Safety, Austria

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